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A LITERATURE REVIEW OF SERVICE QUALITY AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

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The Influence of Service Quality on Customer Retention: A Systematic Review in the Higher Education

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service quality and customer satisfaction literature review

  • Aisha Alshamsi   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-9354-188X 19 ,
  • Muhammad Alshurideh   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-7336-381X 19 , 20 ,
  • Barween Al Kurdi   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-0825-4617 21 &
  • Said A. Salloum   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-6073-3981 22  

Part of the book series: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing ((AISC,volume 1261))

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  • International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Systems and Informatics

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This paper aims to identify the influence of service quality on customer retention and the factors that affect this relationship using a systematic review and meta-analysis method to use in the second stage in examining the relationship of service quality on customer retention in higher educations. A systematic review method was conducted to select the studies that will assist in the current studies. This systematic review covered 32 research articles published in peer-reviewed journals from 1996 till 2018 and were reviews critically. The main findings of the study indicate that service quality-related factors is the most common factor, flowed by customer satisfaction, trust, commitment, and loyalty. Moreover, it has been noticed that the quantitative method using questionnaire was found to be the primary relied upon research methods for collecting data followed by a focus group. Furthermore, 75% of the analyzed studies recorded positive research outcomes. Most of the analyzed studies that had a positive outcome were conducted in the United Kingdom followed by the United States in terms of the context, most of the analyzed studies where done for Banks, followed by Mobile Service Industry, Retailing industry, Small firms, Steel industry, Tourism industry, Airline industry, Zoo, and Advertising service respectively. To that end, this systematic review attempts to investigate the relationship between service quality and customer retention and the factors affecting this relationship.

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Aisha Alshamsi & Muhammad Alshurideh

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Alshamsi, A., Alshurideh, M., Kurdi, B.A., Salloum, S.A. (2021). The Influence of Service Quality on Customer Retention: A Systematic Review in the Higher Education. In: Hassanien, A.E., Slowik, A., Snášel, V., El-Deeb, H., Tolba, F.M. (eds) Proceedings of the International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Systems and Informatics 2020. AISI 2020. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 1261. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-58669-0_37

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Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in the Post Pandemic World: A Study of Saudi Auto Care Industry

Sotirios zygiaris.

1 College of Business Administration, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Khobar, Saudi Arabia

Zahid Hameed

Mubarak ayidh alsubaie, shafiq ur rehman.

2 Department of Management Sciences, University of Baluchistan, Quetta, Pakistan

Associated Data

The original contributions presented in the study are included in the article/supplementary material, further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding author.

The aim of this research is to examine the impact of service quality on customer satisfaction in the post pandemic world in auto care industry. The car care vendor in the study made effective use of social media to provide responsive updates to the customers in the post pandemic world; such use of social media provides bases for service quality and customer satisfaction. The study examined the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction using the SERVQUAL framework. According to the findings, empathy, reliability, assurance, responsiveness, and tangibles have a significant positive relationship with customer satisfaction. Our findings suggest that it is critical for workshops to recognize the service quality factors that contribute to customer satisfaction. Findings also suggest that empathy, assurance, reliability, responsiveness, and tangibles contribute to customer satisfaction. Auto repair industry must regularly provide personal attention, greet customers in a friendly manner, deliver cars after services, notify customers when additional repairs are required, and take the time to clarify problems to customers. Furthermore, workshops must screen and hire courteous staff who can clearly communicate the services required to customers both in-person and online and effectively communicate the risks associated with repairs. Service quality seems to be aided by prompt services.

Introduction

The previous studies on the effect of pandemic have focused on the behavior related to preventative measures to protect the health of the customers; however, less attention has been paid to the influence of pandemic on customer outcomes. To fill this gap, the SERVQUAL framework was employed to examine the changes in customers’ social media behaviors that have occurred since the pandemic was declared ( Mason et al., 2021 ). In the post pandemic world, the parameters for customer satisfaction have changed considerably ( Monmousseau et al., 2020 ; Srivastava and Kumar, 2021 ; Wu et al., 2021 ). Pandemic has made personal interaction more challenging ( Brown, 2020 ). To be less vulnerable to becoming severely ill with the virus, customers prefer touchless digital mediums of communications. For example, Mason et al. (2021) concluded that pandemic has altered customers’ needs, shopping and purchasing behaviors, and post purchase satisfaction levels. Keeping in view the public healthcare concerns, the governmental pandemic mitigation policies also promotes touchless mediums for shopping; therefore, the role of social media as a communication tool stands to increase at a time when social distancing is a common practice; social media provides avenues for buyers to interact with sellers without physical contact. Thus, the use of social media gains critical importance, especially after the pandemic ( Mason et al., 2021 ), and the businesses may find new opportunities to gain competitive advantage through their use of effective social media strategies.

The car care industry uses traditional means of customer communications. The company in this study made use of social media in improving their service quality through effective and safe communication with their customers. The use of social media to provide updates to customers played a significant role in improving service quality and satisfaction ( Ramanathan et al., 2017 ). The company in the study used Snapchat to provide updates on the work, thus minimizing the customers’ need to physically visit the car care facility. This use of social media gave a significant boost to the responsiveness aspect of the service quality.

Service quality and customer satisfaction are important aspects of business since a company’s growth is largely dependent on how well it maintains its customers through service and how well they keep their customers satisfied ( Edward and Sahadev, 2011 ). According to Chang et al. (2017) ; customer satisfaction is expected to result from good service efficiency, which will improve customer engagement and interrelationship. González et al. (2007) asserted that customer satisfaction is linked to high service quality, which makes businesses more competitive in the marketplace. This study uses the SERVQUAL framework to define service quality. This framework uses five dimensions to account for service quality, namely, tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. Identifying issues in service and customer satisfaction can lead to high service quality. Furthermore, service quality can be characterized by analyzing the variations between planned and perceived service. Service quality and customer satisfaction have a positive relationship.

Recognizing and meeting customer expectations through high levels of service quality help distinguish the company’s services from those of its rivals ( Dominic et al., 2010 ). Social media plays a critical role in shaping these service quality-related variables. Specifically, in the context coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), where customers hesitated to visit auto workshops physically, the importance of online platforms such as auto workshops’ social media pages on Instagram and Facebook has increased, where customers try to get information and book appointment. For example, responsiveness is not only physical responsiveness but also digital means of communication. The car care company in this study uses social media as mode of communication with their customers due to physical interaction restriction caused by the pandemic.

