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Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps): Its Effect on the Academic Performance of Student-Beneficiaries in Calaba National High School in the Philippines

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Studying the relationship between identity and conflict.

Nicholas Sambanis

Nicholas Sambanis (Photo by Dan Renzetti)

An ethnic minority faces state violence after advocating for self-determination. Immigrants endure discrimination from the native population. A local government faces the challenges of integrating newly arrived refugees. A country erupts into civil war. 

Yale political scientist Nicholas Sambanis’ expertise covers all these scenarios. He studies civil war and other forms of intergroup conflict, both violent and non-violent, what causes these conflicts, and ways to end them. He has also focused on interventions to help countries engaged in ethnic conflict transition from hostility to peace, and he works on ways to reduce ethnic prejudice and discrimination in cases where ethnic conflict is expressed non-violently.

Sambanis, who began his academic career at Yale, serving on the faculty from 2001 to 2016, spent seven years at the University of Pennsylvania before returning to Yale this year as the Kalsi Family Professor of Political Science in Yale’s Faculty of Arts and Sciences.

He’s also founder and director of the Identity and Conflict Lab (icL), which conducts interdisciplinary research on questions of intergroup conflict and identity politics. 

In an interview with Yale News, Sambanis discussed the lab’s interdisciplinary approach, his evaluation of strategies to reduce anti-immigrant bias, and his early-career experiences at Yale. The interview has been edited and condensed. 

How did you come to study civil war and other intergroup conflict?

Nicholas Sambanis: I was drawn to these questions in the mid-90s, while I was pursuing my Ph.D. at Princeton. At the time, I was interested in the process of European unification and had started studying international economic policy with a focus on monetary policy coordination. Being from Greece, I had seen how important it was for the country to join the EU. The idea of forging institutions that tied countries together fascinated me.

Then, the wars in Bosnia and the genocide in Rwanda changed things for me. These wars played out as I was thinking about my dissertation prospectus, and I decided to switch from economic policy to security policy and to study ways to end violent ethnic conflict. These seemed like more pressing problems at the time, and harder to solve. So I started to work on multilateral peacekeeping operations, studying whether they can help end civil wars.

What kinds of research does the Identity and Conflict Lab pursue?

Sambanis: We conduct problem-driven research in the social sciences. The main problem we address is the incidence and expression of identity-based conflict, both violent and non-violent. The scope of our work is broad — there is no single, narrow theme. We have worked on why some conflicts over self-determination turn violent while others remain non-violent, why governments choose to accommodate some ethnic groups while they repress others, and what drives bias and discrimination against immigrants and ways to reduce such bias.

We have also worked on predicting the outbreak of civil wars and exploring both cognitive and biological foundations of prejudice, integrating insights and methods from political science, psychology, economics, and history. The work is driven by real social problems, but it is also informed by theory in the social sciences. We pay a lot of attention to proper measurement, conceptual clarity, and on advancing the literatures in the field we work on, though we also aspire to influence policy debates.

What are you currently working on?

Sambanis: For the past seven years, my focus has been on immigration. I focus on challenges of immigrant integration across countries. Native-immigrant conflict is a type of ethnic conflict, usually non-violent. At any one time, there can be a dozen ongoing projects at the lab, and these extend beyond immigration. For example, for several years now, we have been collecting data on self-determination movements by various ethnic and religious groups around the world so as to anticipate and explain the outbreak of violent separatist conflict. We’re also doing work on state and religious minority-group conflicts, with a focus on India and Pakistan. We have also been expanding to the field of political communication with a focus on foreign policy. There, I am very interested in exploring the role of nationalism in escalating inter-state disputes over sovereignty and territory. We have conducted some research in Greece and Turkey and will expand to other countries.

Does the work focus on economic immigrants or refugees?

Sambanis: We’ve done studies on both. While people tend to be more positively disposed towards refugees than economic immigrants, in practice the public often questions the veracity of refugees’ claims for asylum; they perceive economic opportunity as their main motive when their justifications for seeking asylum can’t be documented and verified.

But we have done studies on both types of migrants in many countries, including Germany, Greece, Turkey, and Cyprus. Right now, we’re doing studies in Italy, Spain, France, Denmark, and we’re starting a new project on migrant workers in the Gulf region. A recently published book with two of my former postdocs, Danny Choi and Mathias Poertner, called “ Native Bias: Overcoming Discrimination Against Immigrants ,” presents some of the main ideas that structure the lab’s work on native-immigrant conflict. The book focuses on Muslim immigrant integration in Germany and explores challenges to the European model of multiculturalism. The data for that book were collected over several years mainly through experimental interventions in the field. The main idea is to create micro-environments, skits basically, which allow unobtrusive observation and measurement of people’s reactions to immigrants and other natives when they adhere to or violate valued civic norms. This allows us to measure behavior, not just attitudes, while isolating specific causes of that behavior experimentally.

What is the relationship between identity and conflict in the questions you study?  

