MKTG396 Assignment 1 – Annotated Bibliography

Mktg396v9 assignment 1: annotated bibliography.

Assignment 1 is worth 15% of your overall course grade. You should start working on this assignment after completing Lesson 6. Pay particular attention to the videos available on the Lesson 6 Readings and Key Terms page.

The purpose of this assignment is twofold. First, this assignment will encourage you to think critically about the quality of the sources that you will be including in your second assignment. Second, this assignment will enable you to receive feedback from an Academic Expert regarding the quality of the sources that you have found during your literature review. This will help you to better understand which sources you should include and which sources which sources you should exclude.

As the two course assignments are parts of the same project, you should familiarize yourself with the requirements of Assignment 2 before beginning work on Assignment 1.

Please note that you may be required to resubmit Assignment 1 before moving on to Assignment 2. Pay close attention to the feedback you receive on this assignment, as your success in Assignment 2 is closely linked to the quality of the sources you use.

Getting Started

Your first step will be to select a  physical product  that would be purchased by a  household consumer  (not a business). Products that are high-involvement purchases work better for this assignment. (Note: High-involvement purchases use an extended problem-solving purchase process and are covered in Lesson 4.)

The product that you select needs to be a specific brand and model, as in the example below:

Please reach out to your Academic Expert through the Student Support Centre if you are unsure whether the product you have in mind would meet the requirements for this project.

Requirements

Your submission should include the following:

1. Title page: Include the assignment name, course title, your name, and your student I.D. number.

2. Content: Include your list of 10 annotations. (See details on annotations below.)

3. Reference page: Include a full reference list of your 10 sources, in APA format and sorted alphabetically.

Submit your assignment for grading on the Assignment 1 submission page .

This assignment will be marked on a pass/resubmit basis, providing you with an opportunity to receive feedback from an Academic Expert. In fact, you are encouraged to seek assistance and may go back and forth a few times before submitting a satisfactory assignment. This is intended as a learning opportunity, so you will not be penalized for requiring additional support.

If your submission meets the requirements, you may proceed to working on Assignment 2.

If your submission does not meet the requirements, your Academic Expert will provide feedback and ask that you revise and resubmit. You will not be able to submit Assignment 2 until you have received a pass on Assignment 1.

Finding Sources

Before beginning your search, you should have completed all the readings and learning activities for Lesson 6 and selected your product for this project.

Your annotated bibliography should include sources of information on  demographic, psychographic, and behavioural characteristics  of the high-volume consumers of your product. Do not worry about geographic characteristics in your annotated bibliography; you will add these details in Assignment 2.

Do not expect to access only a single database or find a comprehensive consumer profile for a particular product from a simple Internet search. The challenge of this project comes from searching for and evaluating bits and pieces of information that you will fit together to build your consumer profile. More information on evaluating sources for quality is provided below.

Your first stop should be the Athabasca University Library , which offers tutorials, webinars, and other supports to help you find appropriate scholarly sources. You should also conduct a broad web search to discover professional and applied sources of data.

Troubleshooting

When you begin searching for the characteristics of those who are the high-volume buyers for your product, you may find that no data is available or that it is extremely limited.

Sometimes you can find consumer data for a competitor’s brand in the same product category. For example, both the Honda CRV and the Toyota Rav are in the category of compact crossover SUVs. Therefore, if your product is the Honda CRV, you can also use Toyota Rav data. If you do this, make sure to mention that you are generalizing data from one brand to another.

If you continue to have difficulty locating quality sources, you may need to select a new product. This is one of the reasons you should begin working on this assignment as soon as possible!

Source Quality

A high-quality source is one that is founded in research or solid reasoning, rather than an unsubstantiated opinion. Evaluating whether sources are high-quality and appropriate for your project will require considerable critical thinking. If your annotated bibliography has too many low-quality sources, the Academic Expert will ask you to remove these and request they be replaced with better sources.

The following figure can help you infer the accuracy, reliability, and quality of a source.

Figure 0.1. “Eaton’s Hierarchy of Sources for Educational Research Literature Reviews,” by S. E. Eaton, 2018, licensed under  CC BY-NC-ND 4.0  .

For more on high-quality sources, you are encouraged to read the full article summarized by the figure above:

Eaton, S. E. (2018).  Educational research literature reviews: Understanding the hierarchy of sources.  University of Calgary. https://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.27128.14083

Note: This resource is optional but recommended. It is aimed at educational researchers but is generally relevant for other disciplines, including marketing.

A final consideration when assessing whether a source is relevant to your assignment is how  generalizable  the information might be. Research that examines beliefs, attitudes, and preferences is often relative to a specific time period and location. For example, a paper that examines the attitudes of teenagers in Egypt may not be generalizable to teenagers in Canada. Likewise, opinion research that was conducted 15 years ago may not be generalizable to the current context.

Annotations

The word “annotate” means to make a note. When you read a textbook and make a note in the margin about something you just read, you are making an annotation.

An annotated bibliography is a formal and structured set of notes about each book, article, or document included in a bibliography. In this case, the annotated bibliography that you will be developing will be for the 10 high-quality sources on  demographic, psychographic, and behavioural characteristics  of the high-volume consumers of your product.

You are encouraged to practise writing annotations for each source you evaluate, even if you don’t end up including them all in your assignment submission.

Below is an example of an annotation. Note the following characteristics:

· The source is numbered. This will help you and your Academic Expert easily assess whether you have the required number of sources (10). Your sources should be presented in alphabetical order (last name of the first author).

· The full reference is provided in correct APA format. See the AU Library’s Guide to Citation Style for guidance. You should also familiarize yourself with the guidelines for in-text citations (not included in the example below).

· The annotation includes a concise summary as well as some brief analysis of the source’s strengths and weaknesses. You may also wish to comment on the relevance of the source for your product and project.

Sample Annotation

Swaffield, J. B., & Guo, Q. (2020). Environmental stress effects on appetite: Changing desire for high- and low-energy foods depends on the nature of the perceived threat.  Evolution, Mind and Behaviour, 18 (1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1556/2050.2018.00008

In ths article, the researchers report on a study where they examined the effect of different types of environmental stressors on appetite and food preference.

They showed that exposure to cues of low social support and high physical threat reduce the desire to eat, whereas cues of economic harshness had little effect. Further analysis revealed a significant interaction between energy level of different foods and perceived threat to physical safety. These findings provide insights on how environmental conditions influence changes in appetite and desire for different kinds of food items.

Two strengths of this article are that it is based on experimental research and it is peer reviewed. A weakness of this paper is the researchers only tested desire and food preference. They did not test actual eating behaviour.

Reference List

The final component of Assignment 1 is the reference list, which should follow APA formatting guidelines. This is simply a repetition of the references used within your annotated bibliography; you will use or build on this list for Assignment 2.

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mktg396v9 assignment 1 annotated bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

Mktg396v9 assignment 1: annotated bibliography.

Assignment 1 is worth 15% of your overall course grade. You should start working on this assignment after completing Lesson 6. Pay particular attention to the videos available on the Lesson 6 Readings and Key Terms page.

The purpose of this assignment is twofold. First, this assignment will encourage you to think critically about the quality of the sources that you will be including in your second assignment. Second, this assignment will enable you to receive feedback from an Academic Expert regarding the quality of the sources that you have found during your literature review. This will help you to better understand which sources you should include and which sources which sources you should exclude.

As the two course assignments are parts of the same project, you should familiarize yourself with the requirements of Assignment 2 before beginning work on Assignment 1.

Please note that you may be required to resubmit Assignment 1 before moving on to Assignment 2. Pay close attention to the feedback you receive on this assignment, as your success in Assignment 2 is closely linked to the quality of the sources you use.

Getting Started

Your first step will be to select a physical product that would be purchased by a household consumer (not a business). Products that are high-involvement purchases work better for this assignment. (Note: High-involvement purchases use an extended problem-solving purchase process and are covered in Lesson 4.)

The product that you select needs to be a specific brand and model, as in the example below:

Please reach out to your Academic Expert through the Student Support Centre if you are unsure whether the product you have in mind would meet the requirements for this project.

Requirements

Your submission should include the following:

1. Title page: Include the assignment name, course title, your name, and your student I.D. number.

2. Content: Include your list of 10 annotations. (See details on annotations below.)

3. Reference page: Include a full reference list of your 10 sources, in APA format and sorted alphabetically.

Submit your assignment for grading on the Assignment 1 submission page .

This assignment will be marked on a pass/resubmit basis, providing you with an opportunity to receive feedback from an Academic Expert. In fact, you are encouraged to seek assistance and may go back and forth a few times before submitting a satisfactory assignment. This is intended as a learning opportunity, so you will not be penalized for requiring additional support.

If your submission meets the requirements, you may proceed to working on Assignment 2.

If your submission does not meet the requirements, your Academic Expert will provide feedback and ask that you revise and resubmit. You will not be able to submit Assignment 2 until you have received a pass on Assignment 1.

Finding Sources

Before beginning your search, you should have completed all the readings and learning activities for Lesson 6 and selected your product for this project.

Your annotated bibliography should include sources of information on demographic, psychographic, and behavioural characteristics of the high-volume consumers of your product. Do not worry about geographic characteristics in your annotated bibliography; you will add these details in Assignment 2.

Do not expect to access only a single database or find a comprehensive consumer profile for a particular product from a simple Internet search. The challenge of this project comes from searching for and evaluating bits and pieces of information that you will fit together to build your consumer profile. More information on evaluating sources for quality is provided below.

Your first stop should be the Athabasca University Library , which offers tutorials, webinars, and other supports to help you find appropriate scholarly sources. You should also conduct a broad web search to discover professional and applied sources of data.

Troubleshooting

When you begin searching for the characteristics of those who are the high-volume buyers for your product, you may find that no data is available or that it is extremely limited.

Sometimes you can find consumer data for a competitor’s brand in the same product category. For example, both the Honda CRV and the Toyota Rav are in the category of compact crossover SUVs. Therefore, if your product is the Honda CRV, you can also use Toyota Rav data. If you do this, make sure to mention that you are generalizing data from one brand to another.

If you continue to have difficulty locating quality sources, you may need to select a new product. This is one of the reasons you should begin working on this assignment as soon as possible!