Service quality becomes a critical element of success in car care industry because customer contact is one of the most important business processes ( Lambert, 2010 ). Saudi Arabia is one of the Middle East’s largest new vehicle sales and auto part markets. Saudi Arabia’s car repair industry has grown to be a significant market for automakers from all over the world. As a result, the aim of this research was to see how service quality affects customer satisfaction in the Saudi auto repair industry.

This aim of this research was to answer the following research questions:

  • (i) What is the contribution of individual dimensions of SERVQUAL on customer perceived service quality of car care industry in Saudi Arabia?
  • (ii) What is the impact of perceived service quality on customer satisfaction in car care industry in Saudi Arabia?

Literature Review

The concept of service has been defined since the 1980s by Churchill and Surprenant (1982) together with Asubonteng et al. (1996) , who popularized the customer satisfaction theory through measuring the firm’s actual service delivery in conformity with the expectations of customers, as defined by the attainment of perceived quality, and that is meeting the customers’ wants and needs beyond their aspirations. With this premise, Armstrong et al. (1997) later expanded the concept of service into the five dimensions of service quality that comprised tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy.

Extant literature on service delivery focuses on the traditional emphasis on the contact between the customer and service provider ( Mechinda and Patterson, 2011 ; Han et al., 2021 ). Doucet (2004) explained that the quality in these traditional settings depends on the design of the location and the behavior of the service provider. More recently, the proliferation of the internet has led to the emergence of the online service centers. In these cases, communication both in-person and online plays a critical role in the quality of service rendered. It follows that service quality in hybrid settings depends on quality of communications on social media as well as the behavioral interactions between the customer and the service provider ( Doucet, 2004 ; Palese and Usai, 2018 ). These factors require subjective assessments by the concerned parties, which means that different persons will have varied assessments of the quality of service received.

SERVQUAL Dimensions

Service quality has been described with the help of five quality dimensions, namely, tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. Definitions relating to these variables have been modified by different authors. The relationship between various dimensions of service quality differs based on particular services.

The tangible aspects of a service have a significant influence on perception of service quality. These comprise the external aspects of a service that influence external customer satisfaction. The key aspects of tangibility include price, ranking relative to competitors, marketing communication and actualization, and word-of-mouth effects ( Ismagilova et al., 2019 ), which enhance the perception of service quality of customers ( Santos, 2002 ). These aspects extend beyond SERVQUAL’s definition of quality within the car care industry settings. Thus, we proposed the following hypothesis:

  • Hypotheses 1a: Tangibles are positively related with perceived service quality.

Reliability

Reliability is attributed to accountability and quality. There are a bunch of precursors that likewise aid basic methodology for shaping clients’ perspectives toward administration quality and reliability in the car care industry in Saudi ( Korda and Snoj, 2010 ; Omar et al., 2015 ). A portion of these predecessors is identified with car repair benefits and includes the convenient accessibility of assets, specialist’s expertise level and productive issue determination, correspondence quality, client care quality, an exhibition of information, client esteem, proficiency of staff, representatives’ capacity to tune in to client inquiries and respond emphatically to their necessities and protests, security, workers’ dependability, more limited holding up time and quickness, actual prompts, cost of administration, accessibility of issue recuperation frameworks, responsibility, guarantees, for example, mistake-free administrations, generally association’s picture and workers’ politeness, and responsiveness. Despite the innovative changes happening in the car care industry and the instructive degree of car administrations suppliers in Saudi Arabia, car care suppliers in the territory are taught about the need to continually refresh their insight into the advancements in the area of vehicle workshops and the components of administration. Thus, we argued that reliability is important to enhance the perception of service quality of customers.

  • Hypotheses 1b: Reliability is positively linked with perceived service quality.

Responsiveness

Responsiveness refers to the institution’s ability to provide fast and good quality service in the period. It requires minimizing the waiting duration for all interactions between the customer and the service provider ( Nambisan et al., 2016 ). Nambisan et al. (2016) explained that responsiveness is crucial for enhancing the customers’ perception of service quality. Rather, the institution should provide a fast and professional response as to the failure and recommend alternative actions to address the customer’s needs ( Lee et al., 2000 ). In this light, Nambisan summarizes responsiveness to mean four key actions, i.e., giving individual attention to customers, providing prompt service, active willingness to help guests, and employee availability when required. These aspects help companies to enhance the customers’ perception of service quality. Therefore, we proposed the following hypothesis:

  • Hypotheses 1c: Responsiveness is positively linked with perceived service quality.

Assurance refers to the skills and competencies used in delivering services to the customers. Wu et al. (2015) explains that employee skills and competencies help to inspire trust and confidence in the customer, which in turn stirs feelings of safety and comfort in the process of service delivery. Customers are more likely to make return visits if they feel confident of the employees’ ability to discharge their tasks. Elmadağ et al. (2008) lists the factors that inspire empathy as competence, politeness, positive attitude, and effective communication as the most important factors in assuring customers. Besides, other factors include operational security of the premises as well as the proven quality of the service provided to the customers. Thus, the assurance has significant contribution in the perception of service quality.

  • Hypotheses 1d: Assurance is positively related with perceived service quality.

Empathy refers to the quality of individualized attention given to the customers. The service providers go an extra mile to make the customer feel special and valued during the interaction ( Bahadur et al., 2018 ). Murray et al. (2019) explains that empathy requires visualizing the needs of the customer by assuming their position. Murray et al. (2019) lists the qualities that foster empathy as including courtesy and friendliness of staff, understanding the specific needs of the client, giving the client special attention, and taking time to explain the practices and procedure to be undertaken in the service delivery process. Therefore, we proposed the following hypothesis:

  • Hypotheses 1e: Empathy is positively related with perceived service quality.

Perceived Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction

Customer satisfaction refers to the level of fulfillment expressed by the customer after the service delivery process. This is a subjective assessment of the service based on the five dimensions of service quality. Customer satisfaction is important due to its direct impact on customer retention ( Hansemark and Albinsson, 2004 ; Cao et al., 2018 ; Zhou et al., 2019 ), level of spending ( Fornell et al., 2010 ), and long-term competitiveness of the organization ( Suchánek and Králová, 2019 ). Susskind et al. (2003) describes that service quality has a direct impact on customer satisfaction. For this reason, this research considers that five dimensions of service quality are the important antecedents of customer satisfaction.