Sambanis: The role of identity on behavior is the overarching theme of my work. The dominant perspective in political science right now is that social identities (ethnicity, race, religion) don’t matter as much as people’s material interests. Identities are used by people who are really motivated by material interest — they are justifications or ways to organize collective action in pursuit of other goals. That view doesn’t seem right to me, though. And depending on your position on that core question, you would develop different types of interventions to end conflict. It is not easy to separate affective interests from material interests and motives of behavior, however. How you see the world and your position in society can shape your identity and vice versa.

Is that true regarding people’s attitudes towards migrants?

Sambanis: The perception of cultural [identity] threat seems to be a more powerful predictor of native-immigrant conflict than economic competition. But like in other contexts, identity and material interests are often fused together. Recently, political scientists interested in reducing prejudice against refugees have been drawing ideas from psychology about cognitive interventions designed to induce empathy toward refugees by pushing natives to take their perspective or by making salient the shared refugee backgrounds that some native populations have with refugee populations.

In the United States, for example, they would do surveys asking people when their families came to the United States, or if they had any immigrants in the family. And they found that asking people about these shared histories tended to improve their attitudes towards immigrants. There are a few studies like this, including in Greece and Cyprus, where there are very large segments of the population that have a family history of displacement. These studies were intriguing because they suggested that it is easy to break through identity barriers with simple cognitive interventions. But after doing studies around the globe, I found no support for this idea, unfortunately. Changing stereotypes and eliminating biases toward ethnically different groups probably requires structural, long-term interventions.  

Your first job in academia was at Yale. How was your experience?

Sambanis: I was attracted to Yale because of its reputation as a leading political science department. There were pioneering scholars on the faculty, and some of them really impacted my own trajectory as a scholar. I learned so much from reading and observing my colleagues here, both the leading senior scholars and junior faculty. Coming up the ranks here as an assistant professor changed everything about the way I approached my research. It changed the questions I asked and the methods I used to study those questions. In many ways, Yale was the best school I ever attended. Coming here was the right decision for me and I’m glad to be back. 

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Teacher training programs don't always use research-backed reading methods

Brianna Atkinson

Ann Doss Helms

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Kerry Sheridan

Beth Wallis

Students scale a mountain of books, as a teacher helps them up.

A dozen college students are saying the word "pat" and jotting down notes about the sounds being made.

"Puh - AH - tt"

Pay attention to the shapes your mouths make as you pronounce the word, instructs Robin Fuxa, their education professor at Oklahoma State University.

She asks her students if they can feel the way the words sound as they speak.

"Say it again and see if you feel it in your vocal cords," Fuxa prompts her reading instruction class, held last October.

Fuxa is trying to get her students to pay attention to phonics, the reading method that links a sound to a letter. Extensive research has shown phonics is an effective way to teach kids to read.

But teacher training programs like this one don't always prepare educators to use researched-backed reading methods, like phonics. In a 2023 study , the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) surveyed nearly 700 teacher training programs across the country. Their findings:

"Only about a quarter of the teachers who leave teacher preparation programs across our nation enter classrooms prepared to teach kids to read [in a way that's] aligned to the science and research on reading," says Heather Peske, president of NCTQ.

The rest, she says, are investing money and time into learning methods like "three- cueing" and "balanced literacy," which aren't backed by research.

Thomas Dee, an education professor and researcher at Stanford University, says this disconnect between research and practice has been a long standing issue in education.

"Things for which there's good evidence of efficacy don't always make it into [the] everyday classroom practice of teachers," Dee says.

This comes at a time when reading proficiency among some school-aged children has been declining.

The National Assessment of Educational Progress, otherwise known as the Nation's Report Card , shows reading scores among 13-year-olds have dropped since 2012, with a sharper dip during and after the pandemic. While test scores for 9-year-olds have mostly held steady since 2012, they too suffered a decline during the pandemic.

What makes the "science of reading" different

Dee is a big proponent of the "science of reading," which incorporates phonics, reading comprehension, vocabulary, and fluency, among other techniques. There is growing evidence that the science of reading is a more effective way to teach students how to read.

More effective than, say, "three-cueing," which is when students rely on context and sentence structure to identify words they don't know.

"Balanced literacy," formerly known as "whole language," is another commonly used method of reading instruction.

"The idea there was that kids sort of learn to read naturally and we just have to surround them with great literature," says Ellen McIntyre, dean of the teachers college at The University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

MyIntyre says balanced literacy had some great ideas about how to get students excited about reading, but she found the model was lacking.

"Really early on, the model didn't include systematic, explicit teaching of phonics or any of the other foundational skills."

Neither three-cueing nor balanced literacy are backed by research.

The 2023 study from NCTQ found 40% of surveyed schools are still teaching methods that "run counter to the research on effective reading instruction."

How teaching programs adopt "science of reading" methods

From 2019-2022, 46 states , including D.C., have passed reading legislation, according to The Albert Shanker Institute, a nonprofit connected to one of the country's largest teacher unions, the American Federation of Teachers.

In North Carolina, for example, a 2021 law requires current teachers to undergo training in the science of reading. To adapt, some colleges and universities with teacher training programs are amending their courses so they're more in line with the latest research.

