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Use of Prefabrication, Construction and Demolition Wastes as an Aggregate in Vibropressed Precast Concrete Blocks Production

The aim of current study was to determine the recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) applicability in the production of concrete mixture for vibropressed concrete blocks. The experiments were focused especially on the crushed waste material from the same concrete elements producing plant.  For this type of precast elements only some finer fractions can be implemented and the “earth-moist” consistency of fresh mixture is required. The series of samples was prepared in which the mixture of natural aggregates was partially or totally substituted by recycled concrete aggregate. The 0/4 RCA fraction, which is usually rejected in ready mix concrete technology, plays a role of 0/2 sand.  The substitution of sand fraction was from 20% to 100% respectively. The substitution of the coarser aggregate fractions by 4/16 RCA was also done. The standard properties of vibropressed elements, such as the degree of densification, the density of material, the compressive and splitting tensile strength and the water absorption capacity according to the relevant standards were determined. The parameters of materials with the natural aggregate substitution by RCA are affected by the ratio of recycled concrete aggregate. In most cases the results do not decline specially from those for reference samples, when only the natural sand (0/2) fraction is substituted by the 0/4 recycled aggregate. As one could expect, as lower the substitution, as better the test results. The partial substitution of natural aggregate by coarser fractions requires experimental verification; over 20% substitution of natural aggregate by 4/8, 8/16 or 0/16 RCA should be excluded.

The properties of preplaced aggregate concrete technology contain the industrial waste-material and the various shapes and sizes of coarse aggregate

Abstract The success of preplaced aggregate concrete technology depends on two main factors which are potential grout and coarse aggregate. This research was conducted experimentally to determine the effect of using two different fly ash sources as an alternative for the partial replacement of cement and several size and shapes of coarse aggregate on the compressive and tensile strength of PAC specimens. This involved the use of seven concrete mixes with a low water-cement ratio of 0.4 and cement to sand ratio of 1:0.75 to produce standard cylinder specimens of concrete containing rounded and crush aggregate. Moreover, fly ash was added at a dosage of 5% and 10% of cement weight while three shapes and sizes of a rounded and crushed aggregate at 20 mm, 30 mm, and a mixture of the two were also applied. The results showed the compressive strength of specimens with different sizes or a mix of rounded aggregate in PAC exhibited a similar performance with 30 mm of crushed coarse aggregate. Furthermore, the specimen with a higher content of calcium fly ash demonstrated a more rapid strength at an early age of seven days than those with lower content. Therefore, the partial replacement of cement with industrial waste material in the form of fly ash in preplaced aggregate concrete has the ability to save up to 10% of cement and also produce certain environmental benefits.

3D printing-A Review of Materials, Applications, and Challenges

Abstract: Now a days 3-Dimensional Printing (3DP) technology is used world widely and it can actually print each and every thing with the desired computer program. In Construction engineering the challenges are like availability of skilled man power, time constraint, cost effectiveness and complicated shapes etc. But with the help of an automated machine, the 3D printing technology, has huge potential to have faster and more accurate construction of complex and more laborious works. This technology can build three-dimensional (3D) objects by connecting layers of materials and can be applied to convert waste and by-products into new materials. The 3DP in concrete construction is increasing thanks to its freedom in geometry, rapidness, formwork-less printing, low waste generation, eco-friendliness, cost-saving nature and safety. This paper attempts to review the digital printing technology introduced in the construction industry and the also highlights the impact on concrete technology. It also discusses about the materials used in 3DP, mix design, various applications and challenges in the construction industry. Keywords: 3D printing, Concrete, 3DCP, Mix design.

Novel Fuzzy-Based Optimization Approaches for the Prediction of Ultimate Axial Load of Circular Concrete-Filled Steel Tubes

An accurate estimation of the axial compression capacity of the concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) column is crucial for ensuring the safety of structures containing them and preventing related failures. In this article, two novel hybrid fuzzy systems (FS) were used to create a new framework for estimating the axial compression capacity of circular CCFST columns. In the hybrid models, differential evolution (DE) and firefly algorithm (FFA) techniques are employed in order to obtain the optimal membership functions of the base FS model. To train the models with the new hybrid techniques, i.e., FS-DE and FS-FFA, a substantial library of 410 experimental tests was compiled from openly available literature sources. The new model’s robustness and accuracy was assessed using a variety of statistical criteria both for model development and for model validation. The novel FS-FFA and FS-DE models were able to improve the prediction capacity of the base model by 9.68% and 6.58%, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed models exhibited considerably improved performance compared to existing design code methodologies. These models can be utilized for solving similar problems in structural engineering and concrete technology with an enhanced level of accuracy.

Design of Cold-Mixed High-Toughness Ultra-Thin Asphalt Layer towards Sustainable Pavement Construction

Ultra-thin asphalt overlay has become the mainstream measure of road preventive maintenance due to its good economic benefits and road performance. However, hot mix asphalt concrete technology is widely used at present, which is not the most ideal way to promote energy saving and emission reduction in the field of road maintenance. At the same time, the ultra-thin friction course based on cold mix technology, such as slurry seal layer, micro-surface, and other technologies, are still far behind the hot mix friction course in terms of crack resistance. In this research, by establishing an integrated design of materials and structures, a cold paving technology called “high-toughness cold-mixed ultra-thin pavement (HCUP)” is proposed. The high-viscosity emulsified bitumen prepared by using high-viscosity and high-elasticity modified bitumen is used as the binder and sticky layer of HCUP. The thickness of HCUP is 0.8–2.0 cm, the typical thickness is 1.2 cm, and the nominal maximum size of the coarse aggregate is 8 mm. Indoor tests show that HCUP-8 has water stability, anti-skid performance, high temperature performance, peeling resistance, and crack resistance that are not weaker than traditional hot-mixed ultra-thin wear layers such as AC-10, Novachip, and GT-8. At the same time, the test road paving further proved that HCUP-8 has excellent road performance with a view to providing new ideas for low-carbon and environmentally friendly road materials.

Unspoken Modernity: Bamboo-Reinforced Concrete, China 1901-40

Abstract Engineering science in the China of 1901-40 had unique characteristics that disrupt the idea of a universal approach to its history.1 The following case study describes the ideas and trials of introducing bamboo into the seemingly globalised technology of reinforced concrete—an innovation developed across the borders of mechanical, naval, civil, and aeronautical engineering. The article showcases a way of knowing and working by twentieth century engineers that has not been fully acknowledged, and is not only a phenomenon of China. While bamboo was a complicated and somewhat marginal object for engineering, it did make the European concrete technology more viable in the construction sites of China, and stimulate engineers’ experimental and resourceful spirit in mobilising both craft and scientific knowledge. It also opened up a challenge to engineering science of the time.

Evaluation of Rapid Repair of Concrete Pavements Using Precast Concrete Technology: A Sustainable and Cost-Effective Solution

Abstract Concrete and asphalt are the two competitive materials for a highway. In Sweden, the predominant material for the highway system is asphalt. But under certain conditions, concrete pavements are competitive alternatives. For example, concrete pavements are suitable for high-traffic volume roads, roads in tunnels, concentrated loads (e.g., bus stops and industrial pavement). Besides the load-carrying capacity, the concrete pavement has many advantages such as durability (wear resistance), resistance against frost heave, environment (pollution, recycling, and low rolling resistance leading to fuel savings), fire resistance, noise limitations, brightness, evenness and aesthetics. Concrete pavements are long-lasting but need final repair. Single slabs may crack in the jointed concrete pavement due to various structural and non-structural factors. Repair and maintenance operations are, therefore, necessary to increase the service life of the structures. To avoid extended lane closures, prevent traffic congestions, and expedite the pavement construction process, precast concrete technology is a recent innovative construction method that can meet the requirement of rapid construction and rehabilitation of the pavement. This paper evaluates rapid repair techniques of concrete pavement using precast concrete technology by analysing three case studies on jointed precast concrete pavements. The study showed that the required amount of time to re-open the pavement to traffic is dramatically reduced with jointed precast concrete panels.

Water Absorption of Incorporating Sustainable Quarry Dust in Self-Compacting Concrete

Abstract In construction industry nowadays, self-compacting concrete (SCC) is a concrete technology innovation which gives more benefits over conventional concrete. SCC was invented to improve concrete durability without using any vibrator while placing it into formwork. In order to conserve natural sand, quarry dust (QD) as a waste and sustainable material has been incorporated to replace fine aggregate in SCC. In this study, conventional concrete and quarry dust in self-compacting concrete (QDSCC) mixes consist of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% QD were prepared. The workability test was conducted to determine the performance of fresh concrete and ensuring all the QDSCC properties follow the acceptance criteria for SCC. Meanwhile, the hardened concrete specimens were water cured for 7, 28 and 60 days to conduct water absorption test. This research aim is to determine water absorption of incorporating sustainable QDSCC. Thus, it resulted that 50% of QDSCC has achieved the lowest water absorption of QDSCC as compared to other dosages. Finally, sustainability in concrete technology can be promoted by incorporating QDSCC.

