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Speech transitions: words and phrases to connect your ideas

June 28, 2018 - Gini Beqiri

When delivering presentations it’s important for your words and ideas to flow so your audience can understand how everything links together and why it’s all relevant.

This can be done using speech transitions because these act as signposts to the audience – signalling the relationship between points and ideas. This article explores how to use speech transitions in presentations.

What are speech transitions?

Speech transitions are words and phrases that allow you to smoothly move from one point to another so that your speech flows and your presentation is unified.

This makes it easier for the audience to understand your argument and without transitions the  audience may be confused  as to how one point relates to another and they may think you’re randomly jumping between points.

Types of transitions

Transitions can be one word, a phrase or a full sentence – there are many different types, here are a few:

Introduction

Introduce your topic:

  • We will be looking at/identifying/investigating the effects of…
  • Today I will be discussing…

Presentation outline

Inform the audience of the structure of your presentation:

  • There are three key points I’ll be discussing…
  • I want to begin by…, and then I’ll move on to…
  • We’ll be covering… from two points of view…
  • This presentation is divided into four parts…

Move from the introduction to the first point

Signify to the audience that you will now begin discussing the first main point:

  • Now that you’re aware of the overview, let’s begin with…
  • First, let’s begin with…
  • I will first cover…
  • My first point covers…
  • To get started, let’s look at…

Shift between similar points

Move from one point to a similar one:

  • In the same way…
  • Likewise…
  • Equally…
  • This is similar to…
  • Similarly…

Presentation transitions at a meeting

Shift between disagreeing points

You may have to introduce conflicting ideas – bridging words and phrases are especially good for this:

  • Conversely…
  • Despite this…
  • However…
  • On the contrary…
  • Now let’s consider…
  • Even so…
  • Nonetheless…
  • We can’t ignore…
  • On the other hand…

Transition to a significant issue

  • Fundamentally…
  • A major issue is…
  • The crux of the matter…
  • A significant concern is…

Referring to previous points

You may have to refer to something that you’ve already spoken about because, for example, there may have been a break or a fire alarm etc:

  • Let’s return to…
  • We briefly spoke about X earlier; let’s look at it in more depth now…
  • Let’s revisit…
  • Let’s go back to…
  • Do you recall when I mentioned…

This can be also be useful to introduce a new point because adults learn better when new information builds on previously learned information.

Introducing an aside note

You may want to introduce a digression:

  • I’d just like to mention…
  • That reminds me…
  • Incidentally…

Physical movement

You can  move your body  and your standing location when you transition to another point. The audience find it easier to follow your presentation and movement will increase their interest.

A common technique for incorporating movement into your presentation is to:

  • Start your introduction by standing in the centre of the stage.
  • For your first point you stand on the left side of the stage.
  • You discuss your second point from the centre again.
  • You stand on the right side of the stage for your third point.
  • The conclusion occurs in the centre.

Emphasising importance

You need to ensure that the audience get the message by informing them why something is important:

  • More importantly…
  • This is essential…
  • Primarily…
  • Mainly…

Internal summaries

Internal summarising consists of summarising before moving on to the next point. You must inform the audience:

  • What part of the presentation you covered – “In the first part of this speech we’ve covered…”
  • What the key points were – “Precisely how…”
  • How this links in with the overall presentation – “So that’s the context…”
  • What you’re moving on to – “Now I’d like to move on to the second part of presentation which looks at…”

Speech transitions during a team meeting

Cause and effect

You will have to transition to show relationships between factors:

  • Therefore…
  • Thus…
  • Consequently…
  • As a result…
  • This is significant because…
  • Hence…

Elaboration

  • Also…
  • Besides…
  • What’s more…
  • In addition/additionally…
  • Moreover…
  • Furthermore…

Point-by-point or steps of a process

  • First/firstly/The first one is…
  • Second/Secondly/The second one is…
  • Third/Thirdly/The third one is…
  • Last/Lastly/Finally/The fourth one is…

Introduce an example

  • This is demonstrated by…
  • For instance…
  • Take the case of…
  • For example…
  • You may be asking whether this happens in X? The answer is yes…
  • To show/illustrate/highlight this…
  • Let me illustrate this by…

Transition to a demonstration

  • Now that we’ve covered the theory, let’s practically apply it…
  • I’ll conduct an experiment to show you this in action…
  • Let me demonstrate this…
  • I’ll now show you this…

Introducing a quotation

  • X was a supporter of this thinking because he said…
  • There is a lot of support for this, for example, X said…

Transition to another speaker

In a  group presentation  you must transition to other speakers:

  • Briefly recap on what you covered in your section: “So that was a brief introduction on what health anxiety is and how it can affect somebody”
  • Introduce the next speaker in the team and explain what they will discuss: “Now Gayle will talk about the prevalence of health anxiety.”
  • Then end by looking at the next speaker, gesturing towards them and saying their name: “Gayle”.
  • The next speaker should acknowledge this with a quick: “Thank you Simon.”

From these examples, you can see how the different sections of the presentations link which makes it easier for the audience to follow and remain engaged.

You can  tell personal stories  or share the experiences of others to introduce a point. Anecdotes are especially valuable for your introduction and between different sections of the presentation because they engage the audience. Ensure that you plan the stories thoroughly beforehand and that they are not too long.

Using questions

You can transition through your speech by asking questions and these questions also have the benefit of engaging your audience more. There are three different types of questions:

Direct questions require an answer: “What is the capital of Italy?” These are mentally stimulating for the audience.

Rhetorical questions  do not require answers, they are often used to emphasises an idea or point: “Is the Pope catholic?

Loaded questions contain an unjustified assumption made to prompt the audience into providing a particular answer which you can then correct to support your point: You may ask “Why does your wonderful company have such a low incidence of mental health problems?”.

The audience will generally answer that they’re happy. After receiving the answers you could then say “Actually it’s because people are still unwilling and too embarrassed to seek help for mental health issues at work etc.”

Speech transitions during a conference

Transition to a visual aid

If you are going to introduce a visual aid you must prepare the audience with what they’re going to see, for example, you might be leading into a diagram that supports your statement. Also, before you  show the visual aid , explain why you’re going to show it, for example, “This graph is a significant piece of evidence supporting X”.

When the graphic is on display get the audience to focus on it:

  • The table indicates…
  • As you can see…
  • I’d like to direct your attention to…

Explain what the visual is showing:

  • You can see that there has been a reduction in…
  • The diagram is comparing the…

Using a visual aid to transition

Visual aids can also be used as transitions and they have the benefit of being stimulating and breaking-up vocal transitions.

You might have a slide with just a picture on it to signify to the audience that you’re moving on to a new point – ensure that this image is relevant to the point. Many speakers like to use cartoons for this purpose but ensure its suitable for your audience.

Always summarise your key points first in the conclusion:

  • Let’s recap on what we’ve spoken about today…
  • Let me briefly summarise the main points…

And then conclude:

If you have a shorter speech you may choose to  end your presentation  with one statement:

  • In short…
  • To sum up…
  • In a nutshell…
  • To summarise…
  • In conclusion…

However, using statements such as “To conclude” may cause the audience to stop listening. It’s better to say:

  • I’d like to leave you with this…
  • What you should take away from this is…
  • Finally, I want to say…

Call to action

Requesting the audience to do something at the end of the presentation:

  • You may be thinking how can I help in this matter? Well…
  • My aim is to encourage you to go further and…
  • What I’m requesting of you is…

Common mistakes

When transitions are used poorly you can annoy and confuse the audience. Avoid:

  • Using transitions that are too short – transitions are a key part of ensuring the audience understands your presentation so spend sufficient time linking to your next idea.
  • Too many tangents – any digressions should still be relevant to the topic and help the audience with their understanding, otherwise cut them out.
  • Incompatible transitions – for example, if you’re about to introduce an example that supports your statement you wouldn’t introduce this by saying “but”. Use transitions that signify the relationship between points.
  • Over-using the same transition because this is boring for the audience to hear repeatedly. Ensure that there is variety with your transitions, consider including visual transitions.
  • Miscounting your transitions – for example, don’t say “first point”, “second point”, “next point” – refer to your points consistently.

Speech transitions are useful for unifying and connecting your presentation. The audience are more likely to remain engaged since they’ll be able to follow your points. But remember that it’s important to practice your transitions beforehand and not just the content of your arguments because you risk looking unprofessional and confusing the audience if the presentation does not flow smoothly.

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  • Transition Words & Phrases | List & Examples

Transition Words & Phrases | List & Examples

Published on May 29, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 23, 2023.

Transition words and phrases (also called linking words, connecting words, or transitional words) are used to link together different ideas in your text. They help the reader to follow your arguments by expressing the relationships between different sentences or parts of a sentence.

The proposed solution to the problem did not work. Therefore , we attempted a second solution. However , this solution was also unsuccessful.

For clear writing, it’s essential to understand the meaning of transition words and use them correctly.

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Table of contents

When and how to use transition words, types and examples of transition words, common mistakes with transition words, other interesting articles.

Transition words commonly appear at the start of a new sentence or clause (followed by a comma ), serving to express how this clause relates to the previous one.

Transition words can also appear in the middle of a clause. It’s important to place them correctly to convey the meaning you intend.

Example text with and without transition words

The text below describes all the events it needs to, but it does not use any transition words to connect them. Because of this, it’s not clear exactly how these different events are related or what point the author is making by telling us about them.

If we add some transition words at appropriate moments, the text reads more smoothly and the relationship among the events described becomes clearer.

Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Consequently , France and the United Kingdom declared war on Germany. The Soviet Union initially worked with Germany in order to partition Poland. However , Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941.

Don’t overuse transition words

While transition words are essential to clear writing, it’s possible to use too many of them. Consider the following example, in which the overuse of linking words slows down the text and makes it feel repetitive.

In this case the best way to fix the problem is to simplify the text so that fewer linking words are needed.

The key to using transition words effectively is striking the right balance. It is difficult to follow the logic of a text with no transition words, but a text where every sentence begins with a transition word can feel over-explained.

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There are four main types of transition word: additive, adversative, causal, and sequential. Within each category, words are divided into several more specific functions.

Remember that transition words with similar meanings are not necessarily interchangeable. It’s important to understand the meaning of all the transition words you use. If unsure, consult a dictionary to find the precise definition.

Additive transition words

Additive transition words introduce new information or examples. They can be used to expand upon, compare with, or clarify the preceding text.

Function Example sentence Transition words and phrases
Addition We found that the mixture was effective. , it appeared to have additional effects we had not predicted. indeed, furthermore, moreover, additionally, and, also, both and , not only but also , , in fact
Introduction Several researchers have previously explored this topic. , Smith (2014) examined the effects of … such as, like, particularly, including, as an illustration, for example, for instance, in particular, to illustrate, especially, notably
Reference The solution showed a high degree of absorption. , it is reasonable to conclude that … considering , regarding , in regard to , as for , concerning , the fact that , on the subject of
Similarity It was not possible to establish a correlation between these variables. , the connection between and remains unclear … similarly, in the same way, by the same token, in like manner, equally, likewise
Clarification The patient suffered several side effects, increased appetite, decreased libido, and disordered sleep. that is (to say), namely, specifically, more precisely, in other words

Adversative transition words

Adversative transition words always signal a contrast of some kind. They can be used to introduce information that disagrees or contrasts with the preceding text.

Function Example sentence Transition words and phrases
Conflict The novel does deal with the theme of family. , its central theme is more broadly political … but, however, although, though, equally, by way of contrast, while, on the other hand, (and) yet, whereas, in contrast, (when) in fact, conversely, whereas
Concession Jones (2011) argues that the novel reflects Russian politics of the time. this is correct, other aspects of the text must also be considered. even so, nonetheless, nevertheless, even though, on the other hand, admittedly, despite , notwithstanding , (and) still, although, , regardless (of ), (and) yet, though, granted
Dismissal It remains unclear which of these hypotheses is correct. , it can be inferred that … regardless, either way, whatever the case, in any/either event, in any/either case, at any rate, all the same
Emphasis The chemical is generally thought to have corrosive properties. , several studies have supported this hypothesis. above all, indeed, more/most importantly
Replacement The character of Godfrey is often viewed as selfish, self-absorbed. (or) at least, (or) rather, instead, or (perhaps) even, if not

Causal transition words

Causal transition words are used to describe cause and effect. They can be used to express purpose, consequence, and condition.

Function Example sentence Transition words and phrases
Consequence Hitler failed to respond to the British ultimatum, France and the UK declared war on Germany. therefore, because (of ), as a result (of ), for this reason, in view of , as, owing to x, due to (the fact that), since, consequently, in consequence, as a consequence, hence, thus, so (that), accordingly, so much (so) that, under the/such circumstances, if so
Condition We qualified survey responses as positive the participant selected “agree” or “strongly agree.” , results were recorded as negative. (even/only) if/when, on (the) condition that, in the case that, granted (that), provided/providing that, in case, in the event that, as/so long as, unless, given that, being that, inasmuch/insofar as, in that case, in (all) other cases, if so/not, otherwise
Purpose We used accurate recording equipment our results would be as precise as possible. to, in order to/that, for the purpose of, in the hope that, so that, to the end that, lest, with this in mind, so as to, so that, to ensure (that)

Sequential transition words

Sequential transition words indicate a sequence, whether it’s the order in which events occurred chronologically or the order you’re presenting them in your text. They can be used for signposting in academic texts.

Function Example sentence Transition words and phrases
Enumeration This has historically had several consequences: , the conflict is not given the weight of other conflicts in historical narratives. , its causes are inadequately understood. , … first, second, third…
Initiation , I want to consider the role played by women in this period. in the first place, initially, first of all, to begin with, at first
Continuation , I discuss the way in which the country’s various ethnic minorities were affected by the conflict. subsequently, previously, eventually, next, before , afterwards, after , then
Conclusion , I consider these two themes in combination. to conclude (with), as a final point, eventually, at last, last but not least, finally, lastly
Resumption my main argument, it is clear that … to return/returning to , to resume, at any rate
Summation Patel (2015) comes to a similar conclusion. , the four studies considered here suggest a consensus that the solution is effective. as previously stated/mentioned, in summary, as I have argued, overall, as has been mentioned, to summarize, briefly, given these points, in view of , as has been noted, in conclusion, in sum, altogether, in short

Transition words are often used incorrectly. Make sure you understand the proper usage of transition words and phrases, and remember that words with similar meanings don’t necessarily work the same way grammatically.

Misused transition words can make your writing unclear or illogical. Your audience will be easily lost if you misrepresent the connections between your sentences and ideas.

Confused use of therefore

“Therefore” and similar cause-and-effect words are used to state that something is the result of, or follows logically from, the previous. Make sure not to use these words in a way that implies illogical connections.

  • We asked participants to rate their satisfaction with their work from 1 to 10. Therefore , the average satisfaction among participants was 7.5.

The use of “therefore” in this example is illogical: it suggests that the result of 7.5 follows logically from the question being asked, when in fact many other results were possible. To fix this, we simply remove the word “therefore.”

  • We asked participants to rate their satisfaction with their work from 1 to 10. The average satisfaction among participants was 7.5.

Starting a sentence with also , and , or so

While the words “also,” “and,” and “so” are used in academic writing, they are considered too informal when used at the start of a sentence.

  • Also , a second round of testing was carried out.

To fix this issue, we can either move the transition word to a different point in the sentence or use a more formal alternative.

  • A second round of testing was also carried out.
  • Additionally , a second round of testing was carried out.

Transition words creating sentence fragments

Words like “although” and “because” are called subordinating conjunctions . This means that they introduce clauses which cannot stand on their own. A clause introduced by one of these words should always follow or be followed by another clause in the same sentence.

The second sentence in this example is a fragment, because it consists only of the “although” clause.

  • Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed. Although other researchers disagree.

We can fix this in two different ways. One option is to combine the two sentences into one using a comma. The other option is to use a different transition word that does not create this problem, like “however.”

  • Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed, although other researchers disagree.
  • Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed. However , other researchers disagree.

And vs. as well as

Students often use the phrase “ as well as ” in place of “and,” but its usage is slightly different. Using “and” suggests that the things you’re listing are of equal importance, while “as well as” introduces additional information that is less important.

  • Chapter 1 discusses some background information on Woolf, as well as presenting my analysis of To the Lighthouse .

In this example, the analysis is more important than the background information. To fix this mistake, we can use “and,” or we can change the order of the sentence so that the most important information comes first. Note that we add a comma before “as well as” but not before “and.”

  • Chapter 1 discusses some background information on Woolf and presents my analysis of To the Lighthouse .
  • Chapter 1 presents my analysis of To the Lighthouse , as well as discussing some background information on Woolf.

Note that in fixed phrases like “both x and y ,” you must use “and,” not “as well as.”

  • Both my results as well as my interpretations are presented below.
  • Both my results and my interpretations are presented below.

Use of and/or

The combination of transition words “and/or” should generally be avoided in academic writing. It makes your text look messy and is usually unnecessary to your meaning.

First consider whether you really do mean “and/or” and not just “and” or “or.” If you are certain that you need both, it’s best to separate them to make your meaning as clear as possible.

  • Participants were asked whether they used the bus and/or the train.
  • Participants were asked whether they used the bus, the train, or both.

Archaic transition words

Words like “hereby,” “therewith,” and most others formed by the combination of “here,” “there,” or “where” with a preposition are typically avoided in modern academic writing. Using them makes your writing feel old-fashioned and strained and can sometimes obscure your meaning.

  • Poverty is best understood as a disease. Hereby , we not only see that it is hereditary, but acknowledge its devastating effects on a person’s health.

These words should usually be replaced with a more explicit phrasing expressing how the current statement relates to the preceding one.

  • Poverty is best understood as a disease. Understanding it as such , we not only see that it is hereditary, but also acknowledge its devastating effects on a person’s health.

Using a paraphrasing tool for clear writing

With the use of certain tools, you can make your writing clear. One of these tools is a paraphrasing tool . One thing the tool does is help your sentences make more sense. It has different modes where it checks how your text can be improved. For example, automatically adding transition words where needed.

If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or writing rules make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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Linking Words – Full List, Examples

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| Candace Osmond

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Candace Osmond

Candace Osmond studied Advanced Writing & Editing Essentials at MHC. She’s been an International and USA TODAY Bestselling Author for over a decade. And she’s worked as an Editor for several mid-sized publications. Candace has a keen eye for content editing and a high degree of expertise in Fiction.

Worried that your essay lacks structure and coherence? Perhaps you should use linking words, transition words, or connectors to give it a boost.

Linking words join separate sentences to improve writing flow. You can also find them mid-sentence to connect clauses.

Read on as I show you the definition and types of linking words in English. I also list examples of linking words under every category, and I whipped up a helpful worksheet to test your skills.

What Are Linking Words?

Grammarist Article Graphic V4 77

Linking words, transition words, or connecting words in the English language help connect ideas and sentences when speaking or writing.

Linking words and phrases are connectors or transitional phrases. They are also part of formal language, so you’ll find them in academic writing, opinion writing, critical essays, dialectic essays , journalism, and business documents.

Some linking verbs link clauses within a sentence, such as although, in case, and whatever. That means you can find them in the middle of sentences from time to time. Others link two complete sentences, such as besides, as a result, and however.

List of Transition Words

Now that you know the meaning of transition words, let’s look at the usage of transition words in sentences and clauses. Don’t worry, I’ll break it all down for you!

Below, I’ve got a list of linking words and phrases to serve as alternative choices for connecting ideas in writing. Note that there are several types of transition words which we will discuss later.

Agreement/Addition/Similarity

Linking words may help the reader understand additional comments or ideas in a statement. They may also express agreement or similarities. These words are also called additive transition words, commonly found in expository essays and narrative essays.