And they have some guidance: In 2022, the UNC System – the network of public universities in North Carolina – hired an outside company to audit teacher colleges and their use of the science of reading model. The institutions were given an evaluation of "strong," "good," "needs improvement" or "inadequate." Most teacher colleges were labeled as "needs improvement."

Gerrelyn Patterson, chair of educator preparation at North Carolina A&T State University, a historically Black college, says the school was already teaching science of reading concepts, and even though the audit delivered a "good" score, they made additional changes to their curriculum. This included changes to syllabi, course descriptions and a review of the materials used for assignments.

Patterson says she and faculty met for hours at a time to review the courses they were teaching. In the end, the committee revised some courses to be more in-depth when it comes to reading.

"The students would say [the courses were] time intensive... they already felt like the literacy classes are very rigorous," Patterson says. But students told her the revised literacy courses were aligning with other training they got, "so they could see that connection."

The University of North Carolina at Pembroke, the state's only four-year American Indian and Alaska Native-serving institution , was not among the campuses that received a "strong" or "good" score from the audit.

In response to the lower evaluation, the university added two additional classes to the curriculum, increasing the required reading courses for students from three to five.

In 2023, school administrators said that they were planning on hiring an endowed professor of literacy, with a focus on leadership, research and teaching in the science of reading. The person hired in the position will also have funding to conduct literacy research.

However, not all educators have been on board with the changes at Pembroke.

"It's taken some time to kind of get the buy-in," says Gretchen Robinson, an education professor there.

According to Robinson, faculty met last spring for weekly feedback sessions. She said some were skeptical of the changes because they were being asked to teach in a way they weren't used to.

The university ended up losing two faculty members in 2023 as a result of the instruction shift.

Teachers pushback on legislating the classroom

Some educators have been uncomfortable with state legislators making decisions around how reading is taught.

"No collective group of legislators have the knowledge to do that," said Jenifer Jasinski Schneider, a professor of literacy studies at the University of South Florida.

She said USF is not changing their way of teaching reading because they've always incorporated principles like phonics and vocabulary into their lessons.

She acknowledges that there are a lot of K-12 students who are not learning to read, but she thinks there are bigger issues that state legislators should address before taking a critical stance on reading.

"We have internet access issues...We have kids that have food insecurity," Jasinski Schneider said.

"If they want to legislate something, legislate that every kid gets to eat three meals a day, instead of banning a teaching method, right? If they really want to help... make sure schools are over-resourced not under-resourced."

Elissa Nadworny contributed to this report. Edited by Nicole Cohen.

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Surviving and Quitting: The Case of 4PS (Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program) Student Dropouts

Profile image of Lyra Paz P . Lluz

International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH

The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) is a version of cash transfer program here in the Philippines that aims to eradicate extreme poverty by investing in health and education. This study focused on personal experiences of students as 4Ps beneficiaries and factors that have led to their dropping out from school. A qualitative method was employed utilizing a case study design, where data was gathered from six (6) student dropouts who were 4Ps beneficiaries. Results revealed that most student beneficiaries of the 4Ps are from indigent families, highlighted that factors were due to family living conditions, the desire to help the parents and siblings. Family living conditions, the poor standard of living still is a pressing problem that can led students to drop out from school, even with the availability of financial assistance that still links to poverty as an underlying factor.

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Frederick Edward Fabella

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the lived experiences of former Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) student-beneficiaries. The theories guiding this study were Human Capital Theory (1990), Social Capital Theory (1988), and The Concept of Experience by Dewey (1934). The study followed the theory and methods of the phenomenological research model proposed by Giorgi (2009) that allowed informants to provide personal perspectives and reflections on their experiences. The following three research questions guided the study: 1)What are the students’ distinct experiences as former beneficiaries of 4Ps? 2) How would the students describe their lives and values as 4Ps former beneficiaries?and 3) How are these experiences of being a former 4Ps recipient reflected in the co-researchers lives today?Interviews conducted to gather perceptive data from co-researcherswere transcribed, examined, coded, and broken down into themes emerged throughout the research process. The themes identified based on the distinct experiences of students as former beneficiaries of 4Ps were Financial Distress, Psychological Distress, and Financial Security. Identified themes based on description of lives and values of participants as former 4Ps beneficiaries were Reduced 3 Poverty, Spiritual Growth, and Social Growth. Identified themes based on reflection on the lives of co-researchers from gained experience as a former 4Ps member were Improved Confidence, Motivation, and Improved Academic Performance. The findings of the study may help in improving the 4Ps program and the experiences that will be brought by the said program to the present and future beneficiaries.

research study about 4ps program

Journal of Public Administration and Governance

Marc Jon Flores

This study measured and evaluated the effect of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) on the academic performance of the student-beneficiaries of Calaba National High School, Calaba, San Isidro, Nueva Ecija in the Philippines. Survey questionnaires were distributed to ninety five 4Ps student beneficiaries who were purposively selected based on the following criteria: 4Ps beneficiary, enrolled in Calaba National High School at the time of data gathering, and willingness to participate in the study. Analysis of all collected data revealed the significant effect of the program to the performance of student beneficiaries especially in motivating students to attend classes. The result also supports Vroom’s Expectancy Theory which assumes that the students’ efforts, performance, and behavior are influenced by the importance they place on the desired outcome. In this case, to satisfy the conditionalities and remain eligible for the cash grant which have positive effect on the socio-eco...