Application of electro-hydraulic shock in concrete technology

Abstract The aspects, related to the influence of the electrohydraulic shock method use in a water-cement slurry passing in a closed chamber (activation reactor) with a pre-applied pressure to the system under various processing modes are highlighted in the article. In order to test the effect of this method on water-cement slurry, an installation was developed, consisting of: a high-voltage source, a high-voltage diode, capacitor banks, a closing element and an activation reactor. The necessary experiments were carried out on the completed installation. The procedure for conducting experiments is described in the work, shows a schematic diagram of the installation for performing activation, a diagram of the reactor, and the processing modes. Several activation modes were considered, depending on: the number of pulses (1-4), pulse energy (0.5-8 kJ), water-cement ratio (0.2-0.35), time intervals for starting treatment from the moment the cement was mixed with water (0 -120 minutes), volume and shape of the container (activation reactor), holding temperature (20-60°C), etc. According to the results of the data obtained, it was experimentally established that the use of electric pulse treatment of water-cement suspension has a positive effect on strength (cup compressive strength) indicators, obtained as a result of processing cement stone samples at different times of hardening (1-3 days). The compressive strength of the treated specimens’ increases in comparison with the untreated specimens, increase in strength reaches up to 45%, depending on the activation mode. The resulting effect was achieved due to many factors (high pressure, magnetic, temperature, energy, ultrasonic and other influences), which were applied in the most optimal period of time (stage) of the cement grain hydration process.

Built Infrastructure Renewal and Climate Change Mitigation Can Both Find Solutions in CO2

From technology to policy, the US is thinking about construction differently. The federal government is motivated to address the aging infrastructure across the country, and policy proposals are surfacing that seek green methods of performing this construction. This paper reviews the current status of concrete technology and policy to provide insight into the current state of the art. The scale of CO2 emissions from concrete production and use is elucidated. Current embodied emissions reduction methods show that action can be taken today in small and large projects alike. Additionally, developing concrete technologies offers pathways to reuse and rely on concrete for longer service lifetimes and reduce their lifetime embodied emissions. These concrete technologies must be implemented, and public procurement proves a unique tool to develop a nationwide demand signal for low embodied carbon building materials. Local governments closely interact with concrete producers, state governments oversee large infrastructure projects, and the federal government invests massively in construction. All three levels of government must coordinate for the effective rollout of low embodied carbon construction practices. Disparate policy approaches show successes and pitfalls to developing an effective construction policy that is aligned with climate. Importantly, approaches to addressing the twin challenge of climate change and crumbling infrastructure must consider the whole lifetime of the concrete. Throughout this paper, we examine the sector to highlight current practices and provide a vision for effective implementation.

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Thesis on Concrete Structural Design for Sustainability (Optimising Structural Form) 2013

Profile image of Koketso Moyaba

Concrete structures have been designed throughout history by paying attention to their form. Before the invention of reinforced concrete, it was imperative to design a concrete structure that took mainly if not entirely compressive loads. This was done to avoid the relative weakness of earlier building materials, including unreinforced concrete under tensile loads. These form-active concrete structures are potentially the most efficient concrete structural components with regard to their load carrying capacity in relation to their weight. Form-active design is more complex since it requires an understanding of the shape the concrete structure would take under a particular load if it had no bending stiffness, i.e. if it were to behave like a cable. Due to the high structural efficiency, form-active structures play an important role with regard to sustainability. They use less material to achieve higher load carrying capacities, and therefore they reduce the use of natural resources. This thesis focuses on concrete floor slabs in residential buildings and small commercial buildings. The aim is to study the behaviour of these slabs under loading and analyse how structural form considerations can lead to better design solutions. These structural components were chosen due to their significant contribution to the construction of both residential and small commercial buildings. However, this choice imposes certain restrictions in the freedom of designing form-active structures; i.e. dimensional restriction such as depth of the slab, flatness of the slab on the top surface, etc. These restrictions are important since they determine whether the slab will be able to correctly perform its function. The analytical methodology involved designing a set of traditional solid slabs and improving their designs according to material and cost optimisations. These slabs were then compared with form active slabs which were designed to take the parabolic shape of their bending moment diagrams. From an analysis of the designs, it was found that form active slabs are approximately two times more efficient than the traditional solid slab. This efficiency is with regard to load carrying capacity and the amount of material used, both concrete and steel. The reduction in the concrete used for a form-active slab with the same span as a traditional solid slab, can be approximately 60% and that of steel can be approximately 70%. These values are a clear indication that the consideration of structural form can lead to better and sustainable solutions. One way spanning slabs can be applied to both residential and small commercial buildings since these buildings are commonly constructed as post-and-beam structures, with discontinuous joints. Furthermore these buildings have significantly lower and more predictable loads than other types of buildings. This helps with regard to avoiding failure by unexpected excessive point loads. Larger commercial and institutional buildings such as malls, hospitals, etc. can also adopt the application of one way spanning form-active slabs. This is because of the common attribute most of these buildings have, which is large hallways and corridors, which are suitable application areas for these types of slabs. This thesis has in this regard successfully shown the economical and sustainable advantages of concrete structural design through the consideration of structural form by investigating the special case of one way form-active slabs.

Related Papers

Oscar Liebana

In the current office building construction practice, flat plate is the most common floor structural system due to its economic and practical advantages. Traditionally, high material costs have had a great impact on total construction cost, so voided options as ribbed or waffle slab have been used extensively. However, recently there is a tendency to design solid slabs options, especially due to rising labor costs, simpler and quicker construction, which reduces execution timeframe and increases construction safety. The use of post-tensioned (PT) floors in building structures has been growing in recent years. This type of construction allows thinner slabs and thus, it creates lighter structures, produces a large reduction in rebar tonnage, with the subsequent advantages in transportation, storage or labor. Also, these slabs have other advantages as reduced cracking and deflections, reduced floor to floor height or quick construction. In most countries these design mechanical and economical features have enabled the system to compete economically with traditional in-situ concrete floor slabs; however, this is not the case in some other countries like Spain. Introduction of sustainability criteria and specialization in construction can allow for this system to be introduced in the market, which can also mean lower costs, improved performance and focusing on sustainability in construction. Different solutions have been studied for an actual project, in terms of material quantities, minimum structural thickness and it has also been checked the impact of costs and environmental criteria based on CO2 emission. With these data, we could assess that the current status of low production of flat slabs in Spain it is not related to real economic reasons; it is actually related to a combination of reasons as lack of technical knowledge of designers or builders, inconsistencies or deficiencies in current national codes in each country. The construction industry is following an inertial period that resists changing known systems, apparently satisfactory, and that especially shows an unsustainable view of the construction. Post-tensioned concrete slabs will not always be the most suitable and sustainable option, but it should be evaluated while considering other more familiar techniques of construction with updated considerations.

concrete technology thesis topic

Ahmed Senouci

Tehnicki vjesnik - Technical Gazette


Construction and Building Materials

Jeung-Hwan Doh

IRJET Journal

Flat slabs and other similar slabs are preferred in those structures having larger spans. Due to advancements in civilization emphasis has been put on the construction of newer and more advanced structures like buildings, shopping malls, airports, railway stations, etc. This led to the use of flat slabs for safety, stability, and better design. This works deals with the analysis of critically flat slabs regarding their design, stability, and uses. Cost-benefit analysis gives the economic viability of the use of flat slabs in comparison to other types of slabs. Different design methodologies have been adopted and critically reviewed and inferences are made for the selection of the particular method of designing the flat slab. Using various codes during design are also used for the purpose. The stability of flat slabs under different situations has been critically studied. In civil engineering uses different types of slabs are used in buildings, parking, etc. Using flat slab buildings has numerous benefits over standard RC frame buildings in terms of simpler formwork, space use, architectural flexibility as well as quicker construction times. The analysis demonstrates that flat slab structures are lighter than traditional slab structures. When compared to a standard slab, a flat slab structure is 15 percent less expensive. As per the study's results, flat slab structures outperform traditional slab structures in terms of cost-effectiveness for high-rise structures. Flat slab structures result in financial savings, aesthetic views, and greater artistic flexibility for the architect in contrast to typical slab structures. Structures of the flat slab are the highest selection for high-rise structures in comparison to traditional slab structures.

Jacint Virag

The paper presents a set of design criteria applied in the structural design of a 25000 sqm, multistory concrete building. Initial criterion of having reduced execution time have been associated to a mixed steelconcrete structure, but the consequent, unavoidable cost criterion drove to reinforced concrete structural solutions. Beside the presented criteria several other limitations have been imposed in the design phase, rising from the specific destination of the building, the limited total building height and limited plot of land, without disclaiming the need for a short construction time. Nevertheless energy efficient, sustainable structural solutions have been requested, which have to be in accordance also with the spirit of the imposed architectural solutions. In the article a multi-criteria comparison of the structural solutions is presented, focusing on the two main criteria: the realization costs and the embedded energy of each structural solution. Evaluation of the obtained ...

eSAT Journals

Most of the reinforced concrete structures comprise of conventional beam-column frames. In the present era, the multi-story structures are given higher priority with lack of availability of land. However, there are limits for the height and weight of the structures. Thus, the construction industry is more concentrated on measures to reduce the weight and height of the storey, without compromising with usable space. The flat slab structures serve the purpose as they are the structures involving slabs directly resting on columns; hence, negating the need for beams, which would consume lot of space and also lead to heavy weight of the structure. Even though, flat slabs are found to be advantageous in functional as well as economic aspects; the key issue with flat slabs is their inability to withstand lateral loads efficiently. In the present study, the seismic behaviour of flat slab structures is studied. The 7 storey building models involving flat slab without drops, with drops and with edge beams are modelled considering both bare frame and brick infill frame structures with square columns. The buildings are located in medium soil cover with seismic zone III. The analysis is performed using ETABS 2013 V13.2. The non-linear behaviour of the building models is studied by pushover analysis, considering FEMA 440 parameters. The prime emphasis is made to consider user defined hinge properties to establish the actual hinging pattern of the members. The performance of the building models is studied by evaluating the parameters like hinge locations, ductility ratio, safety ratio and global stiffness.