Service quality refers to the ability of the service to address the needs of the customers ( Atef, 2011 ). Customers have their own perception of quality before interacting with the organization. The expectancy-confirmation paradigm holds that customers compare their perception with the actual experience to determine their level of satisfaction from the interaction ( Teas, 1993 ). These assessments are based on the five independent factors that influence quality. Consequently, this research considers service quality as an independent variable.

This study attempts to quantify perceived service quality though SERVQUAL dimensions. We proposed that customers place a high premium on service quality as a critical determinant of satisfaction. Moreover, it is argued that satisfaction prompts joy and reliability among customers in Saudi Arabia. These discoveries infer that the perception of service quality is significantly related to satisfaction, and quality insight can be applied across different cultures with negligible contrasts in the result. Car care industry in Saudi Arabia has grave quality problems. To rectify this situation, it is essential to apply quality systems as tools for development. The SERVQUAL is one of these system options. It is used to gauge the service quality using five dimensions that have been time-tested since 1982. Thus, the significance of SERVQUAL in car care industry in Saudi Arabia cannot be overemphasized. The study further suggests that the SERVRQUAL dimension increases the perceived service quality, which in turn increases customer satisfaction. Thus, we proposed the following hypothesis:

  • Hypothesis 2: The perceived service quality of car care customers is positively linked with their satisfaction.

Methods and Procedures

In this study, we employed a cross-sectional research design. Using a paper-pencil survey, data were collected form auto care workshops situated in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. According to the study by Newsted et al. (1998) , the survey method is valuable for assessing opinions and trends by collecting quantitative data. We adapted survey instruments from previous studies. The final survey was presented to a focus group of two Ph.D. marketing scholars who specialized in survey design marketing research. The survey was modified keeping in view the recommendations suggested by focus group members. We contacted the customers who used social media to check the updates and book the appointment for their vehicle’s service and maintenance. We abstained 130 surveys, 13 of which were excluded due to missing information. Therefore, the final sample encompassed 117 (26 female and 91 male) participants across multiple age groups: 10 aged less than 25 years, 46 aged between 26 and 30 years, 28 aged between 31 and 35 years, 21 aged between 36 and 40 years, and 12 aged older than 40 years (for details, refer to Table 1 ). Similarly, the averaged participants were graduates with more than 3 years of auto care service experience.

Demographic information.

We measured service quality dimensions using 20 indicators. Customer satisfaction of the restaurant customers was assessed using 4-item scale (for detail, refer to Table 2 ). In this research, the 5-point Likert scale from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree was used.

Constructs and items included in the questionnaire.

Control Variables

Following the previous research, customer’s gender and age were controlled to examine the influence of service quality dimensions on customer satisfaction.

Data Analysis and Results

For data analysis and hypotheses testing, we employed the structural equation modeling (SEM) based on the partial least squares (PLS) in Smart-PLS. Smart-PLS 3 is a powerful tool, which is used for the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and SEM ( Nachtigall et al., 2003 ). Research suggests that CFA is the best approach to examine the reliability and validity of the constructs. We employed SEM for hypotheses testing because it is a multivariate data analysis technique, which is commonly used in the social sciences ( González et al., 2008 ).

Common Method Bias

To ensure that common method bias (CMB) is not a serious concern for our results, we employed procedural and statistical and procedural remedies. During data collection, each survey in the research contained a covering letter explaining the purpose of the study and guaranteed the full anonymity of the participants. Moreover, it was mentioned in the cover letter that there was no right and wrong questions, and respondents’ answers would neither be related to their personalities nor disclosed to anyone. According to Podsakoff et al. (2003) , the confidentiality of the responses can assist to minimize the possibility of CMB. Furthermore, CMB was verified through the Harman’s single-factor test ( Podsakoff et al., 2003 ). All items in this research framework were categorized into six factors, among which the first factor explained 19.01% of the variance. Thus, our results showed that CMB was not an issue in our research. Moreover, using both tolerance value and the variance inflation factors (VIFs), we assessed the level of multicollinearity among the independent variables. Our results indicate that the tolerance values for all dimensions of service quality were above the recommended threshold point of 0.10 ( Cohen et al., 2003 ), and VIF scores were between 1.4 and 1.8, which suggested the absence of multicollinearity; thus, it is not a serious issue for this study.

Measurement Model

We performed CFA to analyze the reliability and validity of the constructs. The measurement model was assessed by examining the content, convergent, and discriminant validities. To assess the content validity, we reviewed the relevant literature and pilot test the survey. We used item loadings, Cronbach’s alpha, composite reliability (CR), and the average variance extracted (AVE) ( Fornell and Larcker, 1981b ) to assess the convergent validity. The findings of CFA illustrate that all item loadings are greater than 0.70. The acceptable threshold levels for all values were met, as the value of Cronbach’s alpha and CR was greater than 0.70 for all constructs ( Fornell and Larcker, 1981b ), and the AVE for all variables was above 0.50 ( Tabachnick and Fidell, 2007 ; see Table 3 ). Thus, these findings show acceptable convergent validity.

Item loadings, Cronbach’s alpha, composite reliability, and average variance extracted.

To analyze the discriminant validity, we evaluated the discriminant validity by matching the association between correlation among variables and the square root of the AVE of the variables ( Fornell and Larcker, 1981a ). The results demonstrate that the square roots of AVE are above the correlation among constructs, hence showing a satisfactory discriminant validity, therefore, indicating an acceptable discriminant validity. Moreover, descriptive statistics and correlations are provided in Table 4 .

Descriptive statistics and correlations.

n = 117, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01.

Structural Model and Hypotheses Testing

After establishing the acceptable reliability and validity in the measurement model, we examined the relationship among variables and analyzed the hypotheses based on the examination of standardized paths. The path significance of proposed relations were calculated using the SEM through the bootstrap resampling technique ( Henseler et al., 2009 ), with 2,000 iterations of resampling. The proposed research framework contains five dimensions of service quality (i.e., tangibles of the auto care, reliability of the auto care, responsiveness of the auto care, assurance of the auto care, and empathy of the auto care) and customer satisfaction of auto care. The results show that five dimensions of service quality are significantly related to customer’s perception of service quality of auto care; thus, hypotheses 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, and 1e were supported. Figure 1 shows that the service quality of auto care is a significant determinant of customer satisfaction of auto care industry (β = 0.85, p < 0.001), supporting hypothesis 2. The result in Figure 1 also shows that 73.8% of the variation exists in customer satisfaction of auto care.