Psychology and Education: A Multidisciplinary Journal

Psychology and Education

This research explores the experiences of college students benefiting from the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4P's) and the Tertiary Education Subsidy (TES) in the Philippines, two government initiatives designed to support impoverished households and disadvantaged students. Through in-depth interviews, the study examines the beneficiaries' experiences, challenges, and coping and budgeting strategies. The research identifies four central themes: the importance of financial security, especially in covering tuition fees; the aspiration to excel in education, fostering optimism and practicality; a prevailing sense of pragmatic optimism in informed spending decisions; and the ability of beneficiaries to effectively prioritize expenditures. These findings have broader implications, potentially guiding policy improvements for the 4P's and TES programs to enhance their effectiveness. Additionally, they may motivate college students to persevere in their academic pursuits and inspire them to achieve their educational goals.

International journal of research and innovation in social science

AILENE BASCO

Marco Mamangon

The aim of this study is to analyze whether the 4Ps beneficiaries of the country’s capital city experience the same as those of in the provinces, and that if the program’s impact is significant for the lives of student-beneficiaries. The researchers used quantitative methods and the correlational research design in conducting the study. The researchers used the census method instead of a sampling method, as it was deemed more effective in order to ensure accuracy in the outcomes of the study. 53 parents in household-beneficiaries in Brgy. 211 Zone 19, City of Manila were interviewed by the researchers. Pearson product-moment correlation was used to test the relationship of the 4Ps grants and conditions and the well-being of the elementary school student-beneficiaries in the area. It turned out that there was a weak but positive correlation between the two variables, and the relationship was not statistically significant. The researchers (1) urge the parents in benefiting households to fully utilize the grants of the 4Ps, (2) suggest to the DSWD and other government entities concerned to monitor the efficiency, effectivity, and even the sustainability of the 4Ps, and (3) recommend to the future researchers that the number of respondent-families be increased, as the number of respondent-families may be a factor in the consistency of results. Keywords: Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program, conditional cash transfer programs, educational well-being, health and nutritional well-being, Department of Social Welfare and Development

Angel Javier

Aim: This study aimed to determine the program implementation of Conditional Cash Transfer (4Ps) as support to health and education of high school students beneficiaries in Alaminos Integrated National High School. Methodology: This research is a descriptive correlation study wherein the beneficiaries' personal profile and program implementation-related variables were assumed to have a relationship with 4P's support of students in Alaminos Integrated National High School. Researchers constructed a self-made questionnaire checklist to acquire data on respondents' conscious use of conditional cash transfer programs (4Ps). Results: The study shows that the perceived level of respondents towards the implementation program of the 4p's in terms of government funding, government support services, school involvement, parents' initiative, and targeting/ monitoring activities are all interpreted as "agree/effective' with an overall mean of 4.16. The respondents' perceived level towards the 4Ps' support as to finances, student attendance, health, and sanitation, and feeding program, with an overall mean of 4.11, is interpreted as 'agree/effective.' Beneficiaries' personal profile, such as age, sex, number of siblings, and mothers' occupation, has no significant relationship to 4P's support of students. Meanwhile, fathers' occupation is significantly related to 4P's support of students in terms of finances. The family source of income also has a significant relationship to 4P's support of students in student attendance. The study shows that the program implementation of the conditional cash transfer has significantly related to 4P's support of students. Conclusion: Based on the findings, the conclusions were drawn as (1) Beneficiaries' personal profiles such as age, sex, number of siblings, and mothers' occupation are not significantly related to 4P's support of students. However, in terms of fathers' occupation and family source of income, both had a significant relationship to 4P's support of students. Thus, the hypothesis is partially accepted. (2) Program implementation-related variables are significantly related to 4P's support of students. Thus, the hypothesis is rejected.

Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied and Basic Subjects

Dr. Genaro O . Basas III

The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) of the Philippine government was implemented by the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD). It was designed to aid poor households with short-term consumption needs while promoting investment in the education and health of their children to help break the inter-generational transmission of poverty in the country. This study employed a descriptive research design to determine the present socioeconomic conditions of the householdbeneficiaries of 4Ps in Bagacay, Daram, Samar, Philippines. The household-beneficiaries belonged to lowincome families whose highest educational attainment of the majority of their members was elementary level only, and fishing was a main source of their income. More household-beneficiaries had two children each covered by the program. They still experienced deficiency with their daily basic needs such as foods, water, clothing, and other family expenditures. Many of them procured only those affordable televisions, electric fans, bulbs or fluorescents, and cell phones. They had no ownership and assurance in their housing and land used. Most of their houses were not concrete, since they could not afford to purchase materials for house construction. Not all household-beneficiaries constructed toilets, and some of those with toilets were not ideal. Other household-beneficiaries were cultivating agricultural lands which were not their own. More parents constantly monitored their children's attendance, and progresses in school. They actively participated in the school activities.