Source Quality

A high-quality source is one that is founded in research or solid reasoning, rather than an unsubstantiated opinion. Evaluating whether sources are high-quality and appropriate for your project will require considerable critical thinking. If your annotated bibliography has too many low-quality sources, the Academic Expert will ask you to remove these and request they be replaced with better sources.

The following figure can help you infer the accuracy, reliability, and quality of a source.

Figure 0.1. “Eaton’s Hierarchy of Sources for Educational Research Literature Reviews,” by S. E. Eaton, 2018, licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 .

For more on high-quality sources, you are encouraged to read the full article summarized by the figure above:

Eaton, S. E. (2018). Educational research literature reviews: Understanding the hierarchy of sources. University of Calgary. https://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.27128.14083

Note: This resource is optional but recommended. It is aimed at educational researchers but is generally relevant for other disciplines, including marketing.

A final consideration when assessing whether a source is relevant to your assignment is how generalizable the information might be. Research that examines beliefs, attitudes, and preferences is often relative to a specific time period and location. For example, a paper that examines the attitudes of teenagers in Egypt may not be generalizable to teenagers in Canada. Likewise, opinion research that was conducted 15 years ago may not be generalizable to the current context.

Annotations

The word “annotate” means to make a note. When you read a textbook and make a note in the margin about something you just read, you are making an annotation.

An annotated bibliography is a formal and structured set of notes about each book, article, or document included in a bibliography. In this case, the annotated bibliography that you will be developing will be for the 10 high-quality sources on demographic, psychographic, and behavioural characteristics of the high-volume consumers of your product.

You are encouraged to practise writing annotations for each source you evaluate, even if you don’t end up including them all in your assignment submission.

Below is an example of an annotation. Note the following characteristics:

· The source is numbered. This will help you and your Academic Expert easily assess whether you have the required number of sources (10). Your sources should be presented in alphabetical order (last name of the first author).

· The full reference is provided in correct APA format. See the AU Library’s Guide to Citation Style for guidance. You should also familiarize yourself with the guidelines for in-text citations (not included in the example below).

· The annotation includes a concise summary as well as some brief analysis of the source’s strengths and weaknesses. You may also wish to comment on the relevance of the source for your product and project.

Sample Annotation

Swaffield, J. B., & Guo, Q. (2020). Environmental stress effects on appetite: Changing desire for high- and low-energy foods depends on the nature of the perceived threat. Evolution, Mind and Behaviour, 18 (1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1556/2050.2018.00008

In this article, the researchers report on a study where they examined the effect of different types of environmental stressors on appetite and food preference.

They showed that exposure to cues of low social support and high physical threat reduce the desire to eat, whereas cues of economic harshness had little effect. Further analysis revealed a significant interaction between energy level of different foods and perceived threat to physical safety. These findings provide insights on how environmental conditions influence changes in appetite and desire for different kinds of food items.

Two strengths of this article are that it is based on experimental research and it is peer reviewed. A weakness of this paper is the researchers only tested desire and food preference. They did not test actual eating behaviour.

Reference List

The final component of Assignment 1 is the reference list, which should follow APA formatting guidelines. This is simply a repetition of the references used within your annotated bibliography; you will use or build on this list for Assignment 2.

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Annotated Bibliography Samples

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This handout provides information about annotated bibliographies in MLA, APA, and CMS.

Below you will find sample annotations from annotated bibliographies, each with a different research project. Remember that the annotations you include in your own bibliography should reflect your research project and/or the guidelines of your assignment.

As mentioned elsewhere in this resource, depending on the purpose of your bibliography, some annotations may summarize, some may assess or evaluate a source, and some may reflect on the source’s possible uses for the project at hand. Some annotations may address all three of these steps. Consider the purpose of your annotated bibliography and/or your instructor’s directions when deciding how much information to include in your annotations.

Please keep in mind that all your text, including the write-up beneath the citation, must be indented so that the author's last name is the only text that is flush left.

Sample MLA Annotation

Lamott, Anne. Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life . Anchor Books, 1995.

Lamott's book offers honest advice on the nature of a writing life, complete with its insecurities and failures. Taking a humorous approach to the realities of being a writer, the chapters in Lamott's book are wry and anecdotal and offer advice on everything from plot development to jealousy, from perfectionism to struggling with one's own internal critic.

In the process, Lamott includes writing exercises designed to be both productive and fun. Lamott offers sane advice for those struggling with the anxieties of writing, but her main project seems to be offering the reader a reality check regarding writing, publishing, and struggling with one's own imperfect humanity in the process. Rather than a practical handbook to producing and/or publishing, this text is indispensable because of its honest perspective, its down-to-earth humor, and its encouraging approach.

Chapters in this text could easily be included in the curriculum for a writing class. Several of the chapters in Part 1 address the writing process and would serve to generate discussion on students' own drafting and revising processes. Some of the writing exercises would also be appropriate for generating classroom writing exercises. Students should find Lamott's style both engaging and enjoyable.

In the sample annotation above, the writer includes three paragraphs: a summary, an evaluation of the text, and a reflection on its applicability to his/her own research, respectively.

For information on formatting MLA citations, see our MLA 9th Edition (2021) Formatting and Style Guide .

Sample APA Annotation

Ehrenreich, B. (2001). Nickel and dimed: On (not) getting by in America . Henry Holt and Company.

In this book of nonfiction based on the journalist's experiential research, Ehrenreich attempts to ascertain whether it is currently possible for an individual to live on a minimum-wage in America. Taking jobs as a waitress, a maid in a cleaning service, and a Walmart sales employee, the author summarizes and reflects on her work, her relationships with fellow workers, and her financial struggles in each situation.

An experienced journalist, Ehrenreich is aware of the limitations of her experiment and the ethical implications of her experiential research tactics and reflects on these issues in the text. The author is forthcoming about her methods and supplements her experiences with scholarly research on her places of employment, the economy, and the rising cost of living in America. Ehrenreich’s project is timely, descriptive, and well-researched.

The annotation above both summarizes and assesses the book in the citation. The first paragraph provides a brief summary of the author's project in the book, covering the main points of the work. The second paragraph points out the project’s strengths and evaluates its methods and presentation. This particular annotation does not reflect on the source’s potential importance or usefulness for this person’s own research.

For information on formatting APA citations, see our APA Formatting and Style Guide .

Sample Chicago Manual of Style Annotation

Davidson, Hilda Ellis. Roles of the Northern Goddess . London: Routledge, 1998.

Davidson's book provides a thorough examination of the major roles filled by the numerous pagan goddesses of Northern Europe in everyday life, including their roles in hunting, agriculture, domestic arts like weaving, the household, and death. The author discusses relevant archaeological evidence, patterns of symbol and ritual, and previous research. The book includes a number of black and white photographs of relevant artifacts.

This annotation includes only one paragraph, a summary of the book. It provides a concise description of the project and the book's project and its major features.

For information on formatting Chicago Style citations, see our Chicago Manual of Style resources.

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  • What Is an Annotated Bibliography? | Examples & Format

What Is an Annotated Bibliography? | Examples & Format

Published on March 9, 2021 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 23, 2022.

An annotated bibliography is a list of source references that includes a short descriptive text (an annotation) for each source. It may be assigned as part of the research process for a paper , or as an individual assignment to gather and read relevant sources on a topic.

Scribbr’s free Citation Generator allows you to easily create and manage your annotated bibliography in APA or MLA style. To generate a perfectly formatted annotated bibliography, select the source type, fill out the relevant fields, and add your annotation.

An example of an annotated source is shown below:

Annotated source example

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Table of contents

Annotated bibliography format: apa, mla, chicago, how to write an annotated bibliography, descriptive annotation example, evaluative annotation example, reflective annotation example, finding sources for your annotated bibliography, frequently asked questions about annotated bibliographies.

Make sure your annotated bibliography is formatted according to the guidelines of the style guide you’re working with. Three common styles are covered below:

In APA Style , both the reference entry and the annotation should be double-spaced and left-aligned.

The reference entry itself should have a hanging indent . The annotation follows on the next line, and the whole annotation should be indented to match the hanging indent. The first line of any additional paragraphs should be indented an additional time.

APA annotated bibliography

In an MLA style annotated bibliography , the Works Cited entry and the annotation are both double-spaced and left-aligned.

The Works Cited entry has a hanging indent. The annotation itself is indented 1 inch (twice as far as the hanging indent). If there are two or more paragraphs in the annotation, the first line of each paragraph is indented an additional half-inch, but not if there is only one paragraph.

MLA annotated bibliography

Chicago style

In a  Chicago style annotated bibliography , the bibliography entry itself should be single-spaced and feature a hanging indent.

The annotation should be indented, double-spaced, and left-aligned. The first line of any additional paragraphs should be indented an additional time.

Chicago annotated bibliography

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mktg396v9 assignment 1 annotated bibliography

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For each source, start by writing (or generating ) a full reference entry that gives the author, title, date, and other information. The annotated bibliography format varies based on the citation style you’re using.

The annotations themselves are usually between 50 and 200 words in length, typically formatted as a single paragraph. This can vary depending on the word count of the assignment, the relative length and importance of different sources, and the number of sources you include.

Consider the instructions you’ve been given or consult your instructor to determine what kind of annotations they’re looking for:

  • Descriptive annotations : When the assignment is just about gathering and summarizing information, focus on the key arguments and methods of each source.
  • Evaluative annotations : When the assignment is about evaluating the sources , you should also assess the validity and effectiveness of these arguments and methods.
  • Reflective annotations : When the assignment is part of a larger research process, you need to consider the relevance and usefulness of the sources to your own research.

These specific terms won’t necessarily be used. The important thing is to understand the purpose of your assignment and pick the approach that matches it best. Interactive examples of the different styles of annotation are shown below.

A descriptive annotation summarizes the approach and arguments of a source in an objective way, without attempting to assess their validity.

In this way, it resembles an abstract , but you should never just copy text from a source’s abstract, as this would be considered plagiarism . You’ll naturally cover similar ground, but you should also consider whether the abstract omits any important points from the full text.

The interactive example shown below describes an article about the relationship between business regulations and CO 2 emissions.

Rieger, A. (2019). Doing business and increasing emissions? An exploratory analysis of the impact of business regulation on CO 2 emissions. Human Ecology Review , 25 (1), 69–86. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26964340

An evaluative annotation also describes the content of a source, but it goes on to evaluate elements like the validity of the source’s arguments and the appropriateness of its methods .

For example, the following annotation describes, and evaluates the effectiveness of, a book about the history of Western philosophy.