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Results of the research model tests. *** p < 0.001.

The main purpose of this research was to assess the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction in the post pandemic world in Saudi Arabia. This study was designed to examine how satisfaction of auto care customers is influenced by service quality, especially, when pandemic was declared, and due to health concerns, the customers were reluctant to visit workshops physically ( Mason et al., 2021 ). It appears that after the pandemic, customers were increasingly using online platforms for purchasing goods and services. This study reveals how customers of auto repair in Saudi perceive service quality and see how applicable SERVQUAL model across with five dimensions, including tangibles, responsiveness, reliability, assurance, and empathy measure service quality. The findings of this research show that five dimensions of SERVQUAL are positively related to the service quality perception of auto care customers in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, service quality perceptions are positively linked with customer satisfaction. These results indicate that auto care customers view service quality as an important antecedent of their satisfaction. The findings indicate that the customers perceive the service quality as a basic service expectation and will not bear the extra cost for this criterion. In this research, the positive connection between service quality and customer satisfaction is also consistent with previous studies (e.g., González et al., 2007 ; Gallarza-Granizo et al., 2020 ; Cai et al., 2021 ). Thus, service quality plays a key role in satisfying customers. These findings suggest that service organizations, like auto repair industry in Saudi Arabia could enhance satisfaction of their customers through improving service quality. Because of pandemic, people are reluctant to visit auto care workshops, and they try to book appointment through social media; so, by improving the quality of management of their social media pages, the workshops can provide accurate information for monitoring, maintaining, and improving service quality ( Sofyani et al., 2020 ). More specifically, social media, which allows individuals to interact remotely, appears to be gaining significant importance as a tool for identifying customers’ products and service needs. Increasingly, customers are also increasingly engaging with retailers through social media to search and shop for product and services options, evaluate the alternatives, and make purchases.

Furthermore, the research on the customer service quality can be held essential since it acts as a means for the promotion of the competitiveness of an organization. Precisely, the knowledge about the customers’ view concerning service quality can be used by organizations as a tool to improve their customer services. For example, knowledge of the required customer service would help in the facilitation of training programs oriented toward the enlightenment of the overall employees on the practices to improve and offer high-quality customer services. Besides, information concerning customer services would be essential in decision-making process concerning the marketing campaigns of the firm, hence generating competitive advantage of the organization in the marketplace. Findings show that customers demand more from auto repair, so the company must work hard to increase all service quality dimensions to improve customer satisfaction. Thus, organizations ought to venture in customer services initiatives to harness high-quality services.

Managerial Implications

The findings of this research indicate a strong association between SERVQUAL dimensions and perceived service quality. Perception of higher service quality leads to higher level of customer satisfaction among Saudi car care customers. In particular, the results indicate high scores for reliability, empathy, tangibles, and responsiveness. These are clear indications that the immense budgetary allocation has enabled these institutions to develop capacity. Nevertheless, the lack of a strong human resource base remains a key challenge in the car care industry. The effective use of social media plays a critical role in the responsiveness dimension of service quality. Companies need to develop their digital and social media marketing strategies in the post pandemic world to better satisfy their customers.

Saudi Arabia requires a large and well-trained human resource base. This requires intensive investment in training and development. Most of these workers have a limited contract, which reduced their focus on long-term dedication. Consequently, the government should provide longer-term contracts for workers in this critical sector. The contracts should include training on tailored courses to serve the identified needs in effective communication with the customers using digital media. We suggested that the auto car care workshops should provide training to their workers, particularly, on service technicians to enhance their skills that will help to deliver fast and reliable service to their auto customers.

Moreover, the auto car care workshops also provide customer care- or customer handling-related training especially for the service marketing personnel who handles customer directly for them to better understand the customer needs and expectations. This can be done at least once a year. This will help auto care workshops to improve their service quality.

Limitation and Future Research Direction

This research is not without limitations. First, the findings of this study are based on data collected from a single source and at a single point of time, which might be subjected to CMB ( Podsakoff et al., 2003 ). Future research can collect data from different points of time to validate the findings of this research. Second, this research was carried out with data obtained from Saudi auto car care customers; the findings of this research might be different because the research framework was retested in a different cultural context. Therefore, more research is needed to improve the understanding of the principles of service quality and customer satisfaction, as well as how they are evaluated, since these concepts are critical for service organizations’ sustainability and development. A greater sample size should be used in a similar study so that the findings could be applied to a larger population. Research on the effect of inadequate customer service on customer satisfaction, the impact of customer retention strategies on customer satisfaction levels, and the impact of regulatory policies on customer satisfaction is also recommended. Third, because most of the participants participated in this research are men, future studies should obtain data from female participants and provide more insights into the difference between male and female customers’ satisfaction levels. Moreover, due to limitation of time, the sample was collected from the eastern province. Consequently, further research should include a larger and more representative sample of the Saudi population. Because of the non-probability sampling approach used in this research, the results obtained cannot be generalized to a wide range of similar auto repair services situations, even though the methodology used in this study could be extended to these similar situations. Since the sample size considered is not that large, expectations could vary significantly. When compared with the significance of conducting this form of analysis, the limitations mentioned above are minor. Such research should be conducted on a regular basis to track service quality and customer satisfaction levels and, as a result, make appropriate changes to correct any vulnerability that may exist.

Data Availability Statement

Ethics statement.

Ethical review and approval was not required for the study on human participants in accordance with the local legislation and institutional requirements. Written informed consent for participation was not required for this study in accordance with the national legislation and the institutional requirements. The patients/participants provided their written informed consent to participate in this study.

Author Contributions

SZ helped in designing the study. ZH helped in designing and writing the manuscript. MAA helped in data collection and analysis and writing the manuscript. SUR repositioned and fine-tuned the manuscript, wrote the introduction, and provided feedback on the manuscript.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher’s Note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

This study was received funding from University Research Fund.