Jhun Rey Corrales

This study endeavoured to find out the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps), the Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) program of the Government of the Republic of the Philippines, from the viewpoint of its beneficiaries and to recognize the changes it brought forth to education. Respondents, selected through purposive sampling, were asked through a researcher-made questionnaire of their perception and suggestions for the 4Ps, and the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of 4Ps. The study revealed that 4Ps contributed greatly to the school's performance indicators. This study also raised the awareness of the school personnel and the recipients of the program's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Furthermore, the study concludes that 4Ps certainly helped its recipients and the school with 4Ps enrolees. It is therefore recommended that the program be continued but improved to ensure the attainment of its objectives.

cristal palces

Sapienza: International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies

Samuel John Parreño

School dropout is a major problem as it has negative impacts that result in high social costs. A learner can be called a dropout when the learner fails to enroll in school despite having reached the mandatory school age. This paper aims to identify the root causes of school dropouts in the Philippines, specifically in all regions for the years 2008 and 2013. The secondary data on the proportion of population 6 to 24 years old who are not attending school from the website of the Philippine Statistics Authority were used. The data were analyzed using R version 4.2.1. This paper employed descriptive statistics, namely frequency and percentage to identify the root causes of dropping out in the Philippines when grouped according to region and year. Percentage change (increase and decrease) were explored to track changes in the causes of school dropouts. The findings indicated that the high cost of education, and student employment or when the student is seeking employment were the root c...

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OSMANLI SON DÖNEMİNDE YUNDA ADASININ (CUNDA-ALİBEY) MÜLKİ TAKSİMATTAKİ YERİNİN BELİRLENMESİ SORUNU

Prof. Dr. Mehmet Temel

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BA in Education Studies

What you can earn, credits earned, time commitment, upcoming deadline, your foundation in education begins here.

The Education Studies (EDST) degree program is a minimum requirement major that gives you the opportunity to study foundational education concepts and also concentrate on an area of your choice. All pathways emphasize educational equity and enacting social justice.

Coursework in Early Childhood Studies focuses on understanding the sociocultural context in which young children grow and thrive. This option is ideal for students who are interested in careers focussed on supporting young children and families, including:

  • Careers in early childhood leadership, research and policy
  • Careers working with young children and families in settings beyond the classroom
  • Graduate teacher certification programs in PreK - 3rd grade or K - 3 (this option does not provide the P-3 endorsement)

Download the Early childhood Studies graduation plan

The Early Childhood Studies option prepares you to apply to the following  COE graduate programs:

  • Applied Behavior Analysis (M.Ed.)
  • Early Childhood Special Education (M.Ed.)
  • Education, Policy, Organizations, and Leadership (M.Ed.)
  • High-Incidence Disabilities Teacher Education (M.Ed.)
  • Language, Literacy, and Culture (M.Ed.)
  • Low-Incidence Teacher Education (M.Ed.)
  • Master’s in Teaching: Elementary (MiT)
  • Social and Cultural Foundations (M.Ed.)

Coursework in Education Research and Policy provides students with an understanding of research and practice of education policy, organizations and leadership. This option is a good choice for students who are interested in understanding the complex sociocultural context of education and how it impacts the lives of individuals across their lifespans. Post graduation options include:

  • Graduate programs in education policy, research, and leadership
  • Careers in education research and education policy development

Download the Education Research and Policy graduation plan

The Education Research and Policy option prepares you to apply to the following COE graduate programs:

  • Master’s in Teaching: Elementary  (MiT)
  • Master’s in Teaching: Seattle Teacher Residency (MiT)
  • Measurement & Statistics (M.Ed.)
  • School Psychology (Ed.S.)

The Foundations of Teaching option is ideal for students who are considering a graduate program that will prepare them to teach in elementary, secondary or higher education settings. Post graduation options include:

  • Graduate programs for teacher certification
  • Graduate programs in school psychology, social & cultural foundations or other school support fields
  • Careers in secondary or higher education

Download the Foundations of Teaching graduation plan

The Foundations in Teaching option prepares you to apply to the following COE graduate programs:

  • I ntercollegiate Athletic Leadership (M.Ed.)
  • Islandwood Graduate Certificate Program (M.Ed.)
  • Secondary (Middle/High School) Teaching  

The Multilingual/Language option is designed for students who will be pursuing teacher certification in multilingual classrooms or working in support of multilingual education locally and globally. Career options include:

  • Graduate programs for teacher certification for elementary or secondary education
  • Graduate programs in ed policy, school psychology and social & cultural foundations
  • Graduate programs in language and culture
  • Careers teaching in multilingual classrooms and other educational spaces
  • Careers in educational research and policy with an emphasis on language and multilingual issues