  • In the first place
  • As a matter of fact
  • In like manner
  • In addition
  • Not only, but also
  • Coupled with
  • In the same way
  • In the same manner
  • First, second, third
  • Not to mention
  • In the light of
  • By the same token
  • Additionally
  • Correspondingly
  • Furthermore
  • Comparatively
  • At the same time
  • Together with
  • Identically

Here are some examples of additive linking words in a sentence.

  • The group found that a constructivist approach leads to higher test scores. Moreover, essay examinations show higher levels of learning.
  • The resort has tennis courts. Furthermore, it has an Olympic pool.

Negative Ideas

Some linking words come in pairs to join negative ideas.

  • Not, neither
  • Neither, nor

Here are sentence examples of linking words showing negative ideas.

  • I haven’t seen Lory, neither have I talked to her friend.
  • I neither drink nor smoke.

Opposition/Limitation/Contradiction

Whereas some linking words show an extra idea, these transition phrases and words express contrasting ideas in writing.

  • Although this may be true
  • In contrast
  • (and) still
  • Notwithstanding
  • Different from
  • Of course…, but
  • On the other hand
  • On the contrary
  • Be that as it may
  • Nonetheless
  • Even so/though
  • Nevertheless
  • In spite of

Here are some sentences with linking words of opposition.

  • The short story can be analyzed using a functionalist lens. However, its historical theme is better understood with a critical perspective.
  • As much as I want to go, I must take care of my sister.

Some linking words show relationships between ideas by accepting an idea with reservation instead of showing complete opposition. Here are some examples.

  • All the same
  • Regardless of this
  • Up to a point

Here are some sentence examples.

  • Many citizens opposed this unfair policy, which the president nevertheless enacted.
  • I like him even if we have different views in life.

Cause/Condition/Purpose

You may also use linking words in your writing piece to show conditions and purpose for a logical flow of ideas. Words like reason get the reader ready to understand why. These words are commonly found in hypothesis essays.

  • In the event that
  • Granted (that)
  • Provided that
  • On (the) condition (that)
  • For the purpose of
  • With this intention
  • With this in mind
  • In the hope that
  • Inasmuch as
  • To the end that
  • For fear that
  • In order to
  • Seeing/being that
  • The researchers used this method so that the results would be valid, reliable, and aligned with the objectives.
  • I will not be attending the seminar due to a high fever.

Examples/Support/Emphasis

You can also use transition words in your piece of writing that show examples or support of an idea.

  • In other words
  • To put it differently
  • For one thing
  • In particular
  • As an illustration
  • In this case
  • For example
  • For instance
  • For this reason
  • To put it another way
  • To demonstrate
  • That is to say
  • With attention to
  • By all means
  • To emphasize
  • To enumerate
  • Particularly
  • Significantly
  • Specifically
  • Surprisingly
  • Important to realize
  • Another key point
  • On the negative side
  • First thing to remember
  • Must be remembered
  • To point out
  • Point often overlooked
  • She visited several cities, namely Portland, Jacksonville, Charleston, and Hartford.
  • Transition words improve writing flow. For instance, we use further to add extra ideas related to the previous statement.

Effect/Consequence/Result

Grammarist Article Graphic V4 78

You might also spot transitional devices for essays that show consequences, results, and effects.

  • As a result
  • In that case
  • Under those circumstances
  • Accordingly
  • Consequently

Consider the examples below.

  • We watered the plant for seven days. In effect, it grew three inches taller.
  • Because she didn’t study for the test, Anna failed and had to retake it.

Conclusion/Summary/Restatement

These words and phrases show transitions between sentences to show conclusions. You’ll find these words in essay conclusions of different essay types.

  • In simple language
  • In explanation
  • In lay terms
  • In a nutshell
  • As can be seen
  • In simple terms
  • Generally speaking
  • All things considered
  • As shown above
  • In the final analysis
  • In the long run
  • In either case
  • Given these points
  • As has been noted
  • In any event
  • On the whole
  • By and large
  • For the most part
  • In conclusion
  • To summarize

Note that in lay terms and in explanation are formal alternative choices to “ in a nutshell.”

Here are some examples.

  • Matter is a material that occupies space and has mass. In simple language, it is any physical substance.
  • I don’t want to climb the corporate ladder. After all, money isn’t everything.

Time/Chronology/Sequence

Linking words’ other role in writing is to show sequence or chronology. Under the time category, these phrases add a meaning of time. You can find these words in an essay introduction when the writer explains how the paper is structured.

  • In due time
  • From time to time
  • At the present time
  • Sooner or later
  • Up to the present time
  • To begin with
  • Straightaway
  • In the meantime
  • In a moment
  • Without delay
  • All of a sudden
  • At this instant
  • First, second
  • By the time
  • Immediately
  • Occasionally
  • I watched the movie on television. Eventually, I fell asleep.
  • First, fill the pan with water. Then, bring it to a boil.

Space/Location/Place

The following transition words are famous adverbial expressions that limit or modify space. Some of these words and phrases are also transition words of time.

  • In the middle of
  • To the left/right
  • In front of
  • On this side
  • In the distance
  • In the foreground
  • In the background
  • In the center of
  • Adjacent to
  • Opposite to

Below are sentence examples using transition words of space.

  • My house is located behind the building.
  • To the left of the supermarket is a flower shop.

Common Mistakes With Transition Words

Transition words help you create a flow of arguments for readers to understand what you’re saying. But misused transition words and phrases will make your writing unclear. Avoid these mistakes to give your readers a better experience.

Starting a Sentence With So, And, and Also

Both so and and are coordinating conjunctions, which means they can start independent clauses that stand on their own. But it’s not recommended to use these words and also as sentence starters in formal writing. For example:

  • Incorrect: Also, there are unauthorized charges on my credit card account.
  • Correct: Furthermore, there are unauthorized charges on my credit card account.

Combination of Transition Words And/Or

When writing an essay, avoid English transition words and/or because it makes your paper look messy. Instead, consider whether you need both connectors or only one of them. If you need them both, try this alternative.

  • Incorrect: boat and/or plane.
  • Correct: boat, plane, or both.

Using As Well As as Alternative to And

As well as has a different meaning from the transition word and. And means you’re listing something of equal importance. Meanwhile, as well as is for additional, less essential information. Here’s an example.

  • Incorrect: In this paper, I discuss my movie analysis as well as provide recommendations for improvement.
  • Correct: In this paper, I discuss my movie analysis and provide recommendations for improvement.

Archaic Words

Your writing may not make any sense to readers if you overuse archaic transition words like therewith .

For example, hereby means as a result. We can replace it with more modern and explicit phrasing expressing how the current statement is connected to the previous statement.

Linking Words Summary

A linking word is a term that connects different ideas in your text, whether they are contrasting, supporting, or adding. They can improve your writing and help it flow better, I promise!

Regardless of the style of writing, every piece of writing contains linking words to show perfect transitions. I hope my guide on the definition and list of transitions helps you use these words and phrases correctly. Memorize each category, and don’t overuse them in essays.

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linking words for a speech

linking words for a speech

How to Use Transition Words Effectively In Your Speech

  • The Speaker Lab
  • May 24, 2024

Table of Contents

Whether you’re a seasoned speaker or new to the speaking world, transition words are one tool you’ll want in your speaking toolbox. Although small and seemingly inconsequential, these transition words go a long way when included in your speech. Not only do they tie your concepts together, but they also ensure that your audience hangs on every word from beginning to end.

Of course, using transition words effectively is an art, but a teachable one. In this post, we’ll dive into the world of transition words for speeches and explore how you can use them to create a smooth speaking flow. Get ready to engage, inspire, and captivate your audience like never before!

What Are Transition Words and Why Are They Important in Speeches?

If you’ve ever listened to a speech that felt disjointed or hard to follow, chances are the speaker wasn’t using effective transition words. Transition words are like the glue that holds a speech together, allowing the speaker to move seamlessly from one point to the next.

If you want to keep your audience engaged during your speech, then transition words are an essential tool. Not only do they help your audience track where you are in your argument, but they also provide clarity to your speech.

Definition of Transition Words

So, what exactly are transition words? In a nutshell, they’re words or phrases that show the relationship between ideas. They act as bridges, linking one thought to another and helping the audience see how everything fits together.

Some common examples include “in addition,” “furthermore,” “on the other hand,” and “as a result.” These words signal to the audience that you’re about to expand on a point, offer a contrasting view, or draw a conclusion.

Role of Transition Words in Speeches

Transition words play a vital role in speeches by guiding the audience through your argument. They help highlight the key takeaways and main points, making it easier for listeners to grasp your message.

Think of them as signposts along the way, pointing the audience in the right direction and keeping them engaged. Without these signposts, the audience can quickly become lost or tune out altogether.

Types of Transition Words

There are several types of transition words , each serving a specific purpose. Some are used to show similarity or add information, such as “similarly,” “additionally,” or “in fact.” Others are used to contrast ideas, like “however,” “conversely,” or “on the contrary.”

You can also use transition words to show cause and effect (“consequently,” “as a result”), to provide examples (“for instance,” “specifically”), or to summarize points (“in conclusion,” “to sum up”). The key is to choose the right transition for the job, one that accurately reflects the relationship between your ideas.

Examples of Transition Words

To give you a better sense of how transition words work in practice, let’s look at a few examples:

  • “ In addition to saving money, recycling also helps reduce pollution.” (adding information)
  • “ While social media has many benefits, it can also be a major distraction.” (contrasting ideas)
  • “ Due to the lack of funding, the project had to be put on hold.” (cause and effect)
  • “There are several reasons why exercise is important. First , it helps control weight. Second , it reduces the risk of heart disease.” (listing points)

As you can see, each transition word serves a specific function, helping to clarify the relationship between ideas and keep the speech flowing smoothly.\

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How to Use Transition Words Effectively in Your Speech

Understanding transition words is just the beginning. To truly captivate your listeners, you’ll need to strategically sprinkle them throughout your speech.

Plan Your Transitions in Advance

While you can try using transition words on the fly, it’s much better to plan them out in advance, thinking carefully about how you’ll move from one point to the next. As you’re outlining your speech , jot down some potential transition words or phrases for each main point. This will help you stay on track and avoid those awkward pauses or “um’s” that can derail your momentum.

Use Transitions to Signal Key Points

Transitions are a great way to signal to your audience that you’re about to make an important point. By using phrases like “most importantly” or “the key takeaway is,” you’re priming your listeners to pay extra attention.

Transitions aren’t just fluff—they’re your secret weapon for driving home your main points. When you’re sharing a ton of info, strategic transitions keep your key messages front and center, so your audience never loses the thread.

Vary Your Transition Words

While transition words are essential, you don’t want to overdo it. Using the same transition over and over can start to feel repetitive and monotonous, causing your audience to tune out.

Elevate your speech by incorporating a diverse array of transitions. Venture beyond the comfort of “however” and “furthermore” and embrace the opportunity to innovate with original phrases. Rest assured, your audience will recognize and value the effort you’ve made to keep them engaged and attentive.

Practice Delivering Transitions Naturally

Of course, it’s not enough to simply sprinkle transition words throughout your speech. You also need to deliver them naturally, in a way that feels authentic and conversational.

As you’re practicing your speech, pay close attention to your transitions. Are they flowing smoothly, or do they feel forced and clunky? Keep tweaking and refining until they feel like a natural part of your speech.

Remember, the goal is to make your transitions invisible to the audience. They should seamlessly guide listeners from one point to the next, without drawing attention to themselves.

Common Mistakes to Avoid When Using Transition Words in Speeches

Even the most seasoned speakers can fall into common traps when it comes to using transition words. Here are a few mistakes to watch out for.

Overusing Transition Words

As mentioned earlier, you don’t want to go overboard with your transitions. Peppering every sentence with “for example” or “in addition” can quickly become grating and distracting.

Use transitions judiciously, only when they genuinely help clarify the relationship between ideas. If you find yourself relying on them too heavily, it may be a sign that your speech needs more structure or clarity.

Using Inappropriate Transition Words

Not all transition words are created equal. Using the wrong transition can confuse your audience or undermine your point.

For example, if you’re trying to build on an idea, using a contrasting transition like “however” will send mixed signals. Similarly, if you’re summarizing your main points, starting with “in addition” will feel out of place.

Always make sure your transitions accurately reflect the relationship between your ideas. When in doubt, err on the side of clarity and simplicity.

Failing to Use Transition Words

On the flip side, neglecting to use transition words altogether can be just as problematic. Without these verbal cues, your speech may feel disjointed or hard to follow.

Even if your ideas are brilliant, failing to connect them effectively can leave your audience struggling to keep up. So don’t shy away from using transitions—just use them wisely and strategically.

Mastering Different Types of Transitions in Your Speech

Once you’ve got a good grasp on using transition words, it’s time to get creative. Mix things up by trying out different types of transition words—your audience will love the added variety and depth it brings to your speeches.

Bridging Transitions

Bridging transitions are your secret weapon for a smooth, engaging speech. They help you glide from one main point to the next, keeping your audience hooked without any awkward silences or sudden topic changes.

Some examples of bridging transitions include:

  • “ Now that we’ve explored the benefits of exercise, let’s look at some practical ways to incorporate it into your daily routine.”
  • “ With that background in mind, let’s dive into the specifics of our new marketing strategy.”

Summarizing Transitions

Summarizing transitions are used to recap key points and reinforce your main message. They’re especially useful in longer speeches, where you want to make sure your audience doesn’t lose sight of the big picture.

Some examples of summarizing transitions include:

  • “ To sum up , the three main benefits of meditation are reduced stress, improved focus, and increased self-awareness.”
  • “ In short , our new product line has the potential to revolutionize the industry and drive significant growth for our company.”

Signposting Transitions

Signposting transitions act as a guide, giving your audience a sneak peek of what’s to come in your speech. They help keep your listeners engaged and make it easier for them to follow along, like a trusty map leading them through your main points. Signposting transitions include phrases such as “meanwhile,” “subsequently,” and “as a result.” Here are some other examples:

  • “ In the next section , we’ll explore the three key factors that contribute to employee satisfaction.”
  • “ Moving on to my second point , let’s consider the environmental impact of our current practices.”

Time Transitions

Time transitions are used to indicate a shift in time or sequence, such as moving from the past to the present or from step one to step two. They help create a logical flow and structure for your speech.

Some examples of time transitions include:

  • “ Fast forward to today , and our company has grown from a small startup to a global enterprise.”
  • “ In the following phase of the project , we’ll be focusing on user testing and feedback.”

Concluding Transitions

Concluding transitions are used to signal the end of your speech and leave a lasting impression on your audience. They help tie everything together and drive home your key takeaways. As you approach the final thoughts in your essay or article, try incorporating a concluding transition to guide your reader to the end.

  • “ In conclusion , the path to success is never easy, but with hard work and determination, anything is possible.”
  • “ Ultimately , the choice is yours. Will you settle for the status quo, or will you dare to dream big and make a difference?”

By mastering these different types of transitions, you can take your speeches to the next level and keep your audience engaged from start to finish.

Tips for Including Transition Words in Your Speech

Imagine your speech as a journey, and your transitions as the signposts guiding your audience along the way. They help your listeners understand how each idea relates to the next, preventing them from getting lost or disoriented. Crafting effective transitions is an art, but with a few simple techniques, you can keep your audience engaged and eager to explore the path you’ve laid out for them.

Use Transitions to Link Ideas

One of the most important roles of transitions is to link related ideas and show their relationship. By using the right transition phrases, you can help your audience see how your points build upon or contrast with each other. Some great go-to phrases for this are “similarly,” “in addition,” “however,” and “on the other hand.” These create those vital coherent relationships between concepts.

For example, let’s say you’re giving a speech on the benefits of exercise. You might transition between points by saying, “ In addition to improving cardiovascular health, regular exercise has been shown to boost mood and reduce stress.” That simple phrase “in addition” links the ideas and carries your audience to the next point smoothly.

Emphasize Key Points with Transitions

Transitions are also a powerful tool for emphasizing your most important information. By strategically placing transition phrases before key points, you can signal to your audience that they need to pay extra attention. Phrases like “most importantly” or “above all” cue the audience in that the next point is crucial.

For example, you’ve probably heard a speaker command an audience attention by saying, “If you take away one thing from my talk today, let it be this.” Transitions like this cue the audience so that they know the speaker is about to boil down the main message of a presentation.

Use Transitions to Manage Time

Transitions help you stay on track and manage your allotted speaking time . By using signposting transitions like “first,” “next,” and “finally,” you guide your audience through your speech structure. These act as verbal cues for how far along you are.

The next time you write a speech, take a moment to examine your transitions. Are they serving your audience well and allowing your message to flow smoothly? If not, don’t be afraid to mix them up or add more. Your audience will thank you.

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Practicing and Refining Your Use of Transition Words in Speeches

Now that we’ve explored the importance of transitions as well as different types, let’s talk about how you can put these principles into practice. Mastering speech transitions takes time and effort, but the payoff is well worth it. Here are some tips for sharpening your transition skills.

Incorporate Transitions in Speech Writing

The first step to delivering great speech transitions is to weave them into your speech outline . As you outline your main points, consider how you will move between them. What relationships do you want to highlight? What tone do you want to set? Choose transition phrases that match your intent.

To track your transitions, try highlighting them with a different color or font. That way, they stand out visually and remind you to pay extra attention to them when you’re practicing your delivery. It’s a simple trick, but it can keep transitions front and center in your mind.

Practice Delivering Transitions

Of course, writing good transitions is only half the battle. The real magic happens in the delivery. As you rehearse your speech, focus on nailing your transitions. Practice them out loud, paying attention to your pacing, intonation, and body language.

Remember, transitions are an opportunity to re-engage your audience and keep them on track. Experiment with pausing before or after a transition phrase for emphasis. Try changing your tone or volume to signal a shift. The more you practice, the more natural your transitions will become.

Seek Feedback and Critique

Transitions are a vital part of any speech, but it’s not always easy to tell if they’re working. This is where a second opinion comes in handy. Practice your presentation in front of a friend, coworker, or mentor you respect. Get their specific feedback on your transitions—did they make sense and flow naturally? Did they strengthen or weaken your overall point?

You can also record yourself delivering your speech and watch the video back with a critical eye. Take notes on which transitions worked well and which ones fell flat. Then, adjust accordingly. The more feedback you get, the better you’ll become at crafting seamless transitions.

Analyze Effective Transitions in Other Speeches

Finally, pay attention to the transitions in speeches by skilled orators. Analyze how they use transitions to link ideas, change tone, or emphasize key points. Take note of particularly effective transition phrases and consider how you might adapt them to your own speaking style.

Conquering speech transitions takes practice, dedication, and a willingness to learn. Sure, it might feel tough at first, but don’t let that hold you back. The more you dive in, write, and study successful speakers, the more natural it will become. Before you know it, you’ll be weaving transitions that keep your audience hanging on every word.

FAQs on Using Transition Words in Speeches

What are the best transition words for a speech.

To connect ideas smoothly, use “firstly,” “additionally,” “however,” and “therefore.” They guide your audience through your points clearly.

How do you transition between speeches?

Start by summarizing what was said. Then, introduce the next speaker or topic with phrases like “Let’s move on to” or “Next up.” This keeps things flowing.

What are 10 common transition words?

“Moreover,” “consequently,” “nevertheless,” “thus,” “meanwhile,” “furthermore,” “for example,” “on the other hand,” ”in contrast,” and “similarly” are all great transitions words to use in speeches.

What are speech transitions?

Speech transitions are phrases that link different sections together. They help maintain flow and ensure your audience can follow along easily. Think of them as bridges connecting your ideas.

In this article, we’ve covered a lot of ground when it comes to transition words for speeches. From understanding why they matter to mastering different types and crafting smooth transitions, we’ve explored it all. The best part is you’re now equipped with the tools you need to take your speaking game to new heights!

Remember, transition words as the glue that holds your writing together. They help you effortlessly move from one thought to the next, emphasize crucial points, and ensure your audience stays captivated until the very end. With transition words in hand, your speeches are sure to shine!