Wai-Fah Chen

Milan Kekanović DeagoslavŠumarac Stanko Ćorić Karolj Kasaš Arpad Čeh UDK: 692.5:697.1 DOI:10.14415/konferencijaGFS2017.077 Summary: This article provides information about the possibilities of design and construction floor slabs concerning three very important aspects: the capacity, safety and energy efficiency.Nowadays, in the Republic of Serbia exclusively solid concrete slabs are designed and built,which are at least 20cm thick.The justification for this solution is to obtain, in its plane, a rigid plate-diaphragm that is able to endure seismic forces on the walls, proportionally to the stiffness of those walls.At the same time this solution has many disadvantages and it is a great load that limits the length of the span. That heavy load is directly proportional to the size of the seismic forces. The20 cm thick, solid concrete slab has a large heat capacity, and specific heat c (J / kgK), which are not energy efficient,as the warm air is accumulated, conductedtowards to the walls...

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Jolanta Šadauskiene


Francesco Faraoni

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Sastha Srinivasan

Culture Teatrali Realtà della scena. Giornalismo, teatro, informazione.

rosaria ruffini

Shikhar Bector

Cerveteri (RM), Palazzo del Granarone - Aula consiliare, Venerdì 21 aprile 2023

Fabrizio Vistoli

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

Martin Michel


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Deicy Barrera

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Leticia Lopes

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Revista Brasileira de Atividade Física & Saúde

James Buchmeier

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Fathia Nufus

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Luh Kade Datrini


Edna Acosta


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Review article, digital transformation of concrete technology—a review.

  • Building Materials, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden

Digital transformation of concrete technology is one of the current “hot topics” tackled by both academia and industry. The final goal is to fully integrate the already existing advanced concrete technologies with novel sensors, virtual reality, or Internet of things to create self-learning and highly automated platforms controlling design, production, and long-term usage and maintenance of concrete and concrete structures. The digital transformation should ultimately enhance sustainability, elongate service life, and increase technological and cost efficiencies. This review article focuses on up-to-date developments. It explores current pathways and directions seen in research and industrial practices. It indicates benefits, challenges, and possible opportunities related to the digital transformation of concrete technology.


Digitization refers to transfer of data stored in traditional documents to binary forms, while digital transformation is defined as a process of changing existing methods and models by utilizing latest IT technologies to produce real-time information for fast decision making ( Parusheva, 2019 ; Zeltser et al., 2019 ; Daniotti et al., 2020 ; Papadonikolaki et al., 2020 ). For cement and concrete industries, it facilitates the process of data acquisition, their analysis, and utilization ( Walther, 2018 ). Production of concrete starts with material characterization, mix design, and actual mixing followed by its transportation to a building site ( Tomek, 2017 ). A significant amount of data created can be digitalized and used to control that process ( Rasmussen and Beliatis, 2019 ). The digital transformation is expected to produce a more efficient process, improving the working environment and sustainability of concrete products ( Phang et al., 2020 ). However, a number of challenges still need to be addressed, for example, methods for reliable prediction of early-age properties, modeling of hardening processes, and development of strength or durability ( Wangler et al., 2019 ).

Concrete structures can be cast directly on a building site or prefabricated in advanced in a factory. The cast-on-site technique is preferable for monolithic, large-size structures including foundations, beams, columns, slabs, retaining walls, tunnels, and bridges ( Liu et al., 2020 ). Concrete is transported from a ready-mix plant to the building site and then placed using pumps or dumpers. In the case of precast technology, concrete elements are cast in production halls and after achieving sufficient strength, transported to the building site. The cast-in-place technology offers more flexibility and adaptability ( Simonsson and Emborg, 2009 ). Weakness includes sensitivity to weather, that is, extreme temperatures, wind, and precipitation. The current industrialization degree of concrete technology is relatively high, but it still requires several improvements in the quality of work, optimization of the process, and enhanced sustainability. It is foreseen that there is a possibility to expedite the process using the latest digitalization techniques and technological advancements ( Wangler et al., 2016 ). Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is increasingly used, especially for the cast-in-place technique, which, due to the exclusion of vibration, offers a faster construction process and better working conditions ( Ouchi, 2000 ). The main advantages include high casting rate and passability in congested reinforcement ( De Schutter et al., 2008 ). The main challenge while using SCC is a need to use a new casting technology ( Ferrara et al., 2007 ).

The digitalization process starts by merging material properties and construction techniques into an integrated digital environment. It includes digitalizing of fresh concrete properties, hardening processes, strength development, and durability using data collected from either manual measurements or installed sensors. The integration of measured parameters and digital technology enables to enhance the quality of concrete. However, it requires a strengthened collaboration between research and industry ( Courard et al., 2014 ). Data collected from sensors can be integrated into a monitoring system, building information models, and controlling software. This process is expected to introduce a safer and error-free process and improve the productivity. The site supervisor has real-time access to data, which should facilitate the decision-making process related to, for example, the optimum casting speed, safe demolding time, or the required curing routine.

Research has been on going in the field of digital concrete, which refers to the digital fabrication of concrete, for example, 3D printing and robotics in digital fabrication ( Wangler et al., 2016 ; Wangler et al., 2019 ; Van Damme, 2020 ). Those studies have explored the methods of fabrication and construction. The basic properties, mix design parameters, and their associated information need to be addressed. Commonly, these data are obtained in the laboratory, and the question remains open about the possibility of transforming the information acquisition into a digital process. This article reviews previous research dealing with digital transformation in concrete technology, and it focuses on latest developments with a special emphasis on disadvantages and limitations. It also indicates areas that need further improvements. This article is part of a project where attempts are made to develop a system that can help integrate all the available technologies into one smart decision-making system that enables engineers to foresee and expect the outcome of the mix design based on the inputs of material properties either physically or chemically related.

Material Characterizations and Mix Design

Advanced technologies such as virtual reality, 3D printing, Internet of things, smart sensors, and autonomous robots and vehicles have already been used in various industries. However, the concrete industry is clearly behind due to the lack of acceptance, related cost, current regulations, and new required expertise. Concrete itself has gone a tremendous development path over the past few decades. Cement has been partially or fully replaced with several types of by-products to enhance some properties and to increase its sustainability. At the same time, casting technology has remained rather unchanged ( Ferrara et al., 2007 ).

Concrete consists of binder, coarse and fine aggregate, water, admixtures, and various types of dry and wet additives. These materials are characterized by chemical composition, surface area, shape, texture, and amount of intermixed fine and coarse aggregates. These properties affect the mix design and behavior of concrete during mixing and casting and later determine hardened state properties and, often, also durability ( Polat, 2013 ). The following sections will review currently used methods which are/or could be used to digitalize the properties of concrete ingredients.

Aggregates used in concrete include gravel, crushed stone, sand, slag, recycled concrete, and geosynthetic aggregates. They occupy up of 70–80 vol.% of concrete mix and affect most of its physical and mechanical properties. Aggregates should be clean, hard, and free of chemical and biological contaminants ( Babu, 2014 ). Their quality and properties are quantified by several indicators, including shape, texture, air content, particle size distribution, water content, specific gravity, or density. Some of these indicators have already been successfully digitalized. For example, volume, angularity, and gradation have been determined using analysis of images obtained from video cameras. The obtained results have been in good agreement with manual measurements ( Rao and Tutumluer, 2000 ). 3D mathematical analysis of particle shape has been successfully combined with X-ray tomography and spherical harmonics to determine particle shapes ( Garboczi, 2002 ). Others used the same technique but supplemented it with a virtual reality modeling language. This approach enabled to obtain 3D images of aggregate particles ( Erdogan et al., 2006 ). The surface texture has been determined using imaging techniques coupled with wavelet analysis of grey images. Unfortunately, results were strongly affected by the angularity and form of aggregates ( Al-Rousan et al., 2007 ). The shape index and morphological features of coarse aggregates have been assessed by a digital processing approach, which established a correlation between the shape of aggregate and mechanical properties of asphalt concrete ( Arasan et al., 2011 ). The shape of aggregates affected the required cement content, as well as the mechanical properties and durability of the produced concrete. Content of air voids in aggregates can be directly linked to the observed water demand. It has been determined by a feed-forward neural network with the error back-propagation algorithm using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and multiple linear regression with specific toolkits such as NTR2003 and WEKA ( Zavrtanik et al., 2016 ). Digitalization of other properties, that is, water content, specific gravity, and density, appears to be still at a very early stage. A summary of research related to the digitalization of aggregate properties is shown in Table 1 .

TABLE 1 . Digitalization of aggregate properties.

Selection of cement type and its amount must ensure achieving the targeted fresh and hardened state properties. The decision-making process is usually strongly regulated and depends, for example, on the exposure conditions or planned service life of the structure. Potentially, it could be automated through digitalization by utilizing research data collected over the last few decades combined with regulations and practical observations. As it will be shown later, most methods used in the current practice provide digital data which could be implemented into IT platforms. For example, Hughes et al. (1995 ) used Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to determine the cement composition, while Hamza et al. (2017) established the impact of the cement type on the resistance of concrete to sulfate attack. Suryani et al. (2020 ) determined the structural and optical properties of cement with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD). It included crystal size, microstrain, energy deformation, and stress.