Download the Multilingual/Language graduation plan

The Multilingual/Language in Education option prepares you to apply to the following COE graduate programs:

  • Master’s in Teaching: Secondary Teaching (MiT)

This option is designed for students interested in pursuing the diverse field of sports and athletics. The major helps prepare you for careers and/or graduate studies in sports. Post graduation options include:

  • Graduate programs in sports education and leadership
  • College athletics
  • Professional sports
  • Community-based organizations
  • Outdoor education
  • Youth sports

Sports and Education graduation plan

The Sports and Education option prepares you to apply to the following COE graduate programs:

  • Intercollegiate Athletic Leadership (M.Ed.)
  • Master’s in Teaching: Elementary Teaching (MiT)

After graduation

Interested in graduate studies? After earning your B.A. through the EDST program, consider one of our many graduate-level programs . From teaching certificates, special education, sports management and more, every EDST program aligns with our graduate programs.

Let's connect

We're so excited that you're thinking about joining our undergrad program! Join our mailing list to learn about upcoming information sessions, deadlines, scholarships and more!

Join mailing list

Prospective students are welcome to schedule an admission advising appointment with our Lead Academic Advisor, Alec Koehler, who can provide one-on-one support with declaring the Education Studies major.

Note: If appointments are completely booked, please schedule an admission advising appointment with Ramon Concepcion.

All EDST students take 30 credits of foundational courses and an additional 20-22 credits in their chosen option.

  • EDUC 251 Seeking Educational Equity and Diversity
  • EDUC 310 Current Issues in Education
  • COE electives, 300 level or above (12 cr.)

One of the following education introduction courses

  • ECFS 200 Introduction to Early Childhood and Family Studies
  • EDUC 240 Introduction to Education
  • EDUC 280 Introduction to Education, Communities, and Organizations

One of the following human development courses

  • EDPSY 302 Child Development and Learning
  • EDPSY 404 Adolescent Development
  • EDPSY 380 Adult Learning and Development
  • NSG 432 Infants and Children: Risk and Resilience
  • ECFS 320 Childhood in Cultural Context
  • ECFS 401 Understanding ECFS Research (prereq. EDPSY 302)
  • ECFS 402 Social Policy and Young Children and Families
  • EDUC 400 Capstone
  • EDLPS 302 Introduction to Education Policy
  • EDPSY 490 Basic Education Statistics (prior course recomm. Math 098, Math 100, or Math 102) 
  • EDUC 472 Individuals, Groups, Organizations, and Institutions
  • EDUC 473 Community Based Research and Practice 
  • EDC&I 351 Teaching as a Profession 
  • EDSPE 304 Disability and Ableism in Education 
  • EDPSY 406 Learning and Teaching to Change the World 
  • EDUC 225 Introduction to Language, Education, and Society (prior course recomm. LING 200)
  • EDC&I 345 Bilingualism and Biliteracy in Multilingual Classrooms (prior course recomm. EDC&I 359)
  • EDC&I 359 Second-Language Learning in Schools and Communities
  • EDC&I 453 Immigration and Schooling
  • EDUC 221 Education and the Playing Field
  • EDUC 231 Developing Youth Through Sport and Physical Activity
  • EDUC 300 Sport Coach as Leader
  • EDUC 451 The Role of Sport in Social Justice and Change

EDST students will complete the following UW graduation requirements:

  • Minimum of 180 total credits
  • 45 of last 60 credits taken at UW
  • Minimum 2.0 GPA

Admission requirements and process

UW students are able to declare the Education Studies major in the first two weeks of each quarter.  Interested students are encouraged to follow admission dates and  meet with our Education Studie s adviser to review credit requirements and complete the change of major form.

  • 45 earned credits with a minimum 2.0 GPA cumulative
  • 2.0 GPA in English Composition
  • Ensure you have met all requirements and prerequisites
  • Declare the major by scheduling an admissions appointment with the EDST Adviser
  • Complete the  Change of Major form with the EDST adviser

We welcome transfer students to our program! As a transfer student, you will have some additional steps and required materials to your application process. 

If you are interested in the EDST major, be sure to select the major on your UW Admissions application. We require ECFS 200, EDUC 240, or EDUC 280 to be completed for a student to be able to declare EDST in the following quarter. Transfer students who select the EDST major on their UW Admissions application will have a seat in ECFS 200, EDUC 240, or EDUC 280 held for them.

Please note: you can only declare the Education Studies Major after your admission to UW and the successful completion of the major prerequisites. 

Feel confident in the process by attending  Transfer Thursday , an informational event run by the UW Office of Admissions. We also invite you to attend one of our weekly undergraduate majors and minor information sessions.

Costs and funding

We are a tuition-based program. Estimated tuition rates are based on your residency:

  • Estimated cost for Washington state residents: $12,643 per year
  • Estimated cost for out-of-state students: $41,997 per year

Estimates are subject to change due and may differ due to course load and summer quarter enrollment. Estimates include some fees such as building fee, technology fee, U-Pass, etc. Fees such as textbooks are not included.