  • Last Updated: May 24, 2024

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Speech Transitions: Words And Phrases to Connect Your Ideas

Speech Transitions: Words And Phrases to Connect Your Ideas

Speech transitions are important as they connect ideas and maintain a smooth flow. These transitions help guide the audience through the speech effectively.

Effective communication is crucial in delivering a compelling speech. To engage and captivate an audience, it is essential to connect ideas seamlessly. Speech transitions serve as connectors between different thoughts and ensure a logical progression of ideas. By employing suitable words and phrases, a speaker can enhance the flow of their speech and maintain the audience’s attention.

We will explore various words and phrases that can be used to connect ideas in a speech. These transitions play a vital role in conveying the message effectively and leaving a lasting impact on the listeners.

Speech Transitions: Words And Phrases to Connect Your Ideas

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Table of Contents

Why Are Speech Transitions Important In Public Speaking?

Speech transitions play a crucial role in public speaking by connecting ideas seamlessly. These words and phrases help maintain the flow of the speech and captivate the audience, ensuring a clear and coherent delivery.

Speech transitions play a significant role in public speaking. They serve as vital connectors that link together various ideas and concepts in a seamless manner. By using appropriate words and phrases to transition between different points, speakers can maintain the flow and coherence of their speech.

Here’s why speech transitions are important:

Benefits Of Using Speech Transitions:

  • Enhance clarity: Transitions help speakers to clearly communicate their ideas and thoughts to the audience. By using transition words and phrases, they can guide the listeners through the different sections of their speech, making it easier to follow.
  • Improve understanding: Effective transitions ensure that the audience can easily grasp the connections between ideas and concepts. This helps to prevent any confusion or misinterpretation of the speaker’s message.
  • Increase engagement: Speech transitions prevent a monotonous or disjointed delivery, making the speech more engaging for the audience. By smoothly moving from one idea to another, the speaker captures the listeners’ attention and keeps them actively involved throughout the presentation.
  • Highlight key points: Transitions can be used strategically to emphasize important information or key points. By signaling the significance of certain ideas, speakers can ensure that these points are understood and remembered by the audience.

Impact On Audience Engagement:

  • Retention of information: With the help of effective speech transitions, speakers can enhance the audience’s ability to retain and recall the information presented. Logical connections created through transitions make it easier for listeners to process and remember the content.
  • Focused attention: Well-placed transitions help to maintain the audience’s focus and prevent their minds from wandering. By smoothly transitioning between ideas, speakers keep the listeners engaged and attentive.
  • Active participation: Speech transitions encourage the audience to actively participate in the speech. Clear connections between ideas enable listeners to anticipate the direction of the speech, allowing them to make connections and draw conclusions alongside the speaker.
  • Emotionally connect: Transitions can also have an emotional impact on the audience. By using appropriate words and phrases, speakers can evoke specific feelings, making the speech more memorable and impactful.

Creating a smooth and coherent flow:

  • Logical progression: Transitions facilitate a logical progression of ideas, enabling the speaker to present their thoughts in a structured manner. This ensures that the audience can easily follow the speaker’s intended flow of information.
  • Seamless connection: Speech transitions act as bridges between different ideas or sections, creating a seamless connection between them. This helps to establish a sense of continuity in the speech, preventing any abrupt shifts in topic or subject matter.
  • Professional delivery: The use of speech transitions demonstrates a speaker’s professionalism and command over their subject. It showcases their ability to present complex ideas in a clear and organized manner.

By recognizing the importance of speech transitions and incorporating them into public speaking, speakers can enhance the effectiveness of their presentations, captivate their audience, and ensure that their message is delivered with impact.

Types Of Speech Transitions

Discover various types of speech transitions that effectively connect ideas and thoughts in your speech. These words and phrases seamlessly guide the flow of your presentation, keeping your audience engaged and interested. Improve your public speaking skills with these powerful speech transition techniques.

Transition words and phrases play a crucial role in connecting your ideas and making your speech or presentation flow smoothly. By using these linguistic tools, you can create a cohesive and engaging narrative that keeps your listeners hooked. In this section, we will explore the different types of speech transitions, including transition words and phrases, verbal transitions, and nonverbal transitions.

Transition Words And Phrases:

  • First and foremost, transition words and phrases serve as the glue that holds your speech together. They facilitate the logical progression of your ideas and help your audience follow along effortlessly.
  • Additionally, transition words and phrases add clarity and coherence to your speech, ensuring that your message is easily understood.
  • Moreover, they signal shifts in topic, introduce examples, emphasize crucial points, and establish cause-and-effect relationships.
  • Furthermore, transition words and phrases enable you to create smooth transitions between different sections of your speech, which is essential for maintaining audience engagement.

Verbal Transitions:

  • Verbal transitions involve the use of spoken words or phrases to guide your audience from one idea to another seamlessly.
  • For instance, you can use phrases like “now, let’s move on to…”, “in relation to…”, or “on the other hand…” to smoothly transition between topics.
  • Likewise, starting a sentence with phrases such as “in the same vein…”, “to illustrate my point…”, or “another key aspect is…” can effectively connect your ideas and make your speech more coherent.
  • Furthermore, verbally signaling your intention to transition, using phrases like “now, let’s shift gears and discuss…”, “next up, we’ll explore…”, or “in light of this information…” can help your audience anticipate and comprehend your transitions better.

Nonverbal Transitions:

  • Nonverbal transitions involve actions, gestures, or visuals that complement your verbal transitions, reinforcing the connections between your ideas.
  • Use physical cues, such as changing your stance, moving to a different part of the stage, or making eye contact with a specific audience member, to signify a transition.
  • Similarly, employing visual aids like slides, charts, or props can also assist in smoothly guiding your audience from one idea to the next.
  • Additionally, adjusting your tone of voice, pausing strategically, or utilizing facial expressions can effectively emphasize the shift in ideas and engage your listeners.

Incorporating a variety of transition words and phrases, implementing verbal transitions, and utilizing nonverbal cues can greatly enhance the flow and impact of your speech. Integrating these techniques will help you maintain your audience’s attention and ensure that your ideas are communicated effectively.

So, let’s dive in and explore the world of speech transitions further!

Using Transition Words And Phrases

Discover the power of using speech transitions to seamlessly connect your ideas. By employing a variety of transition words and phrases, you can create a cohesive flow in your speech while keeping your audience engaged and interested. Swap repetitive terms for different expressions to ensure your content remains fresh and captivating.

Importance Of Strategic Placement:

  • Transition words and phrases are essential in speech writing as they help to connect and smoothly organize ideas and thoughts.
  • Strategic placement of transition words and phrases allows for a coherent flow of information, making it easier for the audience to follow the speaker’s train of thought.
  • Proper use of transition words and phrases can enhance the overall impact of a speech by creating a logical progression of ideas and reinforcing key points.
  • By strategically incorporating transition words and phrases, speakers can maintain the audience’s attention and prevent confusion or disengagement.

Commonly Used Transition Words:

  • “furthermore”: Used to add another supporting point or to provide additional information.
  • Example: Furthermore, research has shown that regular exercise improves overall mental health.
  • “however”: Introduces a contrasting idea or viewpoint.
  • Example: The study found that the new drug is effective; however, more research is needed to determine long-term effects.
  • “meanwhile”: Shows a simultaneous action or event occurring.
  • Example: The company was experiencing financial difficulties; meanwhile, their competitors were thriving.
  • “moreover”: Indicates the addition of more information or evidence.
  • Example: The data collected from the survey revealed alarming statistics; moreover, it highlighted the need for immediate action.

Connecting Ideas Within A Sentence:

  • “similarly”: Demonstrates a likeness or similarity between two ideas.
  • Example: The baby elephant walked with a wobble, similarly to a toddler taking their first steps.
  • “in addition”: Introduces an additional piece of information or evidence.
  • Example: The market research indicated a growing demand for organic products; in addition, consumer preferences were shifting towards sustainable packaging.
  • “likewise”: Expresses similarity or agreement with a previous statement.
  • Example: The new policy aims to increase employee satisfaction; likewise, it strives to improve overall productivity.
  • “on the other hand”: Indicates a contrasting viewpoint or perspective.
  • Example: The group was divided on the issue; on the other hand, some argued for immediate action while others preferred a more cautious approach.

Transition Phrases For Introducing New Points:

  • “first and foremost”: Emphasizes the primary or most important point to be made.
  • Example: First and foremost, it is crucial for individuals to prioritize their mental health.
  • “another key point”: Introduces an additional significant idea or argument.
  • Example: Another key point to consider is the impact of social media on mental well-being.
  • “lastly”: Signals the final point or argument in a series or sequence.
  • Example: Lastly, it is essential to provide accessible and affordable mental health services for all individuals.

Transition Words For Emphasizing Or Contrasting Ideas:

  • “indeed”: Emphasizes and reinforces a previous point or statement.
  • Example: The results of the study indeed highlight the need for further investigation.
  • “contrarily”: Shows a contrasting or opposite perspective.
  • Example: While some argue for stricter regulations, contrarily, others believe in the importance of personal freedoms.
  • “in summary”: Provides a concise overview or recap of the main points discussed.
  • Example: The research demonstrates the significant impact of early childhood education on future academic success.

Remember, incorporating these transition words and phrases into your speech can greatly enhance its overall effectiveness, making it more engaging and easy to follow. Use them strategically to guide your listeners through your ideas and ensure they stay connected and engaged with your message.

Incorporating Verbal Transitions

Discover the power of incorporating verbal transitions in your speech to effortlessly connect your ideas. Enhance your communication skills with carefully chosen phrases and words that keep your audience engaged and interested. Unlock the potential of seamless transitions for impactful speeches.

Establishing A Connection Between Ideas

  • Incorporating verbal transitions is essential in speech delivery as it helps maintain a smooth flow of ideas. These transitions act as bridges between different thoughts, guiding the audience through your speech. By using the right words and phrases, you can establish clear connections between ideas, leaving a lasting impact on your listeners. Let’s explore some effective techniques for incorporating verbal transitions.

Using Clear Language And Cues

  • Clear language and cues allow your audience to follow along effortlessly, ensuring that your ideas are effectively communicated. Consider the following strategies to enhance clarity in your speech:
  • Signposting: The use of signposting phrases, such as “firstly,” “next,” or “” helps guide your audience through the structure of your speech, making it easier for them to follow your thought process.
  • Repetition: Repeating key phrases or concepts throughout your speech can reinforce your ideas, making them more memorable for your audience.
  • Pronouns: Utilize pronouns like “they,” “we,” or “you” to create a sense of inclusivity and engagement. This fosters a connection between you and your audience, encouraging active participation.

Examples Of Verbal Transition Techniques

  • Here are some effective examples of verbal transition techniques to incorporate in your speech:
  • Cause and effect: Use phrases like “as a result,” “consequently,” or “therefore” to highlight the cause and effect relationship between different ideas.
  • Comparison and contrast: Employ phrases such as “similarly,” “on the other hand,” or “in contrast” to draw comparisons or highlight differences between ideas, helping your audience understand distinct concepts better.
  • Time sequence: Signal the passage of time or progression of ideas with phrases like “before,” “afterward,” or “meanwhile.” This helps your audience follow the chronological order of events or thoughts.

Practice And Delivery Tips

  • To improve your use of verbal transitions, consider these practice and delivery tips:
  • Rehearse your speech: Practice delivering your speech multiple times, focusing on incorporating verbal transitions smoothly. This will help you become more comfortable and confident in your delivery.
  • Record and review: Record yourself delivering the speech and take note of areas where verbal transitions can be improved. Analyzing your performance will enable you to refine your delivery and strengthen your speech.
  • Seek feedback: Request constructive feedback or have a trusted person observe your speech. They can provide valuable insights on how to enhance your verbal transitions and overall impact.

Remember, incorporating verbal transitions in your speech not only enhances its coherence but also ensures that your ideas are effectively communicated and understood by your audience. By practicing and mastering these techniques, you’ll become a more engaging and persuasive speaker.

Keep honing your skills, and watch your speech captivate and inspire your listeners.

Leveraging Nonverbal Transitions

Discover the power of nonverbal transitions in connecting your ideas during speeches. Utilize effective words and phrases that enhance the flow of your presentation and engage your audience. Say goodbye to common speech transition pitfalls and captivate your listeners with seamless transitions.

In the realm of public speaking, effective speech transitions are crucial for connecting ideas and maintaining the attention of your audience. While verbal transitions are commonly employed, nonverbal cues can be just as powerful in conveying a seamless flow of thoughts.

This section will explore the various ways to leverage nonverbal transitions, including visual cues, body language, gestures and facial expressions, the importance of eye contact, and how to convey confidence and professionalism.

Visual Cues And Body Language:

  • Visual cues play a vital role in indicating transitions and maintaining engagement during a speech.
  • Use confident and purposeful body language to signify a change in topic or shift in ideas.
  • Positioning yourself differently on stage or adjusting your stance can visually communicate a transition to your audience.
  • Maintain an open and relaxed posture, which indicates a welcoming and inclusive environment.

Gestures And Facial Expressions:

  • Utilize gestures and facial expressions to enhance the impact of your nonverbal transitions.
  • Gesture with your hands to emphasize key points or signal a transition to a new idea.
  • Employ facial expressions to convey enthusiasm, surprise, or seriousness, making your transitions more engaging and memorable.

Importance Of Eye Contact:

  • Eye contact is a powerful nonverbal tool that establishes a connection with your audience and aids in smooth transitions.
  • Engage with individuals in different parts of the room, ensuring that your eye contact is inclusive and not only focused on a single person or section.
  • During transitions, maintain eye contact to signal that you are moving on to a new topic or idea.
  • The use of eye contact can also help you gauge the audience’s reaction and adjust your delivery accordingly.

Conveying Confidence And Professionalism:

  • Nonverbal transitions are instrumental in conveying confidence and professionalism throughout your speech.
  • Maintain a calm and composed demeanor, which instills confidence in your audience.
  • Avoid fidgeting or excessive movements that may distract from your message.
  • By utilizing nonverbal cues effectively, you can create a sense of professionalism and competence, enhancing your overall speaker presence.

Incorporating nonverbal transitions into your speech can significantly improve its flow, captivate your audience, and reinforce your message. Visual cues, body language, gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, and conveying confidence and professionalism are all essential elements in creating a seamless and engaging speaking experience.

Practice and master these nonverbal techniques to elevate your speech to new heights.

Transitioning Between Different Sections Of A Speech

Transitioning between different sections of a speech is crucial for maintaining a coherent flow and engaging the audience. By utilizing effective speech transitions, you can seamlessly connect your ideas, avoiding clichés and repetitive terms, to ensure a captivating and impactful delivery.

Transitioning between different sections of a speech is crucial to maintain the flow and coherence of your ideas. To ensure a smooth transition, consider using the following techniques:

Introducing A New Topic Or Main Idea

  • Pose a question: Start a new section by asking a thought-provoking question that introduces your audience to the upcoming topic. For example, “have you ever wondered how technology has revolutionized the way we communicate?”
  • Provide a brief anecdote or story: Capture your audience’s attention by sharing a relevant story or anecdote that sets the stage for the new topic. This personal touch will engage your listeners from the start.
  • Use a powerful quote: Begin your section with an impactful quote that relates to the subject matter. This will immediately draw your audience’s attention and create curiosity about the upcoming discussion.

Summarizing Key Points

  • Highlight the main ideas: Summarize the key points you have discussed so far in a concise and clear manner. This allows your audience to understand the progress of your speech and reinforces the central ideas you want them to remember.
  • Use transition words: Employ transition words and phrases such as “” “to summarize,” or “in conclusion” to signal that you are summarizing the main points. This helps the audience mentally prepare for the upcoming summary.

Shifting Focus Or Transitioning To A Conclusion

  • Preview the provide a glimpse of what your conclusion will entail without delving into the details. This primes your audience for the upcoming ending, creating anticipation and signaling the shift in focus.
  • Ask for the audience’s attention: Use phrases like “now, let’s turn to the final part of our discussion” to redirect the attention back to the conclusion. This helps maintain engagement and refocuses the audience’s thoughts on the closing remarks.
  • Reinforce the central theme: Remind your listeners of the central theme or main message of your speech. This will ensure that the concluding remarks connect back to the core ideas you have been discussing.

Remember, effective transitions are like signposts that guide your audience through your speech. By utilizing these techniques, you can navigate between different sections smoothly and keep your audience fully engaged.

Tips For Effective Transitioning

Discover practical tips for effective transitioning in your speech through the use of appropriate words and phrases. Enhance the flow of your ideas by avoiding overused terms and incorporating a variety of expressions at the beginning of paragraphs. Keep your sentences concise and engaging to maintain the reader’s interest.

Preparing And Rehearsing Transitions:

  • Craft a list of transitional words and phrases: To ensure smooth and seamless transitions between your ideas, compile a list of words and phrases that can serve as connectors. Examples include “however,” “in addition,” and “on the other hand.”
  • Identify logical connections: Assess the flow of your speech and identify the logical connections between each point. This will help you determine the appropriate transitional words or phrases to use.
  • Practice aloud: Once you have selected your transition words and phrases, practice incorporating them into your speech. Rehearse it several times to ensure that the transitions feel natural and help maintain the overall coherence of your ideas.

Using A Variety Of Transition Methods:

  • Implement signposts: Signposts are words or phrases that indicate where you are in your speech and where you are going next. Examples include “firstly,” “next,” and “finally.” By using these signposts, you guide your audience through your speech, making it easier for them to follow along.
  • Utilize parallel structure: Parallel structure involves using the same grammatical structure for each point in your speech. This creates a rhythm and consistency that facilitates smooth transitions. For example, instead of saying “i like hiking and to swim,” you would say “i like hiking and swimming.”
  • Incorporate rhetorical questions: Asking a rhetorical question can help transition from one idea to the next seamlessly. It engages your audience and prompts them to reflect on the previous point before moving on to the next one.
  • Use visual aids: Visual aids such as slides or props can serve as effective transition tools. By visually emphasizing the connection between ideas, you can make the transition more apparent to your audience.
  • Provide summaries: Summarizing the main points of each section can be a powerful transition technique. It allows you to recap what has been discussed and prepare your audience for the upcoming topic.

Maintaining A Natural And Conversational Tone:

  • Avoid using jargon: To keep your speech accessible and engaging, avoid using technical jargon or overly complicated language. Opt for words and phrases that your audience can easily understand.
  • Vary sentence lengths: Using a mix of short and long sentences adds rhythm and variety to your speech. This prevents monotony and keeps your audience engaged.
  • Practice active voice: Choosing active voice sentences instead of passive voice helps maintain a conversational tone. Active voice is more direct and engaging, making it easier for your audience to follow along.
  • Engage with the audience: Encourage audience participation throughout your speech by asking for their thoughts or experiences related to your topic. This creates a more conversational and interactive atmosphere.
  • Adjust your pace: Pay attention to your speaking pace and adjust it accordingly. Speaking too fast can make it difficult for your audience to process the information, while speaking too slowly can lead to disengagement. Aim for a rhythmic and natural pace.

Remember, effective transitioning is crucial for the cohesiveness and clarity of your speech. By preparing and rehearsing your transitions, utilizing a variety of transition methods, and maintaining a natural and conversational tone, you can ensure that your ideas flow smoothly and leave a lasting impact on your audience.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are speech transitions.

Speech transitions are words and phrases used to connect ideas and help the audience follow your presentation more smoothly. They create a logical flow and make it easier for listeners to understand and remember your key points.

Why Are Speech Transitions Important?

Speech transitions are important because they enhance the coherence and clarity of your speech. They help your audience navigate through your ideas and maintain their attention. Transitions also make your speech more engaging and polished, leaving a lasting impact on your listeners.

What Are Some Common Speech Transition Words And Phrases?