The specific surface area of cement is a crucial parameter when selecting the cement type. Larger surface enhances the hydration process ( Neville and Brooks, 1987 ). This parameter has been determined by various techniques, for example, neutron scattering, gas sorption, small-angle scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray scattering, and mercury intrusion porosimetry ( Winslow and Diamond, 1974 ; Olek et al., 1990 ; Thomas et al., 1998 ). Unfortunately, none is digitalized and require additional manual work to transform collected data into a usable digital format ( Thomas et al., 1999 ). Ferraris and Garboczi (2013 ) measured the particle size and specific surface area by laser diffraction X-ray computed microtomography, which enabled to determine particles as small as 45 μm. Another method is laser diffraction spectrometry, which determines the particle size by spreading the light around the particle’s contours ( Hackley, 2004 ). It is able to detect particles having diameters in the range between 10 μm and 1 mm ( Bowen, 2002 ). Erdogan (2010 ) used the X-ray microcomputed tomography technique incorporated with spherical harmonic analysis to determine the 3D shape of cement particles for characterizing cement, based on particle shape and chemical composition. In that case, the used spherical harmonic analysis enabled to determine the particle length, width, and thickness. The average shape of cement particles has been correlated with the volume fraction of belite and alite. A summary of digitalization of cement properties is given in Table 2 .

TABLE 2 . Digitalization of cement properties.

Concrete Mix Design

The concrete mix design establishes the proportions and type of its constituents, that is, binder or binders, aggregates, fillers, water, chemical additives, admixtures, and possible fibers. The concrete mix design along with other factors, especially including, casting technology, curing procedure, and environmental conditions, determines the ultimate workability, strength, or durability of concrete. The concept of digitalizing the concrete mix design has been used for a relatively long time already. For example, the water-to-cement ratio has been determined using a near-field microwave technique with an open-ended rectangular waveguide probe radiating into OPC materials at 5 GHz (G-band) and 10 GHz (X-band) ( Bois et al., 1998 ). The same concept has been also applied to determine the coarse aggregate-to-cement (ca/c) ratio ( Bois et al., 2000 ). A real-time, on-site evaluation of the water-to-cement ratio (w/c) used microwave non-destructive testing ( Mubarak et al., 2001 ). A monopole antenna probe, operating at 3 GHz with a reflectometer, has been also used to efficiently determine the w/c ratio ( Providakis et al., 2011 ). The concrete mix design has been also optimized by artificial neural networks (ANNs) using various input data, for example, workability or compressive strength ( Ji-Zong et al., 1999 ; Yeh, 1999 ; Ji et al., 2006 ; Ziolkowski and Niedostatkiewicz, 2019 ). The method enabled estimation of dosage of materials, choice of the type of cement, and effects of chemical and mineral admixtures ( Ji-Zong et al., 1999 ). The same concept but with different design algorithms has been used to estimate nominal and equivalent w/c ratios, fly ash (FA)-to-binder ratio, and aggregate size ( Ji et al., 2006 ). Others used a set of concrete recipes to optimize the mix design based on maximum aggregate size, slump, fineness modulus, and compressive strength by incorporating an adaptive neural fuzzy inference system ( Neshat, 2012 ). Recently, a machine learning algorithm has been used to optimize the mix ( Ziolkowski and Niedostatkiewicz, 2019 ). Concrete mixes for 3D printing were designed to obtain the required extrudability, buildability, workability, and open time ( Lediga and Kruger, 2017 ). A summary of digitalized methods and tools used in the concrete mix design is shown in Table 3 .

TABLE 3 . Digitalization of the mix design.

Concrete Properties

Concrete temperature.

The temperature of fresh concrete and the ambient temperature are very important parameters while designing concrete mix composition, or planning, transporting, casting, and curing ( Shoukry et al., 2011 ). Generally, high temperature accelerates the hydration process, which might require addition of retarders, decreasing the amount of cement, or addition of certain secondary cementitious materials (SCMs) ( Gamil et al., 2019 ). On the contrary, a lower temperature slows down the hydration process and delays strength development ( Ma et al., 2015 ). To counteract these effects, accelerators can be used in combination with, for example, rapid hardening cement and heat curing ( Alhozaimy, 2009 ; Fang et al., 2018 ). Most standards limit the maximum concrete temperature to prevent cracking, lower strength, and delayed ettringite formation ( Hale et al., 2005 ).

Digitalization of concrete temperature measurement is rather advanced ( Wong et al., 2007 ; Norris et al., 2008 ; Barroca et al., 2013 ; Chen and Wu, 2015 ; Kim et al., 2015 ; Liu et al., 2017 ). State-of-the-art technologies with embedded sensors have been used. One common technology used to monitor the temperature is thermal imaging using infrared thermography. This technology is non-destructive, but it is applicable only to concrete not exposed to sunlight ( Tran et al., 2017 ). Other techniques include, for example, fiber Bragg grating sensors, which are used to monitor temperature and shrinkage at the same time ( Wong et al., 2007 ). Embedded nanotechnology/microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors have been used to monitor moisture and temperature of concrete at the same time. Unfortunately, issues with repeatability and signal processing have been faced ( Norris et al., 2008 ). Embedded thermal sensors have been used for temperature monitoring, but the thermography sensors must be in visual contact with the monitored concrete. It might be difficult to achieve due to, for example, form covers or other materials present on the concrete surface ( Azenha et al., 2011 ). To overcome this drawback, automatic wireless sensors were used, but a 5 °C discrepancy was observed between actual and experimental values ( Barroca et al., 2013 ). Another example is the so-called passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor combined with orthogonal frequency coding (OFC). The main constraints were related to the effect of propagation loss and isotropic radiation loss ( Kim et al., 2015 ). Sensors utilizing passive radio frequency identification (RFID) and radio frequency integrated circuit (RFIC) ( Chen and Wu, 2015 ; Liu et al., 2017 ) enabled short-range remote sensing and achieved the detection resolution of 0.25 °C ( Chen and Wu, 2015 ; Liu et al., 2017 ). Their main shortcoming was the signal instability and a lack of electronic protection ( Chang and Hung, 2012 ). A summary of methods and tool for digitalization of concrete temperature monitoring is given in Table 4 .

TABLE 4 . Digital transformation of concrete temperature monitoring.


Workability is an essential technological property of concrete controlling the casting process and affecting the quality of produced concrete elements or structures. It can be measured, for example, by slump or slump flow combined with T50 time in the case of self-compacting concrete ( Fares, 2015 ). A number of digitalizing solutions have been introduced, and artificial neural networks (ANNs) is one the examples ( Bai, 2003 ; Yeh, 2006a ; Oztas, 2006 ; Yeh, 2009 ; Kim and Park, 2018 ). They produce a more accurate prediction of workability than the non-linear regression analysis ( Yeh, 2006a ), and it has the ability to model the slump for any mix design ( Yeh, 2009 ). Another example method is based on 3D depth sensors ( Kim and Park, 2018 ). Rheological properties of concrete described by the yield stress and the plastic viscosity are crucial for designing self-compacting concrete mixes ( Wallevik, 2003 ; Roussel, 2011 ) ( Ferraris et al., 2012 ). An effective device called 4C-Rheometer was developed by the Danish Technological Institute ( Danish Technological Institute and C.C, 2020 ). It enabled to determine rheology based on automated measurements of slump flow and flow time. A summary of digitalization of workability measurements is given in Table 5 .

TABLE 5 . Digital transformation of workability measurement in concrete.

Setting Time and Hydration Rate

Initial and final setting times of cement are used to monitor the hardening rate. The initial setting time indicates how long concrete mix maintains its plasticity. It indicates the allowable time to cast the concrete. The final setting time indicates the time after which concrete loses its plasticity, and it is especially useful for planning surface finishing processes. Both times are related to the hydration process, which can be monitored using calorimetry and measuring the evolved heat ( Mostafa and Brown, 2005 ; Xu, 2011 ; Gawlicki et al., 2010 ). Parameters affecting the degree of cement hydration are summarized in Figure 1 ( Xu et al., 2010 ).

FIGURE 1 . Parameters and process used to characterize cement hydration (summarized from the work of Xu et al., 2010 ).

Several attempts were made to digitalize the assessment of the setting time. For example, Rizzo et al. (2014 ) used a non-destructive setup measuring strength development by sensors detecting the propagation of highly non-linear solitary waves (HNSWs). The waves were reflected at the sensor interface and transmitted to the monitored concrete. The transmission time and the reflection from the interface were measured and compared with the hydration time. These parameters were then correlated with initial and final setting times measured by using the Vicat apparatus. The hydration rate has been also monitored using the Fabry–Perot fiber optic temperature sensor. The concrete temperature depended on the water-to-cement ratio ( Zou et al., 2012 ). Yet another effective method to digitalize the hydration rate is the monitoring of the crack formation ( Yang et al., 2010 ). The hydration degree was also assessed by the thermogravimetric analysis ( Deboucha et al., 2017 ). The method estimated the ultimate amount of bound water, which was verified by isothermal calorimetry combined with the assessment of compressive strength. The differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis was also used to estimate the degree of hydration. In that case, the degree of hydration was calculated using experimental results. A good agreement between results based on differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis was observed ( Monteagudo et al., 2014 ).