View the UW tuition dashboard → Visit the Office of Planning & Budgeting →

It is highly recommended that students in the program complete the Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) or Washington Application for State Financial Aid (WASFA) application. These applications are necessary for various forms of financial aid, including scholarships and loans. The College of Education also offers scholarship and funding opportunities.

Undergraduate General Scholarship

Program affiliated faculty.

Jodi Burrus

Jodi Burrus Newman

Jondou Chen

Jondou Chen

Lynn Dietrich

Lynn Dietrich

Min Sun

Elizabeth Sanders

Oscar L. Olvera Astivia

Oscar L. Olvera Astivia

Jessica Rigby

Jessica G. Rigby

Molly Shea

Emma Elliott

Photo not available

Hannah Olson

Headshot picture of Sara Lopez

Katherine Lewis

Manka Varghese

Manka Varghese

Program staff, alec koehler, alejandra baires-ramirez.

Ramon Concepcion

Ramon Concepcion

Bridget wittke.

Camille Lemire

Camille Lemire

IMAGES

  1. (PDF) Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps): Its Effect on the

    research study about 4ps program

  2. Marketing's Four P's: First Steps for New

    research study about 4ps program

  3. 🎉 4p promotion example. Marketing Mix: 4Ps with 4Cs (Explained). 2019-02-07

    research study about 4ps program

  4. Contributing Factors in Basic Education through 4Ps (Pantawid Pamilyang

    research study about 4ps program

  5. (PDF) Role of Marketing Mix (4Ps) in Building Brand Equity: Case Study

    research study about 4ps program

  6. Marketing mix

    research study about 4ps program

VIDEO

  1. 4PS BENEFICIARIES PRIORITY SA TERTIARY EDUCATION SUBSIDY (TES) PARA SA COLLEGE HANGGANG P40,000/A.Y

  2. PART 2: 4Ps Frequently Asked Questions

  3. 4Ps Process of Accident Investigation || What is 4Ps? || 4Ps Process || 4Ps || HSE STUDY GUIDE

  4. Module 4

  5. Part 1 Sec2 ( Complete your research work by yourself)

  6. Day 1: Webinar on Research Methodology held on 27-05-2023 at 7 p.m

COMMENTS

  1. Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps): Its Effect on the Academic Performance of Student-Beneficiaries in Calaba National High School in the Philippines

    This study measured and evaluated the effect of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) on the academic performance of the student-beneficiaries of Calaba National High School, Calaba, San ...

  2. PDF Impact Evaluation of The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program

    Impact evaluations have helped to confirm the effectiveness of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) at various times. In 2011 and 2013, the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) partnered with Philippines Institute of Development Studies (PIDS) to conduct two "waves" of impact evaluations of the program with the help ...

  3. (DOC) ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE STUDENTS WHO ARE 4PS ...

    The study revealed that 4Ps contributed greatly to the school's performance indicators. This study also raised the awareness of the school personnel and the recipients of the program's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Furthermore, the study concludes that 4Ps certainly helped its recipients and the school with 4Ps enrolees.

  4. The Lived Experiences of Former Pantawid Pamilyang Pilpino Program (4PS

    The findings of the study may help in improving the 4Ps program and the experiences that will be brought by the said program to the present and future beneficiaries. Keywords: 4Ps Program, Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program, Concept of Experience, Social Capital Theory, 4Ps Student-Beneficiaries, Phenomenology, Live Experienced, Giorgi, Human ...

  5. The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps): Implications to Study

    Abstract. This study was undertaken to assess the extent of study skills and Science academic performance and to determine the relationship between the extent of study skills and Science academic performance of 563 junior high school students consisting of 250 4Ps beneficiaries and 313 non-4Ps.

  6. Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) Household ...

    The primary aim of this research is to highlight the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) household beneficiaries, equally describing the personal issues in terms of age, civil status, education, health, number of household beneficiaries, and number of years of stay in the barangay. ... The study used a qualitative design using a ...

  7. PDF based evidence from Caraga Region, the Philippines ...

    Recruitment of study participants for the focused group discussion (FGD) was conducted using two different sampling methods: 1) Purposive sampling to recruit diverse stakeholders, including teachers, teacher-coordinators of 4Ps program, and school nurses in different schools across Caraga Region, and children and adolescents.

  8. Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps): Its Effect on the

    Downloadable! This study measured and evaluated the effect of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) on the academic performance of the student-beneficiaries of Calaba National High School, Calaba, San Isidro, Nueva Ecija in the Philippines. Survey questionnaires were distributed to ninety five 4Ps student beneficiaries who were purposively selected based on the following criteria- 4Ps ...

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF PANTAWID PAMILYANG PILIPINO PROGRAM (4Ps) ON FILIPINA

    In most countries abroad wherein CCT programs are also implemented, studies show that these programs have positive effects on women. No research has been done yet focusing on the effects of cash transfer programs on Filipina women. This research aims to analyze the effectiveness of 4Ps in Filipina womens empowerment.