There are various speech transition words and phrases you can use, such as “in addition,” “however,” “on the other hand,” “moreover,” “as a result,” “to summarize,” and “finally. ” These transition words and phrases can help you transition between different ideas, compare and contrast points, and summarize information.

How Can Speech Transitions Improve My Public Speaking Skills?

Using speech transitions in your presentations enhances your public speaking skills by making your speech more organized, coherent, and impactful. With effective transitions, you can smoothly guide your audience through your ideas, keeping them engaged and helping them understand and remember your message.

To sum up, utilizing effective speech transitions is essential for seamless and coherent delivery. By incorporating appropriate words and phrases, you can effectively connect your ideas and guide your audience through your speech. Whether you are emphasizing a point, introducing a new topic, or providing examples, utilizing transitional words and phrases enhances the overall flow of your speech.

Moreover, these transitions help to maintain your audience’s engagement and comprehension. From using simple transitional words like “firstly” and “next,” to employing complex connectors such as “in contrast” and “similarly,” the right speech transitions can transform your speaking style. By following these guidelines and practicing your delivery, you can become a confident and compelling speaker.

Remember, speech transitions are powerful tools that can transform your speech from disjointed to cohesive, ensuring that your ideas are conveyed clearly and effectively. So, the next time you give a speech, make sure to incorporate these essential speech transitions and watch your message resonate with your audience.

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10.3 Keeping Your Speech Moving

Learning objectives.

  • Understand the importance of transitions within a speech.
  • Identify and be able to use a variety of transition words to create effective transitions within a speech.
  • Understand how to use a variety of strategies to help audience members keep up with a speech’s content: internal previews, internal summaries, and signposts.

A rewind knob

Chris Marquardt – REWIND – CC BY-SA 2.0.

Have you ever been listening to a speech or a lecture and found yourself thinking, “I am so lost!” or “Where the heck is this speaker going?” Chances are one of the reasons you weren’t sure what the speaker was talking about was that the speaker didn’t effectively keep the speech moving. When we are reading and encounter something we don’t understand, we have the ability to reread the paragraph and try to make sense of what we’re trying to read. Unfortunately, we are not that lucky when it comes to listening to a speaker. We cannot pick up our universal remote and rewind the person. For this reason, speakers need to really think about how they keep a speech moving so that audience members are easily able to keep up with the speech. In this section, we’re going to look at four specific techniques speakers can use that make following a speech much easier for an audience: transitions, internal previews, internal summaries, and signposts.

Transitions between Main Points

A transition is a phrase or sentence that indicates that a speaker is moving from one main point to another main point in a speech. Basically, a transition is a sentence where the speaker summarizes what was said in one point and previews what is going to be discussed in the next point. Let’s look at some examples:

  • Now that we’ve seen the problems caused by lack of adolescent curfew laws, let’s examine how curfew laws could benefit our community.
  • Thus far we’ve examined the history and prevalence of alcohol abuse among Native Americans, but it is the impact that this abuse has on the health of Native Americans that is of the greatest concern.
  • Now that we’ve thoroughly examined how these two medications are similar to one another, we can consider the many clear differences between the two medications.
  • Although he was one of the most prolific writers in Great Britain prior to World War II, Winston Churchill continued to publish during the war years as well.

You’ll notice that in each of these transition examples, the beginning phrase of the sentence indicates the conclusion of a period of time (now that, thus far). Table 10.1 “Transition Words” contains a variety of transition words that will be useful when keeping your speech moving.

Table 10.1 Transition Words

also, again, as well as, besides, coupled with, following this, further, furthermore, in addition, in the same way, additionally, likewise, moreover, similarly
accordingly, as a result, consequently, for this reason, for this purpose, hence, otherwise, so then, subsequently, therefore, thus, thereupon, wherefore
as a rule, as usual, for the most part, generally, generally speaking, ordinarily, usually
chiefly, especially, for instance, in particular, markedly, namely, particularly, including, specifically, such as
for example, for instance, for one thing, as an illustration, illustrated with, as an example, in this case
above all, chiefly, with attention to, especially, particularly, singularly
comparatively, coupled with, correspondingly, identically, likewise, similar, moreover, together with
aside from, barring, besides, except, excepting, excluding, exclusive of, other than, outside of, save
in essence, in other words, namely, that is, that is to say, in short, in brief, to put it differently
contrast, by the same token, conversely, instead, likewise, on one hand, on the other hand, on the contrary, nevertheless, rather, similarly, yet, but, however, still, nevertheless, in contrast
at first, first of all, to begin with, in the first place, at the same time, for now, for the time being, the next step, in time, in turn, later on, meanwhile, next, then, soon, the meantime, later, while, earlier, simultaneously, afterward, in conclusion, with this in mind
first, second, third…
generally, furthermore, finally
in the first place, also, lastly
in the first place, pursuing this further, finally
to be sure, additionally, lastly
in the first place, just in the same way, finally
basically, similarly, as well
after all, all in all, all things considered, briefly, by and large, in any case, in any event, in brief, in conclusion, on the whole, in short, in summary, in the final analysis, in the long run, on balance, to sum up, to summarize, finally
by the way, incidentally
here, there, over there, beyond, nearly, opposite, under, above, to the left, to the right, in the distance
above, behind, by, near, throughout, across, below, down, off, to the right, against, beneath, in back of, onto, under, along, beside, in front of, on top of, among, between, inside, outside, around, beyond, into, over

Beyond transitions, there are several other techniques that you can use to clarify your speech organization for your audience. The next sections address several of these techniques, including internal previews, internal summaries, and signposts.

Internal Previews

An internal preview is a phrase or sentence that gives an audience an idea of what is to come within a section of a speech. An internal preview works similarly to the preview that a speaker gives at the end of a speech introduction, quickly outlining what he or she is going to talk about (i.e., the speech’s three main body points). In an internal preview, the speaker highlights what he or she is going to discuss within a specific main point during a speech.

Ausubel was the first person to examine the effect that internal previews had on retention of oral information (Ausubel, 1968). Basically, when a speaker clearly informs an audience what he or she is going to be talking about in a clear and organized manner, the audience listens for those main points, which leads to higher retention of the speaker’s message. Let’s look at a sample internal preview:

To help us further understand why recycling is important, we will first explain the positive benefits of recycling and then explore how recycling can help our community.

When an audience hears that you will be exploring two different ideas within this main point, they are ready to listen for those main points as you talk about them. In essence, you’re helping your audience keep up with your speech.

Rather than being given alone, internal previews often come after a speaker has transitioned to that main topic area. Using the previous internal preview, let’s see it along with the transition to that main point.

Now that we’ve explored the effect that a lack of consistent recycling has on our community, let’s explore the importance of recycling for our community (transition). To help us further understand why recycling is important, we will first explain the positive benefits of recycling and then explore how recycling can help our community (internal preview).

While internal previews are definitely helpful, you do not need to include one for every main point of your speech. In fact, we recommend that you use internal previews sparingly to highlight only main points containing relatively complex information.

Internal Summaries

Whereas an internal preview helps an audience know what you are going to talk about within a main point at the beginning, an internal summary is delivered to remind an audience of what they just heard within the speech. In general, internal summaries are best used when the information within a specific main point of a speech was complicated. To write your own internal summaries, look at the summarizing transition words in Table 10.1 “Transition Words” Let’s look at an example.

To sum up, school bullying is a definite problem. Bullying in schools has been shown to be detrimental to the victim’s grades, the victim’s scores on standardized tests, and the victim’s future educational outlook.

In this example, the speaker was probably talking about the impact that bullying has on an individual victim educationally. Of course, an internal summary can also be a great way to lead into a transition to the next point of a speech.

In this section, we have explored how bullying in schools has been shown to be detrimental to the victim’s grades, the victim’s scores on standardized tests, and the victim’s future educational outlook (internal summary). Therefore, schools need to implement campus-wide, comprehensive antibullying programs (transition).

While not sounding like the more traditional transition, this internal summary helps readers summarize the content of that main point. The sentence that follows then leads to the next major part of the speech, which is going to discuss the importance of antibullying programs.

Have you ever been on a road trip and watched the green rectangular mile signs pass you by? Fifty miles to go. Twenty-five miles to go. One mile to go. Signposts within a speech function the same way. A signpost is a guide a speaker gives her or his audience to help the audience keep up with the content of a speech. If you look at Table 10.1 “Transition Words” and look at the “common sequence patterns,” you’ll see a series of possible signpost options. In essence, we use these short phrases at the beginning of a piece of information to help our audience members keep up with what we’re discussing. For example, if you were giving a speech whose main point was about the three functions of credibility, you could use internal signposts like this:

  • The first function of credibility is competence.
  • The second function of credibility is trustworthiness.
  • The final function of credibility is caring/goodwill.

Signposts are simply meant to help your audience keep up with your speech, so the more simplistic your signposts are, the easier it is for your audience to follow.

In addition to helping audience members keep up with a speech, signposts can also be used to highlight specific information the speaker thinks is important. Where the other signposts were designed to show the way (like highway markers), signposts that call attention to specific pieces of information are more like billboards. Words and phrases that are useful for highlighting information can be found in Table 10.1 “Transition Words” under the category “emphasis.” All these words are designed to help you call attention to what you are saying so that the audience will also recognize the importance of the information.

Key Takeaways

  • Transitions are very important because they help an audience stay on top of the information that is being presented to them. Without transitions, audiences are often left lost and the ultimate goal of the speech is not accomplished.
  • Specific transition words, like those found in Table 10.1 “Transition Words” , can be useful in constructing effective transitions.
  • In addition to major transitions between the main points of a speech, speakers can utilize internal previews, internal summaries, and signposts to help focus audience members on the information contained within a speech.
  • Using the main points you created earlier in this chapter, create clear transitions between each main point. Look at the possible transition words in Table 10.1 “Transition Words” See which words are best suited for your speech. Try your transitions out on a friend or classmate to see if the transition makes sense to other people.
  • Take your most complicated main point and create an internal preview for that main point and then end the point with an internal summary.
  • Think about your current speech. Where can you use signposts to help focus your audience’s attention? Try at least two different ways of phrasing your signposts and then decide which one is better to use.

Ausubel, D. P. (1968). Educational psychology . New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

Stand up, Speak out Copyright © 2016 by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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#274: How to Use Linking Words in English | However, Instead, Therefore

May 10, 2023 | Advanced Vocabulary , Confusing Words in English

linking words for a speech

Did you know words such as however, instead, meanwhile, and therefore help your speech to flow? They create smooth transitions from one sentence to the next. 

I like to think of these words as creating a bridge between sentences or ideas.

Without that bridge, there may be an unexpected or abrupt gap between ideas, which can confuse your listeners. 

Right now you might be thinking, “ That sounds great… but I don’t really know how to use them or what those words mean .” 

I hear you. And that’s why I’m sharing this lesson today.

These linking words – known as conjunctive adverbs in English grammar – are essential for clear, confident communication in English .

In fact, linking words are a crucial component of fluent and cohesive English communication. They help to connect ideas, show relationships between sentences, and create a logical flow of thought.

In this Confident English lesson, you’ll learn how to use linking words to compare and contrast as well as how to show cause and effect and progression.

Plus, you’ll learn what common linking words — such as however, instead, meanwhile — mean as well as how they are used in context. These words are commonly used in both written and spoken English, and can greatly enhance the clarity and coherence of your communication.

By the end of this lesson, you’ll have a solid understanding of how to use these essential linking words in your English communication for improved fluency and cohesion! 

Related Lessons:

  • Linking Words for Smooth Transitions

Linking Words in English | However, Instead, Therefore and More

What are conjunctive adverbs.

To start, let’s get a clear understanding of how these English linking words or conjunctive adverbs work and why they’re important.

A conjunctive adverb is an adverb (such as however or accordingly ) or an adverb phrase (such as on the other hand or as a result ) that joins two related ideas together, creating a bridge or smooth transition.

They’re also known as linking words.

More important, conjunctive adverbs have a job to do.

When used in a sentence, they

  • Show a connection between two ideas/thoughts in one sentence;
  • Link the ideas/thoughts mentioned through two or more sentences;
  • Clarify the relationships between ideas/thoughts within an independent clause.

What this means is they help us to

  • Compare/contrast
  • Show cause and effect
  • Indicate progression or sequence

How to use conjunctive adverbs in writing? 

Conjunctive adverbs are used in speaking and writing. 

There are a few specific rules when using these linking words in writing .

When it connects two ideas/thoughts in a sentence, we use a semicolon before it and a comma after it. 

  • Ex . “ My daughter broke her arm while climbing a tree ; consequently, she won’t be to write her homework for school for the next few weeks. ”

When conjunctive adverbs are used to connect ideas across several sentences or indicate the relationship between ideas it is followed by a comma.

  • Ex . “ Lina , however, will be joining us for the meeting tomorrow. ”
  • Ex . “ However, Lina will be joining us for the meeting tomorrow .”

And now, let’s look at specific conjunctive adverbs we use to indicate contrast, comparison, cause and effect, and progression.

In each case, I’ll share specific examples of linking words with sentences as well.

Conjunctive Adverbs for Contrast

  • Def : used to introduce a statement that contrasts with or seems to contradict something that has been said previously; means despite whatever manner, way, or degree
  • Ex . “ There may, however, be a good reason why Nina couldn’t come to the party. ”
  • Def : in a reversed manner or relationship; opposite way
  • Ex . “ Kelly has a sweet tooth; conversely, her husband prefers savory foods.”
  • Def : to indicate substitution or replacement; alternatively
  • Ex . “ We had planned to see a movie and then go to dinner. By the time we got there, the movie was over; instead, we chose to go straight to the restaurant. ”
  • On the other hand
  • Def : in contrast to the previous statement; presents a different point of view
  • Ex . “ I’d love to implement this new social media strategy; on the other hand, I think it will take longer than we think to implement. ”

Conjunctive Adverbs for Comparison

  • Def : in the same way
  • Ex . “We offer a great benefits package to our employees; likewise, we also offer competitive salaries.” 
  • Def : in like style, way, or manner 
  • Ex . “ Similarly, cyclists must also stop at red lights. ”

Conjunctive Adverbs for Cause & Effect

  • Accordingly
  • Def : in agreement with; correspondingly
  • Ex . “ Classes are canceled today; accordingly, you’ll be given an extra day to study for your upcoming test. ”
  • Def : because of a preceding fact/premise
  • Ex . “ The project deadline has changed and we’ll need to finish this earlier than expected; hence, we’ll need everyone on the team to shift their focus until this project is complete. ”
  • Def : for that reason, cause, or purpose (refers to previously mentioned idea/thought)
  • Ex . “ We’ve accidentally doubled booked the meeting room; therefore, we’ll have to ask you to move your meeting to a later time. ”
  • Consequently
  • Def : as a negative result of something
  • Ex . “ I spent most of my money on the renovations and, consequently, could not buy a car. ”

Conjunctive Adverbs for Progression/Sequence

  • Subsequently
  • Def : at a later time; following right after in time or place
  • Ex . “ The third quarter losses were unforeseen. The company, subsequently, laid off 50 employees. ”
  • Def : at a later time; following after in time
  • Ex . “ Then, the company filed for bankruptcy. ”
  • Def : at the end or conclusion; ultimately or lastly
  • Ex . “ Finally, I believe it’s important to advocate for gender equity in the workplace. ”
  • Note : We also use ordinal numbers as conjunctive adverbs to indicate a sequence (i.e. first, second, third, etc.)
  • Incidentally
  • Def : used to introduce a related idea/thought, after the main topic is mentioned, but with less importance.
  • Ex . “ We loved the play; incidentally, remind me to send you the directions to the theater .”

Conjunctive Adverbs for Time

  • Def : until something expected happens; while something else is happening
  • Ex . “ The cake should cool for at least an hour. Meanwhile, begin preparing the buttercream. ”
  • Def : of late; recently
  • Ex . “Lately, I’ve been walking to work instead of taking the bus. ”
  • Def : at the present time; also used when beginning to tell someone about something
  • Ex . “Now, keep in mind that New York is a busy city with millions of people.”
  • Ex . “It took Zena many years to sharpen her skills; now, she mentors young people across the city.”

It’s time to practice!

Read the paragraphs below and determine which conjunctive adverbs from today’s lesson would be appropriate to use in each blank.

Practice 1:

Stress is a common issue in today’s fast-paced world; (1) _______, it can be managed effectively with some simple techniques. (2) Taking breaks throughout the day or going for a walk can help alleviate stress; _________, meditating can help as well. 

Practice 2:

Imagine a team leader in a meeting saying… 

(3) The scope of this product launch is much broader than initially anticipated; ________, I’ll need to re-evaluate our priorities and will ask a few team members to shift their focus to the launch so we can meet our deadlines. (4) ________, Susan and Ahmed, I’ll keep you on rebranding the campaign for XYZ Company as we have some important deadlines approaching for that project as well.

You can share your answers — as well as your questions — with me in the comments below. I’ll also add possible answers at the top of the comment section.

~ Annemarie

linking words for a speech

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Possible answers to the quiz: Answers : (1) however; (2) Similarly; (3) Subsequently; (4) Meanwhile

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Practice 1: Stress is a common issue in today’s fast-paced world; (1) however, it can be managed effectively with some simple techniques. (2) Taking breaks throughout the day or going for a walk can help alleviate stress; likewise, meditating can help as well.  Practice 2: (3) The scope of this product launch is much broader than initially anticipated; subsequently, I’ll need to re-evaluate our priorities and will ask a few team members to shift their focus to the launch so we can meet our deadlines. (4) meanwhile, Susan and Ahmed, I’ll keep you on rebranding the campaign for XYZ Company …  Read more »

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Linking Words: List of Sentence Connectors in English with Examples!

Struggling to connect ideas? ‘Connectors in English’ have your back. Connect, express, and impress – all with Connectors in English!

Connectors Definition

6. ON THE OTHER HAND

11. ALL THE SAME

👉 SIMILARITY

Read more: Difference between COMPARED TO and COMPARED WITH

👉 SEQUENCING

2. TO BEGIN WITH

👉 ORDER OF IMPORTANCE

1. MOST IMPORTANTLY

👉 PARTICULARIZATION

👉 examplification, 👉 explanation, 👉 emphasising, 👉 focusing and linking, 👉 conclusion, 👉 correction.

3. AFTERWARDS

👉 DISMISSAL

(of what was said before)

Linking Words Quiz › TEST YOURSELF

👉  connectors synonyms, 👉  sentence definition.

Through sentences we tell other people what we think, feel, or what we want to do . In order to relate those thoughts we string together words into groups. These finally relate our message to other people and the world.

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English Language

Linking Words

Also called Connecting words — Overview

Linking & Connecting Words

It is essential to understand how Linking Words , as a part of speech, can be used to combine ideas in writing - and thus ensure that ideas within sentences and paragraphs are elegantly connected - for the benefit of the reader. This will help to improve your writing (e.g. essay, comment, summary (scientific) review, (research) paper, letter, abstract, report, thesis, etc.). It is also fundamental to be aware of the sometimes subtle meaning of these "small" words within the English language.

"Linking Words" is used as a term to denote a class of English words which are employed to link or connect parts of speech or even whole sentences. They are also called connecting words. There are 2 categories of Linking Words (or Connecting Words):

English Conjunctions & Cohesive Devices

Conjunctions

Transition words, connecting words, relations between words.

A concept is an idea - and what is an idea? A thought which is in or on our mind. And what is that? Arguably, even more difficult to describe - if not impossible. So, to make it easier, how do we express ideas? With words - and more often than not - with attitude, gesture, movement, and any other kind of physiological behavior.

So, a concept can be expressed as something between a single word, and an elaborate and in extenso described philosophy.

A concept by itself does not necessarily communicate a clear, unambiguous, understandable meaning. Therefore, especially in written communication, it is more than helpful, to use words, which can join ideas (expressed in different words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs). For this, we need linking words or linking phrases. These are a set of words used to join concepts and to express the relationships between concepts. Depending on the linking words selected, the connection between the concepts becomes more apparent, clear, vivid, self-explanatory, definite or on the contrary, more nebulous, vague, inexplicit, ambiguous or obscure.