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Service quality in the healthcare sector: a systematic review and meta-analysis

LBS Journal of Management & Research

ISSN : 0972-8031

Article publication date: 16 January 2023

Issue publication date: 4 September 2023

The purpose of this study is to summarize the available pool of literature on service quality to identify different dimensions of service quality in the healthcare industry and understand how it is measured. The study attempts to explore the research gaps in the literature about different service quality dimensions and patient satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review process was followed to achieve the objectives of the study. Various inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to select relevant research articles from 2000–2020 for the study, and a total of 100 research articles were selected.

The study identified 41 different dimensions of healthcare service quality measurement and classified these dimensions into four categories, namely servicescape, personnel, hospital administration and patients. It can be concluded that SERVQUAL is the most widely used service quality measurement tool.

Originality/value

The study identified that a majority of the researchers deduced a positive relationship between SERVQUAL dimensions and the quality of healthcare services. The findings of study will assist hospital executives in formulating effective strategies to ensure that patients receive superior quality healthcare services.

  • Healthcare sector
  • Service quality
  • Systematic review

Darzi, M.A. , Islam, S.B. , Khursheed, S.O. and Bhat, S.A. (2023), "Service quality in the healthcare sector: a systematic review and meta-analysis", LBS Journal of Management & Research , Vol. 21 No. 1, pp. 13-29. https://doi.org/10.1108/LBSJMR-06-2022-0025

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022, Mushtaq Ahmad Darzi, Sheikh Basharul Islam, Syed Owais Khursheed and Suhail Ahmad Bhat

Published in LBS Journal of Management & Research . Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial and no commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode

Introduction

The quality of healthcare services has long been a subject of concern for both private and public healthcare service providers across the globe. According to Senic and Marinkovic (2013) , integrity and competitiveness of a nation's healthcare structure are gauged by the quality of healthcare services rendered. Indian National Health Policy 2017 envisions that everyone should have access to high-quality healthcare without facing financial suffering ( MoHFW, 2017 ). Adherence to quality standards and improved quality design results in a better-perceived value, which leads to better prices, better income and greater profitability ( Zeithaml, 2000 ). Customers of the healthcare industry in developing countries are becoming more and more aware of their right to quality healthcare. Consequently, delivering high-quality service by healthcare service providers is gaining momentum ( Abuosi & Atinga, 2013 ). According to Yee, Yeung, and Cheng (2010) , healthcare service providers need to provide high-quality services to sustain the trustworthiness of patients. Demand for superior service quality is growing due to an increase in the per capita income of customers and increased aspirations of the customer ( Singh & Prasher, 2019 ). Also, as a result of competition from private healthcare service providers, public care providers are facing pressing demand for delivering high-quality services ( Zarei, Arab, Froushani, Rashidian, & Ghazi-Tabatabaei, 2012 ).

Mosadeghrad (2014, p. 78) defined healthcare quality as “ consistently delighting the patient by providing efficacious, effective and efficient healthcare services according to the latest clinical guidelines and standards, which meet the patient ' s needs and satisfies providers ”. Ovretveit (2009, p. 4) defines quality care as the “ p rovision of care that exceeds patient expectations and achieves the highest possible clinical outcomes with the resources available ”. Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1985) described service quality as the gap between a customer's expectations of service and the customer's perception of service after the service is rendered. When perception exceeds expectations, the customer will be satisfied ( Kalaja, Myshketa, & Scalera, 2016 ). Several studies have confirmed that customer expectations of service are much higher than the customer perception of services rendered by both public and private sector institutions ( Andaleeb, Siddiqui, & Khandakar, 2007 ; Zarei et al. , 2012 ; Manulik, Rosińczuk, & Karniej, 2016 ). A firm provides quality service when its services at least meet or exceed the expectations of the customer ( Owusu-Frimpong, Nwankwo, & Dason, 2010 ). Service quality evaluation varies from the service provider's and service receiver's point of view. Service delivery professionals evaluate service based on delivery and design aspects, while receivers of service evaluate it based on their overall perception after consuming the service ( Brown & Swartz, 1989 ). Traditionally healthcare quality was judged based on some objective criteria such as mortality rate, morbidity rate, infant mortality rate, etc. However, as time passes, the structure of the industry changed, and the role of patients in deciding quality has been given more and more consideration ( Dagger, Sweeney, & Johnson, 2007 ). To survive in the modern competitive markets, it has become of utmost importance for service providers to understand the needs and expectations of customers. They must deliver what the customer is expected instead of what they feel is important for a customer to maintain the business demand ( Singh & Prasher, 2019 ). Kotler and Keller (2006) suggest that in the consumer-oriented healthcare market where healthcare delivery is commodified and patient-led, the patient should be the judge of service quality. Hence, to provide better quality services, healthcare service providers need to identify the main dimensions of service quality in healthcare and focus on those dimensions rated more important by the patients ( Singh & Prasher, 2019 ).

Studies on healthcare service quality have been conducted in a variety of settings worldwide, namely Albania ( Kalaja et al. , 2016 ), Australia ( Copnell et al. , 2009 ; Dagger et al. , 2007 ; Levesque & Sutherland, 2020 ), Bangladesh ( Andaleeb et al. , 2007 ), China ( Li et al. , 2015 ; Wu, Li, & Li, 2016 ), Denmark ( Engelbrecht, 2005 ; Groene, Skau, & Frølich, 2008 ), Ghana ( Abuosi & Atinga, 2013 ; Agyapong, Afi, & Kwateng, 2018 ), India ( Chahal, 2008 ; Aagja & Garg, 2010 ; Chahal & Kumari, 2010 ; Gupta & Rokade, 2016 ; Singh & Prasher, 2019 ; Upadhyai, Jain, Roy, & Pant, 2019 ; Jog et al. , 2020 ), Iran ( Goshtasebi et al. , 2009 ; Mohammadkarim, Jamil, Pejman, Seyyed, & Mostafa, 2011 ; Mosadeghrad, 2014 ), Malaysia ( Ahmad & Sungip, 2008 ; Hasan, Ilias, Rahman, & Razak, 2009 ), Pakistan ( Irfan & Ijaz, 2011 ; Shabbir, Malik, & Malik, 2016 ; Fatima, Malik, & Shabbir, 2018 ; Dhahri, Iqbal, & Khan, 2020 ), Turkey ( Beyan & Baykal, 2012 ) and USA ( Lee, 2003 ; Hegji & Self, 2009 ; Mustafa, Yang, Mortezavi, Vadamalai, & Ramsey, 2020 ; Thompson, Shen, & Lee, 2020 ). The purpose of this paper is to investigate and summarize the available literature on healthcare service quality to understand what constitutes healthcare service quality and its principal dimensions and also to highlight the prominent research gaps that will provide direction for future research.