The hydration process can also be measured using other methods, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), or non-contact impedance measurement (NCIM) ( Tang et al., 2016 ). For example, XRD was combined with calorimetry to monitor the hydration of cement blended with fly ash for the first 44 h. It enabled estimating the effects of fly ash (FA) ( Dittrich et al., 2014 ).

Concrete Maturity

Maturity is an indicator used to predict strength development depending on the curing temperature ( Chengju, 1989 ; McCullough and Rasmussen, 1999 ; Topçu and Toprak, 2005 ; Zhang et al., 2008 ; Yikici and Chen, 2015 ). The required ( Ballim and Graham, 2009 ; Lee and Hover, 2015 ) systems based on that concept have been developed. For example, high-performance concrete paving (HIPERPAV) software utilized temperature data and the maturity concept to estimate the concrete strength at an early age ( Ruiz, 2001 ). Another system developed by Giatec Scientific based on wireless temperature sensors integrated with a special smartphone application. It enables live monitoring, but the maximum allowable distance between the sensor and the monitored concrete surface is limited ( De Carufel, 2018 ).

Mechanical Properties

The compressive strength of concrete is certainly the most commonly used indicator of mechanical properties ( Damineli et al., 2010 ; Yang et al., 2010 ; Ma et al., 2015 ). It is usually determined using a cube compression test, which is a time-consuming process. Consequently, several models have been created to reliably predict the strength without the need of physical testing. The ANNs method, described earlier, has been used in several studies ( Lee, 2003 ; Kim et al., 2004 ; Yeh, 2006b ; Prasad et al., 2009 ). It could estimate the compressive strength taking into account slump, air content, and fly ash amount as indicators in PreConS (intelligent system of strength). Unfortunately, the system showed a lower reliability at variable curing temperatures ( Lee, 2003 ). Others used the ANN approach but based on different concrete mix proportions ( Kim et al., 2004 ). In that case, literature data were used to estimate the compressive strength of SCC and high-performance concrete (HPC) taking into account the volume of fly ash and the water-to-cement ratio ( Prasad et al., 2009 ). ANNs were also combined with the image processing technique and design of experiments to estimate the strength ( Dogan et al., 2017 ; Waris et al., 2020 ). It enabled prediction of various mechanical properties, including compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and maximum deformation, reaching 98.65% accuracy. ANNs were also efficiently incorporated in an approach based on utilizing data obtained from ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) measurements ( Kewalramani and Gupta, 2006 ). Similarly, a neural expert system was used to predict the strength based on results from testing a total of 864 concrete specimens. The applied ANN model used a back-propagation learning algorithm, and the results were compared to a built-in expert system, which enabled prediction of the strength using rule-based knowledge representation techniques ( Gupta et al., 2006 ). Both compressive and tensile strength of high-performance concrete were determined using a modified firefly algorithm–artificial neural network expert system. A good correlation between actual and predicted results was achieved ( Bui et al., 2018 ).

A deep learning prediction method has been applied to predict the compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete. The model used the water-to-cement ratio and the recycled aggregate replacement percentage as input parameters. Tests were performed on 74 concrete blocks. The achieved precision was higher than that of a traditional neural network ( Deng et al., 2018 ). A machine learning approach has been utilized to predict the compressive strength at different ages for concrete with high fly ash content. The water cycle algorithm and the genetic algorithm showed a good correlation between the variation of fly ash content and compressive strength ( Naseri, 2020 ).

Real-time prediction of the compressive strength has been carried out using data obtained using novel types of sensors ( Providakis et al., 2011 ; Tareen et al., 2019 ; John et al., 2020 ). The early-age concrete strength was effectively estimated using data obtained from the active wireless sensing system ( John et al., 2020 ). It used an electromechanical impedance measuring chip and a piezoelectric transducer installed in a Teflon-based ( Providakis et al., 2011 ). Other approaches to predict the early strength used smart temperature (SmartRock) and PZT (piezoelectric) sensors with ultrasonic wave propagation combined with the concrete maturity concept ( Tareen et al., 2019 ). Recently, the technology of Internet of things (IoT) was utilized to estimate the compressive strength using temperature sensors and Wi-Fi microcontrollers. The technology enabled real-time monitoring of strength ( John et al., 2020 ). A summary of digitalization methods for prediction of compressive strength is shown in Table 6 .

TABLE 6 . Digital transformation of the compressive strength of concrete.

Crack Monitoring

Crack monitoring remains a major concern in the concrete industry, and it is crucial for safety and maintenance costs ( Omondi et al., 2016 ). Concrete cracks are caused by two effects, that is, extrinsic and intrinsic ( Li et al., 2018a ). The former is induced by the application of excessive loads. The intrinsic effects are related to the hardening process and are considered as non-structural. Intrinsic cracks are controlled by the mix design, mixing method, ambient temperature, and humidity ( Bolleni, 2009 ). Automated crack detection and monitoring are still in the developmental stage, and various approaches have been considered. Digital image processing is certainly one of the most used methods ( Dare et al., 2002 ; Chen et al., 2006 ; Nagy, 2014 ; Gehri et al., 2020 ). An automated image processing technique with multitemporal crack measurements detected the extrinsic cracks in concrete. The automatic method accurately delineated cracks even when using poor-quality images ( Dare et al., 2002 ). The same method was applied to study the relationship between the crack width and its expansion with multitemporal image processing. In that case, images were taken every 2 weeks with a high-resolution scanner. The method enabled automatic crack tracing and showed a good correlation between the estimated width and the manual measurement ( Chen et al., 2006 ). Crack width was also measured by two emerging technologies, that is, the image digitalizing method and the digital image processing (DIP) method combined with a digital microscope that enabled mapping the tortuosity of cracks ( Nagy, 2014 ). An example process of transforming crack monitoring data into a digital form is shown in Figure 2 . The process starts by taking an image of the crack followed by adjustment and cropping of the crack line. In the next step, pixel coordinates are used to determine the crack width ( Nagy, 2014 ).

FIGURE 2 . Example of crack width measurement using digital image processing ( Nagy, 2014 ).

The same technology has been used to monitor the crack behavior and the crack orientation by extracting images with the digital image correlation (DIC) method ( Gehri et al., 2020 ). The obtained results were limited only to closely spaced cracks. DIC has been also used to study the fracture behavior of concrete interfaces ( Shah and Chandra Kishen, 2011 ). The used optical and non-contact measurement tool analyzed the displacement of the surface using images obtained before and after the displacement occurred. Another application of DIC has been monitoring and measuring deformation developing in compression ( Choi and Shah, 1997 ). Results showed a well-balanced image rate for both lateral and axial deformation after the peak load.

More advanced methods were applied to determine the crack width and length using a digital camera embedded in a calibrated cylindrical attachment. The crack width could be estimated reliably, but the obtained results strongly depended on the operator ( Dare et al., 2002 ).

Other new technologies that have been used to detect and monitor cracking of concrete include thermography ( Bolleni, 2009 ), combined acoustic emission and digital image correlation techniques ( Omondi et al., 2016 ), local binarization algorithm ( Li et al., 2018b ), and ultrasound-excited thermography ( Jia et al., 2019 ). Thermography uses a thermal camera based on the infrared radiation, and it does not require a direct access to concrete layers to detect the damage ( Bolleni, 2009 ). This method has also been combined with the ultrasound-excited thermography and enabled detection of microcracks having width between 0.01 and 0.09 mm ( Jia et al., 2019 ). DIC has been successfully combined with acoustic emission technology to detect cracks and determine their orientation ( Omondi et al., 2016 ). Yet another tested approach is a technology based on a local binarization. The color of the image is transferred into a binary image that has two colors, typically black and white. The image is then processed to detect the surface and cross-sectional area of present cracks ( Li et al., 2018b ). A summary of digitalization of crack formation in concrete is shown in Table 7 .

TABLE 7 . Concrete crack monitoring using digital technology.

More pieces of information were involved in the production of concrete, such as raw material characterizations, mix design, and properties of ready concrete, which are essential parameters used to envisage the quality of the end-product. Mostly, this information is acquitted manually in the laboratory. This process is time consuming, and technical experts need time to make quick judgments about modifying the mix design or developing the mix for specific use and environment condition. To save time and produce favorable and good-quality concrete, transforming information acquisition to real-time updates using digital technologies is preferred. The possibility of digital transformation of these essentials seems to be valid and possible; perhaps, more integration of different technologies can work efficiently to develop a system to obtain and communicate concrete information. The information needed from the source of raw materials at the quarry sites and the cement production plant by the engineer who develops the mix is surface area, specific gravity, shape, gradation, etc. Having this information on time will allow the mix design developer to adjust the proportions for the specific needs. Then, during the casting process, engineers need to monitor the concrete temperature, workability, formwork pressure, which is not discussed in this article, casting rate, maturity of the concrete to decide on the formwork removal time, mechanical properties, and crack monitoring. The question comes about merging all this information in one complete system using emerged technologies with embedded sensors and IoT for instantaneous communication, Figure 3 . Extensive research has been carried out, as discussed in this article, to gradually transform the data acquisition into a digital form. Still, not all the attempts have been applied at the jobsite. There are reasons and challenges for low acceptance, and the process involves consideration of a multitude of stages. The first is the availability and accessibility of technology. Then, the question comes about the acceptance and confidence from the side of construction stakeholders of the technology, and that incurs some cost and expertise; these restrains need to be addressed through intensive research and full-scale experiments. It is suggested for future development to integrate the current technologies and applications into one integrated system for possible information acquisitions and instant communication.