Linking Words And Phrases In English (List With Examples)

In this study guide, you will learn how to use linking words in English. You will discover the meaning of common linking words and learn how to use them in a sentence. Examples are provided to show you the sentence position and use of common linking words in English. Check out the exercises at the end to test your understanding!

linking words for a speech

What are linking words?

  • Meanings & uses
  • List with examples

Improve Your English for College or University: 6 Simple Steps

What you will learn:

Discourse markers (‘linkers’) are words or phrases that we use to make links between words in a sentence. These discourse markers are used in both spoken and written English.

Here we will focus on discourse markers in writing and formal spoken English – commonly known as ‘linking words’. Linkers are a way of making connections between ideas and sentences.

Formal and informal linkers

Informal linking words are used in spoken English. You can link your ideas with words and phrases like: I mean , honestly , after all , besides and in any case . It is useful to learn which linking words are most appropriate in formal and informal situations. In an email, you might choose linking words such as so , but , and because . These should already be familiar.

In an essay, you are more likely to choose formal linkers, such as therefore , however , consequently, on the contrary and moreover . There are some linking words that are so formal that you may choose not to use them at all in your writing. Examples include: thus , hence and nonetheless .

Linking words and sentence position

Many linking words are used at the beginning of a sentence, while others can be used in the middle or at the end. Words and phrases connected with sequencing and structure appear at the start of a sentence. Examples include: first , secondly , finally and in conclusion . Adverbs, which express the writer’s opinion, also occur at the start of a sentence, for example evidently and obviously .

Linking words can be used between clauses, in the middle of the sentence. Examples include: words that contrast ideas ( however , although), show consequence ( therefore, as a result), and phrases that add more information ( moreover, furthermore) . A few linking words can be placed at the end of the sentence. Look at the following example: Learning a second language is motivating. It can be very difficult, however .

Punctuation

The use of punctuation with some linking words and phrases is important. Some grammar books provide you with specific rules about punctuation and clauses in a sentence. The most important reason for using punctuation in a sentence is so the reader can understand your intended meaning.

Punctuation, particularly commas , should help the reader to identify clauses in your writing and lead to a clearer understanding of the text. Look at these two example sentences – which is easier to understand?

A: To conclude the cars of the future are likely to be more environmentally friendly however this change may take many years to implement and moreover will require the support of the general public.

B: To conclude, the cars of the future are likely to be more environmentally friendly, however, this change may take many years to implement and, moreover, will require the support of the general public.

Linking words are very important in written texts. Without them, your writing may be disconnected and difficult to read. In English examinations, students are often graded on their ability to write cohesive sentences. Therefore, learning how to use linking words correctly is an important skill in learning English as a second language. The examples below will help you to understand the meaning of linking words in written texts and to improve your own linking skills!  

Linking words: meanings and uses

Conjunctions are a familiar group of linking words, which join two clauses in a sentence, such as but , because or however.  In fact, linking words have many different functions in a sentence and range from single words to phrases of up to four words. The categories below show the most common types of linking words.

Sequencing First, secondly, subsequently, finally

Words like first , second and finally appear at the start of a sentence. They help the reader to navigate their way through the text. They are used in essays but also in instructions, for example recipes.

Adding information In addition, also, furthermore, what is more

These linking words are used to give additional information or to strengthen our argument.

Comparison Similarly, equally, likewise

We use these linking words to add further examples or to make connections between ideas.

linking words for a speech

Giving examples For example, for instance, e.g., such as

Use these linking words to give examples.

Consequence Consequently, therefore, as a result, hence

These linking words can be used to describe how one idea logically follows another.

Generalisation On the whole, generally, in general

These linking words are usually positioned at the start of a sentence. They are used before a general statement.

Summing up To sum up, in summary, to summarise, to conclude, in conclusion

These types of phrases are commonly used to start the final section of an essay. They are also used in formal spoken English, for example a speech or the TV news, to signal to the listener that the speech is coming to an end.

Contrasting However, on the other hand, conversely, in contrast, rather, while, whereas

These linking words are used to introduce an idea or argument that contrasts with what has been said before. In an essay, they are useful for introducing, for example, the disadvantages in an advantages and disadvantages essay. The use of rather in this context is very formal.

Stating fact In fact, as a matter of fact, actually

These types of linking words can be used to signal to the reader that the writer’s meaning is different to what the reader expects.

Concession Although, despite, in spite of, even though

These linking words are used to show that we acknowledge another person’s opinion, even if we may not agree with it.  

A-Z List of common linking words with examples

The list below includes all the commonly used linking words in written English. Example sentences are also provided to help you understand them in context.  

Additionally Additionally , students should complete at least 3 hours of homework per week.  

As a result In recent years, few students have studied languages at school. As a result , the number of people taking language courses at degree level has decreased.  

But It is important to adjust your mirrors, but do not do this while driving your car.

Consequently John did not study hard for his exams. Consequently , his grades was disappointing.

Conversely People who have no savings often have trouble when applying for bank loans. Conversely , those who already have savings find it much easier to get credit.

Equally Studying languages face-to-face has a positive impact on learning. Equally , online learning can allow students to progress quickly.

Firstly, secondly, etc. Firstly , we’d like to say a warm welcome to all our new undergrads. Secondly , we’d like to remind you that students should attend all lectures on time for the duration of the semester.

For example You should wear suitable clothing for this trip. For example , a waterproof coat and a warm hat.  

For instance You can substitute some ingredients in this recipe. For instance , honey can be used instead of sugar.

Furthermore In my opinion, the government should provide adequate guidance on physical exercise. Furthermore , I believe it has a duty to advise the public on health and diet.

Generally (speaking) Generally , working from home is less stressful and more productive than working in a noisy office.

Hence Mark had inherited a lot of money from his grandmother; hence the large house.  

However Sports facilities, such as gyms and swimming pools, help people to keep fit. However , people also need motivation to help them improve their health.

In addition As a community, we should do more to improve our wellbeing. In addition , the government should start a new advertising campaign to promote health and fitness nationwide.

In conclusion In conclusion , the advantages of tourism outweigh the disadvantages.

linking words for a speech

In contrast Working from home can save time and money. In contrast , commuting long distances to work every day can be time-consuming and expensive.  

In fact We didn’t enjoy the film. In fact , it was pretty terrible!

In general In general , working from home is more convenient than travelling to the office.

In particular Young children are influenced by the people around them, in particular their parents.  

In spite of this Tony was not offered a place at his chosen university. In spite of this , he achieved a first class degree and went on to have a successful career.

Likewise Squirrels feed on hard grains and nuts, using their sharp front cutting teeth to break up their food. Likewise , rats are able to gnaw through hard materials.

Moreover Children from less affluent households were reported to read less. Moreover , children who did not have books in the house were found to be much more likely to have a low reading age.

Nevertheless You should try to eat five portions of fruit and vegetables a day and reduce your fat intake. Nevertheless , any changes you can make to your diet will have a positive effect.  

Nonetheless The disadvantages of living in a city include noise and pollution. Nonetheless , the majority of people still choose to live in urban areas.

On the contrary On the contrary , many students chose universities that showed a good standard of teaching rather than a high ranking.

On the other hand Tourism can have a positive effect on the wealth of a country. On the other hand , it can also have a negative impact on the environment.

On the whole On the whole , most students prefer informal tutorial groups to large group lectures.  

Rather Rob wasn’t successful in the interview, rather he was given some advice on improving his application.

So I really love Spanish culture, so I’m looking forward to my trip to Madrid next month.

Such as Stringed instruments, such as the violin and the cello, are among the most difficult to learn.

Therefore Sue broke her leg. Therefore , she was unable to attend work for a month.

Thus The availability of high-sugar and high-fat foods has had an impact on people’s health; thus , the rate of obesity is increasing.

To conclude To conclude , a child’s home background has a dramatic effect on their educational achievement.

Positive excited multi-ethnic students in casual clothing lying on floor in campus library and laughing while watching curious video on laptop

To summarise To summarise , consumer habits are changing: there has been a marked increase in the amount of clothing and technology sold online during the pandemic.

To sum up To sum up , learning a new skill, like a language, can be challenging, but it is also rewarding.

Similarly Similarly , increasing the price of fuel and raising parking charges may discourage people from driving into city centres.

Still Digital technology has made working from home easier. Still , many people prefer the social contact of going to their workplace.

What is more Too much screen time may affect children’s activity levels. What is more , extended time spent using electronic devices may have a negative impact on their eyesight.

Whereas Boys tend to develop physical skills, such as jumping, at a young age, whereas girls tend to develop fine motor skills.

While While men still make up the largest proportion of students on science courses, the number of women is steadily increasing.

Yet The penalties for breaking the law are high, yet some people continue to commit crimes.  

Linking words: exercises

  • Which of these groups of linking words show consequence? a. however, although, but b. therefore, so, as a result c. for example, such as d. to conclude, in summary, to sum up
  • Which of these groups of linking words are used to contrast ideas? a. however, although, but b. therefore, so, as a result c. for example, such as d. to conclude, in summary, to sum up
  • Which linking word does not belong in this group? a. on the whole b. in general c. as a result d. generally
  • Which statement is correct? a. Linking words can be positioned at the start, middle or end of a sentence. b. Linking words can be positioned at the start or end of a sentence. c. There are no rules about where linking words can be positioned in a sentence. d. Linking words can be positioned at the middle or end of a sentence.
  • Which word is spelled incorrectly ? a. nonethemless b. consequently c. similarly d. likewise
  • Which word has a similar meaning to ‘sum up’? a. in conclusion          b. in addition          c. in contrast
  • I eat lots of vegetables, _______________ carrots, broccoli and peppers. a. such as b. similarly          c. therefore
  • Jason’s income has decreased in recent months, ________ he needs to be careful with money. a. although b. therefore          c. however
  • The weather here reaches around -10ºC in winter, ________ the summer is quite warm. a. whereas    b. so c. in addition
  • _____________ measure the dry ingredients and put them in a bowl. a. in spite of this      b. first          c. hence
  • You can use a paper dictionary to check vocabulary. _________, you can use an electronic dictionary. a. in any case b. subsequently c. equally d. for instance
  • Eating healthy food can have an impact on your weight and your health. ____________, you should try to limit your consumption of fatty food. a. rather b. in particular c. despite this d. while
  • There are many ways to read a book electronically. _________, many people still choose to buy paperback books. a. to sum up          b. yet      c. for example        d. what is more
  • Many people like the convenience of working solo from home. _____________, working with other people can be more motivating. a. for instance      b. therefore        c. nonetheless        d. conversely
  • Which word does not fit in this group of linking words? a . on the other hand b. nevertheless c. however      d. finally
  • Which word does not fit in this group of linking words? a. as a matter of fact b. in fact    c. whereas    d. actually  
  • Which linking words are used to add information? a. similarly, equally, likewise b. to conclude, in conclusion, in summary c. on the other hand, whereas, however d. in addition, furthermore, what is more
  • Which linking words are used to make comparisons? a. similarly, equally, likewise b. to conclude, in conclusion, in summary c. on the other hand, whereas, however d. in addition, furthermore, what is more
  • Which linking words are used for summing up? a. similarly, equally, likewise b. to conclude, in conclusion, in summary c. on the other hand, whereas, however d. in addition, furthermore, what is more
  • Which linking words are used to contrast ideas? a. similarly, equally, likewise b. to conclude, in conclusion, in summary c. on the other hand, whereas, however d. in addition, furthermore, what is more

————————————————————————————————————–

  • nonetheless

linking words for a speech

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How to sound more natural: by linking words.

  • By Anita Collins

linking words for a speech

Many English learners pronounce each word separately because they want to make sure their speech is clear and easily understood or because they may “think” in individuals words instead of thought groups. Speaking this way may help with clarity, but it also creates speech that sounds non-native and a bit choppy and mechanical, somewhat like computer-generated speech.  Linking words is key to avoiding this unnatural sound.

Native English speakers connect, or “link,” words together when communicating one thought group. Linking means connecting the last sound of one word to the first sound of the following word. The result? Smooth, natural, fluent-sounding English.

Do you sometimes drop word endings by not pronouncing the final consonant? This problem will be solved if you apply the rules of linking to your speech since linking requires you to connect the final consonant with the following word, if it begins with a vowel. As a result, the final sound becomes the first sound of the word that follows it. 

You know what? This will make things easier for you, too! 

Linking Consonants to Vowels

Let’s look at an example.  

Which is more difficult for you to pronounce: “burned out” or “burn doubt?”

We’re guessing the first one is more of a challenge for you.  The good news is that a native speaker would pronounce “burned out” as we would read “burn doubt.” 

Another example? “It’s – a – cold – evening” can be a mouthful when pronounced separately, but if you say “it sa col devening,” you’ll sound more natural and will spend less effort getting that phrase out! 

Dee nd  Depend  (w/ accent on the first syllable) 
I li t  I lie kit 
Hol n  Hole Don 
Ge p late  Ge da plate
This guy  The sky
Kicke ut  Kick doubt 

Linking ing + Vowel

Be careful not to skip the /g/ sound when linking the ing ending of a word to the vowel sound of the following word. For example, “going on” should not be pronounced as “goin’ on” in standard English. Be sure to create a quick nasal “ng” /ŋ/sound by touching the back of your mouth with the back of your tongue.

Try linking in these examples

  • I’m think ing a bout it
  • How about stay ing i n tonight?
  • Are we really do ing i t? 
  • This just isn’t work ing o ut

Linking Consonant to Same Consonant

When the final consonant of one word is the same as the first consonant of the next word, the consonant is pronounced only once, with a slightly lengthened sound.  

He speak wahili  He speak Swahili 
Bla ar  Black are
Bi ame  Big aim 
We it  Well it 
Ca ever Can ever 
Turn own  Turn down 

Linking Two Different Consonants

 In our section on consonants, we explained the difference between stops and continuants. Remember that “stops” are consonants that are pronounced with a stop in airflow (ex. /b/) while “continuants” are pronounced with a continuation of airflow (ex. /s/). 

Understanding these two types of consonants will help you sound more natural when linking words.  

Here are the rules of linking two different consonants: 

  • When a stop sound is followed by another consonant, you must hold the stop sound. What does this mean?  Instead of releasing air after you create the sound with your lips or tongue, hold the pressure inside your mouth. This applies to both to linking words (ex. “Sit  down”) and consonant combinations within words (ex. “lobster”)
  • Linking continuants is easier since you can just continue from one consonant to the next without stopping the airflow.  For example, “aims to” sounds “aim Stu,” “it’s tall,” sounds like “it stall.” 

Make sure that you hold the final consonant of the first word.

up top             baked buns          great day          cookbook

help now      fried beans            big dog            dark night

Need help? 

For more tips on how to make your English speaking sound more natural, check out these articles on connected speech:

  • Intrusive Sounds (when sounds are added) 
  • Elision (when sounds are removed) 
  • Assimilation (when sounds change)

Would you like a little more coaching on your pronunciation with a professional ESL teacher?  To learn more about English pronunciation and practice it in conversation, join SpeakUp , a dynamic program that engages you in authentic conversations on relevant topics and provides you with feedback from a professional experienced English teacher.  The first week is free for you to try it out!  

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How to Speak Sophisticated English using Linking Words

/ Steven Hobson / Business English , Vocabulary

linking words impactful english

A common goal for professionals with an intermediate to advanced level of English is to sound more sophisticated when participating in meetings, writing emails , or just in general conversation.

An excellent way to speak English with more sophistication is by replacing basic linking words (e.g. “but,” “and,” “because”) with advanced linking words (e.g. “in spite of,” “due to”).

Doing this will enlarge your vocabulary and improve your structure at the same time, which are the two main ways of speaking English with more sophistication.

Remember that your first and most important objective when using English should always be to communicate your message clearly.

And once you feel confident that you can express yourself in a clear way, you can then advance and start looking at ways of sounding more sophisticated and native-like .

By the end of this post, you’ll know how to sound more sophisticated by using advanced linking words. You’ll also learn three ways to improve your memory and confidence using them in real-life situations.

linking words for a speech

Quick Review: What are linking words?

A linking word is a word or phrase which links parts of a sentence, or two sentences together.

“But,” “because,” “and,” “so,” are examples of basic linking words (also called conjunctions), which we use frequently.

“However,” “although,” “therefore,” “in spite of,” “nevertheless,” are examples of advanced linking words. We use these less frequently than the basic linking words.

How to Start Using Advanced Linking Words to Sound More Sophisticated

The idea here is not to completely replace basic linking words with advanced linking words, as they form part of the foundation of the English language.

Our objective is to use advanced linking words from time to time . You only need to use them a little to sound more sophisticated.

We are going to look at three common functions when using linking words:

1. Adding ideas.

2. Explaining expected results, outcomes, and consequences.

3. Conflicting ideas.

Then I’ll demonstrate how you can replace basic linking words with advanced linking words.

Mini-course: fluency and confidence

Function 1: Adding ideas.

Typically we use the basic linking words “and,” “also,” and “too,” to express “adding” ideas.

You can replace these basic linking words, with the advanced linking words, “besides,” “in addition to,” “as well as,” and “furthermore.”

In this example, we look at the “adding” idea of a company acquiring two other companies.

Basic linking word examples:

Last year we acquired two companies: ABC and XYZ. Last year we acquired ABC. We also acquired XYZ. Last year we acquired the company ABC. We acquired XYZ too .

Advanced linking words examples:

Besides acquiring ABC last year, we took over XYZ. In addition to acquiring ABC last year, we took over XYZ. As well as acquiring ABC last year, we took over XYZ. Last year we acquired ABC company. Furthermore , we took over XYZ. (“Furthermore” implies that taking over XYZ was more important than acquiring ABC.)

* You can also use synonyms to add sophistication to your speech. Instead of using the verb “acquire” twice in the same sentence. I used the phrasal verb “take over” in the second sentence clause.

Function 2: Explaining expected results, outcomes, and consequences.

When we express expected results, outcomes, and consequences, we typically use the basic linking words: “because” and “so.”

You can replace these basic linking words with the advanced linking words, “as a result,” “as a consequence,” “consequently”, “due to,” and “therefore.”

In this example, I use the idea that a smaller advertising budget will result in fewer sales.

Because of our smaller advertising budget, we made fewer sales. We made fewer sales because of our smaller advertising budget. We had a smaller advertising budget, so we made fewer sales.

Advanced linking word examples:

As a resul t of the smaller advertising budget, we made fewer sales. We had a smaller advertising budget and, as a consequence , we made fewer sales. We had a smaller advertising budget. Consequently , we made fewer sales. Due to having a smaller advertising budget, we made fewer sales. We had a smaller advertising budget. Therefore,  we made fewer sales.

Function 3: Conflicting ideas (explaining unexpected results/outcomes).

When we talk about two conflicting ideas in one sentence, we often use the basic linking word, “but.”

You can replace “but” with more advanced linking words: ”although,” “however,” “in spite of (the fact that),” “despite (the fact that),” “nevertheless”, and “yet,” to sound more sophisticated.

In this example, we’ll use the conflicting idea of selling fewer products, but making more profit.

Basic linking word example:

We sold fewer products but made more profit.

Although we sold fewer products, we made more profit. We sold fewer products. However , we made more profit. In spite of selling fewer products, we made more profit. In spite of the fact that we sold fewer products, we made more profit. Despite selling fewer products, we made more profit. Despite the fact that we sold fewer products, we made more profit. We sold fewer products. Nevertheless , we made more profit. We sold fewer products, yet made more profit.

3 Ways to Improve Your Memory and Confidence Using Advanced Linking words

1. Check the structure when using advanced linking words in emails and speeches for presentations with these two tools: Grammarly and Linguee .