Methodology

The study followed a systematic review process to obtain research articles relevant to the research problem understudy. The systematic review process is a structured way of identifying, evaluating and interpreting the available literature related to any particular area ( Kamboj & Rahman, 2015 ). A systematic literature review is a two-step process. First, defining the criteria for inclusion of articles and second, identifying databases and research studies ( McLean & Antony, 2014 ).

Inclusion criteria

Papers published during 2000–2020 were considered for the study. This was done by applying a custom range filter. The reason for selecting the above mention time frame is the most recent two decades were selected for article search.

Research articles related to healthcare service quality were included in the review process. The criterion was adopted in line with the primary objective of the review process.

Empirical and review articles published in peer-reviewed journals were considered.

Only papers in the English language were included.

Database and article selection

The literature search was conducted in the autumn of 2021. The databases selected for the literature search included Emerald, Elsevier, Sage, Taylor and Francis and Google Scholar. Filters such as custom range and sort by relevance were applied to restrict the search results to keywords. The systematic review process is presented in Figure 1 . In stage 1 of the review process, the literature was searched using the keywords such as healthcare, healthcare services, service quality and SERVQUAL. The search obtained 209 research articles. The research papers were selected based on relevance to the topic understudy and the popularity of the articles. Researchers such as Beaulieu (2015) argued that the popularity of journal articles with above 10 citations are considered in top 24% of the highest cited articles, and articles that receive 100 citations are considered among 1.8% of the most popular articles across the globe, which makes the current study a worth addition to the existing body of literature. In stage 2, the screening of articles was then conducted first based on title and abstract and then based on inclusion criteria. Screening of articles based on the title and abstract resulted in the exclusion of 63 research articles, and 146 articles were moved to the next level of screening.

Then articles were screened by applying inclusion criteria to exclude articles that do not fulfill the above-stated criteria ( Kamboj & Rahman, 2015 ). This screening obtained 100 research articles that were finally considered for review, and the rest of the articles (46) were excluded from the study. Finally, in stage 3 of the review process, the study provides a summary (publication trend, journal-wise distribution, methodology that includes sampling method and data analysis tools used and key findings) of the 100 articles included in the review.

Common characteristics of reviewed articles

Classification of articles by research type and hospital setting

Table 1 displays the classification of research articles based on research type and hospital setting. The research type describes the nature of the research and yields that a maximum number of articles were quantitative studies (62 articles) followed by qualitative studies (15 articles) and only 07 studies that were both qualitative and quantitative. A few review articles (14 articles) were also considered during the process. The results of the review substantiate that there is a need of conducting qualitative research that can provide an in-depth understanding of how various service quality dimensions affect the perceived quality of care among patients and the treatment satisfaction level. Qualitative studies can also provide insights into the priorities of patients while receiving medical services.

The classification based on hospital setting yields more than 77 articles that have purposively chosen a specific hospital setting and the rest have collected data from respondents in general. Out of 77 articles, 49% of research studies were conducted in a public hospital setting, and 25% were conducted in a private hospital setting. Around 26% of research were conducted in both public and private hospital settings. The direct comparison of healthcare services and perceived service quality among patients was observed as the main motivator in choosing both hospital settings ( Ovretveit, 2000 ; Mostafa, 2005 ; Taner & Antony, 2006 ; Andaleeb et al. , 2007 ; Owusu-Frimpong et al. , 2010 ; Manulik et al. , 2016 ; Dhahri et al. , 2020 ).

Data analysis tool

Figure 2 presents the frequency of various data analysis tools used by researchers to obtain meaningful results. The examination of articles selected for review revealed that 15 different data analysis techniques have been utilized in the past two decades. Descriptive statistics (29 articles) including mean and standard deviation has been the most frequently applied technique in healthcare service quality research followed by t -test (18 articles). It was also found that both techniques have been applied in combination because service quality can be obtained by ascertaining the difference between service perception and service expectation of patients using the SERVQUAL model ( Ahmad & Sungip, 2008 ; Irfan & Ijaz, 2011 ; Zarei, Daneshkohan, Khabiri, & Arab, 2015 ; Torabipour, Sayaf, Salehi, & Ghasemzadeh, 2016 ). Other major techniques preferred by researchers include correlation (17 articles), regression (17 articles), systematic literature review (12 articles) and ANOVA (11 articles). However, only 20 articles in total have applied structural equation modeling (SEM), MANOVA, content analysis, chi-square test, Shapiro–Wilk test, Mann–Whitney U-test, Kruskal–Wallis tests and Wilcoxon test, making them among the least preferred techniques in healthcare service quality research.

Sampling method

Articles selected for review depict that both nonprobability and probability sampling have been applied to study healthcare service quality and patient satisfaction. The articles have adopted 08 different sampling methods in addition to the complete enumeration (Census), which was employed for 03 articles. From nonprobability sampling techniques, convenience sampling (18 articles) is the most widely used sampling technique, and simple random sampling (19 articles) is the most frequently applied sampling method from the probability sampling group. Cluster sampling was found to be the least applied sampling technique among probability sampling methods because most of the studies were focused on specific regions with a limited geographical area. Targeting a smaller geographical area or specific site increases the feasibility of reaching out to sampling units because of the limited population spread. Therefore, when further segregation based on the geographical area seems impossible, the applicability of cluster sampling becomes impractical ( Cameron & Miller, 2015 ).

Findings and discussion

The systematic review of 100 articles has fetched several important findings in terms of measures of healthcare service quality and the theories applied in examining healthcare service quality.

