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Parent's Academy › Speech Disorders › Speech Sound Disorders › R Sound Articulation Therapy: A Guide for Parents

R Sound Articulation Therapy: A Guide for Parents

Natalie barnes.

Speech Therapist and Audiologist , Cape Town , South Africa

Jan 20, 2022 The R sound is a very unusual sound that has multiple variations. There are as many as 32 different sounding types of the R sound. Yikes!

This article focuses on the R consonant sound and how your child can use our app to practice saying it correctly. Download the app and start your at-home practice today.

As a speech therapist, I can tell you that though the R sound is commonly used in the English language, it is also one of the trickiest. In fact, the R sound is one of the last sounds to be mastered by children. And though it begins to emerge at 3-years-of-age, it often only matures at the ages of 6 or 7.

When will your child learn certain sounds?

What is the /R/ Sound?

As already mentioned, the /r/ sound is one of the hardest sounds to master. Children usually master it by the ages of 6-7. Whether a child struggles with the pre-vocalic /r/ (where the R is produced at the beginning of a word) or the vocalic /r/ (when the R sound is produced after a vowel), many speech therapists agree that it can be one of the most challenging sounds to teach. With that being said, there are many tips we can use to help a child practice their /r/ sound.

The key to helping your child correctly say the /r/ sound is to look at three important oral structures used in speech: the lips, the tongue, and the throat.

When producing the /r/ sound, we want to make sure to have our lips more in a neutral position or more of a square shape. Some SLPs may also have a child smile.

We can produce the /r/ sound using two tongue positions: 

  • the retroflex position , where the tip of the tongue is raised or curled at the roof of the mouth;
  • the bunched position , where we move our tongue towards the back of our teeth while the tongue tip points a bit down.

The upper part of the throat right behind the tongue, also known as the pharynx, must constrict or tighten in order for the correct R sound to be produced. The vocal cords need to vibrate to produce the sound correctly.

Check out the following video:

After watching the video, open our app and practice the words that include the R consonant in them.

Let’s make the R-sound easy!

Take this quiz and get a report on your child’s milestones and a personalized learning plan to start progressing with Speech Blubs!

speech therapy r sound

Teaching the R Consonant Sound to Your Child

Explain to your child that you are going to practice saying the R sound, like in the word “rabbit.”

Tell your child that when they say the R sound in “rabbit” you’d like to see their lips make an “O” shape . Make sure you show them how if they don’t understand.

Next, to get your child’s tongue in the correct placement position, tell them that their tongue needs to create a hump in the middle of their mouth like a little hill.

This is so that when they say the R sound in “rabbit,” they can pretend that there is a little rabbit hopping over the hill in their mouth to get outside. If there’s no hill, then there’s no correct R sound and the rabbit can’t get out.

Lastly, explain to your child that they need to tighten the back part of their throat so that they can push enough air up into their mouth and along their tongue in order to help the rabbit jump over the hill.

Once they can correctly say the R consonant sound in isolation, follow the articulation error hierarchy which you can read about in this article , or watch in this video.

speech therapy r sound

Some Mo/r/e T/r/icks

Tell your child to make a “fish face” to help them achieve the correct “O” lip placement. This can become a game to see who can make the funniest face while moving their lips into the correct position.

If this doesn’t work, exaggerate sticking your lips out and telling them to copy you or use a mirror so they can see their own progress. Once they can do this you can refine the positioning of their lips into the correct “O” shape.

Visual cueing and modeling are powerful learning aids that can be used in where you say the correct R consonant sound while your child imitates what your lips are doing. Our app is a wonderful imitation tool, as it develops your child’s articulation skills and other desirable behaviors by promoting learning through watching video demonstrations given by real kids. Download the app for iOS or Android devices.

You can read more about video modeling and imitation by reading the following article: Mirror Neurons, Video Modeling, and Your Child’s Speech .

Physically showing your child where to place their tongue is very effective. Most children who experience difficulty with the R sound are unable to position their tongue correctly because it all happens behind the visual barrier of the front teeth. This can also make it quite frustrating for them.

Once you have reached the word level and are practicing words that start with the R consonant sound, touch the tip of your child’s tongue with your finger or a tongue depressor and tell them that you want them to lift that part up as far as they can without touching the roof of their mouth.

Once you have reached the word level and are practicing words that have the R consonant sound in other places, touch the middle of your child’s tongue with your finger or a tongue depressor and tell them that you want them to lift that part up to create an arch without touching the roof of their mouth.

Have your child gargle with water to help them learn how to tighten their throat muscles the way they would when correctly saying the R consonant sound.