Kenny, A. (2010). A new history of Western philosophy: In four parts . Oxford University Press.

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mktg396v9 assignment 1 annotated bibliography

A reflective annotation is similar to an evaluative one, but it focuses on the source’s usefulness or relevance to your own research.

Reflective annotations are often required when the point is to gather sources for a future research project, or to assess how they were used in a project you already completed.

The annotation below assesses the usefulness of a particular article for the author’s own research in the field of media studies.

Manovich, Lev. (2009). The practice of everyday (media) life: From mass consumption to mass cultural production? Critical Inquiry , 35 (2), 319–331. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/596645

Manovich’s article assesses the shift from a consumption-based media culture (in which media content is produced by a small number of professionals and consumed by a mass audience) to a production-based media culture (in which this mass audience is just as active in producing content as in consuming it). He is skeptical of some of the claims made about this cultural shift; specifically, he argues that the shift towards user-made content must be regarded as more reliant upon commercial media production than it is typically acknowledged to be. However, he regards web 2.0 as an exciting ongoing development for art and media production, citing its innovation and unpredictability.

The article is outdated in certain ways (it dates from 2009, before the launch of Instagram, to give just one example). Nevertheless, its critical engagement with the possibilities opened up for media production by the growth of social media is valuable in a general sense, and its conceptualization of these changes frequently applies just as well to more current social media platforms as it does to Myspace. Conceptually, I intend to draw on this article in my own analysis of the social dynamics of Twitter and Instagram.

Before you can write your annotations, you’ll need to find sources . If the annotated bibliography is part of the research process for a paper, your sources will be those you consult and cite as you prepare the paper. Otherwise, your assignment and your choice of topic will guide you in what kind of sources to look for.

Make sure that you’ve clearly defined your topic , and then consider what keywords are relevant to it, including variants of the terms. Use these keywords to search databases (e.g., Google Scholar ), using Boolean operators to refine your search.

Sources can include journal articles, books, and other source types , depending on the scope of the assignment. Read the abstracts or blurbs of the sources you find to see whether they’re relevant, and try exploring their bibliographies to discover more. If a particular source keeps showing up, it’s probably important.

Once you’ve selected an appropriate range of sources, read through them, taking notes that you can use to build up your annotations. You may even prefer to write your annotations as you go, while each source is fresh in your mind.

An annotated bibliography is an assignment where you collect sources on a specific topic and write an annotation for each source. An annotation is a short text that describes and sometimes evaluates the source.

Any credible sources on your topic can be included in an annotated bibliography . The exact sources you cover will vary depending on the assignment, but you should usually focus on collecting journal articles and scholarly books . When in doubt, utilize the CRAAP test !

Each annotation in an annotated bibliography is usually between 50 and 200 words long. Longer annotations may be divided into paragraphs .

The content of the annotation varies according to your assignment. An annotation can be descriptive, meaning it just describes the source objectively; evaluative, meaning it assesses its usefulness; or reflective, meaning it explains how the source will be used in your own research .

A source annotation in an annotated bibliography fulfills a similar purpose to an abstract : they’re both intended to summarize the approach and key points of a source.

However, an annotation may also evaluate the source , discussing the validity and effectiveness of its arguments. Even if your annotation is purely descriptive , you may have a different perspective on the source from the author and highlight different key points.

You should never just copy text from the abstract for your annotation, as doing so constitutes plagiarism .

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2022, August 23). What Is an Annotated Bibliography? | Examples & Format. Scribbr. Retrieved January 20, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/annotated-bibliography/

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How to Write an Annotated Bibliography, With Examples

Matt Ellis

An annotated bibliography is a type of bibliography that includes a comment by the author about the source in addition to the source’s publishing information. The author’s notes, or annotations, can discuss anything relevant to the topic, such as the source’s accuracy, the context in which it was written, or even your personal views on the source.

Annotated bibliographies are sometimes a requirement in assignments, so it’s a good idea to learn their rules. Below, we explain how to write an annotated bibliography in APA, MLA, and Chicago formats. We even include an annotated bibliography example for each.

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What is an annotated bibliography?

Annotated bibliographies are a type of bibliography with notes from the author on each source. These notes are called “annotations” and generally run around 50–150 words . The notes themselves have a very specific format, depending on the style guide used, as explained below.

What do annotated bibliography notes talk about?

Annotations in bibliographies can discuss anything relevant to the paper’s or book’s topic or give context to the reader so they can better understand the source. There are no formal restrictions on what annotations can be about, but in general, they usually fall into these categories:

  • a brief overview of the source
  • the background of the source’s author
  • context about how or why the source was written
  • the accuracy of the source
  • any biases the source shows
  • anything the source doesn’t address
  • elements of the source that are particularly useful, like graphs or charts
  • your personal views on the source

How to cite sources in an annotated bibliography

Annotated bibliographies cite their sources the same way as any other type of bibliography , including a works cited page or reference list . Simply follow the standard rules for whatever format you’re using when writing the full citation.

If you need help, Grammarly’s auto-citation feature can automatically create a citation if you’re using one of the ten most popular online source websites: Wikipedia, Frontiers, PLOS One, ScienceDirect, SAGE Journals, PubMed, Elsevier, DOAJ, arXiv, or Springer. Otherwise, feel free to use our free citation generator to create a full citation in whatever style you need.

How to write an annotated bibliography in APA, MLA, and Chicago

How to write an annotated bibliography in apa.

Annotated bibliographies in APA follow the same rules for page margins, font, and line spacing as other pages in the APA format , which you can find in the link.

The annotations for an annotated bibliography in APA, however, follow specific formatting rules:

  • Annotations appear underneath the source they refer to.
  • Use an indentation of 0.5 inches from the left margin (1.5 inches from the edge of the page) for all lines of the annotation, just like a block quote.
  • The first line of an annotation does not get indented any further; use the same indentation as the other lines.
  • If the annotation spans more than one paragraph, use an extra indentation of 0.5 inches (2 inches from the edge of the page) for the first line of any paragraphs after the first. Again, this follows the same format as block quotes.
  • Sources are organized in alphabetical order by the creator’s surname, or last name (which comes first in citation entries).

How to write an annotated bibliography in MLA

The MLA format offers guidelines on both the formatting and content of annotations:

  • Annotations should “describe or evaluate sources.” They should not discuss minor details, cite evidence, quote the source, or re-list the points in the source’s argument.
  • Annotations can be written in either complete or incomplete sentences.
  • Place annotations underneath the citation.
  • Indent your annotation an additional 1 inch from the start of the entry (2 inches from the edge of the page). This differentiates it from the citation’s first indent (1 inch from the edge of the page) and its hanging indent (1.5 inches from the edge of the page).
  • If the annotation spans more than one paragraph, use an extra indentation of 0.5 inches (2.5 inches from the edge of the page) for the first line of any paragraphs after the first.
  • Title the page either “Annotated Bibliography” or “Annotated List of Works Cited.”
  • You can choose whether to organize sources by the subject, date of publication, or alphabetically by author or title.

How to write an annotated bibliography in Chicago

Because the Chicago format is designed to be flexible, its rules for annotated bibliographies are more open-ended than the other formats. Here are the guidelines for how to write an annotated bibliography in Chicago style:

  • If annotations are short and/or not included for every source, you can place annotations in brackets directly after the full citation, on the same line. If annotations are more detailed, start them on a new line underneath the full citation.
  • Each line of an annotation is indented an additional 0.5 inches from the start of the entry (1.5 inches from the edge of the page). It should be equal to the hanging indent of the full citation.
  • Annotated bibliographies may contain an author’s note at the top of the page. This should provide context about why the author chose these sources or how the page is organized.

Annotated bibliography examples

Annotated bibliography example for apa.

Diamond, J. (1997). Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies . W. W. Norton & Company. This book, which won the Pulitzer Prize, attempts to answer the question of why some civilizations succeeded while others faded away into history. Author Jared Diamond emphasizes the environmental and geographical influences on a civilization as factors for success, more than a civilization’s culture or race. While this book proves scientifically that race is inconsequential in the success of a civilization, critics accuse Diamond of reducing the whole of human history down to “environmental determinism.”

Annotated bibliography example for MLA

Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies . New York, W. W. Norton & Company, 1997. This book, which won the Pulitzer Prize, attempts to answer the question of why some civilizations succeeded while others faded away into history. Author Jared Diamond emphasizes the environmental and geographical influences on a civilization as factors for success, more than a civilization’s culture or race. While this book proves scientifically that race is inconsequential in the success of a civilization, critics accuse Diamond of reducing the whole of human history down to “environmental determinism.”

Annotated bibliography example for Chicago

Diamond, Jared. 1997. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies . New York: W. W. Norton & Company. This book, which won the Pulitzer Prize, attempts to answer the question of why some civilizations succeeded while others faded away into history. Author Jared Diamond emphasizes the environmental and geographical influences on a civilization as factors for success, more than a civilization’s culture or race. While this book proves scientifically that race is inconsequential in the success of a civilization, critics accuse Diamond of reducing the whole of human history down to “environmental determinism.”

Annotated bibliography FAQs

An annotated bibliography is a type of bibliography that includes a comment by the author about each source in addition to the source’s publishing information. The author’s notes, or annotations, discuss anything about the source that’s relevant to the topic, such as its accuracy, bias, or the context in which it was written.

How does it differ from a regular bibliography?

Just like other bibliographies, annotated bibliographies list the sources cited in the work, along with their publishing details. The difference is that annotated bibliographies also include notes from the author with extra information, whereas regular bibliographies do not.

How is an annotated bibliography structured?

The structure of annotated bibliographies depends on the formatting style: APA, MLA, or Chicago. Although each style has its own formatting rules, in general, the annotation comes after the full citation and is often indented in the same manner as block quotes.

mktg396v9 assignment 1 annotated bibliography

How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography: The Annotated Bibliography

  • The Annotated Bibliography
  • Fair Use of this Guide

Explanation, Process, Directions, and Examples

What is an annotated bibliography.

An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited.

Annotations vs. Abstracts

Abstracts are the purely descriptive summaries often found at the beginning of scholarly journal articles or in periodical indexes. Annotations are descriptive and critical; they may describe the author's point of view, authority, or clarity and appropriateness of expression.

The Process

Creating an annotated bibliography calls for the application of a variety of intellectual skills: concise exposition, succinct analysis, and informed library research.