Measures of healthcare service quality

Healthcare service quality, because of its intangible character and subjective nature, is difficult to define and measure. The comprehensive study of research articles about healthcare service quality illustrated that service quality in healthcare is examined by using different measures primarily related to servicescape, personnel, hospital administration and patients. The study has identified 41 distinctive measures of healthcare service quality ( Table 2 ). The factors commonly used to measure the quality of servicescape are identified as physical environmental quality, diagnostic aspect of care, resources and capacity, tangibility, financial and physical access to care and access ( Herstein & Gamliel, 2006 ; Ahmad & Sungip, 2008 ; Sharma & Narang, 2011 ; Simou, Pliatsika, Koutsogeorgou, & Roumeliotou, 2014 ; Marzban, Najafi, Etedal, Moradi, & Rajaee, 2015 ). Among the mentioned dimensions of servicescape, utilization has been less studied in the past. Future researchers can explore these areas because often in healthcare centers, the infrastructure capacity is overutilized or underutilized, which hinders the delivery of healthcare services. The determinants mostly employed to determine the quality of human resources (personnel) include healthcare personnel conduct, efficacy, efficiency, empathy, interaction quality, physician and staff performance, provider competency/performance, reliability, responsiveness, timeliness and trustworthiness ( Chahal & Kumari, 2012 ; Manulik et al. , 2016 ; Singh & Prasher, 2019 ). Some of the fewer studied factors under personnel characteristics include quality of patient-staff communication, outcome quality, professional quality, provider motivation and satisfaction encounters. These factors can influence the service quality of healthcare centers but are less researched in the past. The factors concerning quality aspects of hospital management/administration include admission, assurance, healthcare delivery system, infection rate, standard operating procedures, leadership and management and medical service ( Ovretveit, 2000 ; Herstein & Gamliel, 2006 ; Taner & Antony, 2006 ; Aagja & Garg, 2010 ; Irfan & Ijaz, 2011 ; Gupta & Rokade, 2016 ; Torabipour et al. , 2016 ). Among the determinants of hospital administration availability of doctors and paramedical staff, discharge mechanism of patients, documentation procedure in the hospital, social responsibility consciousness among the staff, management quality and drug availability in the hospital are some of the key factors that influence the service encounters between staff and patients. These determinants are less studied in the literature. Future researchers can build their research on these less studied variables. Lastly, the factors affecting service quality in terms of patient characteristics include patient satisfaction, the average length of stay, patient cooperation, patient quality/illness and patient socio-demographic variables ( Ovretveit, 2000 ; Mosadeghrad, 2014 ; Gupta & Rokade, 2016 ). It was observed that most of the service quality determinants identified can be summarized under the major 05 SERVQUAL determinants.

Theories applied to healthcare service quality

The list of popular theories that have been applied to examine healthcare service quality across the globe is presented in Figure 3 . A total of 11 different theories were identified during the review process. Less than 50% of papers identified for review have adopted one or the other service quality measurement framework and around 70% (32 research articles) among them have applied the SERVQUAL framework by Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1988) . This makes SERVQUAL the mostly widely applied service quality framework. The other theories that have been utilized in the recent decade to examine the service quality of healthcare system include total quality management, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process, service performance model and health monitoring indicators system: health map ( Chahal & Kumari, 2012 ; Ramez, 2012 ; Zarei et al. , 2015 ; Amole, Oyatoye, & Adebiyi, 2015 ; Singh & Prasher, 2019 ; Zaid, Arqawi, Mwais, Al Shobaki, & Abu-Naser, 2020 ). The elements used to measure the perceived service quality of hospitals under different theories other than the SERVQUAL model can largely be classified under five SERVQUAL dimensions. However, outcome quality, process quality, administrative/management quality, utilization, technical quality and trustworthiness are identified as additional new dimensions being used to examine the service quality of hospitals ( Ovretveit, 2000 ; Chahal & Kumari, 2010 ; Simou et al. , 2014 ; Singh & Prasher, 2019 ; Zaid et al. , 2020 ).

Limitations and future research directions

The current study has some shortcomings which open up opportunities for future research. The present study followed a systematic review process to obtain research articles from different databases, like Emerald, Elsevier, Sage, Taylor and Francis and Google Scholar. Several inclusion criteria were applied, and only those full-text articles that are available in the English language were selected for the review. Therefore, there is the possibility of excluding some articles that are not available in these databases or are available in some other languages. Further, most of the studies selected for review were from developed nations. There is a lot of difference between the healthcare system of developed and developing nations. Thus, the findings of the present study cannot be generalized to developing nations without additional validation ( Kamboj & Rahman, 2015 ). Therefore, there is a need of carrying out empirical research in developing nations in this area.

The review of available literature has revealed that there are a large number of measurement tools available for the assessment of service quality in healthcare. However, the majority of these measurement instruments developed by the researchers assess quality from patients' perspectives and do not take into consideration service providers' perspectives. The technical aspect of service quality cannot be assessed by patients alone ( Upadhyai et al. , 2019 ). For a better understanding of service quality evaluation and satisfaction of service encounters, both service providers' and receivers' perspectives should be taken into consideration ( Brown & Swartz, 1989 ). Therefore, future researchers need to explore the knowledge gap (gap 1) of the SERVQUAL gap given proposed by Parasuraman et al. (1985) .

Practical implications

The study has attempted to identify and describe all dimensions and measurement tools relevant to healthcare service quality in light of the available literature. The study provides a thorough description of a vast number of investigations and reflects their outcomes. This research could help understand the diverse conceptualizations of service quality in healthcare compared to other types of services. The study also identified various gaps in the available literature that could be answered by future research.

The results of this study will help hospital executives in understanding the various constituents of quality and their impact on patient satisfaction. This will help hospital managers in formulating strategies that will improve patient satisfaction and ultimately improving the overall performance of hospitals. The study also highlighted the factors in which patients weigh more, thereby helping hospital managers to set priorities and help in proper resource utilization.

The current study presents an in-depth review of the literature concerning service quality and patient satisfaction in the healthcare industry. Service quality is a subjective measure and hence tends to vary from place to place and from patient to patient based on preference. The study has identified different measures that have been utilized to date to examine service quality or quality gaps in various hospital settings. Most of the studies selected for review have employed SERVQUAL dimensions of quality as service quality parameters. Service quality in the majority of the studies was established based on a difference between perceived and expected scores of service quality determinants, and the t -test was identified as the widely used statistical measure for testing its significance. In addition to this, various measures to determine patient satisfaction were identified and classified based on extra 3Ps of services marketing, namely physical evidence, people and process. The maximum number and most weighted factors affecting patient satisfaction are related to human resources actively engaged in providing medical services. It was observed that SERVQUAL determinants are popularly being used as a tool to determine the level of satisfaction among patients. All SERVQUAL determinants were found to have a significant positive relationship with patient satisfaction. Finally, 11 popular theories were identified among which SERVQUAL is widely applied.