FIGURE 3 . Digital transformation of concrete properties.

Digitalization can be defined as converting information into a digital format and using these data to control, for example, the production and usage of concrete. Digital transformation enables us to save time and cost, facilitates access to information, and increases efficiency and readiness. In the concrete industry, the digital transformation of concrete properties and production helps to create a more consistent and faster construction process. Availability of real-time data enables engineers to follow and control the entire production process more efficiently and with higher reliability. Access to data is facilitated by, for example, cloud storage platforms. For example, the construction process can be accelerated and made safer by more accurate prediction of the formwork removal timing. In the current era, more advanced digital concrete has been introduced, and that technology needs to be coupled with the digitalized process of concrete data acquisition.

The real-time data assist engineers and managers in the decision-making process. The decision can be related, for example, to optimizing the mix design by reducing the usage of raw materials, thus leading to enhanced sustainability. On the negative side, the digital transformation, in the case of concrete technology, is a complex process due to not yet fully understood basic processes controlling, for example, hydration of Portland cement. An even worse situation is faced in the case of new ecological binders. Only for these reasons, it is extremely difficult to develop reliable models. Models which could be used to design concrete mixes predict strength development, crack formation, or deterioration due to various types of exposures. Another set of problems is related to the acceptance of the concrete and construction industry as well as compliance with current regulations and standards. There is also a need to ensure that the acquired data are communicated and stored correctly, analyzed, and interpreted by the responsible personnel. Other challenges include proper installation of sensors, data collection and storage devices, and data safety or data transmission.

There is still a significant amount of work to be completed before benefits of digitalization could be fully utilized in concrete technology. Problems to be solved are related not only to basic phenomena, for example, hydration of cement, but also to full-scale real-life applications with a number of factors not being present in laboratory settings.

Author Contributions

YG has established the concept of the article, collected and analyze the data while AC has reviewed and supervise the work. He also contributed to proofreading and revising the article critically for important intellectual content.

This research was funded by the Development Fund of the Swedish Construction Industry (SBUF) and NCC construction company.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher’s Note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors, and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.


The authors acknowledge the financial support from the funding agencies of the project and Lulea University of Technology for the research material support.

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Keywords: digital transformation, concrete properties, concrete technology, sustainability, advanced technology, monitoring

Citation: Gamil Y and Cwirzen A (2022) Digital Transformation of Concrete Technology—A Review. Front. Built Environ. 8:835236. doi: 10.3389/fbuil.2022.835236

Received: 14 December 2021; Accepted: 24 January 2022; Published: 11 March 2022.

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*Correspondence: Yaser Gamil, [email protected]

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Innovations in concrete technology: Interaction between research, codes and applications

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For all new applications there is an area of tension between research, code work and practice. For a new technology practice always asks for guidelines, while on the other hand for writing codes or guidelines there is always the demand for experience from practice. Being active in practice as well as in research, while also contributing to code writing and research committees, the author is active in the described area of tension. In the paper several processes for introducing new developments are discussed and illustrated with some examples.

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concrete technology thesis topic

List of Civil Engineering Project Topics on Concrete

Project topics on concrete

If you are a research student looking to write a thesis or project on concrete for civil engineering students we have compiled a list of some relevant project research topics/ideas on concrete .

Concrete, a term in civil engineering or construction , is a structural material consisting of hard, chemically inert substance known as aggregate (usually sand and gravel) that is held together by water and cement.

As a key component of civil or construction engineering some of your research may be related or in some way have something to do with concrete. So hopefully you find this compilation useful.

If you want to dive in straight away and browse our entire database for civil engineering project topics on concrete projects as well as thesis, dissertations and research papers on concrete, see the below link

  • Projects on Concrete for Civil Engineering Students

Some Civil Engineering Research Topics on Concrete

Mechanical Properties of Concrete

The main aim of the research is to study the mechanical properties of concrete and heir effects in concrete stability and failure. He fractures mechanical properties in particular uniaxial tensile strength Ft, young’s modules Eo and fractures energy Gf as sell as the shape of the stress strain and the stress- deformation relation  were investigated for high strength and normal strength concrete. | Project | 125 Pages | See Full Document 

Effect of Crude Oil Contaminated Sand on the Engineering Properties of Concrete

A considerable fraction of sand in Niger Delta Area of Nigeria is contaminated with crude oil. The contaminated sand is largely utilised by local contractors for the production of concrete. However, there is need to establish its suitability in concreting. Previous works have centered on hardened uncontaminated concrete in crude oil environment but not on concrete made with Crude Oil Contaminated Sand (COCS). This research was designed to evaluate the effect of COCS on some engineering properties of fresh and hardened COCS concrete. | 160 Pages | Thesis | See Full Material

Strength And Microstructure Of Lateritic Concrete Containing Palm Kernel Shell (Pks) As Partial Replacement For Coarse Aggregates

This research work reports the investigation carried out to determine the strength and microstructure of lateritic concrete containing palm kernel shell (PKS) as partial replacement of coarse aggregates. The study employed different mix proportions, which resulted in casting and testing 148 cubes at 7, 14, 21, 28, 60, and 90-days of curing, to determine the best and economic proportion that will give compressive strength. | 72 Pages | Thesis | See Full Material

Comparative Study On The Strength Of Lightweight Foamed Concrete Using Different Reagents (Lithofoam & Sodium Lauryl Sulphate)

This project presents the results of the investigation conducted on a lightweight foamed concrete using different reagents; Sodium Lauryl Sulphate (SLS) and Lithofoam, with a view to determining its potential as a construction material in Nigeria. The properties investigated on the foamed concrete having target density of 1800kg/m3 were: workability, bulk density and compressive strength. | 66 Pages | Project | See Full Material

Enhancing Concrete Properties with the Use of Coconut (coir) Fibers and Admixture

In countries where industrialization is on the rise there is a corresponding increase in waste production resulting from industries which eventually upsets the environment and community for which they provide. While most of these waste generated are hazardous and should be managed, others could be put to appropriate use either directly or after been recycled. | 76 Pages | Project | See Full Material

Use Of Recycled Concrete As Coarse Aggregate For High Strength Concrete

This study is concerned with the production of high strength concrete using recycled concrete aggregates as alternative to natural aggregates. The study includes also the determination of the proportions, characteristics and components of concrete mixes required for production and use in multiple applications at suitable prices. | 116 Pages | Thesis | See Full Material

Comparative Study of Strength of Truss Reinforced Concrete Beam and Conventional Reinforced Concrete Beam  

This work presents comparative study of strength of truss reinforced concrete beam and conventional reinforced concrete beam. Two sets of 0.15 x 0.15 x 1m beams were cast. One set was cast using truss as a system of reinforcement at spacing of 100mm, 150mm and 200mm. The other set was cast using longitudinal bars and links at spacing of 100mm, 150mm, and 200mm as the conventional reinforcement. In all 27 truss and 27 conventional reinforcement beams were cast. | 170 pages | Thesis | See Full Material

Some Later Days Structural Properties Of Concrete Containing Palm Oil Empty Bunch Ash (Poeba) As Partial Replacement Of Cement In Concrete

In an attempt to reduced non-renewable material usage, reduce green-house substances and at the same time be relevant to our environment, this research presents the progress of investigation going on to evaluate some properties of POEBA as partial replacement of cement in the production of structural concrete. This research work is carried out to determine the properties of Palm Oil Empty Bunch Ash (POEBA) when used as partial replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) in concrete | 70 pages | Project | See Full Material

Investigation Of The Structural Characteristics Of Lime-cement Concrete

This work investigated the structural characteristics of lime cement concrete using 30 selected mix ratios. The properties studied include, compressive strength, flexural strength, splitting tensile strength, shear strength, poisson ratio, modulus of elasticity, and modulus of rigidity.  A total of 360 concrete cube specimen, 360 concrete prototype beam specimen, and 360 concrete cylinder specimen were cast and cured in open water tanks. 3 specimen were cast for each mix proportion. | 282 pages | Thesis | See Full Material

Strength Assessment of No-Fines Concrete Pavement

The purpose of this project work is to assess the strength of No-fines concrete pavement. No-Fines concrete is use in low traffic volume, pathways, sidewalk and parking lots. No-fines concrete is produced by using ordinary Portland cement, coarse aggregates, and water. In this study, Two (2) batches of no-fines concrete each with two different water – cement ratio 0.36 and 0.45 and cement – coarse aggregate 1:4 and 1:6 were prepared to find the mix that generated high compressive strength and splitting tensile strength | 79 Pages | Project | See Full Materials

Effect Of Using Basalt And Limestone As Coarse Aggregate In Concrete Mixtures

In this study, concrete mixtures were tested to effect of basalt and limestone as coarse aggregate and evaluate their efficiency on fresh and hardened concrete to achieve the design compressive strengths of [25N/mm2]. By using different proportions is 25%, 50%, 75% and100 %from the weight of coarse aggregate. The study was carried out for 6 types of concrete mixes designed by British Standard, compressive strength of concrete and workability were measured in the reconstruction of maturing for ( 7, 28 and 56) days. | 85 pages | Thesis | See Full Material