First, locate and record citations to books, periodicals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic. Briefly examine and review the actual items. Then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic.

Cite the book, article, or document using the appropriate style.

Write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book or article. Include one or more sentences that (a) evaluate the authority or background of the author, (b) comment on the intended audience, (c) compare or contrast this work with another you have cited, or (d) explain how this work illuminates your bibliography topic.

Critically Appraising the Book, Article, or Document

For guidance in critically appraising and analyzing the sources for your bibliography, see How to Critically Analyze Information Sources . For information on the author's background and views, ask at the reference desk for help finding appropriate biographical reference materials and book review sources.

Choosing the Correct Citation Style

Check with your instructor to find out which style is preferred for your class. Online citation guides for both the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA) styles are linked from the Library's Citation Management page .

Sample Annotated Bibliography Entries

The following example uses APA style ( Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 7th edition, 2019) for the journal citation:

Waite, L., Goldschneider, F., & Witsberger, C. (1986). Nonfamily living and the erosion of traditional family orientations among young adults. American Sociological Review, 51 (4), 541-554. The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living.

This example uses MLA style ( MLA Handbook , 9th edition, 2021) for the journal citation. For additional annotation guidance from MLA, see 5.132: Annotated Bibliographies .

Waite, Linda J., et al. "Nonfamily Living and the Erosion of Traditional Family Orientations Among Young Adults." American Sociological Review, vol. 51, no. 4, 1986, pp. 541-554. The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living.

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  • Last Updated: Sep 29, 2022 11:09 AM
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How to Write an Annotated Bibliography - APA Style (7th Edition)

What is an annotation, how is an annotation different from an abstract, what is an annotated bibliography, types of annotated bibliographies, descriptive or informative, analytical or critical, to get started.

An annotation is more than just a brief summary of an article, book, website, or other type of publication. An annotation should give enough information to make a reader decide whether to read the complete work. In other words, if the reader were exploring the same topic as you, is this material useful and if so, why?

While an abstract also summarizes an article, book, website, or other type of publication, it is purely descriptive. Although annotations can be descriptive, they also include distinctive features about an item. Annotations can be evaluative and critical as we will see when we look at the two major types of annotations.

An annotated bibliography is an organized list of sources (like a reference list). It differs from a straightforward bibliography in that each reference is followed by a paragraph length annotation, usually 100–200 words in length.

Depending on the assignment, an annotated bibliography might have different purposes:

  • Provide a literature review on a particular subject
  • Help to formulate a thesis on a subject
  • Demonstrate the research you have performed on a particular subject
  • Provide examples of major sources of information available on a topic
  • Describe items that other researchers may find of interest on a topic

There are two major types of annotated bibliographies:

A descriptive or informative annotated bibliography describes or summarizes a source as does an abstract; it describes why the source is useful for researching a particular topic or question and its distinctive features. In addition, it describes the author's main arguments and conclusions without evaluating what the author says or concludes.

For example:

McKinnon, A. (2019). Lessons learned in year one of business.  Journal of Legal Nurse Consulting ,  30 (4), 26–28. This article describes some of the difficulties many nurses experience when transitioning from nursing to a legal nurse consulting business. Pointing out issues of work-life balance, as well as the differences of working for someone else versus working for yourself, the author offers their personal experience as a learning tool. The process of becoming an entrepreneur is not often discussed in relation to nursing, and rarely delves into only the first year of starting a new business. Time management, maintaining an existing job, decision-making, and knowing yourself in order to market yourself are discussed with some detail. The author goes on to describe how important both the nursing professional community will be to a new business, and the importance of mentorship as both the mentee and mentor in individual success that can be found through professional connections. The article’s focus on practical advice for nurses seeking to start their own business does not detract from the advice about universal struggles of entrepreneurship makes this an article of interest to a wide-ranging audience.

An analytical or critical annotation not only summarizes the material, it analyzes what is being said. It examines the strengths and weaknesses of what is presented as well as describing the applicability of the author's conclusions to the research being conducted.

Analytical or critical annotations will most likely be required when writing for a college-level course.

McKinnon, A. (2019). Lessons learned in year one of business.  Journal of Legal Nurse Consulting ,  30 (4), 26–28. This article describes some of the difficulty many nurses experience when transitioning from nursing to a nurse consulting business. While the article focuses on issues of work-life balance, the differences of working for someone else versus working for yourself, marketing, and other business issues the author’s offer of only their personal experience is brief with few or no alternative solutions provided. There is no mention throughout the article of making use of other research about starting a new business and being successful. While relying on the anecdotal advice for their list of issues, the author does reference other business resources such as the Small Business Administration to help with business planning and professional organizations that can help with mentorships. The article is a good resource for those wanting to start their own legal nurse consulting business, a good first advice article even. However, entrepreneurs should also use more business research studies focused on starting a new business, with strategies against known or expected pitfalls and issues new businesses face, and for help on topics the author did not touch in this abbreviated list of lessons learned.

Now you are ready to begin writing your own annotated bibliography.

  • Choose your sources - Before writing your annotated bibliography, you must choose your sources. This involves doing research much like for any other project. Locate records to materials that may apply to your topic.
  • Review the items - Then review the actual items and choose those that provide a wide variety of perspectives on your topic. Article abstracts are helpful in this process.
  • The purpose of the work
  • A summary of its content
  • Information about the author(s)
  • For what type of audience the work is written
  • Its relevance to the topic
  • Any special or unique features about the material
  • Research methodology
  • The strengths, weaknesses or biases in the material

Annotated bibliographies may be arranged alphabetically or chronologically, check with your instructor to see what he or she prefers.

Please see the  APA Examples page  for more information on citing in APA style.

  • Last Updated: Aug 8, 2023 11:27 AM
  • URL: https://libguides.umgc.edu/annotated-bibliography-apa

Writing Center Home Page

OASIS: Writing Center

Common assignments: annotated bibliographies, basics of annotated bibliographies.

An annotated bibliography is a combination of the words "annotation" and "bibliography." An annotation is a set of notes, comments, or critiques. A bibliography is list of references that helps a reader identify sources of information. An annotated bibliography is a list of references that not only identifies the sources of information but also includes information such as a summary, a critique or analysis, and an application of those sources' information.

Review our resources on the following pages for more information about each component of an annotated bibliography. As always, read the instructions and any examples in your assignment carefully; some of what follows might not be required in your particular course.

Components of an Annotated Entry

Download the following sample to see the components of an annotated bibliography. Follow the links to more information on formatting, summary, critique/analysis, application, and example in the left sidebar menu. Note that citations are not necessary in the annotations since the notes are understood to be about the listed source.

  • Annotated Bibliography Sample Document A sample of an annotated bibliography illustrating its various components. Updated to APA 7 guidelines.

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MKTG396v9_Assignment1.docx

Mktg396v9 assignment 1: annotated bibliography.

Assignment 1 is worth 15% of your overall course grade. You should start working on this assignment after completing Lesson 6. Pay particular attention to the videos available on the page.

The purpose of this assignment is twofold. First, this assignment will encourage you to think critically about the quality of the sources that you will be including in your second assignment. Second, this assignment will enable you to receive feedback from an Academic Expert regarding the quality of the sources that you have found during your literature review. This will help you to better understand which sources you should include and which sources which sources you should exclude.

As the two course assignments are parts of the same project, you should familiarize yourself with the requirements of Assignment 2 before beginning work on Assignment 1.

Please note that you may be required to resubmit Assignment 1 before moving on to Assignment 2. Pay close attention to the feedback you receive on this assignment, as your success in Assignment 2 is closely linked to the quality of the sources you use.

Getting Started

Your first step will be to select a physical product that would be purchased by a household consumer (not a business). Products that are high-involvement purchases work better for this assignment. (Note: High-involvement purchases use an extended problem-solving purchase process and are covered in Lesson 4.)

The product that you select needs to be a specific brand and model, as in the example below:

Please reach out to your Academic Expert through the Student Support Centre if you are unsure whether the product you have in mind would meet the requirements for this project.

Requirements

Your submission should include the following:

1. Title page: Include the assignment name, course title, your name, and your student I.D. number.

2. Content: Include your list of 10 annotations. (See details on annotations below.)

3. Reference page: Include a full reference list of your 10 sources, in APA format and sorted alphabetically.

Submit your assignment for grading on the .

This assignment will be marked on a pass/resubmit basis, providing you with an opportunity to receive feedback from an Academic Expert. In fact, you are encouraged to seek assistance and may go back and forth a few times before submitting a satisfactory assignment. This is intended as a learning opportunity, so you will not be penalized for requiring additional support.

If your submission meets the requirements, you may proceed to working on Assignment 2.

If your submission does not meet the requirements, your Academic Expert will provide feedback and ask that you revise and resubmit. You will not be able to submit Assignment 2 until you have received a pass on Assignment 1.

Finding Sources

Before beginning your search, you should have completed all the readings and learning activities for Lesson 6 and selected your product for this project.

Your annotated bibliography should include sources of information on demographic, psychographic, and behavioural characteristics of the high-volume consumers of your product. Do not worry about geographic characteristics in your annotated bibliography; you will add these details in Assignment 2.

Do not expect to access only a single database or find a comprehensive consumer profile for a particular product from a simple Internet search. The challenge of this project comes from searching for and evaluating bits and pieces of information that you will fit together to build your consumer profile. More information on evaluating sources for quality is provided below.

Your first stop should be the , which offers tutorials, webinars, and other supports to help you find appropriate scholarly sources. You should also conduct a broad web search to discover professional and applied sources of data.

Troubleshooting

When you begin searching for the characteristics of those who are the high-volume buyers for your product, you may find that no data is available or that it is extremely limited.

Sometimes you can find consumer data for a competitor’s brand in the same product category. For example, both the Honda CRV and the Toyota Rav are in the category of compact crossover SUVs. Therefore, if your product is the Honda CRV, you can also use Toyota Rav data. If you do this, make sure to mention that you are generalizing data from one brand to another.

If you continue to have difficulty locating quality sources, you may need to select a new product. This is one of the reasons you should begin working on this assignment as soon as possible!

Source Quality

A high-quality source is one that is founded in research or solid reasoning, rather than an unsubstantiated opinion. Evaluating whether sources are high-quality and appropriate for your project will require considerable critical thinking. If your annotated bibliography has too many low-quality sources, the Academic Expert will ask you to remove these and request they be replaced with better sources.