  10. THE HARDSHIPS AND BENEFITS OF 4PS STUDENT-BENEFICIARIES

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the lived experiences of former Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) student-beneficiaries. The theories guiding this study were Human Capital Theory (1990), Social Capital Theory (1988), and The Concept of Experience by Dewey (1934). The study followed the theory and methods of the ...

  11. (PDF) Satisfaction Level of the Beneficiaries of Pantawid Pamilyang

    The local version was named PantawidPamilyang Pilipino Program or 4Ps. The present study aimed to know if thePantawidPamilyang Pilipino Program has increased the life aspiration and life satisfaction of the recipients as compared to those of non-recipients. ... This research study was conducted in Nueva Ecija, were There are three steps in ...

  12. PDF A Study on The Academic Performance of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino

    A study entitled Optimal Allocation of School and Health Resources for Effective Delivery of the Conditional Cash Transfer Program in Bagac, Bataan, revealed that the number of children who attend day care centers and elementary schools has increased as a result of the 4Ps program; the level grade 4 had the highest increase (7.2%) this school year.

  13. Lived Experiences of Former Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program

    The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) is a human development measure of the national government that provides conditional cash grants to the poorest of the poor. The purpose of this program is to alleviate people's poverty. This study investigated and delved deeper in understanding the lived experiences of five (5) former 4Ps beneficiaries. They were identified using purposive ...

  14. PDF Lived Experiences of Former Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program

    The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) is a human development measure of the national government that provides conditional cash grants to the poorest of the poor. The purpose of this program is to alleviate people's poverty. This study investigated and delved deeper in understanding the lived experiences of five (5) former 4Ps ...

  15. Survey Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4P's) to ...

    Abstract. This study aimed to describe the two hundred thirty (230) learners in a Secondary School in the Nueva Ecija Schools Division. They were beneficiaries of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4P's) and how this program contributed to their development and achievement.

  16. DSWD: Providing rice instead of cash to 4Ps is under study but admits

    Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) Secretary Rex Gatchalian said his department is currently studying the proposal of the Department of Agriculture (DA) to provide kilos of rice instead of cash assistance to the beneficiaries of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps).

  17. Studying the relationship between identity and conflict

    Studying the relationship between identity and conflict. Political scientist Nicholas Sambanis discusses his work examining identity and conflict, including the discrimination often encountered by migrants. An ethnic minority faces state violence after advocating for self-determination. Immigrants endure discrimination from the native population.

  18. BA in Early Childhood & Family Studies

    The Early Childhood and Family Studies (ECFS) program is designed to offer multidisciplinary and critical perspectives of early childhood development, early learning and family-centered education of young children. Through a combination of coursework and hands-on experiences in early learning settings, you will develop the necessary knowledge ...

  19. UC Davis medical school ranked among the nation's best for NIH research

    Nadine A Yehya. [email protected]. Phone: 916-734-9036. The Blue Ridge Institute for Medical Research ranked UC Davis School of Medicine among the nation's leading medical schools in terms of NIH grants. The school had a record of $209 million in NIH funding.

  20. A Study on the Effectiveness of Government program 4p's to the

    The aim of this study is to analyze whether the 4Ps beneficiaries of the country's capital city experience the same as those of in the provinces, and that if the program's impact is significant for the lives of student-beneficiaries. The researchers used quantitative methods and the correlational research design in conducting the study.

  21. (PDF) Exploring the Gap between Real and Ideal Poverty Graduation: A

    On o ne level, in the study of Caimol et al. (2019), the 4Ps program had a pivotal role in motivating and encouraging the learners to atten d school, and eventually improve their over all ...

  22. Questions and Answers About the CSRN

    Cancer HealthCast: Emerging Technologies are Showing Promise in Early Cancer Detection. Study Design Considerations for Trials to Evaluate Multicancer Early Detection Assays for Clinical Utility. What is the Cancer Screening Research Network (CSRN)? NCI created the CSRN to develop and conduct multi-center cancer screening trials.

  23. Teacher training programs drop the ball on reading. : NPR

    But teacher training programs like this one don't always prepare educators to use researched-backed reading methods, like phonics. In a 2023 study, the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ ...

  24. Materials Science and Engineering graduate programs

    Master's degree programs. Master of Science in Materials Science The Master of Science in Materials Science degree combines graduate-level coursework and an individual research project to provide an advanced foundational education to professionals interested in advancing their knowledge in the field. Graduates of the program have a fundamental understanding of materials structure, properties ...

  25. (PDF) Surviving and Quitting: The Case of 4PS (Pantawid Pamilyang

    There are studies that shows how the 4Ps program affects the school attendance and the performance of the student. ... A case study research will allow the researchers to focus on a specific area or situation for an in-depth analysis (Heigham, et.al., 2009). Case study research is said to allow for in-depth review of new or unclear phenomena ...

  26. Education Studies

    Make a Gift. Making Learning Come Alive. For You. Alumni. Current Students. Technology Center. Earn your Bachelor's degree and study foundational education concepts while concentrating on your specific interests. Prepare yourself for rewarding careers or further graduate studies in education.