Rice Husk Ash And Grinded Rice Husk Effect On The Compressive Strength And Workability Of Concrete

The importance of concrete in modem society cannot be underestimated. There is no escaping from the impact of concrete on everyday life. Concrete is a composite material which is made of filler and a binder. Typical concrete is a mixture of fine aggregate (sand), coarse aggregate (rock), cement, and water. Nowadays the usage of concrete is increasing from time to time due to the rapid development of construction industry. | 71 Pages | Project | See Full Material 

The Effect of Silica Fume (S.F) on the Properties of Fresh and Hardened Concrete

Concrete is a composite material consisting of aggregates enclosed in a matrix of cement paste including possible pozzolans, has two major components, cement paste and aggregates. The strength of concrete depends upon the strength of these components, their deformation properties, and the adhesion between the paste and aggregate surface [ 1 ]. In recent years, the construction industry has shown significant interest in the use of high strength concrete (HSC), in applications such as dams, bridges and high rise buildings. | 84 pages | Thesis | See Full Material 

Structural Performance Of Lateritic Concrete Containing Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) As A Partial Replacement Of Coarse Aggregate

Sand has traditionally been used as fine aggregate in structural concrete. It is usually imported from relatively distant places at high costs, and this increases the overall cost of making concrete and of providing housing in various Nigerian communities. This study investigates the performance of 409/o of laterite as fine aggregate in place of sand, and specifically seeks to determine whether lateritic concrete containing pies would satisfy the minimum compressive strength requirement of BS 8110 (1997) for use in reinforced concrete works, which is 25 N/mm. | 75 Pages | Project | See Full Material

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Dissertations / Theses on the topic 'Concrete technology'

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Kevern, John Tristan. "Advancements in pervious concrete technology." [Ames, Iowa : Iowa State University], 2008.

Hardon, Roger G. "Technology of repair for corroded reinforced concrete." Thesis, Aston University, 1989.

Catley, David Gerald. "Thermal curing of concrete with conductive polymer technology." Thesis, Sheffield Hallam University, 2009.

Rezaei, Ehsan. "Vibrations of partly supported concrete railway sleeper." Thesis, Linköping University, Solid Mechanics, 2010.

Analytical and finite element solutions to the problem of a vibrating beam on an elastic foundation are presented. An application example is a concrete railway sleeper embedded in an elastic medium (the ballast). The sleeper is also elastically connected to the rails. Eigenfrequencies are calculated and vibration modes are discussed. The beam (sleeper) is divided into sections where each section may or may not be supported by the elastic foundation. The elastic connections to the rails are situated at the two joinings of the three sleeper sections.

Some conclusions are that Euler-Bernoulli beam theory can be used to calculate two, or maximum three, eigenfrequencies of the sleeper. The foundation stiffness influences the lowest bending-mode eigenfrequency the most; higher eigenfrequencies are practically unaffected by the foundation stiffness. The influence of railpad (and rail) stiffness on the sleeper eigenfrequencies is negligible.

Altobelli, Frank Robert. "An innovative technology in concrete construction--semi-automated rebar tying." Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1991.

KING-NYGREN, ELIAS. "Analysis of Complex 3D-Concrete Casting." Thesis, KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), 2021.

Cortis, Michael. "Numerical modelling of braided fibres for reinforced concrete." Thesis, University of Glasgow, 2016.

El-Dharat, A. A. G. "The structural behaviour of composite reinforced concrete trough floors." Thesis, University of Salford, 1985.

Coyle, Neil Robert. "Development of fully composite steel-concrete-steel beam elements." Thesis, University of Dundee, 2001.

Dennington, Simon P. J. "The effect of carboxylated acrylic polymer latices on the hydration kinetics of ordinary Portland cement." Thesis, University of Bristol, 1997.

Rajczakowska, Magdalena. "Self-Healing Concrete." Licentiate thesis, Luleå tekniska universitet, Byggkonstruktion och brand, 2019.

Wiberg, Anders. "Strengthening of concrete beams using cementitious carbon fibre composites." Doctoral thesis, KTH, Civil and Architectural Engineering, 2003.

The research described in this thesis deals with the use ofcement-based carbon fibre reinforced composites forstrengthening of existing structural concrete.

There is a large world-wide need for simple and reliablemethods to repair and strengthen aging infrastructure andbuildings. The use of cementitious fi- bre composites offersseveral advantages over the existing methods. No other work onstrengthening of structural concrete with cementitiouscomposites reinforced with continuous high strength fibres wasidentified when the present work started in 1998. At presenttime, 2003, it still is a new technique and very littleresearch has been internationally reported. This work includesa literature survey describing the state of the art of thestrengthening of structural concrete with cement based fibrereinforced composites.

Due to the novelty of this technique no specially adaptedmaterials are available and ready for use in cementitiouscomposites. In order to make many small scale tests to optimizethe composite, a new test beam has been developed. Severalparameter studies have been done in this work to determine howdifferent parameters, for example fineness of grading of thecement, additives, and fibre configuration affect thecomposite.

Large scale tests of ordinary concrete beams strengthenedwith a cementitious fibre composite are reported. The compositeused was made of a polymer modified mortar and a unidirectionalsheet of continuous carbon fibres, applied by hand. Bothflexural strengthening and shear strengthening were tested. Arelatively new method for measuring strains with digitalcameras was used on the shear strengthenings with a goodresult. It is concluded that the large scale tests have proventhat this method works and has great potential for futureuse.

Design methods for strengthenings were studied andevaluated. It is concluded that design methods formulated forstrengthening of structural concrete with carbon fibrereinforced polymers can be adapted also to cementitiouscomposites by introducing an efficiency factor.

Gendy, S. S. F. M. "Explicit second-order mixed formulation of reinforced concrete structures under impact loading." Thesis, City, University of London, 2018.

Dry, Carolyn. "Design of systems for time delayed activated internal release of chemicals in concrete from porous fibers, aggregates of prills, to improve durability /." This resource online, 1991.

Saevarsdottir, Thorbjoerg. "The structural, serviceability and durability performance of variable density concrete panels." Thesis, University of Canterbury. Civil Engineering, 2008.

Nilsson, Isak, and Leonard Sandström. "Behavior prediction of concrete dams." Thesis, KTH, Betongbyggnad, 2020.

Fahy, Caroline. "A discrete transport-mechanical approach for modelling the durability of concrete." Thesis, University of Glasgow, 2014.

Denton, Stephen Richard. "The strength of reinforced concrete slabs and the implications of limited ductility." Thesis, University of Cambridge, 2001.

Hall, Robin. "Impact sound insulation of flooring systems with polyurethane foam on concrete floors." Thesis, Sheffield Hallam University, 1999.

Cauthen, Stephen Michael. "Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding in the repair of reinforced concrete bridge structures." Birmingham, Ala. : University of Alabama at Birmingham, 2008.

Loijos, Alex (Alexander Nikos). "Life cycle assessment of concrete pavements : impacts and opportunities." Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2011.

Niven, Robert A. J. "Physiochemical investigation of CO₂ accelerated concrete curing as a greenhouse gas mitigation technology." Thesis, McGill University, 2006. http://digitool.Library.McGill.CA:80/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=99193.

Hussin, Manal Kamil. "Identification of prestress force in prestressed concrete box girder bridges using ultrasonic technology." Thesis, Queensland University of Technology, 2018.

Malek, Amir Masoud 1959. "Analytical study of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with fiber reinforced plastic plates (fabrics)." Diss., The University of Arizona, 1997.

El-Nemr, Amr Maher. "Serviceability of concrete members reinforced with FRP bars." Thèse, Université de Sherbrooke, 2013.

Lewis, Zachary Ludon. "Evaluation of thermal variations on concrete pavement using three dimensional line laser imaging technology." Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2013.

Alzuhairi, Fatin, and abdulfata Fatah. "Environmentally improved concrete is compared with ordinary concrete with respect to estimated environmental impact." Thesis, KTH, Byggteknik och design, 2020.

DALLA, ROSA LEONARDO. "Structural Health of a concrete tunnel lining under complex in situ loading." Thesis, KTH, Bro- och stålbyggnad, 2019.

Watase, Azusa. "Non-Destructive Evaluation of Concrete Structures Using High Resolution Digital Image and Infrared Thermography Technology." Master's thesis, University of Central Florida, 2013.

Dalcin, Jarbas Bressa. "Avaliação do potencial do uso da sílica de casca de arroz obtida através da queima controlada como substituição parcial ao cimento Portland na produção de concretos autoadensáveis." Universidade Federal do Pampa, 2016.

CAVALCANTI, Alan Barbosa. "SOFTPAVE: estudo e desenvolvimento de uma ferramenta para o auxílio à dosagem de misturas asfálticas pelo método SUPERPAVE." Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 2013.

Ismail, Eman. "Distribution of stresses and displacements in skewed concrete slabs." Thesis, Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY), 2017.

Dry, Carolyn Minnetta. "Design of systems for time delayed activated internal release of chemicals in concrete from porous fibers, aggregates of prills, to improve durability." Diss., Virginia Tech, 1991.

Awn, Rim Fares, and Jaqueline Corona. "Hur mogen är marknaden för klimatsmart betong och dess aktörer?" Thesis, Högskolan i Gävle, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik, 2020.

Simsek, Aslihan. "Tectonic Expression Of Concrete As An Architectural Material." Master's thesis, METU, 2011.