The following figure can help you infer the accuracy, reliability, and quality of a source.

Figure 0.1. “Eaton’s Hierarchy of Sources for Educational Research Literature Reviews,” by S. E. Eaton, 2018, licensed under .

For more on high-quality sources, you are encouraged to read the full article summarized by the figure above:

Eaton, S. E. (2018). Educational research literature reviews: Understanding the hierarchy of sources. University of Calgary.

Note: This resource is optional but recommended. It is aimed at educational researchers but is generally relevant for other disciplines, including marketing.

A final consideration when assessing whether a source is relevant to your assignment is how generalizable the information might be. Research that examines beliefs, attitudes, and preferences is often relative to a specific time period and location. For example, a paper that examines the attitudes of teenagers in Egypt may not be generalizable to teenagers in Canada. Likewise, opinion research that was conducted 15 years ago may not be generalizable to the current context.

Annotations

The word “annotate” means to make a note. When you read a textbook and make a note in the margin about something you just read, you are making an annotation.

An annotated bibliography is a formal and structured set of notes about each book, article, or document included in a bibliography. In this case, the annotated bibliography that you will be developing will be for the 10 high-quality sources on demographic, psychographic, and behavioural characteristics of the high-volume consumers of your product.

You are encouraged to practise writing annotations for each source you evaluate, even if you don’t end up including them all in your assignment submission.

Below is an example of an annotation. Note the following characteristics:

· The source is numbered. This will help you and your Academic Expert easily assess whether you have the required number of sources (10). Your sources should be presented in alphabetical order (last name of the first author).

· The full reference is provided in correct APA format. See the for guidance. You should also familiarize yourself with the guidelines for in-text citations (not included in the example below).

· The annotation includes a concise summary as well as some brief analysis of the source’s strengths and weaknesses. You may also wish to comment on the relevance of the source for your product and project.

Sample Annotation

Swaffield, J. B., & Guo, Q. (2020). Environmental stress effects on appetite: Changing desire for high- and low-energy foods depends on the nature of the perceived threat. Evolution, Mind and Behaviour, 18 (1), 1–13.

In this article, the researchers report on a study where they examined the effect of different types of environmental stressors on appetite and food preference.

They showed that exposure to cues of low social support and high physical threat reduce the desire to eat, whereas cues of economic harshness had little effect. Further analysis revealed a significant interaction between energy level of different foods and perceived threat to physical safety. These findings provide insights on how environmental conditions influence changes in appetite and desire for different kinds of food items.

Two strengths of this article are that it is based on experimental research and it is peer reviewed. A weakness of this paper is the researchers only tested desire and food preference. They did not test actual eating behaviour.

Reference List

The final component of Assignment 1 is the reference list, which should follow APA formatting guidelines. This is simply a repetition of the references used within your annotated bibliography; you will use or build on this list for Assignment 2.

MKTG 396v9 Assignment 1©Athabasca UniversityJanuary 2023

mktg396v9 assignment 1 annotated bibliography

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Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Assignments

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An annotated bibliography is a list of cited resources related to a particular topic or arranged thematically that include a brief descriptive or evaluative summary. The annotated bibliography can be arranged chronologically by date of publication or alphabetically by author, with citations to print and/or digital materials, such as, books, newspaper articles, journal articles, dissertations, government documents, pamphlets, web sites, etc., multimedia sources like films and audio recordings, or documents and materials preserved in archival collections.

Harner, James L. On Compiling an Annotated Bibliography . 2nd edition. New York: Modern Language Association, 2000.

Importance of a Good Annotated Bibliography

In lieu of writing a formal research paper or in preparation for a larger writing project, your professor may ask you to develop an annotated bibliography. An annotated bibliography may be assigned for a number of reasons, including :

  • To show that you can identify and evaluate the literature underpinning a research problem;
  • To demonstrate that you can identify and conduct an effective and thorough review of pertinent literature;
  • To develop skills in discerning the most relevant research studies from those which have only superficial relevance to your topic;
  • To explore how different types of sources contribute to understanding the research problem;
  • To be thoroughly engaged with individual sources in order to strengthen your analytical skills; or,
  • To share sources among your classmates so that, collectively, everyone in the class obtains a comprehensive understanding of research about a particular topic.

On a broader level, writing an annotated bibliography can lay the foundation for conducting a larger research project. It serves as a method to evaluate what research has been conducted and where your proposed study may fit within it. By critically analyzing and synthesizing the contents of a variety of sources, you can begin to evaluate what the key issues are in relation to the research problem and, by so doing, gain a better perspective about the deliberations taking place among scholars. As a result of this analysis, you are better prepared to develop your own point of view and contributions to the literature.

In summary, creating a good annotated bibliography...

  • Encourages you to think critically about the content of the works you are using, their place within the broader field of study, and their relation to your own research, assumptions, and ideas;
  • Gives you practical experience conducting a thorough review of the literature concerning a research problem;
  • Provides evidence that you have read and understood your sources;
  • Establishes validity for the research you have done and of you as a researcher;
  • Gives you the opportunity to consider and include key digital, multimedia, or archival materials among your review of the literature;
  • Situates your study and underlying research problem in a continuing conversation among scholars;
  • Provides an opportunity for others to determine whether a source will be helpful for their research; and,
  • Could help researchers determine whether they are interested in a topic by providing background information and an idea of the kind of scholarly investigations that have been conducted in a particular area of study.

In summary, writing an annotated bibliography helps you develop skills related to critically reading and identifying the key points of a research study and to effectively synthesize the content in a way that helps the reader determine its validity and usefulness in relation to the research problem or topic of investigation.

NOTE: Do not confuse annotating source materials in the social sciences with annotating source materials in the arts and humanities. Rather than encompassing forms of synopsis and critical analysis, an annotation assignment in arts and humanities courses refers to the systematic interpretation of literary texts, art works, musical scores, performances, and other forms of creative human communication for the purpose of clarifying and encouraging analytical thinking about what the author(s)/creator(s) have written or created. They are assigned to encourage students to actively engage with the text or creative object.

Annotated Bibliographies. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Annotated Bibliographies. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Annotated Bibliography. The Waldin Writing Center. Waldin University; Hartley, James. Academic Writing and Publishing: A Practical Guide . (New York: Routledge, 2008), p. 127-128; Writing an Annotated Bibliography. Assignment Structures and Samples Research and Learning Online, Monash University; Kalir, Remi H. and Antero Garcia. Annotation . Essential Knowledge Series. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2021.

Structure and Writing Style

I.  Types

  • Descriptive : This annotation describes the source without summarizing the actual argument, hypothesis, or message in the content. Like an abstract , it describes what the source addresses, what issues are being investigated, and any special features, such as appendices or bibliographies, that are used to supplement the main text. What it does not include is any evaluation or criticism of the content. This type of annotation seeks to answer the question: Does this source cover or address the topic I am researching? Collectively, this type of annotated bibliography synthesizes prior research about a topic or serves as a review of the literature before conducting a broader research study.
  • Informative/Summative : This type of annotation summarizes what the content, message, or argument of the source is. It generally contains the hypothesis, methodology, and conclusion or findings, but like the descriptive type, you are not offering your own evaluative comments about such content. This type of annotation seeks to answer these types of questions: What are the author's main arguments? What are the key findings? What conclusions or recommended actions did the author state?   Collectively, this type of annotated bibliography summarizes the way in which scholars have studied and documented outcomes about a topic.
  • Evaluative/Critical/Analytical : This annotation includes your own evaluative statements about the content of a source. It is the most common type of annotation your professor will ask you to write. Your critique may focus on describing a study's strengths and weaknesses or it may describe the applicability of the conclusions to the research problem you are studying. This type of annotation seeks to answer these types of questions: Is the reasoning sound? Is the methodology sound? Does this source address all the relevant issues? How does this source compare to other sources on this topic? Collectively, this type of annotated bibliography offers a detailed analysis and critical assessment of the research literature about a topic.

NOTE:   There are a variety of strategies you can use to critically evaluate a source based on its content, purpose, and format. A description of these strategies can be found here .

II.  Choosing Sources for Your Bibliography

There are two good strategies to begin identifying possible sources for your bibliography--one that looks back into the literature and one that projects forward based on tracking sources cited by researchers.

  • The first strategy is to identify several recently published [within the past few years] scholarly books using the USC Libraries catalog or journal articles found by searching a comprehensive, multidisciplinary database like ProQuest Multiple . Review the list of references to sources cited by the author(s). Review these citations to identify prior research published about your topic. For a complete list of scholarly databases GO HERE .
  • The second strategy is to identify one or more books, book chapters, journal articles, or research reports on your topic and paste the title of the item into Google Scholar [e.g., from Negotiation Journal , entering the title of the article, " Civic Fusion: Moving from Certainty through Not Knowing to Curiosity " ]. If it is a short title or it uses a lot of common words, place quotation marks around the title so Google Scholar searches the source as a phrase rather than a combination of individual words. Below the citation may be a "Cited by" reference link followed by a number [e.g., Cited by 45]. This number refers to the number of times a source has subsequently been cited by other authors in other sources after the item you found was published.

Your method for selecting which sources to annotate depends on the purpose of the assignment and the research problem you are investigating . For example, if the course is on international social movements and the research problem you choose to study is to compare cultural factors that led to protests in Egypt with the factors that led to protests against the government of the Philippines in  the 1980's, you should consider including non-U.S., historical, and, if possible, foreign language sources in your bibliography.

NOTE:   Appropriate sources to include can be anything that you believe has value in understanding the research problem . Be creative in thinking about possible sources, including non-textual items, such as, films, maps, photographs, and audio recordings, or archival documents and primary source materials, such as, diaries, government documents, collections of personal correspondence, meeting minutes, or official memorandums. If you want to include these types of sources in your annotated bibliography, consult with a librarian if you're not sure where to locate them.

III.  Strategies to Define the Scope of Your Bibliography

It is important that the scope of sources cited and summarized in your bibliography are well-defined and sufficiently narrow in coverage to ensure that you're not overwhelmed by the number of potential items to consider including. Many of the general strategies used to narrow a topic for a research paper are the same that be applied to framing the scope of sources to include in an annotated bibliography.