service quality and customer satisfaction literature review

Systematic literature review process

service quality and customer satisfaction literature review

Theories applied in healthcare service quality

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Timotius F. C. W. Sutrisno Universitas Ciputra Indonesia

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EXAMINING THE IMPLICATION OF TQM , CUSTOMER SATISFACTION, SERVICE QUALITY, AND MARKET ORIENTATION IN PRIVATE BANK IN SURABAYA

Total Quality Management (TQM) has gained significant attention across various industries as a concept to enhance organizational performance, including in banking industry. This research paper aims to investigate the implementation and impact of TQM principles in the banking industry, exploring its essential indicators including service quality, market orientation, and customer satisfaction. The study begins by reviewing the existing literature on TQM and its application in the banking industry, highlighting key concepts, methodologies, and discussion. Empirical data was taken from 185 bank workers in East Java Region of the Republic of Indonesia, especially Surabaya City. This study uses Confirmatory Factor Analysis to test construct reliability and validity, while the relationship between variables is examined with Partial Least Square/ PLS-SEM. This research uses purposive sampling, we are targeting private bank workers in Surabaya through online questionnaires spread by social media. This research contributes to the existing body of knowledge by providing a comprehensive review and analysis of TQM implementation in the banking industry. This research findings demonstrate that TQM has a significant relationship with Customer Satisfaction, Service Quality, and Market Orientation.

Abstrak dalam Bahasa Indonesia. Manajemen Mutu T otal (TQM) telah mendapatkan perhatian signifikan di berbagai industri sebagai konsep untuk meningkatkan kinerja organisasi, termasuk dalam industri perbankan. Makalah penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyelidiki implementasi dan dampak prinsip-prinsip TQM di industri perbankan, mengeksplorasi indikator-indikator pentingnya termasuk kualitas layanan, orientasi pasar, dan kepuasan pelanggan. Studi ini dimulai dengan meninjau literatur yang ada tentang TQM dan aplikasinya dalam industri perbankan, menyoroti konsep-konsep kunci, metodologi, dan diskusi. Data empiris diambil dari 185 pekerja bank di Wilayah Jawa Timur Republik Indonesia, khususnya Kota Surabaya. Penelitian ini menggunakan Analisis Faktor Konfirmatori untuk menguji reliabilitas dan validitas konstruk, sementara hubungan antar variabel diperiksa dengan Partial Least Square/PLS-SEM. Penelitian ini menggunakan purposive sampling, kami menargetkan pekerja bank swasta di Surabaya melalui kuesioner online yang disebar melalui media sosial. Penemuan penelitian ini berkontribusi pada tubuh pengetahuan yang ada dengan memberikan tinjauan dan analisis yang komprehensif tentang implementasi TQM di industri perbankan. Temuan penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa TQM memiliki hubungan yang signifikan dengan Kepuasan Pelanggan, Kualitas Layanan, dan Orientasi Pasar.

Ahmed Ahmed, A. O., & Idris, A. A. (2021). Examining the relationship between soft total quality management (TQM) aspects and employees’ job satisfaction in “ISO 9001” Sudanese oil companies. TQM Journal , 33 (1), 95–124. https://doi.org/10.1108/TQM-05-2019-0147

Al Khasabah, M. A. I., Salleh, H. S., Mat, N. H. N., & Zulkiffli, S. N. A. (2022). Nexus Between Total Quality Management and Competitive Advantage in Jordanian Banking Sector: the Mediating Effect of Quality Performance. Corporate Governance and Organizational Behavior Review , 6 (2 Special Issue), 193–205. https://doi.org/10.22495/cgobrv6i2sip3

Banna, H., Ahmad, R., & Koh, E. H. Y. (2018). How does total quality management influence the loan quality of the bank? Total Quality Management and Business Excellence , 29 (3–4), 287–300. https://doi.org/10.1080/14783363.2016.1180954

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Chuah, S. H. W., Marimuthu, M., Kandampully, J., & Bilgihan, A. (2017). What drives Gen Y loyalty? Understanding the mediated moderating roles of switching costs and alternative attractiveness in the value-satisfaction-loyalty chain. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services , 36 (December 2016), 124–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2017.01.010

Dandis, A. O., Wright, L. T., Wallace-Williams, D. M., Mukattash, I., Eid, M. A. H. &, & Cai, H. (Huifen). (2021). Cogent Business & Management Enhancing consumers ’ self-reported loyalty intentions in Islamic Banks : The relationship between service quality and the mediating role of customer satisfaction. Cogent Business & Management , 8 (1). https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2021.1892256

Darman, D., Maulana, M. A., & Tope, P. (2021). Analisis Perbandingan Tingkat Kesehatan Bank BUMN dan Bank BUMS di Indonesia. J-MKLI (Jurnal Manajemen Dan Kearifan Lokal Indonesia) , 4 (2), 92. https://doi.org/10.26805/jmkli.v4i2.112

Dubey, R., & Gunasekaran, A. (2015). Exploring soft TQM dimensions and their impact on firm performance: Some exploratory empirical results. International Journal of Production Research , 53 (2), 371–382. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2014.933909

Hussain, A., Hannan, A., & Shafiq, M. (2023). Exploring mobile banking service quality dimensions in Pakistan: a text mining approach. International Journal of Bank Marketing . https://doi.org/10.1108/IJBM-08-2022-0379

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Jumono, S., Sugiyanto, & Mala, C. M. F. (2019). Determinants of profitability in banking industry: A case study of Indonesia. International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies , 9 (1), 91–108. https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.aefr.2019.91.91.108

Lepistö, K., Saunila, M., & Ukko, J. (2022). The impact of certification on the elements of TQM exploring the influence of company size and industry. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management , 39 (1), 30–52. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJQRM-11-2020-0362

Liu, H. (1995). Market orientation and firm size: an empirical examination in UK firms. European Journal of Marketing , 29 (1), 57–71. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090569510075343

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Patel, R. J., & Siddiqui, A. (2023). Banking service quality literature: a bibliometric review and future research agenda. Qualitative Research in Financial Markets , 1997 . https://doi.org/10.1108/QRFM-01-2022-0008

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Zebal, M. A., & Saber, H. M. (2014). Market orientation in Islamic banks - a qualitative approach. Marketing Intelligence and Planning , 32 (4), 495–527. https://doi.org/10.1108/MIP-08-2013-0138

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