Bengtsson, Pär, and Johan Wallin. "Analysis of a Prefabricated Concrete Skew Angle Slab Bridge." Thesis, Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY), 2019.

Wingårdh, Ludvig. "Construction of prefabricated concrete buildings : A comparative attributional LCA." Thesis, KTH, Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, 2021.

Liang, Li. "Recycling of concrete waste with wood waste through heating compaction." Thesis, KTH, Betongbyggnad, 2020.

Alqahtani, Fahad Khshim. "Production of novel manufactured plastic aggregate and its utilisation in concrete." Thesis, University of Birmingham, 2017.

Hughes, Peter. "An investigation into marine biofouling and its influence on the durability of concrete sea defences." Thesis, University of Central Lancashire, 2014.

Kare, Sridhar, and Heera Lomite. "Impact of Construction Material on Environment : (Steel & Concrete)." Thesis, Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan, 2009.

Šlepikas, Paulius. "Handheld concrete cutter. Market research and concept development." Thesis, KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), 2017.

Khouri, Chalouhi Elisa. "Optimal design solutions of concrete bridges considering environmental impact and investment cost." Licentiate thesis, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), 2019.

QC 20190304

Al-Soudani, Maha. "Diagnosis of reinforced concrete structures in civil engineering by GPR technology : development of alternate methods for precise geometric recognition." Thesis, Toulouse 3, 2017.

Omar, Wahid. "The shear assessment of concrete beams with a honeycombed zone present in the high shear region." Thesis, University of Birmingham, 1998.

Enckell, Merit. "Structural health monitoring using modern sensor technology : long-term monitoring of the New Årsta Railway Bridge." Licentiate thesis, KTH, Civil and Architectural Engineering, 2006.

Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is a helpful tool for engineers in order to control and verify the structural behaviour. SHM also guides the engineers and owners of structures in decision making concerning the maintenance, economy and safety of structures. Sweden has not a very sever tradition in monitoring, as countries with strong seismic and/or aerodynamic activities. Anyway, several large scale monitoring projects have taken place in recent years and SHM is slowly making entrance as an essential implement in managing structures by engineers as well as owners.

This licentiate thesis presents a state-of-the art-review of health monitoring activities and over sensory technologies for monitoring infrastructure constructions like bridges, dams, off-shore platforms, historical monuments etc. related to civil engineering. The fibre optic equipment is presented with special consideration.

The permanent monitoring system of the New Årsta Bridge consists of 40 fibre optic sensors, 20 strain transducers, 9 thermocouples, 6 accelerometers and one LVDT. The aims of the static study are: to control the maximal strains and stresses; to detect cracking in the structure; to report strain changes under construction, testing period and in the coming 10 years; and to compare conventional system with fibre optic system.

The system installation started in January 2003 and was completed October 2003. The measurements took place from the very beginning and are suppose to continue for at least 10 years of operation. At the construction phase the measurements were performed manually and later on automatically through broad band connection between the office and central data acquisition systems located inside the bridge.

The monitoring project of the New Årsta Railway Bridge is described from the construction phase to the testing phase of the finished bridge. Results of the recorded statistical data, crack detection and loading test are presented and a comparison between traditional techniques like strain transducers and fibre optic sensors is done.

Various subjects around monitoring and sensor technologies that were found under the project are brought up in order to give the reader a good understanding, as well of the topics, techniques and of the bridge. Example of few applications is given with the aim of a deeper insight into monitoring related issues.

Alnuaimi, Ali Said Mohammed. "Direct design of reinforced and partially prestressed concrete beams for combined torsion, bending and shear." Thesis, Connect to e-thesis, 1999.

Labib, Wafa Abdelmajeed. "An experimental study and finite analysis of punching shear failure in steel fibre-reinforced concrete ground-suspended floor slabs." Thesis, Liverpool John Moores University, 2008.

AVENDAÑO, JUAN CAMILO. "Identification and quantification of concrete cracks using image analysis and machine learning." Thesis, KTH, Bro- och stålbyggnad, 2020.

Yen, Chin-lu, and 顏淇祿. "Ready-mix Plant Concrete Quality Control Technology." Thesis, 2013.


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Savvino-storozhevsky monastery and museum.

Savvino-Storozhevsky Monastery and Museum

Zvenigorod's most famous sight is the Savvino-Storozhevsky Monastery, which was founded in 1398 by the monk Savva from the Troitse-Sergieva Lavra, at the invitation and with the support of Prince Yury Dmitrievich of Zvenigorod. Savva was later canonised as St Sabbas (Savva) of Storozhev. The monastery late flourished under the reign of Tsar Alexis, who chose the monastery as his family church and often went on pilgrimage there and made lots of donations to it. Most of the monastery’s buildings date from this time. The monastery is heavily fortified with thick walls and six towers, the most impressive of which is the Krasny Tower which also serves as the eastern entrance. The monastery was closed in 1918 and only reopened in 1995. In 1998 Patriarch Alexius II took part in a service to return the relics of St Sabbas to the monastery. Today the monastery has the status of a stauropegic monastery, which is second in status to a lavra. In addition to being a working monastery, it also holds the Zvenigorod Historical, Architectural and Art Museum.

Belfry and Neighbouring Churches

concrete technology thesis topic

Located near the main entrance is the monastery's belfry which is perhaps the calling card of the monastery due to its uniqueness. It was built in the 1650s and the St Sergius of Radonezh’s Church was opened on the middle tier in the mid-17th century, although it was originally dedicated to the Trinity. The belfry's 35-tonne Great Bladgovestny Bell fell in 1941 and was only restored and returned in 2003. Attached to the belfry is a large refectory and the Transfiguration Church, both of which were built on the orders of Tsar Alexis in the 1650s.  

concrete technology thesis topic

To the left of the belfry is another, smaller, refectory which is attached to the Trinity Gate-Church, which was also constructed in the 1650s on the orders of Tsar Alexis who made it his own family church. The church is elaborately decorated with colourful trims and underneath the archway is a beautiful 19th century fresco.

Nativity of Virgin Mary Cathedral

concrete technology thesis topic

The Nativity of Virgin Mary Cathedral is the oldest building in the monastery and among the oldest buildings in the Moscow Region. It was built between 1404 and 1405 during the lifetime of St Sabbas and using the funds of Prince Yury of Zvenigorod. The white-stone cathedral is a standard four-pillar design with a single golden dome. After the death of St Sabbas he was interred in the cathedral and a new altar dedicated to him was added.

concrete technology thesis topic

Under the reign of Tsar Alexis the cathedral was decorated with frescoes by Stepan Ryazanets, some of which remain today. Tsar Alexis also presented the cathedral with a five-tier iconostasis, the top row of icons have been preserved.

Tsaritsa's Chambers

concrete technology thesis topic

The Nativity of Virgin Mary Cathedral is located between the Tsaritsa's Chambers of the left and the Palace of Tsar Alexis on the right. The Tsaritsa's Chambers were built in the mid-17th century for the wife of Tsar Alexey - Tsaritsa Maria Ilinichna Miloskavskaya. The design of the building is influenced by the ancient Russian architectural style. Is prettier than the Tsar's chambers opposite, being red in colour with elaborately decorated window frames and entrance.

concrete technology thesis topic

At present the Tsaritsa's Chambers houses the Zvenigorod Historical, Architectural and Art Museum. Among its displays is an accurate recreation of the interior of a noble lady's chambers including furniture, decorations and a decorated tiled oven, and an exhibition on the history of Zvenigorod and the monastery.

Palace of Tsar Alexis

concrete technology thesis topic

The Palace of Tsar Alexis was built in the 1650s and is now one of the best surviving examples of non-religious architecture of that era. It was built especially for Tsar Alexis who often visited the monastery on religious pilgrimages. Its most striking feature is its pretty row of nine chimney spouts which resemble towers.

concrete technology thesis topic

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    Particle packing and the rheology of concrete. X. Chateau, in Understanding the Rheology of Concrete, 2012 6.1 Introduction. It is well known in concrete technology that the grading of aggregate is one of the main factors influencing the hardened concrete strength (Neville, 1995; Kumar Mehta and Paulo Monteiro, 2006).Aggregate is added to cement paste for various reasons: aggregate is cheaper ...

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    Gamil and Cwirzen Digital Transformation of Concrete Technology—A Review. experiments to estimate the strength ( Dogan et al., 2017;Waris et al., 2020 ). It enabled prediction of various ...

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    PhD thesis, Delft university of technology, the Netherlands. Google Scholar Klamer EL, Hordijk DA and Kleinman CS (2006) 'Debonding of CFRP laminates externally bonded to concrete specimens at low and high temperatures' in Proceedings of Third International Conference on Composites in Civil Engineering (CICE 2006), Mirmiran A and Nanni A ...


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    Dissertations / Theses on the topic 'Concrete technology' To see the other types of publications on this topic, follow the link: Concrete technology. Author: Grafiati. Published: 4 June 2021 Last updated: 31 January 2023 Create a spot-on reference in APA, MLA, Chicago, Harvard, and other styles ...

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    Zvenigorod's most famous sight is the Savvino-Storozhevsky Monastery, which was founded in 1398 by the monk Savva from the Troitse-Sergieva Lavra, at the invitation and with the support of Prince Yury Dmitrievich of Zvenigorod. Savva was later canonised as St Sabbas (Savva) of Storozhev. The monastery late flourished under the reign of Tsar ...