  • Aspect -- choose one lens through which to view the research problem, or look at just one facet of your topic [e.g., rather than annotating a bibliography of sources about the role of food in religious rituals, create a bibliography on the role of food in Hindu ceremonies].
  • Time -- the shorter the time period to be covered, the more narrow the focus [e.g., rather than political scandals of the 20th century, cite literature on political scandals during the 1980s].
  • Comparative -- a list of resources that focus on comparing two or more issues related to the broader research topic can be used to narrow the scope of your bibliography [e.g., rather than college student activism during the 20th century, cite literature that compares student activism in the 1930s and the 1960s]
  • Geography -- the smaller the area of analysis, the fewer items there are to consider including in your bibliography [e.g., rather than cite sources about trade relations in West Africa, include only sources that examine, as a case study, trade relations between Niger and Cameroon].
  • Type -- focus your bibliography on a specific type or class of people, places, or things [e.g., rather than health care provision in Japan, cite research on health care provided to the elderly in Japan].
  • Source -- your bibliography includes specific types of materials [e.g., only books, only scholarly journal articles, only films, only archival materials, etc.]. However, be sure to describe why only one type of source is appropriate.
  • Combination -- use two or more of the above strategies to focus your bibliography very narrowly or to broaden coverage of a very specific research problem [e.g., cite literature only about political scandals during the 1980s that took place in Great Britain].

IV.  Assessing the Relevance and Value of Sources All the items included in your bibliography should reflect the source's contribution to understanding the research problem . In order to determine how you will use the source or define its contribution, you will need to critically evaluate the quality of the central argument within the source or, in the case of including  non-textual items, determine how the source contributes to understanding the research problem [e.g., if the bibliography lists sources about outreach strategies to homeless populations, a non-textual source would be a film that profiles the life of a homeless person]. Specific elements to assess a research study include an item’s overall value in relation to other sources on the topic, its limitations, its effectiveness in defining the research problem, the methodology used, the quality of the evidence, and the strength of the author’s conclusions and/or recommendations. With this in mind, determining whether a source should be included in your bibliography depends on how you think about and answer the following questions related to its content:

  • Are you interested in the way the author(s) frame the research questions or in the way the author goes about investigating the questions [the method]?
  • Does the research findings make new connections or promote new ways of understanding the problem?
  • Are you interested in the way the author(s) use a theoretical framework or a key concept?
  • Does the source refer to and analyze a particular body of evidence that you want to highlight?
  • How are the author's conclusions relevant to your overall investigation of the topic?

V.  Format and Content

The format of an annotated bibliography can differ depending on its purpose and the nature of the assignment. Contents may be listed alphabetically by author, arranged chronologically by publication date, or arranged under headings that list different types of sources [i.e., books, articles, government documents, research reports, etc.]. If the bibliography includes a lot of sources, items may also be subdivided thematically, by time periods of coverage or publication, or by source type. If you are unsure, ask your professor for specific guidelines in terms of length, focus, and the type of annotation you are to write. Note that most professors assign annotated bibliographies that only need to be arranged alphabetically by author.

Introduction Your bibliography should include an introduction that describes the research problem or topic being covered, including any limits placed on items to be included [e.g., only material published in the last ten years], explains the method used to identify possible sources [such as databases you searched or methods used to identify sources], the rationale for selecting the sources, and, if appropriate, an explanation stating why specific types of some sources were deliberately excluded. The introduction's length depends, in general, on the complexity of the topic and the variety of sources included.

Citation This first part of your entry contains the bibliographic information written in a standard documentation style , such as, MLA, Chicago, or APA. Ask your professor what style is most appropriate, and be consistent! If your professor does not have a preferred citation style, choose the type you are most familiar with or that is used predominantly within your major or area of study.

Annotation The second part of your entry should summarize, in paragraph form, the content of the source. What you say about the source is dictated by the type of annotation you are asked to write [see above]. In most cases, however, your annotation should describe the content and provide critical commentary that evaluates the source and its relationship to the topic.

In general, the annotation should include one to three sentences about the item in the following order : (1) an introduction of the item; (2) a brief description of what the study was intended to achieve and the research methods used to gather information; ( 3) the scope of study [i.e., limits and boundaries of the research related to sample size, area of concern, targeted groups examined, or extent of focus on the problem]; (4) a statement about the study's usefulness in relation to your research and the topic; (5) a note concerning any limitations found in the study; (6) a summary of any recommendations or further research offered by the author(s); and, (7) a critical statement that elucidates how the source clarifies your topic or pertains to the research problem.

Things to think critically about when writing the annotation include:

  • Does the source offer a good introduction on the issue?
  • Does the source effectively address the issue?
  • Would novices find the work accessible or is it intended for an audience already familiar with the topic?
  • What limitations does the source have [reading level, timeliness, reliability, etc.]?
  • Are any special features, such as, appendices or non-textual elements effectively presented?
  • What is your overall reaction to the source?
  • If it's a website or online resource, is it up-to-date, well-organized, and easy to read, use, and navigate?

Length An annotation can vary in length from a few sentences to more than a page, single-spaced. However, they are normally about 300 words--the length of a standard paragraph. The length also depends on the purpose of the annotated bibliography [critical assessments are generally lengthier than descriptive annotations] and the type of source [e.g., books generally require a more detailed annotation than a magazine article]. If you are just writing summaries of your sources, the annotations may not be very long. However, if you are writing an extensive analysis of each source, you'll need to devote more space.

Annotated Bibliographies. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Annotated Bibliographies. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Annotated Bibliography. The Writer’s Handbook. Writing Center. University of Wisconsin, Madison; Annotated Bibliography. Writing Center. Walden University; Annotated Bibliography. Writing Skills, Student Support and Development, University of New South Wales; Engle, Michael et al. How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography. Olin Reference, Research and Learning Services. Cornell University Library; Guidelines for Preparing an Annotated Bibliography. Writing Center at Campus Library. University of Washington, Bothell; Harner, James L. On Compiling an Annotated Bibliography . 2nd edition. New York: Modern Language Association, 2000; How to Write an Annotated Bibliography. Information and Library Services. University of Maryland; Knott, Deborah. Writing an Annotated Bibliography. The Lab Report. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Norton, Donna. Top 32 Effective Tips for Writing an Annotated Bibliography Top-notch study tips for A+ students blog; Writing from Sources: Writing an Annotated Bibliography. The Reading/Writing Center. Hunter College.

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MKTG396v9 Assignment 1: Annotated Bibliography

by Assignment Guide | Jun 12, 2023 | Uncategorized | 0 comments

Assignment 1 is worth 15% of your overall course grade. You should start working on this assignment after completing Lesson 6. Pay particular attention to the videos available on the  Lesson 6 Readings and Key Terms   page.

The purpose of this assignment is twofold. First, this assignment will encourage you to think critically about the quality of the sources that you will be including in your second assignment. Second, this assignment will enable you to receive feedback from an Academic Expert regarding the quality of the sources that you have found during your literature review. This will help you to better understand which sources you should include and which sources which sources you should exclude.

As the two course assignments are parts of the same project, you should familiarize yourself with the requirements of Assignment 2 before beginning work on Assignment 1.

Please note that you may be required to resubmit Assignment 1 before moving on to Assignment 2. Pay close attention to the feedback you receive on this assignment, as your success in Assignment 2 is closely linked to the quality of the sources you use.

Getting Started

Your first step will be to select a  physical product  that would be purchased by a  household consumer  (not a business). Products that are high-involvement purchases work better for this assignment. (Note: High-involvement purchases use an extended problem-solving purchase process and are covered in Lesson 4.)

The product that you select needs to be a specific brand and model, as in the example below:

Please reach out to your Academic Expert through the Student Support Centre if you are unsure whether the product you have in mind would meet the requirements for this project.

Requirements

Your submission should include the following:

1. Title page: Include the assignment name, course title, your name, and your student I.D. number.

2. Content: Include your list of 10 annotations. (See details on annotations below.)

3. Reference page: Include a full reference list of your 10 sources, in APA format and sorted alphabetically.

Submit your assignment for grading on the  Assignment 1 submission page   .

This assignment will be marked on a pass/resubmit basis, providing you with an opportunity to receive feedback from an Academic Expert. In fact, you are encouraged to seek assistance and may go back and forth a few times before submitting a satisfactory assignment. This is intended as a learning opportunity, so you will not be penalized for requiring additional support.

If your submission meets the requirements, you may proceed to working on Assignment 2.

If your submission does not meet the requirements, your Academic Expert will provide feedback and ask that you revise and resubmit. You will not be able to submit Assignment 2 until you have received a pass on Assignment 1.

Finding Sources

Before beginning your search, you should have completed all the readings and learning activities for Lesson 6 and selected your product for this project.

Your annotated bibliography should include sources of information on  demographic, psychographic, and behavioural characteristics  of the high-volume consumers of your product. Do not worry about geographic characteristics in your annotated bibliography; you will add these details in Assignment 2.

Do not expect to access only a single database or find a comprehensive consumer profile for a particular product from a simple Internet search. The challenge of this project comes from searching for and evaluating bits and pieces of information that you will fit together to build your consumer profile. More information on evaluating sources for quality is provided below.

Your first stop should be the  Athabasca University Library   , which offers tutorials, webinars, and other supports to help you find appropriate scholarly sources. You should also conduct a broad web search to discover professional and applied sources of data.

Troubleshooting

When you begin searching for the characteristics of those who are the high-volume buyers for your product, you may find that no data is available or that it is extremely limited.

Sometimes you can find consumer data for a competitor’s brand in the same product category. For example, both the Honda CRV and the Toyota Rav are in the category of compact crossover SUVs. Therefore, if your product is the Honda CRV, you can also use Toyota Rav data. If you do this, make sure to mention that you are generalizing data from one brand to another.

If you continue to have difficulty locating quality sources, you may need to select a new product. This is one of the reasons you should begin working on this assignment as soon as possible!

Source Quality

A high-quality source is one that is founded in research or solid reasoning, rather than an unsubstantiated opinion. Evaluating whether sources are high-quality and appropriate for your project will require considerable critical thinking. If your annotated bibliography has too many low-quality sources, the Academic Expert will ask you to remove these and request they be replaced with better sources.

The following figure can help you infer the accuracy, reliability, and quality of a source.

Text  Description automatically generated with medium confidence

Figure 0.1. “Eaton’s Hierarchy of Sources for Educational Research Literature Reviews,” by S. E. Eaton, 2018, licensed under  CC BY-NC-ND 4.0   .