2. Take advantage of the SRS (Spaced Repetition System) for remembering new vocabulary and language. I recommend Flashcard Deluxe , which is a flashcard app for IOS and Android. Instead of reviewing individual words (e.g. “Despite”), practice saying the whole phrase, (“Despite selling fewer products, we made more profit.”).

3. Use advanced linking words by integrating them into your business presentations, meetings and emails in English. The more you integrate them in real-life situations, the more confident you’ll feel using them.

How to Apply This Information Now

  • Choose one of the three functions which you think you would use the most, e.g. explaining expected results.
  • Select an advanced linking word (“due to”) and replace a basic one (“so”).
  • Go to Linguee and research “due to” so that you are clear about how to structure a sentence. Or check the form in a good grammar book.
  • Write some sentences with “due to” in your flashcard app or notebook and practice saying them until you feel confident.
  • The next time you have to talk about an expected result, use “due to.”

Although I have shown you how to use advanced linking words, it is still important to use the basic linking words, like “and,” “also” “too,” “because,” and “but,” as they are critical in day to day speech.

By using advanced linking words from time to time, you will widen your vocabulary and improve your structure, so it’s a great way to speak English with more sophistication.

200 Expressions for English Meetings

Author: Steven Hobson

Steven is a business English coach, a certified life coach, writer, and entrepreneur. He helps international professionals build confidence and improve fluency speaking English in a business environment.

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Linking Words: How To Use Them & Why You Should

  • LLS English
  • October 28, 2022
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Linking Words: How To Use Them & Why You Should

Approx 20% of The World's Population Speaks English & You Can Too

The use of linking words in business speech

Some common linking words that are used in business speech include: “and,” “but,” “or,” “so,” “yet,” and “because.”

linking words for a speech

Types of linking words

  • furthermore

Learning English Can Also Improve Your Confidence & Self-Esteem.

Use of linking words in the English language

  • consequently
  • Make sure that the link between two ideas is clear. If it’s not, the meaning of your writing will be lost on your reader.
  • Use linking words sparingly. Overusing them can make your writing sound choppy and difficult to read.
  • Pay attention to the grammar of your linking words. Some (such as ‘however’) can only be used in certain positions within a sentence.
  • Practice using different linking words in your own writing so that you become more familiar with them.

How to use links words correctly

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IELTS Preparation with Liz: Free IELTS Tips and Lessons, 2024

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  • Test Information FAQ
  • Band Scores
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  • Computer IELTS: Pros & Cons
  • How to Prepare
  • Useful Links & Resources
  • Recommended Books
  • Writing Task 1
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  • Speaking Part 1 Topics
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  • Speaking Part 3 Topics
  • 100 Essay Questions
  • On The Day Tips
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  • Advanced IELTS

Linking Words for IELTS Speaking: Word List & Tips

Here is a list of linking words for your IELTS speaking with tips and models. For speaking you need some simple linking words and natural phrases to help the examiner follow your ideas and stories. These linking words  and signposts are simple and informal on the whole. IELTS writing is different and requires the use of a wide range of linkers.

Adding more information

  • another reason is

Time Phrases

You should use signposts to help the listening understand when you are talking about the past or the present.

  • at the moment
  • in the past
  • at that time
  • when I was younger

Expressing ideas

  • I think one important thing is
  • I guess one difference is
  • I suppose the main difference between X and Y is

Causes and Solutions

  • I guess it’s because
  • The main reason is
  • It was caused by
  • I suppose the best way to deal with this problem is
  • I reckon the only answer is to
  • The best way to solve this is

Giving Examples

These connective devices are for giving examples in your answers. The most common and natural to use is “like”. Please note that “like” can’t be used as a linking device in IELTS writing.

  • for example
  • for instance

Being Clear

You use these simple, natural expression to explain your point again more clearly or get your answer back on track.

  • What I mean is
  • What I want to say is
  • As I was saying

Contrasting and concessions

Use these connecting words to compare and contrast or give concessions.

  • on the other hand

Free PDF Download:  Linking words for IELTS Speaking

Examples of Linking Words in Speaking

Look at the following questions and answers. See what linking words are contained in the answers.

Q. Do you eat much fruit?

A. Yes, I do. I love tropical fruit like mangoes and pineapples.

Comments: We would not use “for example” in this type of sentence which relates to our everyday life.

Q. Do you think fast food is bad?

A. Y es, I do. If it is eaten too often, it can cause problems such as heart disease or diabetes. Also , it can lead to weight problems which are really common nowadays.

Comments: You could use “such as” or “for example” in this sentence because the content is more serious. Please note that we don’t use “furthermore” or “in addition” for speaking, instead we use “also” or “and”.

Q. Do children play similar games today that they played in the past?

A. No, I don’t think they do. Before , children used to play simple games like hide and seek or they used to play with simple handmade toys. But,  these days , kids tend to prefer computer games and their toys are battery operated. 

Comments: This answer contained time phrases for the past and present “before” and “these days”. It also had an example “like”. “Like” is the main example linking word for speaking and can be repeated again and again. This answer also uses a contrasting linking word “but”. “But” is the main contrasting linking word in speaking and can be repeated many times.

Mistakes with Linking Words in Speaking

The example below will help you understand how not to answer a question with linking words.

Q. Do you like going out with friends?

A. Yes, I do. Firstly , it gives me a chance to relax. Secondly , I can catch up on their news. Last but not least , it allows me the opportunity to visit new places.

Comments: The method of linking is too formal. It is inappropriate and is not a good for a high score.

See below what the answer should be:

A. Yes, I do. It’s great being able to chill out and catch up with their news. Also we often go out to new places which I really enjoy.

Comments: This answer was more natural and would be marked higher in IELTS speaking. The linking words are used appropriately (and / also).

Tips for Linking Devices in IELTS Speaking

  • Don’t use formal linking words for simple questions about yourself and your life.
  • Don’t worry about repeating linking words. This is different to IELTS writing.
  • The most common linking words for speaking are: and, but, because, also, like (for giving examples)
  • “Like” is only used as a linking word to give examples in speaking NOT in writing.
  • You do not get a higher score because used a range of linking devices.
  • Linking words in speaking are just to help the listener understand better.
  • Linking words are used naturally not formally in IELTS speaking.
  • Linking words are part of the criterion of “Fluency and Coherence” which is 25% of your marks.

Linking Devices for IELTS Writing

The following link will provide you with a list of E ssential Linking Words for Writing Task 2 . For IELTS writing, you MUST use a range of formal linking words in your essay to get a high score. This is applicable to both GT and academic students.

IELTS Speaking Questions

IELTS speaking common questions and topics to practice for your test.

IELTS Speaking Part 1 Topics IELTS Speaking Part 2 Topics IELTS Speaking Part 3 Topics

IELTS Speaking Model Answers and Tips:

Ielts speaking page.

Main IELTS Pages Develop your IELTS skills with tips, model answers, lessons, free videos and more. IELTS Listening IELTS Reading IELTS Writing Task 1 IELTS Writing Task 2 IELTS Speaking Vocabulary for IELTS IELTS Test Information (FAQ) Home Page: IELTS Liz

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Linking Words

Please Liz, is it ok to use word fillers like “umm” when you are thinking of ideas in IELTS speaking test? Does it reduces the scoring?

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See this page: https://ieltsliz.com/saying-umm-ahh-in-ielts-speaking/ and then review all tips on my main speaking page: https://ieltsliz.com/ielts-speaking-free-lessons-essential-tips/

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I just had my speaking test. I’s well prepared but the moment I entered things were quite different. I got nervous and forgot all vocabulary. Examiner was ready with recording started. I didn’t listen the greeting and asked question where I am from. I mentioned about my hometown but she cross checked with passport and asked again where I am living now. when I described in apartment she asked why?. I got quite tough clue card that person I know who grow plants? . For each answer she was asking Why? whole session was on plants. Please add this topic in sample clue card 🙂

That certainly was a tough topic for part 2. However, hopefully you prepared the topic of gardens and parks for part 1 and the topic of the environment for part 3 – all such preparation would help tackle that topic. I’ll add this to my list of topics for this year. Good luck with your results 🙂

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Hello Liz, You are doing amazing work for all the students who are pursuing IELTS. I have a question, I am going to sit for IELTS soon. I belong to Bangladesh and I heard that while speaking to the examiner, I shouldn’t use “You”, “You Know”, or “You might not know” – these types of words or sentences. I am not allowed to use “YOU” while speaking. One of my mock test examiners said, that it is strictly prohibited for the British council speaking test module. As examiners always judge Bangladeshi or non-native speakers harshly. Especially, the speakers whose first language is not English. Can you please reply as soon as possible? Shouldn’t I use “You” or “You – sentences” while my speaking exam?

This is 100% untrue. Completely false information. Of course, you can use “you” or “you know” or anything else that we normally use in spoken English in the IELTS test. The speaking test is informal – it is a friendly chat with the examiner. Be natural, speak naturally, be chatty and friendly. For Writing Task 2, the formal essay, we usually avoid using “you”. But that certainly isn’t the case in the speaking test. See this page for my model answers and you’ll see how natural the language is: https://ieltsliz.com/ielts-speaking-free-lessons-essential-tips/ . IELTS examiners are taught to mark fairly. If you feel you have been marked down for any reason, you have the right to get a remark. All remarks are done by senior examiners in another country – not in Bangladesh. Good luck in your test!!

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Hi Liz, you are my favourite teacher since my school time. I read your content each day while learning with my friend Poonam . Thanks for all the guidance . Hope to meet you someday.😇🌟

Thanks for your comment. Glad you enjoy my lessons 🙂

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It is nice to see you active and responding to queries of students. I hope that you are doing good and your health has improved.

Much power and light to you. Stay healthy 🙂

Thanks. My health is up and down, but next year I’m hoping for good things 🙂 Glad you finding my site useful 🙂

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I have been to many websites , I was looking for connector word cause tomorrow is my actual exam still so nervous if anyone read this comment wish me a luck guys also this websites highly recommended 😊

So sorry I read your comment late. I really hope your test went well. I’ll keep my fingers crossed that you get good results 🙂

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Hello Liz, I am following your website since 1.5 months and also had recommended it to my friends. I have doubt regarding pronunciation. In India, we speaks some of the words differently, Ex; Either, Neither, Gross Etc. means there is a difference in accent. will that affect score?

I had also posted many comments about my doubts to various pages and also used to check regularly whether you had replied or not. But unfortunately, my comment is not showing in any of the page. What’s the problem in it Liz?

You do not have to have a British English accent or an American accent. You can still have an accent which reflects your background. What the examiner is looking for in pronunciation and in relation to accents is your ability to speak clearly, be understand, have clear and consistent individual sounds, use linking etc. As long as you are easy to understand, you can get a high score. If you feel your accent is too heavy, then definitely work on that before the test.

About posting comments, I work alone and only answer the comments I have time to answer.

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Hello Liz 👋👋, Thank you for all the (IELTS prep) resources you have made available to the public through your website and YouTube channel.

I took the tests on Oct 31st and I did well(first attempt). I am happy that I settled to prepare for the tests with only your resources L9,S8,R7,W7

You’re results are great. Very well done to you 🙂

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Hey, Can we use words like chill, cool, catch up etc in my speaking? Also is there something like I can’t say don’t..I’ll have to say do not.

Kindly let me know about these.

The speaking test is informal and you can use informal language. Go to the HOME page of this website and access all main sections to learn more.

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While talking about something in IELTS speaking, shall we use Second Person Singular or First Person plural? Such as

“The Corona Virus enters the body when you/we breath in infected droplets or when you/we touch a contaminated surface”

Most of the times we use “You” to refer to an example. Kindly advise about this.

Thanks and Regards

Zia ur Rehman

IELTS Speaking is informal, not formal. This means you don’t need to worry about that sort of thing. It is completely normal in Emglish when we are speaking to refer to “you” instead of “we” or “one” or “all people”. This should be avoided in IELTS writing.

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Is it wise/permitted to use natural fillers like ‘umm’ , ‘uh’ for the speaking part? Will it deduct my marks if by any chance I use them unconsciously?

“Fillers” are words that you use to fill a space while you are thinking such as “well, let me see, I suppose that …” or “I can’t say I’ve thought about that before but I guess …”. The sound “umm” is not a filler, it is not a word. This means it lower your score because you have stopped speaking. It is natural to use such sounds on occasions and that is permitted, but to use them often because you are struggling with language will lower your score. Make sure you prepare as many topics as possible to have as many ideas as possible to avoid hesitations. See the main speaking page for topics.

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Hi Liz, Can’t we use connectors like however, moreover, further more, on the other hand, apart from it. Thanks.

Sure you can. But always remember that the speaking test is informal – don’t try to be too formal in the way you speak.

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Can using rather formal expressions affect ones speaking test score? – for instance- “in addition instead of and or furthermore instead also”

If your speech seems unnatural, it will affect your score. It is possible to use such linking words on occasion, but I wouldn’t not specifically aim to use them.

Thank You Liz, however I am a bit confused then, what kind of words in particular should I aim for in speaking in order to score high for vocabulary and not to lose due to formal language use?

Kind regards

Do not confuse linking words (which are part of coherence) with vocabulary, which is a separate marking criterion. Linking words for speaking should not be formal because IELTS Speaking is informal, as this page explains. Use “and”, “but” and “because” as many times as you want. The range of linking words is not marked in IELTS Speaking. But your range of vocabulary (not linking words) is marked. So, be flexible with your use of vocabulary.

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Thank you for everything. Studying IELTS is better with you!! 💕

I’m glad my lessons are useful for you 🙂

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Thanks a lot for your helpfulness to those who needed without no profit thats clearly lovely 🤗

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This is very helpful. I appeared in IELTS in 2012 and my band was 6 each. Now i am planning to appear again. I am only relying on your tutorials and hoping for far better results than previous one.

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Do you find your self improving? I got like your score and I want to achieve 7

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Those linking words are really helpful. I am grateful to you. My exam is nearby.

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Hi Liz, I am Thandar from Myanmar. I already finished the IELTS speaking exam today. I’d to say THANK YOU SO MUCH. Your tips,suggestions and videos are very effective for me. Your videos are so supportive and motivated. So, Again Thank you.

Good luck with your results 🙂

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Is it ok, If i ask for some time before a answer ? For example, Will you please give me moment to think ?

The IELTS test does not work that way. You are being marked on your fluency which means no thinking time. If you need time, ask the examiner to repeat the question – but only do that a couple of times.

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i use *and* in speaking too many times is it bad?

It is fine to do that in speaking. If you want to use a different word as a linking word to present additional information, try “also”.

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Hi liz , I do hardwork but i am not achieve but bands and also in mock test i go downword every week .can u tell me solution of this problem

IELTS is an English language test. You need to develop your English first, not your IELTS skills. Learn English with a teacher and when your English is much better, think about IELTS.

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that’s right one

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Hi Liz, Thanks for your speaking lessons. I did a blunder and in nervousness I ended up using a local word in a sentence.

Can you tell me how badly it will affect my score?

It doesn’t affect your score, unless you did it repeatedly. It is always best to explain the word by paraphrasing in English after you say it because that will actually help your score.

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Hi Liz! When you say we will get one minute to prepare notes, does this mean that you basically can write down full sentences or will you just be allowed to write down some small words? Is there any rules about what you can write or not?

You use the one minute as you wish. The examiner will not mark your notes. To write full sentences is a waste of time. You need to make plans and note ideas.

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Hi Liz, is it correct to introduce an answer with “Well”? For instance, “Do you play any sports?” “Well, I like watching sport on TV, but I don’t play any sports in my free time”

Of course it’s fine. The speaking test is informal.

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Hello, Liz)

I got 4.5 point a month ago in Mock Exam. And then I started preparing. I am using Collins IELTS. The exam is on March 10 in Tashkent. Can I get top marks there?

You will get better marks if you have significantly improved your English and if you have developed strong IELTS exam skills.

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I don’t have anyone that could teach me english so I am currently teaching myself. But it is always different when you have someone that you could ask to because sometimes googling your questions does not give you the proper answer.. I hope you’ll be able to read this and answer my question. “A phenomenal sight I was blessed to see” is grammatically wrong? I got confused to the I- was auxiliary verb – blessed adjective- infinitive verb to see. Because of the adjective that i added i was having trouble to understand what auxiliary verb should i use if i used the infinitive verb ‘to see’

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Hi Liz I just wanna as about speaking , so is it okay to use slang in speaking parts or it makes speech too informal?

The IELTS speaking test is informal. Using slang is fine but be careful – you still need to be polite even though it is informal. Never use any language that is insulting or distasteful.

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We absolutely love your blog and find most of your post’s to be precisely what I’m looking for. Does one offer guest writers to write content in your case? I wouldn’t mind composing a post or elaborating on a lot of the subjects you write concerning here. Again, awesome web site!

I do post things written by students. See these pages: https://ieltsliz.com/how-i-increased-my-ielts-score/ https://ieltsliz.com/how-i-got-ielts-band-score-9-overall/

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Hello madam,

I got my IELTS result and it was L 8 R 8 W 7 S 6.5 And I need only a had ban to get the required score , should I go for a remark ?

I meant to say I need only a half band in speaking to get the required score

It is possible to consider a remark but there are no guarantees. Well done with your other scores 🙂

Thank you mam

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If you feel if its satisfactory for you,then i would suggest to go ahead.My personal experience I have received a 0.5higher band score in speaking

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Did you get higher 0.5 band in speaking after remarking?

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Dear Liz! Is it really important to give the short answer before expanding it. For example: do you eat much fruit? Can I start my answer like this: “I try to eat fruits like apples and bananas every day. So I hope that’s sufficient for my vitamin daily consumption”. Or it’d be better to say: “yes, I do” at the beginning. BTW, can we say: do you eat much fruits?

Always start with a direct answer. Don’t try to change a simple question into a complex question. Do you eat fruit everyday? Yes, I do. I try to eat bananas and apples almost every day.” Don’t start talking about sufficient vitamins. You don’t get extra points or a higher score by speaking unnaturally. Part 1 is straight forward. A simple question needs a simple answer. This is not a formal speaking test. It is informal – so give a natural answer.

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Hi Liz, my IELTS exam is couple of days from now, precisely July 31, 2017. I’m not sure I’m quite prepared. I still have lots of ums, ohs and lengthy pauses. How do I overcome these challenges? By the way, your videos and lessons​ are quite helpful.

Did you watch my video on this page: https://ieltsliz.com/ielts-speaking-free-lessons-essential-tips/ . It explains about preparing topics and practising at home. You need to prepare all current topics and all common topics which are listed on this website.

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First I’d like to thank you for your simplicity way to deliver your lessons, but i;ve a big problem with confiedent when I speak as I an’t express what I feel in English way like you, also i don’t have enough vocabulary to use.

Practice topics: https://ieltsliz.com/ielts-speaking-free-lessons-essential-tips/ and also learn vocab for topics: https://ieltsliz.com/vocabulary/

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Can I use “wanna” or “gonna” in speaking test

Please see this page: https://ieltsliz.com/ielts-speaking-using-contractions-wanna-gonna/

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I’m currently studying English in Vietnam National University and I’m going to take the IELTS exams in April. I have read most of your tips for IELTS speaking test and I found it was useful for me. However, I also have used an IELTS book written by Mat Clark and the other one from IELTS Simon. There are some problems that make me feel confused of finding the right way to learn English and I hope you could help me to find the answer.

In Mat Clark’s book, I found some interesting tips for IELTS speaking tests, especially something called “Liking phrases”. For instances, in part 1, there are some linking phrases used to introduce the 1st idea like “The first thing I should mention is that…/The main thing you need to know is that…”, then, some phrases “Something else that I need to comment on is that…/In addition to what I’ve just said, I can add that…” used to add next ones. This is called “Mat Clark’s style”. Likewise, some linking phrases which have been seen in IELTS Simon may be shorter and easier to learn. (well, to be honest, it contains some simple and straight ways to express ideas). In fact, people call them as “Simon’s style”.