For more on high-quality sources, you are encouraged to read the full article summarized by the figure above:

Eaton, S. E. (2018).  Educational research literature reviews: Understanding the hierarchy of sources.  University of Calgary.  https://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.27128.14083

Note: This resource is optional but recommended. It is aimed at educational researchers but is generally relevant for other disciplines, including marketing.

A final consideration when assessing whether a source is relevant to your assignment is how  generalizable  the information might be. Research that examines beliefs, attitudes, and preferences is often relative to a specific time period and location. For example, a paper that examines the attitudes of teenagers in Egypt may not be generalizable to teenagers in Canada. Likewise, opinion research that was conducted 15 years ago may not be generalizable to the current context.

Annotations

The word “annotate” means to make a note. When you read a textbook and make a note in the margin about something you just read, you are making an annotation.

An annotated bibliography is a formal and structured set of notes about each book, article, or document included in a bibliography. In this case, the annotated bibliography that you will be developing will be for the 10 high-quality sources on  demographic, psychographic, and behavioural characteristics  of the high-volume consumers of your product.

You are encouraged to practise writing annotations for each source you evaluate, even if you don’t end up including them all in your assignment submission.

Below is an example of an annotation. Note the following characteristics:

· The source is numbered. This will help you and your Academic Expert easily assess whether you have the required number of sources (10). Your sources should be presented in alphabetical order (last name of the first author).

· The full reference is provided in correct APA format. See the  AU Library’s Guide to Citation Style   for guidance. You should also familiarize yourself with the guidelines for in-text citations (not included in the example below).

· The annotation includes a concise summary as well as some brief analysis of the source’s strengths and weaknesses. You may also wish to comment on the relevance of the source for your product and project.

Sample Annotation

Swaffield, J. B., & Guo, Q. (2020). Environmental stress effects on appetite: Changing desire for high- and low-energy foods depends on the nature of the perceived threat.  Evolution, Mind and Behaviour, 18 (1), 1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1556/2050.2018.00008

In this article, the researchers report on a study where they examined the effect of different types of environmental stressors on appetite and food preference.

They showed that exposure to cues of low social support and high physical threat reduce the desire to eat, whereas cues of economic harshness had little effect. Further analysis revealed a significant interaction between energy level of different foods and perceived threat to physical safety. These findings provide insights on how environmental conditions influence changes in appetite and desire for different kinds of food items.

Two strengths of this article are that it is based on experimental research and it is peer reviewed. A weakness of this paper is the researchers only tested desire and food preference. They did not test actual eating behaviour.

Reference List

The final component of Assignment 1 is the reference list, which should follow APA formatting guidelines. This is simply a repetition of the references used within your annotated bibliography; you will use or build on this list for Assignment 2.

mktg396v9 assignment 1 annotated bibliography

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“Annotated Bibliography” provided by the authors

“Reflective Writing Prompt: Annotated Bibliography” by the authors

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  • Describe the citation and annotation of an annotated bibliography.

mktg396v9 assignment 1 annotated bibliography

https://youtu.be/R0Hsnx0l1q4

Annotated Bibliography

provided by the authors

Earlier in the text, you explored a topic that you want to further research. in this section, you’re going to find sources using formal scholarly research, evaluate and write annotations for those sources, and use MLA citation to create works cited entries.

This second major assignment for English Composition II courses is called an annotated bibliography . For this assignment you’ll find a number of sources (some of which will be scholarly, peer-reviewed and compose works cited entries and annotations for these sources. The purpose of the annotated bibliography is to give a review of the most important research you’ve found and evaluate their worthiness to be included in your research project. Your instructor will have specific guidelines for the number and types of sources to be included in this assignment.

The annotations are divided into three parts: a summary, an evaluation, and a plan to use the source. The summary should give a quick, objective description of the source, usually involving the thesis and context for the source. After that, the bulk of the annotation should be an evaluation , which you’ll conduct a critical analysis of the source, judging its credibility, accuracy, and authority as a source. You’ll end the annotation with a plan to use the source in your own research project, telling how this source can support your argument and purpose.

The annotated bibliography as a whole will be formatted using MLA 8 citation. Each source will have a works cited entry followed immediately by the annotation.

For this section we focus on critical analysis and knowledge.  Critical Analysis : “critical analysis is a careful examination and evaluation of a text, image, or other work or performance…[to] help us understand the interaction of the particular elements that contribute to a work’s power and effectiveness” (Richard Nordquist). Knowledge is “facts or ideas acquired by study, observation, or experience” (Merriam-Webster)

Context is the circumstances surrounding an issue that the rhetorician must consider in discussing the issue.  In other words, before we begin writing an argumentative research essay, we must first consider who needs to hear our message ( audience ), why they need to hear our message ( exigence ), and with whom we wish to confer in order to exchange ideas and information to form a solid foundation for our argument ( discourse community ).

Important Concepts

annotated bibliography

annotations

plan to use the source

Reflective Writing Prompt

Annotated Bibliography 

In a two-part response OR [In the format of a dialogue, create a conversation that includes you and several (2 – 3)] of your sources you selected for your Annotated Bibliography. Create a conversation] that demonstrates how you learned from your sources specific knowledge about the topic itself and the writing assignment. Use some of the following questions to guide your thinking:

Part 1: In 300-400 words: what did you learn about writing with sources from constructing this Annotated Bibliography? What kinds of rhetorical knowledge and critical analysis skills did you draw on to produce this project? Using specific details from your own writing, explain how your understanding of context contributed to your final decisions.

Part 2: In 300-400 words, which of the key terms did you use to form the basis of your theory of writing? For example, how did you draw upon an understanding of audience awareness or genre (both important features of context) in your selection of source materials? How do you see opportunities to apply this in other courses when asked to write a research project?

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Composing Ourselves and Our World,   Provided by: the authors. License:  Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

  • Video 1: What’s an annotated bibliography?   by Brock Library .  License: Standard YouTube License.

Composing Ourselves and Our World Copyright © 2019 by Auburn University at Montgomery is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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MKTG396v9 Assignment 1: Annotated Bibliography

Assignment 1 is worth 15% of your overall course grade. You should start working on this assignment after completing Lesson 6. Pay particular attention to the videos available on the page.

The purpose of this assignment is twofold. First, this assignment will encourage you to think critically about the quality of the sources that you will be including in your second assignment. Second, this assignment will enable you to receive feedback from an Academic Expert regarding the quality of the sources that you have found during your literature review. This will help you to better understand which sources you should include and which sources which sources you should exclude.

As the two course assignments are parts of the same project, you should familiarize yourself with the requirements of Assignment 2 before beginning work on Assignment 1.

Please note that you may be required to resubmit Assignment 1 before moving on to Assignment 2. Pay close attention to the feedback you receive on this assignment, as your success in Assignment 2 is closely linked to the quality of the sources you use.

Getting Started

Your first step will be to select a physical product that would be purchased by a household consumer (not a business). Products that are high-involvement purchases work better for this assignment. (Note: High-involvement purchases use an extended problem-solving purchase process and are covered in Lesson 4.)

The product that you select needs to be a specific brand and model, as in the example below:

Please reach out to your Academic Expert through the Student Support Centre if you are unsure whether the product you have in mind would meet the requirements for this project.

Requirements

Your submission should include the following:

1. Title page: Include the assignment name, course title, your name, and your student I.D. number.

2. Content: Include your list of 10 annotations. (See details on annotations below.)

3. Reference page: Include a full reference list of your 10 sources, in APA format and sorted alphabetically.

Submit your assignment for grading on the .

This assignment will be marked on a pass/resubmit basis, providing you with an opportunity to receive feedback from an Academic Expert. In fact, you are encouraged to seek assistance and may go back and forth a few times before submitting a satisfactory assignment. This is intended as a learning opportunity, so you will not be penalized for requiring additional support.

If your submission meets the requirements, you may proceed to working on Assignment 2.

If your submission does not meet the requirements, your Academic Expert will provide feedback and ask that you revise and resubmit. You will not be able to submit Assignment 2 until you have received a pass on Assignment 1.

Finding Sources

Before beginning your search, you should have completed all the readings and learning activities for Lesson 6 and selected your product for this project.

Your annotated bibliography should include sources of information on demographic, psychographic, and behavioural characteristics of the high-volume consumers of your product. Do not worry about geographic characteristics in your annotated bibliography; you will add these details in Assignment 2.

Do not expect to access only a single database or find a comprehensive consumer profile for a particular product from a simple Internet search. The challenge of this project comes from searching for and evaluating bits and pieces of information that you will fit together to build your consumer profile. More information on evaluating sources for quality is provided below.

Your first stop should be the , which offers tutorials, webinars, and other supports to help you find appropriate scholarly sources. You should also conduct a broad web search to discover professional and applied sources of data.

Troubleshooting

When you begin searching for the characteristics of those who are the high-volume buyers for your product, you may find that no data is available or that it is extremely limited.

Sometimes you can find consumer data for a competitor’s brand in the same product category. For example, both the Honda CRV and the Toyota Rav are in the category of compact crossover SUVs. Therefore, if your product is the Honda CRV, you can also use Toyota Rav data. If you do this, make sure to mention that you are generalizing data from one brand to another.

If you continue to have difficulty locating quality sources, you may need to select a new product. This is one of the reasons you should begin working on this assignment as soon as possible!

Source Quality

A high-quality source is one that is founded in research or solid reasoning, rather than an unsubstantiated opinion. Evaluating whether sources are high-quality and appropriate for your project will require considerable critical thinking. If your annotated bibliography has too many low-quality sources, the Academic Expert will ask you to remove these and request they be replaced with better sources.

The following figure can help you infer the accuracy, reliability, and quality of a source.

Figure 0.1. “Eaton’s Hierarchy of Sources for Educational Research Literature Reviews,” by S. E. Eaton, 2018, licensed under .

For more on high-quality sources, you are encouraged to read the full article summarized by the figure above:

Eaton, S. E. (2018). Educational research literature reviews: Understanding the hierarchy of sources. University of Calgary.

Note: This resource is optional but recommended. It is aimed at educational researchers but is generally relevant for other disciplines, including marketing.

A final consideration when assessing whether a source is relevant to your assignment is how generalizable the information might be. Research that examines beliefs, attitudes, and preferences is often relative to a specific time period and location. For example, a paper that examines the attitudes of teenagers in Egypt may not be generalizable to teenagers in Canada. Likewise, opinion research that was conducted 15 years ago may not be generalizable to the current context.

Annotations

The word “annotate” means to make a note. When you read a textbook and make a note in the margin about something you just read, you are making an annotation.

An annotated bibliography is a formal and structured set of notes about each book, article, or document included in a bibliography. In this case, the annotated bibliography that you will be developing will be for the 10 high-quality sources on demographic, psychographic, and behavioural characteristics of the high-volume consumers of your product.

You are encouraged to practise writing annotations for each source you evaluate, even if you don’t end up including them all in your assignment submission.

Below is an example of an annotation. Note the following characteristics:

· The source is numbered. This will help you and your Academic Expert easily assess whether you have the required number of sources (10). Your sources should be presented in alphabetical order (last name of the first author).

· The full reference is provided in correct APA format. See the for guidance. You should also familiarize yourself with the guidelines for in-text citations (not included in the example below).

· The annotation includes a concise summary as well as some brief analysis of the source’s strengths and weaknesses. You may also wish to comment on the relevance of the source for your product and project.

Sample Annotation

Swaffield, J. B., & Guo, Q. (2020). Environmental stress effects on appetite: Changing desire for high- and low-energy foods depends on the nature of the perceived threat. Evolution, Mind and Behaviour, 18 (1), 1–13.

In this article, the researchers report on a study where they examined the effect of different types of environmental stressors on appetite and food preference.

They showed that exposure to cues of low social support and high physical threat reduce the desire to eat, whereas cues of economic harshness had little effect. Further analysis revealed a significant interaction between energy level of different foods and perceived threat to physical safety. These findings provide insights on how environmental conditions influence changes in appetite and desire for different kinds of food items.

Two strengths of this article are that it is based on experimental research and it is peer reviewed. A weakness of this paper is the researchers only tested desire and food preference. They did not test actual eating behaviour.

Reference List

The final component of Assignment 1 is the reference list, which should follow APA formatting guidelines. This is simply a repetition of the references used within your annotated bibliography; you will use or build on this list for Assignment 2.

MKTG 396v9 Assignment 1©Athabasca UniversityJanuary 2023

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Annotated Bibliography Case Study

Mktg396v9 assignment 1: annotated bibliography.

Assignment 1 is worth 15% of your overall course grade. You should start working on this assignment after completing Lesson 6. Pay particular attention to the videos available on the  Lesson 6 Readings and Key Terms   page.

The purpose of this assignment is twofold. First, this assignment will encourage you to think critically about the quality of the sources that you will be including in your second assignment. Second, this assignment will enable you to receive feedback from an Academic Expert regarding the quality of the sources that you have found during your literature review. This will help you to better understand which sources you should include and which sources which sources you should exclude.

As the two course assignments are parts of the same project, you should familiarize yourself with the requirements of Assignment 2 before beginning work on Assignment 1.

Please note that you may be required to resubmit Assignment 1 before moving on to Assignment 2. Pay close attention to the feedback you receive on this assignment, as your success in Assignment 2 is closely linked to the quality of the sources you use.

Getting Started

Your first step will be to select a physical product that would be purchased by a household consumer (not a business). Products that are high-involvement purchases work better for this assignment. (Note: High-involvement purchases use an extended problem-solving purchase process and are covered in Lesson 4.)

The product that you select needs to be a specific brand and model, as in the example below:

Please reach out to your Academic Expert through the Student Support Centre if you are unsure whether the product you have in mind would meet the requirements for this project.

Requirements

Your submission should include the following:

1. Title page: Include the assignment name, course title, your name, and your student I.D. number.

2. Content: Include your list of 10 annotations. (See details on annotations below.)

3. Reference page: Include a full reference list of your 10 sources, in APA format and sorted alphabetically.

Submit your assignment for grading on the  Assignment 1 submission page   .

This assignment will be marked on a pass/resubmit basis, providing you with an opportunity to receive feedback from an Academic Expert. In fact, you are encouraged to seek assistance and may go back and forth a few times before submitting a satisfactory assignment. This is intended as a learning opportunity, so you will not be penalized for requiring additional support.

If your submission meets the requirements, you may proceed to working on Assignment 2.

If your submission does not meet the requirements, your Academic Expert will provide feedback and ask that you revise and resubmit. You will not be able to submit Assignment 2 until you have received a pass on Assignment 1.

Finding Sources

Before beginning your search, you should have completed all the readings and learning activities for Lesson 6 and selected your product for this project.

Your annotated bibliography should include sources of information on demographic, psychographic, and behavioural characteristics of the high-volume consumers of your product. Do not worry about geographic characteristics in your annotated bibliography; you will add these details in Assignment 2.

Do not expect to access only a single database or find a comprehensive consumer profile for a particular product from a simple Internet search. The challenge of this project comes from searching for and evaluating bits and pieces of information that you will fit together to build your consumer profile. More information on evaluating sources for quality is provided below.

Your first stop should be the  Athabasca University Library   , which offers tutorials, webinars, and other supports to help you find appropriate scholarly sources. You should also conduct a broad web search to discover professional and applied sources of data.

Troubleshooting

When you begin searching for the characteristics of those who are the high-volume buyers for your product, you may find that no data is available or that it is extremely limited.

Sometimes you can find consumer data for a competitor’s brand in the same product category. For example, both the Honda CRV and the Toyota Rav are in the category of compact crossover SUVs. Therefore, if your product is the Honda CRV, you can also use Toyota Rav data. If you do this, make sure to mention that you are generalizing data from one brand to another.

If you continue to have difficulty locating quality sources, you may need to select a new product. This is one of the reasons you should begin working on this assignment as soon as possible!

Source Quality

A high-quality source is one that is founded in research or solid reasoning, rather than an unsubstantiated opinion. Evaluating whether sources are high-quality and appropriate for your project will require considerable critical thinking. If your annotated bibliography has too many low-quality sources, the Academic Expert will ask you to remove these and request they be replaced with better sources.

The following figure can help you infer the accuracy, reliability, and quality of a source.

Text  Description automatically generated with medium confidence

Figure 0.1. “Eaton’s Hierarchy of Sources for Educational Research Literature Reviews,” by S. E. Eaton, 2018, licensed under  CC BY-NC-ND 4 .0   .

For more on high-quality sources, you are encouraged to read the full article summarized by the figure above:

Eaton, S. E. (2018).  Educational research literature reviews: Understanding the hierarchy of sources.  University of Calgary.  https://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.27128.14083

Note: This resource is optional but recommended. It is aimed at educational researchers but is generally relevant for other disciplines, including marketing.

A final consideration when assessing whether a source is relevant to your assignment is how generalizable the information might be. Research that examines beliefs, attitudes, and preferences is often relative to a specific time period and location. For example, a paper that examines the attitudes of teenagers in Egypt may not be generalizable to teenagers in Canada. Likewise, opinion research that was conducted 15 years ago may not be generalizable to the current context.

Annotations

The word “annotate” means to make a note. When you read a textbook and make a note in the margin about something you just read, you are making an annotation.

An annotated bibliography is a formal and structured set of notes about each book, article, or document included in a bibliography. In this case, the annotated bibliography that you will be developing will be for the 10 high-quality sources on demographic, psychographic, and behavioural characteristics of the high-volume consumers of your product.

You are encouraged to practise writing annotations for each source you evaluate, even if you don’t end up including them all in your assignment submission.

Below is an example of an annotation. Note the following characteristics:

· The source is numbered. This will help you and your Academic Expert easily assess whether you have the required number of sources (10). Your sources should be presented in alphabetical order (last name of the first author).

· The full reference is provided in correct APA format. See the  AU Library’s Guide to Citation Style   for guidance. You should also familiarize yourself with the guidelines for in-text citations (not included in the example below).

· The annotation includes a concise summary as well as some brief analysis of the source’s strengths and weaknesses. You may also wish to comment on the relevance of the source for your product and project.

Sample Annotation

Swaffield, J. B., & Guo, Q. (2020). Environmental stress effects on appetite: Changing desire for high- and low-energy foods depends on the nature of the perceived threat.  Evolution, Mind and Behaviour, 18 (1), 1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1556/2050.2018.00008

In this article, the researchers report on a study where they examined the effect of different types of environmental stressors on appetite and food preference.

They showed that exposure to cues of low social support and high physical threat reduce the desire to eat, whereas cues of economic harshness had little effect. Further analysis revealed a significant interaction between energy level of different foods and perceived threat to physical safety. These findings provide insights on how environmental conditions influence changes in appetite and desire for different kinds of food items.

Two strengths of this article are that it is based on experimental research and it is peer reviewed. A weakness of this paper is the researchers only tested desire and food preference. They did not test actual eating behaviour.

Annotated Bibliography case study

In this course, you are required to complete a about one of the topics of your in the course.

Review the topics in the course and choose a topic to focus your research paper on. Some suggestions include :

  • The history of the increase in opiate addiction
  • Opiate replacement treatment approaches
  • Detoxification from alcohol and opiates
  • The psychopharmacology of methamphetamines

For this week, select a topic and compile a list of references that you will use to support the content of your “” assignment due in Topic 7. A minimum of six scholarly sources are required.

In a Word document , list the sources you selected and provide a short description of 75-100 words for each source. Also, describe the relevance as to why you selected the source, and how it will support your paper.

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  6. Annotated Bibliography Samples

    Below you will find sample annotations from annotated bibliographies, each with a different research project. Remember that the annotations you include in your own bibliography should reflect your research project and/or the guidelines of your assignment. As mentioned elsewhere in this resource, depending on the purpose of your bibliography ...

  7. What Is an Annotated Bibliography?

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    Place annotations underneath the citation. Indent your annotation an additional 1 inch from the start of the entry (2 inches from the edge of the page). This differentiates it from the citation's first indent (1 inch from the edge of the page) and its hanging indent (1.5 inches from the edge of the page).

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  12. Common Assignments: Annotated Bibliographies

    An annotated bibliography is a list of references that not only identifies the sources of information but also includes information such as a summary, a critique or analysis, and an application of those sources' information. Review our resources on the following pages for more information about each component of an annotated bibliography.

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    MKTG396v9 Assignment 1: Annotated Bibliography Assignment 1 is worth 15% of your overall course grade. You should start working on this assignment after completing Lesson 6. Pay particular attention to the videos available on the Lesson 6 Readings and Key Terms page. The purpose of this assignment is twofold.

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