Now I absolutely feel nervous about two ways of speaking style. Someone said Mat Clark’s style was too difficult and complicated for learners to get a high score, and the examiner would not be favor of those things like that. Those language mentioned above in Mat Clark’s book was said to be redundant or it was suit to write a book, not a normal communication or exam. They told me to follow Simon’s style.

Could you tell me which way is better to learn or simply use in both the examination and life? Thank you very much.

Mat Clark’s advice on writing task 1, as you stated above, is 100% wrong. “The first thing I should mention is that…” is an example of informal language which is not appropriate for an academic report. IELTS Simon’s advice is fine for both speaking and writing. These are not styles, they are advice about what the examiner is looking for and what is appropriate for a good band score. Mat’s advice of language in task 1 is certainly not one to recommend.

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Hello Liz, are Mat Clark and Matt from “the ielts teacher” same person? Because I sometimes follow Matt’s (“the ielts teacher”) instructions for writing. I’m confused. Could you please make me clear?

I don’t know him so I can’t say. What are you confused about?

I mean in his writing website there are many things that coincide with you. I don’t know about his speaking instruction though.

I don’t know the teacher and I don’t know his advice. If you have a direct question for me, I can help you more easily.

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Hi Liz, I heard from an IELTS teacher that we should talk formally because this is not an informal situation. But you suggested not to use formal english in speaking section. I’m a little bit confused. Could you tell me if it’s going to differ? Regards, Elmira

IELTS speaking is not formal and your language should be naturally and chatty. I am speaking as an ex-examiner myself. You can use phrasal verbs and informal language such as “stuff, things, chuck it out, kids etc”. In IELTS writing you would need to change these words to make them formal: kids = children, chuck it out = to dispose of

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Respected Mam, I do have capability to write, read and listen but i am not good in speaking Can you share lots of videos links having subtitle so that i could repeat words over and over again in order to make accent and fluency in speaking Kindly note my IELTS test is held on 11th Feb. It is requested to share links ASAP. Profound Regards, Suraj Kumar

All my speaking videos are on this page but they don’t have subtitles: https://ieltsliz.com/ielts-speaking-free-lessons-essential-tips/ . I will try to make lessons for pronunciation later.

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Hi mam..how can I improve my speaking skill?I feel panic and tension when I speak infront of any person.can you help me?

See this lesson: https://ieltsliz.com/develop-your-ielts-speaking-for-free/

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Mrs Liz, I totally confuse i participated in my Ielts interview in novermber 18/2016 in Nigeria and I also looking forward to receive my result on December third…But the main point is that as the woman was interviewing me she did not wrote any thing on peper until when she is through with me that when she manage note something down and close it, on the other hand, the recent one I did a month ago” before this second one she defiantly busy noteing some words i’m saying down which I finally scored 5.5, am really scared and sad(😔🙈).Well the main topic question she asked me to talk about base on materials equipment which will use in the house; unfortunately the graph was combined in two form which comprise age of old individuals, thanks for your good work 💞 I applicate. And am looking forward to hearing from you…

The examiner does not need to make notes to know your band score. Some examiners like making notes and some don’t need it. It doesn’t affect your final score.

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You can also join toastmasters club in your locality. It is an international club that help to improve speaking before an audience. Thank me later.

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Thanks mam for giving some information about ielts as well as I can pratice ielts test by your distribute this site and some people easily solve problems by this website .Moreover I think that people should visit this website solve the address which was they confused in ielts exam .So, it’s my suggestion for all candidate it was training in ielts exam. Best of luck 👍👍👍

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hey Mam, I have a question, If someone add personal story or experience in Specking IELTS module then what is effect on band positive or negative???

Sure you can.

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hi liz can we use proverbs in speaking?

Just speak naturally. Don’t try to learn phrases to use. It is rare for native speakers to use proverbs in everyday English.

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hay liz.. Thank you so much.. you have a great website. its help me to understand material about IELTS. WIll be better if you writes all material in this websites on a book =D

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Dear Liz my IELTS exam will be 16 0f July in this year how can i increase my English eaily and quickly to obtain high score

It takes time to develop English and to develop IELTS skills. Start at the beginning and watch my video on my home page. Then see how you progress.

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hi Liz! i’m just elia. it is time to say thank you. your informations are very beneficial for us. it would be more marvelous if you add more details to this list??

https://ieltsliz.com/liz-notice-2015-2016/

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Hello Dear Liz. In this month on 28/1/2016 I have an exam ielts Skill A1 but I am so afraid .I am going to do this exam to get my husband .he lives in UK but I live in Iraq I really want pass this exam but I am afraid about these questions that maks examiner to me.. Can u help me about this? Thanks for your help

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Hi Liz I’m currently living in England and planning to taking ielts on middle of November. Now what I want to know is does any of the test centres in England provides headphones? I think it is quite difficult to concentrate if you hear from a loud speaker than with a headphone. And result varies too. I’m really worried about this. Looking forward for a reply. Thank you 🙂

You would need to contact your local test center to ask them. All the best Liz

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Dear Liz, Could you tell me the ways to get 9 band from IELTS.

All tips and lessons on my blog are for the higher scores, including band 9. Just read and work through my lessons and tips. Liz

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Hi, dear I want to ask you about: if l can ask the examiner to repeat the question? That’s when I didn’t heard clear Thanks alot for you about everything

Sure, it’s fine to ask the examiner to repeat the question. It doesn’t affect your score. You can just say: “Sorry, could you repeat the question please?”. Liz

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Dear Liz, I suppos to sit on ielt on 12th December and getting preparation before test. As i have hearing difficulties and worry about my speaking test and listening test. I probably will get head phone during listening test that will better for me to hear and understand the topic. But i am very much worry and thinking about speaking section. My pronuntiation and sound is not up to the mark due hearing difficulties. Would my score be affected if i repeat quetions twice ? Would you like to give your valuable advice in speaking section for me having hearing difficulties. Thank

Firstly, talk with the people in your local IELTS test center and ask them for advice about what to do for your speaking test. Secondly, when you have your test, you can mention to the examiner that you have hearing problems that might affect your pronunciation. Lastly, ask the examiner to repeat the question if you can’t understand. You won’t lose marks for this because there is no points given for comprehension – only for your English lanugage. When you ask the examiner to repeat the question, you can say ” Sorry could you repeat that because I’m hard of hearing”or “could you say that again because I can’t hear well”. This way your problem is formally recorded. All the best Liz

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Hi Liz, My speaking test is scheduled for August 28th, i think i have the fluency and i’m able to extend my opinions however i’m wondering do my ideas need to be interesting or do i just need to keep talking(without going off topic) ?

There are no points given or taken from interesting ideas or being on or off topic. You are only marked on the language you produce, nothing more. So keep talking. Even if the examiner interrupts your answer, just focus on the next question and add plenty of information. You will probably need to add one sentence in part 1 and about three sentences in part 3. For part 2, you choose what information to give and how to develop your talk. All the best Liz

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hi Liz i have asked you a question before but I guess there is some issue because could not find it anywhere on your website 🙁 I wanted to ask you about a word “hitherto” , could you please tell me can i use this word in my speaking test? like ” hitherto i am not doing studies nor job ” ?? please reply me

The speaking test is informal not formal. Don’t use that word. All the best Liz

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Dear Mam, I got my result L6.5,R6.5,W5.5S6. My requirment is each band 6. I’m little confuse whether to go for remark or book for ielts. Please advice me. Thank you! Bishwa

If you finished both writing task 1 and writing task 2 and also if you wrote over 150 words for task 1 and over 250 words for task 2, then you could consider a remark. All the best Liz

Thank you mam! I have appiled for a remark and desperately waiting for my positive result. Hope I can get my requirement and I have wrote 150 & 250 words but some spelling has got mistake. Finger crossed. Bishwa.

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Hello Liz. Than you for your great website. It has been very helpful for me. I am a teacher helping a student prepare for their IELTS exam. I have learned a great deal about the test and preparation needed from your website. I see that your website is copyright protected. I would like to print information from your page to help assist in teaching my student. I have subscribed to your newsletter. Is there another step I can take to have access to printing from your page? I will sign up or pay a fee if needed. Thank you for your time and expertise.

Unfortunately, I don’t yet have my materials in book form. I will work on it this year and maybe have it available next year. Liz

Ok. Thank you. Thanks again for a great website.

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lady … thank you a million for your help…

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Hi there Liz,

I am going to take my IElTS very soon, which will be my third take. I manage to achieve a band score 7.0 and above for all parts except the writing tasks. I really need a score of 7.0 in writing. Could you help me by briefly commenting on this essay of task 1?

The charts below show what UK graduate and post graduate students who did not go into full-time work did after leaving college in 2008. (This question was taken from Cambridge English IELTS 10).

The bar graphs illustrate information regarding the population of both graduate and postgraduate students in the UK who did not work full-time, with a further classification of four different engagements (part-time, voluntary work, further study and unemployment) that they pursue instead, after graduating from university in 2008.

Overall, majority of the number of students show a similar trend in both groups (graduate and undergraduate) in terms of the four given career paths they have decided to continue after completing college in 2008. Most of these aspiring students chose to further their education. In contrast to this, voluntary work has not been very popular among these learners, which showed the least number.

The first graph displayed a significant population of graduate students, which is also the highest, who decided to aim for a better educational attainment through further studies, which accounted by 29,665. Followed by this, are those who preferred to be employed part-time with a figure of 17,735, while the least number got themselves involved in doing voluntary work with a total of 3,500 people. Unfortunately, the remaining students were unemployed by the total of 16,235.

The second graph shows that among the four activities chosen by postgraduates, the highest number of students went on to study for a higher degree reaching to 2,725 people. Second to this, are those who applied for a part-time job (2,535). The very least number participated in voluntary work and the remaining were unemployed with a population of 345 and 1,625 respectively.

I normally don’t have time to comment on writing but I will give you a quick comment. The content is all fine. The overview gives the key features and the body paragraphs give the detail. However, it is long. Could you really write this in 20 mins? Also try grouping information together in the body paragraphs “The number of postgraduates going on to part time work and further studies is almost the same (2,535 and 2,725 respectively)”. This way you avoid repetition of your sentences. Also if you look at the first chart, there is considerable difference between part time work and further studies which could be mentioned in the body. All the best Liz

Thank you for the enlightening feedback. I will practice writing my essay a bit shorter. I hope the essay that I am going to write during the test is worthy of 7.0. Also I hope to avoid errors in using punctuations like comma.

Kind Regards, Lawrence

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Hi Liz, I practice Cambridge Ielts books for taking Ielts preparation. In some of the listening answer keys I found some answers like, ( standard of) teaching or (the) 2nd half. why are those words written within a bracket? will i loose my mark if i don’t write those words in the main anser sheet? or is it compulsory to mention those words? Reply me soon please. Thanks a lot for your great lessons. It’s helping me a lot. ^_^

Any words given in brackets are optional words for answers. If you see (the) 2nd half, it means that the answer can contain “the” or not contain “the”. Both are correct. Liz

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Hello mam.. I want to improvr my writing task 1 and task 2. My exam is on 8th aug. would you help me out.. thnk you..

All tips and models and lessons are on the main writing pages. Liz

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Hello mam, In IELTS examinatio, listening test, you hear the speaker saying 25th of the March and in that case what should i write in my answer, 25 March or 25th March? Are these both correct?

Both of those are acceptable in IELTS. All the best Liz

Thank u so much mam.

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hi madam , i have doubt about listening test,does score varies if the answer for example is chocolates but if have written as chocolate .Is that will be correct or wrong answer.Please reply me as soon as possible.

The word must be 100% accurate. Please watch the 25 tips video on the listening page. Liz

thank you madam

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Thank you alot Liz for your help

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Hi mam thanks a lot …..i got 6 band in academic .i paid for essay but its not work due to some technical problems…what ever …thanks a lot mam

You must check that your streaming is strong enough by watching the preview video. Well done with your result. Liz

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Dear madam,

In ielts examination particular in writing task 1 & 2, can I do underline of important words or linking words?

Please reply as soon as possible.

Falgun Sharma

I don’t understand your question. Why do you want to underline your own words? I have underlined useful words for students in these speaking models. Why do you want to underline your own words in your essay? Liz

Just to do easier for examiner, he or she ‘ll easily find out the important and linking words, which I hv used in my essay.

The examiner is trained to notice everything. They are professionally trained. You don’t need to underline anything. All the best Liz

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Thank you dear Liz last but not least is also formal?

It’s not really used for speaking. It is unlikely that you will think of 3 or 4 main points for one answer without any time to prepare your ideas. For that reason, you won’t need to use it. Liz

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I think mam you should be also given some model answer for speaking. It is very benefits for us.

Visit the main speaking page: https://ieltsliz.com/ielts-speaking-free-lessons-essential-tips/

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Linking Words in English with Examples

Linking Words in English

Linking words, also known as transition words or connectors , are defined as words or phrases that connect clauses, sentences, paragraphs, and ideas together, and convey the intended meaning more clearly and effectively. These words not only make the text readable but also help the readers to understand the writer’s perspective. We can use these words to express ideas, contrast, comparison, order, cause and effect, time, and many other functions. Linking words is an essential part of writing to “link” all your ideas in a way that helps create a smooth flow and connections between different parts of a text. In this article, we will take a comprehensive look at what linking words are, their functions with examples, and how to use them effectively. So, let’s get started!

Table of Contents

What are linking words?

Linking words are words or phrases that we use to link or connect different parts of a text. They help make the writing smoother and show how different ideas are related to each other. Linking words make it easier for readers to understand the flow of information and how one idea leads to another. Linking words can be used to indicate contrast, similarity, cause and effect, time, addition, conclusion, and more. Examples of linking words include “and,” “but,” “because,” “however,” “also,” “for example,” “therefore,” and so on. For instance,

She wanted to go shopping; however , it started raining.

Here connecting word “However” indicates a contrast between her desire to go shopping and the unexpected rain, helping the reader understand the change in the situation.

Why use linking words?

Linking words are essential for effective writing because they:

  • Improve flow and coherence
  • Help establish relationships between ideas
  • Make writing smoother to read
  • Create clear transitions between paragraphs
  • Enhance reader comprehension and understanding
  • Linking words can help to emphasize and clarify important points

How to use Linking Words

Here are some basic rules for the placement and usage of linking words:

  • Before using linking words, make sure you understand what they mean and how they are used. For example,

Some words are used to add new ideas such as, ( “furthermore” or “moreover” ) while others are used to show contrast or contradiction, ( “however” or “nevertheless” ) etc.

  • Choose the appropriate linking word based on the context, for example,

(“Additionally” for adding, “For example” for illustrating)

  • Place linking words at the beginning or middle of sentences for smooth transitions.
  • Use a comma after starting a sentence with a linking word, for example,

However , I decided to give it a try.

Add commas around the linking word if placed in the middle, for example,

In this case , however , the outcome was unexpected.

  • Coordinating Conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet) connect equal parts ( independent clauses ), use a comma before them. for example,

I like apples , but he prefers oranges.

  • Subordinating Conjunctions (although, because, since, while, when) introduce dependent clauses , use commas when dependent clause precedes the main clause. for example,

Although it was raining , we went for a walk. (Comma before main clause)

No comma if subordinate clause follows main clause. for example,

We went for a walk although it was raining. (No comma)

  • Maintain parallel structure (similar grammar) when using multiple linking words in a list. for example,

She likes reading, to cook, and watching movies. ❎

She likes reading, cooking, and watching movies. ✅

List of Linking Words

Functions of linking words

Different linking words serve different purposes/functions:

Linking words like “and,” “also,” “besides,” “furthermore,” and “moreover” are used to introduce additional information or ideas that are related to the previous point. Common linking words for addition include: and, also, as well as, additionally, furthermore, moreover, in addition, besides, not only…but also, etc.

Example: I love both chocolate and vanilla ice cream.

Contrasting Ideas

Words such as “but,” “however,” “although,” and “on the other hand” help introduce a contrasting idea or point that is different from what was previously mentioned. Examples of contrastive linking words are:  but, however, on the other hand, yet, and, although, nevertheless, in contrast, whereas, although, and even though, etc.

Example: He wanted to go out. However, it started raining heavily.

Cause and Effect

Linking words indicate the relationships between cause and effect. They help explain why something happened or the consequences of an action. Common cause-and-effect linking words are; because, so, therefore, due to, resulting in, consequently, therefore, thus, hence, etc.

Example: He missed the bus; consequently, he arrived late.

These words help you show similarities or likenesses between ideas. They allow you to compare and contrast different concepts. Examples include; like, similarly, in the same way, and compared to, likewise, just as, just like, in contrast, on the contrary, unlike, etc.

Example: The first book was good, but the second one was even better.

Time Sequence

Linking words help arrange ideas chronologically or in a specific order. They guide readers through a sequence of events or steps. Common time sequences linking words are; first, next, then, finally, meanwhile, after, before, afterward, subsequently, eventually, etc.

Example: First, we went shopping. Then, we had lunch at a cafe.

Example/Illustration

Linking words are used to provide examples that clarify or support the main point. They make your ideas more concrete and relatable. Examples of these words include “for example,” “such as,” “specifically,” and “in particular” etc.

Example: There are many outdoor activities you can try, such as hiking, biking, and camping.

Conclusion/Summary

Linking words are used to provide examples that clarify or support the main point. They make your ideas more concrete and relatable. Examples of these words include “for example,” “such as,” “specifically,” and “in particular.” etc.

Example: To sum up, regular exercise has numerous health benefits.

These words can be used to emphasize a point or to highlight its significance. They guide readers to pay attention to specific information. Examples are “especially,” “notably,” “indeed,” and “importantly.”

Example: The view from the top of the mountain was truly breathtaking.

Clarification

These words aid in clarifying or restating an idea to ensure readers understand it correctly. They help avoid confusion. Examples include “in other words,” “that is,” “to put it differently,” and “namely.”

Example: “The concept is a bit complex. In other words , it might take some time to fully understand.”

Expressing Purpose

Linking words like “in order to,” “so that,” and “for the purpose of” indicate the purpose or intention behind a certain action or statement.

Example: He worked overtime for extra money.

Sequence/Order

Words like “firstly,” “next,” “then,” “finally,” and “in conclusion” help to organize and sequence ideas in a logical order.

Example: First, we went to the park. Then, we had a picnic.

Linking words like “if,” “unless,” “provided that,” and “in case” introduce conditions or circumstances under which something else will happen. They show that one thing depends on another.

Example: If it rains, we will stay indoors.

List of Linking Words & Connecting Words

  • Additionally
  • Apart from this
  • As well as that
  • Coupled with
  • Furthermore
  • In addition
  • In addition to this
  • In the same fashion
  • Not only…but also
  • Not to mention
  • Together with
  • What’s more

Linking Words of ADDITION in English

  • Alternatively
  • By contrast
  • In spite of
  • As opposed to
  • Contrary to
  • Differing from
  • In contrast to
  • In opposition
  • Nevertheless
  • Nonetheless
  • Notwithstanding
  • On the other hand

Linking Words of CONTRAST in English

Showing Cause and Effect

  • As a result
  • Consequently
  • For this reason
  • On account of
  • Resulting from
  • Under the circumstances
  • In consequence of
  • As a consequence
  • The outcome is that
  • The effect of this
  • This has led to
  • Such is the case
  • Accordingly

Linking Words of Cause and Effect in English

  • In comparison
  • In the same way
  • Correspondingly
  • Compared to/with
  • In a similar fashion
  • On the contrary
  • At the same time

Linking Words of Comparison in English

Time sequence

  • First of all
  • In the beginning
  • To start with
  • Subsequently
  • Following that
  • Simultaneously
  • Concurrently
  • In the meantime

Linking Words of Time Sequence in English

  • For example
  • For instance
  • To illustrate
  • In particular
  • Specifically
  • As an illustration
  • To demonstrate
  • As shown by
  • In the case of
  • One example is
  • As evidence
  • In other words
  • As a case in point
  • To put it differently
  • As revealed by
  • A good example of this is
  • In a similar manner
  • This can be seen when
  • As a specific instance
  • To exemplify
  • As a sample
  • In one instance
  • Let’s consider
  • As an example of

Linking Words of Examples in English

  • All things considered
  • As demonstrated above
  • As shown above
  • As you can see
  • By and large
  • Given these points
  • In any event
  • In conclusion
  • Generally speaking
  • In the final analysis
  • On the whole
  • To conclude
  • To summarize

Linking Words of Conclusion in English

  • Clearly, then
  • Importantly
  • Most importantly
  • Significantly
  • Undoubtedly
  • Without a doubt
  • Unquestionably
  • It’s worth noting
  • It should be emphasized that
  • It’s important to highlight
  • A key point to remember
  • To highlight
  • It’s important to note
  • To draw attention to
  • It cannot be overstated

Linking Words of Emphasis in English

  • In explanation
  • To be clear
  • Let me explain
  • To put it clearly
  • Simply stated
  • That is to say
  • To break it down
  • More precisely
  • To clearly define
  • Allow me to clarify
  • To put it in another way
  • To simplify

Linking Words of Clarification in English

Expressing Purpose, Reason

  • For the purpose of
  • Granted that
  • With this purpose
  • Provided that
  • Seeing that
  • With this in mind
  • In order to
  • With this intention
  • With the aim of

Linking Words of Reason or Purpose in English

  • First/ firstly
  • Second/ secondly
  • Third/ thirdly

Linking Words of Sequence in English

  • Although this may be true
  • In that case
  • On the condition that

Linking Words of Condition in English

  • Option 1 or Option 2
  • Either… or…
  • Whether… or…
  • Preferably… or…
  • In either case…
  • While… In comparison…
  • Select between… or…
  • Choose either… or…

Linking Words of Choice in English

Restatement

  • Expressed simply
  • In a nutshell
  • Otherwise stated
  • Put in another way
  • In simple terms
  • What I mean by this is
  • To rephrase

Linking Words of Restatement in English

Generalize information

  • In most cases
  • In the majority of instances
  • For the most part
  • In a general sense
  • Without exception
  • Universally
  • Across the board
  • Without distinction
  • In a broader context
  • Without specific regard to
  • In a global perspective
  • Without pinpointing

Linking Words of Generalize Information in English

Q1. What are linking words?

Linking words, also known as transition words or connectors , are words or phrases that create a connection between ideas, sentences, or paragraphs in a text.

Q2. What is the importance of using linking words?

Connecting words help to create cohesion and coherence in writing, making it easier for readers to understand the relationships between different ideas.

Q3. Why are linking words important in writing?

Linking words help writers to make their writing coherent and logical. They allow the writer to smoothly transition from one idea to the next, which helps keep the reader engaged and ensures that the writing flows logically.

Q4. Can I use the same linking word more than once in a paragraph?

While it’s generally better to use a variety of linking words to create a sense of flow and variety, there may be instances where using the same linking word multiple times in a paragraph is appropriate.

Q5. What are some commonly used linking words?

Some commonly used linking words include and, but, or, because, since, therefore, however, furthermore, in addition, and despite.

Q6. What is the difference between conjunctions and linking words?

Conjunctions are a type of linking word that connects two clauses within a sentence. Linking words, on the other hand, connect different sentences or paragraphs within a text.

Linking Words List PDF

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Improving Your English

Conclusion transition words: Phrases for summarizing and ending

linking words for a speech

Transition words help us structure our thoughts and guide the reader or listener through what we are saying. When it’s time to summarize your message or end a paragraph, conclusion transition words let you signal this closing.

It’s good to know some synonyms for ‘in conclusion’ and ‘to conclude’, because although these are good examples of concluding words, they can get repetitive.

Our comprehensive list of transition words for conclusion and summary should give you all the inspiration you need, whether you are writing an essay or speech, or just want to become more confident forming an argument. These signal words can also be helpful for restating ideas, drawing attention to key points as you conclude.

We have included plenty of examples of how you can use these transition words for concluding paragraphs or sentences, so by the end of this article, you should be clear on how to use them properly.

linking words for a speech

Conclusion transition words with examples

We have grouped these summarizing and concluding transition words according to how and where they can be used. For example, some should only be used when forming a final conclusion, whereas others can be used to summarize sections mid-way through your speech or writing.

First, let’s be clear about the difference between a summary and a conclusion .

Summary vs conclusion

A conclusion comes at the end of a speech, chapter, or piece of text, and it brings together all of the points mentioned. A summary, however, can be placed anywhere (even at the beginning). A summary gives a brief outline of the main points but is not as in-depth as a conclusion.

If you are giving a presentation or writing a blog, you may wish to summarize the main points in your introduction so that people know what you are going to cover. You could also summarize a section part-way through before moving on to another angle or topic.

In contrast, the conclusion always comes at the end, and you should only use specific conclusion transition words as you are drawing to a close.

Transition words for conclusion paragraphs

Let’s begin with some discourse markers that signal you are moving to the concluding paragraph in your presentation, speech, essay, or paper. These can all be used to start a conclusion paragraph.

  • In conclusion
  • To conclude
  • We can conclude that
  • Given these points
  • In the final analysis
  • As can be seen
  • In the long run
  • When all is said and done
  • I’ll end by
  • As we draw to a close

The last three on this list, the ‘closing’ transition words, would generally only be used in spoken discourse.

Some transition words for order and sequencing should also help with structuring what you want to say, including the ending.

Example conclusion sentences

The following sentences show how to use conclusion words correctly:

  • In conclusion , we can say that plan A will be of greater benefit to the company.
  • When all is said and done , it’s clear that we should steer clear of this investment strategy.
  • Given these points , I believe the trial was a great success.
  • I’ll end by reminding you all that this experiment was just the beginning of a much larger project.
  • To wrap up , let’s look at how this learning can be applied.
  • In the long run , we will make more profit by investing heavily in new machinery.
  • Having analyzed seven of our competitors in detail, we can conclude that our content marketing strategy should be updated.

Transition words for summary

The following summary transition words may be used as part of a conclusion paragraph, but they are especially helpful for concisely drawing together several points.

  • To summarize
  • On the whole
  • Generally speaking
  • All things considered
  • In a nutshell (informal)
  • In any case

Note that although you can insert summary transition words anywhere, the specific phrases ‘In summary’, ‘To summarize’ and ‘To sum up’ are generally only used at the end, similar to conclusion phrases.

Example summary sentences

  • In brief , this presentation is going to cover the pros and cons of the device and how we can apply this to our own product development.
  • This new technology is, in a word , revolutionary.
  • All things considered , we found that Berlin was a great city for a weekend break.
  • To summarize , we can say that Shakespeare’s writing continues to have a global influence.
  • We can say that the combustion engine was, on the whole , a good invention.
  • In any case , we should put the necessary precautions in place.
  • Generally speaking , girls are more thoughtful than boys.

Transition words to end a paragraph

You may wish to add ending transition words in the final sentence of a paragraph to conclude the ideas in that section of text, before moving on to another point.

Here are some transition words to conclude a paragraph:

  • This means that
  • With this in mind
  • By and large
  • For the most part

Note that some of these could equally be used to begin a new paragraph, so long as that paragraph is summarizing the points previously mentioned.

Cause and effect transition words could also be helpful in this context.

Examples of transition words for the end of a paragraph

  • Jamie is a vegan and Sheryl has a lot of allergies. This means that we should be careful which restaurant we choose.
  • The weather forecast said it would rain this afternoon. With this in mind , should we postpone our hike?
  • Each of the students has their own opinion about where to go for the field trip. Ultimately , though, it’s the teacher who will decide.

Restating points as you conclude

Conclusion transition words can also signal that you are restating a point you mentioned earlier. This is common practice in both writing and speaking as it draws the reader or listener’s attention back to something you want them to keep in mind. These are, therefore, also examples of transition words for emphasizing a point .

Here are some helpful transition words for concluding or summarizing by restating points:

  • As mentioned previously
  • As stated earlier
  • As has been noted
  • As shown above
  • As I have said
  • As I have mentioned
  • As we have seen
  • As has been demonstrated

You may switch most of these between the passive and active voice, depending on which is most appropriate. For example, ‘As has been demonstrated’ could become ‘As I have demonstrated’ and ‘As shown above’ could become ‘As I have shown’.

Example sentences to restate a point in conclusion or summary

  • As I stated earlier , the only way we can get meaningful results from this survey is by including at least a thousand people.
  • As has been demonstrated throughout this conference, there are exciting things happening in the world of neuroscience.
  • As shown by this study, the trials have been promising.

If you were researching these transition words for concluding an essay, you might find it helpful to read this guide to strong essay conclusions . Of course, there are many ways to use summary transition words beyond essays. They may be a little formal for casual conversation, but they certainly can be used in speech as part of a presentation, debate, or argument.

Can you think of any other concluding words or phrases that should be on this list? Leave a comment below to share them!

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Using linking words to show reason

Perfect english grammar.

linking words for a speech

  • We cancelled the picnic because it was raining.
  • Because it was raining, we cancelled the picnic.
  • We cancelled the picnic as it was raining.
  • As it was raining, we cancelled the picnic.
  • We cancelled the picnic since it was raining.
  • Since it was raining, we cancelled the picnic.
  • We cancelled the picnic, for it was raining.
  • We cancelled the picnic because of the rain.
  • Because of the rain, we cancelled the picnic.
  • We cancelled the picnic due to the rain.
  • Due to the rain, we cancelled the picnic.
  • We cancelled the picnic owing to the rain.
  • Owing to the rain, we cancelled the picnic.

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5 Connected Speech Secrets for Fast, Native English Pronunciation

linking words for a speech

What is Connected Speech?

Learn how connected speech will help you to speak English faster, more fluently, and much more like a native speaker. Unfortunately, many language learners don’t know about this subject, but we should! First of all, let’s make sure we have a basic understanding. What is connected speech?

Connected speech means that when we speak a language, words have some effect on each other. We do not always pronounce words completely separately with a neat pause in between. In fact, many words affect each other when you put them into phrases and sentences. The end sound of one word often affects the beginning of the next word.

Connected Speech Includes Many Sub-Topics

There are many different ways that connected speech happens. Sometimes sounds are added, or omitted, or changed, in different ways.  It is actually a big subject and we could spend a long time talking about the several sub-topics in it!

In this lesson, you’ll learn a bit about five different kinds of connected speech: catenation or linking, intrusion, elision, assimilation and geminates.

Catenation or Linking

Catenation, or Linking is probably what most people think of first when they think of connected speech. Linking happens when the end of one word blends into another. When the last sound of a word is a consonant and the first sound of the next word is a vowel, you get linking.

For example:

I want this orange –> thisorange

I want that orange –> thadorange

This afternoon –> thisafternoon

Is he busy? –> Isi busy?

Cats or dogs? –> Catserdogs?

Intrusion means an additional sound “intrudes” or inserts itself between others. It is often is a /j/ or /w/ or /r/ sound between two other vowel sounds.

He asked –> Heyasked

She answered –? Sheyanswered

Do it –> Dewit

Go out –> Gowout

Shoe on –> Shoewon

Elision means when a sound disappears. Basically, a sound is eaten by other stronger or similar sounds next to it. This often happens with a /t/ or /d/ sound.

Next door –> Nexdoor

Dad take –> Datake

Most common –> Moscommon

Assimilation

Assimilation means two sounds blend together, forming a new sound altogether. This often happens with /t/ and /j/ which make /ʧ/ and with /d/ and /j/ which make / ʤ  /.

Don’t you — donʧu

Won’t you — wonʧu

Meet you — meeʧu

Did you — di ʤu

Would you — wu ʤu

Finally, geminates are like twins — two same sounds back-to-back. Often when one word ends with the same letter as the beginning of the next word, you should connect the two words in your speech.

Social life –> socialife

Pet turtle –> Peturtle

These five points and examples may make you feel like you have a lot to study!

Try learning the International Phonetic Alphabet so that you can take notes about how words sound together. Or, you could keep an audio journal on your smart phone where you record how words and phrases sound with connected speech.

Here is a cool tool you can try making English sentences into IPA . Keep in mind that sometimes real life pronunciation will be different because of variations.

If you liked this lesson, you’ll love my lesson about pronunciation and the “schwa” sound. Click here to view it now. 

And click on our video lesson below if you’d like to hear more about connected speech!

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IMAGES

  1. 46 Linking Words List and Examples

    linking words for a speech

  2. Useful Linking Words for Writing Essay in English

    linking words for a speech

  3. Useful Linking Words and Phrases to Use in Your Essays

    linking words for a speech

  4. Linking Words, Connecting Words: Full List and Useful Examples • 7ESL

    linking words for a speech

  5. Linking Words and Examples

    linking words for a speech

  6. Useful Linking Words and Phrases to Use in Your Essays

    linking words for a speech

VIDEO

  1. Linking sounds, connected speech

  2. Kids English Class 20/40 Linking Words

  3. 100 Linking words for IELTS, TOEFL, and PTE

  4. CONNECTED SPEECH PART 2: ELISION & ASSIMILATION in BRITISH ENGLISH. Dominar un acento británico. 🇬🇧

  5. Linking words / speech practice

  6. Linking sound

COMMENTS

  1. Speech transitions: words and phrases to connect your ideas

    This can be done using speech transitions because these act as signposts to the audience - signalling the relationship between points and ideas. This article explores how to use speech transitions in presentations. ... transitions are a key part of ensuring the audience understands your presentation so spend sufficient time linking to your ...

  2. Transition Words & Phrases

    Transition words and phrases (also called linking words, connecting words, or transitional words) are used to link together different ideas in your text. They help the reader to follow your arguments by expressing the relationships between different sentences or parts of a sentence. Transition words example

  3. Linking Words

    Linking Words Summary. A linking word is a term that connects different ideas in your text, whether they are contrasting, supporting, or adding. They can improve your writing and help it flow better, I promise! Regardless of the style of writing, every piece of writing contains linking words to show perfect transitions.

  4. Transition Words & Phrases

    As a "part of speech" transition words are used to link words, phrases or sentences. They help the reader to progress from one idea (expressed by the author) to the next idea. Thus, they help to build up coherent relationships within the text. ... Linking Words & Connecting Words as a PDF. It contains all the transition words listed on this ...

  5. How to Use Transition Words Effectively In Your Speech

    As you rehearse your speech, focus on nailing your transitions. Practice them out loud, paying attention to your pacing, intonation, and body language. Remember, transitions are an opportunity to re-engage your audience and keep them on track. Experiment with pausing before or after a transition phrase for emphasis.

  6. Linking Words for Smooth Transitions When Speaking English

    Before we focus on the first way to use linking words, let's look at all the ways linking words can help you with smooth transitions: Linking words: Create a logical flow between ideas; Compare, contrast, add on, agree, or refute; Maintain cohesion; Act as signposts to guide listeners through each idea;

  7. Speech Transitions: Words And Phrases to Connect Your Ideas

    Craft a list of transitional words and phrases: To ensure smooth and seamless transitions between your ideas, compile a list of words and phrases that can serve as connectors. Examples include "however," "in addition," and "on the other hand.". Identify logical connections: Assess the flow of your speech and identify the logical ...

  8. PDF transitional words and phrases

    These transitional words (like finally) have the function of limiting, restricting, and defining time. They can be used either alone or as part of adverbial expressions. at the present time. from time to time. sooner or later. at the same time. up to the present time. to begin with.

  9. 10.3 Keeping Your Speech Moving

    Table 10.1 "Transition Words" contains a variety of transition words that will be useful when keeping your speech moving. Table 10.1 Transition Words. Addition. also, again, as well as, besides, coupled with, following this, further, furthermore, in addition, in the same way, additionally, likewise, moreover, similarly. Consequence.

  10. How to Use Linking Words in English

    There are a few specific rules when using these linking words in writing. When it connects two ideas/thoughts in a sentence, we use a semicolon before it and a comma after it. Ex. "My daughter broke her arm while climbing a tree; consequently, she won't be to write her homework for school for the next few weeks.".

  11. Linking Words: List of Sentence Connectors ...

    Linker Words or Word Connectors are used to link large groups of words: phrases and sentences. You can also use them to connect paragraphs to give them coherence. Sentence connectors are usually placed at the beginning of a sentence and may be categorized as follows: 👉 CONTRAST. 1. HOWEVER. This restaurant has the best kitchen in town.

  12. Linking Words

    Linking & Connecting Words. It is essential to understand how Linking Words, as a part of speech, can be used to combine ideas in writing - and thus ensure that ideas within sentences and paragraphs are elegantly connected - for the benefit of the reader.This will help to improve your writing (e.g. essay, comment, summary (scientific) review, (research) paper, letter, abstract, report, thesis ...

  13. Linking Words And Phrases In English (List With Examples)

    Words and phrases connected with sequencing and structure appear at the start of a sentence. Examples include: first, secondly, finally and in conclusion. Adverbs, which express the writer's opinion, also occur at the start of a sentence, for example evidently and obviously. Linking words can be used between clauses, in the middle of the ...

  14. How to Sound More Natural: By Linking Words

    Linking ing + Vowel. Be careful not to skip the /g/ sound when linking the ing ending of a word to the vowel sound of the following word. For example, "going on" should not be pronounced as "goin' on" in standard English. Be sure to create a quick nasal "ng" /ŋ/sound by touching the back of your mouth with the back of your tongue.

  15. Effectively use linking words for speaking English with more

    An excellent way to speak English with more sophistication is by replacing basic linking words (e.g. "but," "and," "because") with advanced linking words (e.g. "in spite of," "due to"). Doing this will enlarge your vocabulary and improve your structure at the same time, which are the two main ways of speaking English with ...

  16. Linking Words In The English Language

    Connective Words And Phrases . Word Linking helps you connect ideas and sentences when you speak or write English. It is very important to understand how linking words, as part of speech, can be used to link ideas together in writing—and thus provide an elegant connection of ideas in sentences and paragraphs—for the benefit of the reader ...

  17. Linking Words: How To Use Them & Why You Should

    The use of linking words in business speech. Linking words are important in business speech because they can help to connect thoughts and ideas. They can also make it easier for the listener to follow the speaker's train of thought. Some common linking words that are used in business speech include: "and," "but," "or," "so ...

  18. Linking Words for IELTS Speaking: Word List & Tips

    The most common linking words for speaking are: and, but, because, also, like (for giving examples) "Like" is only used as a linking word to give examples in speaking NOT in writing. You do not get a higher score because used a range of linking devices. Linking words in speaking are just to help the listener understand better.

  19. Linking Words in English with Examples • Englishan

    Linking words make it easier for readers to understand the flow of information and how one idea leads to another. Linking words can be used to indicate contrast, similarity, cause and effect, time, addition, conclusion, and more. Examples of linking words include "and," "but," "because," "however," "also," "for example ...

  20. 42 Summary & conclusion transition words (with examples)

    In short. In essence. On balance. Overall. In any case. In effect. Note that although you can insert summary transition words anywhere, the specific phrases 'In summary', 'To summarize' and 'To sum up' are generally only used at the end, similar to conclusion phrases.

  21. Linking Words (Reason)

    We can use linking words like 'because' or 'since' or 'due to' to do this. Words (or groups of words) that are followed by a clause. We can use these words at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. They are used in front of a clause (a clause has at least a subject and a verb that agrees with the subject). They go before the reason.

  22. 5 Connected Speech Secrets for Fast Native English Pronunciation

    Catenation or Linking. Catenation, or Linking is probably what most people think of first when they think of connected speech. Linking happens when the end of one word blends into another. When the last sound of a word is a consonant and the first sound of the next word is a vowel, you get linking. For example: I want this orange -> thisorange