You can also draw their attention to this kind of throat tightening by having them drink through a straw and explaining how the muscles work.

When your child says the R sound, place their hand on their neck to feel the vibration made by their vocal cords. If they have trouble creating this vibration, then place their hand on your throat to show them how it’s done. Pretend that the vibration is the “rabbit” hopping. If there’s no vibration, then the “rabbit” isn’t hopping and he can’t get out.

To assist with the voicing and correct articulation of the R consonant sound, tell your child to pretend that they are growling like an angry dog. You can also turn this into game by seeing who can come up with the scariest or funniest growl.

More tips and tricks

  • Have your child try and think of their own words that contain the R consonant sound.
  • Make up silly phrases or sentences and even imitate appropriate phrases and sentences that you see in more than 1000 bonus video stories anywhere within Speech Blubs 2 or elsewhere.
  • Give your child an R consonant word and ask them to make up silly phrases or sentences – this is great language practice!
  • Use a mirror within the app at all levels of the hierarchy so that your child can see what they are doing and learn the skill of self-monitoring.
  • Put objects or toys that start with or contain a letter R in their name in a bag. Ask your child to draw one by one, and say the name of the object out loud to you.
  • When you are outside playing, play a game where you have to name the objects that have the letter R. For example, Road, Bricks, Tree, Branch, Mary-go-round, Water, Stream, River, Car, Truck, Train . . . try to spot as many as you can!
  • Play a game called “Rabbit Runs to . . .” Tell your child that they are a rabbit that has to run to a certain place in the house. Each time they reach the place you name, they have to answer the question: “Where did the rabbit run to?” “Rabbit Runs to the Rug.” “Rabbit Runs to the Refrigerator.” “Rabbit Runs to the Door.”
  • Make a dictionary of R words. You can use the store free advertisements of products they send to your house. Cut out all the things they sell that have a letter R: broccoli, rice, bread . . . and paste them in a special book. You can write down the names of the objects, and look at them every day to name the objects.

speech therapy r sound

How to Play Articulation Bingo?

  • Use the button below to download our Articulation Bingo Board
  • Print out the board and give it to your child or cut out the pictures and put them into a bag
  • Let your child pick a word from the board/bag
  • Find the word in Speech Blubs App and practice it, play with fun filters, and watch educational videos
  • Your child is a winner when he practices three pictures in a row (across, down, or horizontally) or the entire board.

Medial R Articulation

Use Speech Blubs app every day for at least 5-10 minutes to achieve the best results.

If you’re worried about your child’s ability to say the R consonant sound or have any other concerns about their pragmatics, comprehension, or talking, use our free screener within the app. Our speech and language pathologist-developed tool will even give you a personalized report with actionable advice with the results.

For more information about the app visit our FAQ section or write to us . Know that you have an ally in Speech Blubs and that our biggest success is seeing your child achieve their greatest potential.

If your child has difficulties with other sounds, here are the articles that can help you with speech therapy, speech exercises, and articulation activities ideas:

  • Articulation Therapy: An All-in-One Guide for Parents
  • B Sound Articulation Therapy
  • H Sound Articulation Therapy
  • JJ and CH Sounds Articulation Therapy
  • L Sound Articulation Therapy
  • Lisp Articulation Therapy
  • M Sound Articulation Therapy
  • N Sound Articulation Therapy
  • NG Sound Articulation Therapy
  • S Sound Articulation Therapy
  • SH Sound Articulation Therapy
  • T and D Sounds Articulation Therapy
  • W Sound Articulation Therapy

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The author’s views are entirely his or her own and may not necessarily reflect the views of Blub Blub Inc. All content provided on this website is for informational purposes only and is not intended to be a substitute for independent professional medical judgement, advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.

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Hi there, my child is turning 5 in June and is pronouncing the r sound like a y. What age is it appropriate to start speech therapy for this? I see this page suggests by 6 years old children should have mastered this sound. Is this without speech therapy? Thank-you kindly, Shea

Hi, thank you for you question! R sound is very difficult to learn, that is why kids on average master it by the time they are 6 years old. If your child won’t start using the R sound by the age of 6, get them evaluated for a speech therapy. But if you are worried, you can start practicing the sounds at home, click here for articulation game ideas . Also try Speech Blubs app, where you will find many words with the R sound!

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A Parent's Guide to R Sound Speech Therapy and How It Can Help Your Child

A mom and her toddler daughter doing an activity together

If your child has difficulty with the r-sound, they may need some help to learn how to pronounce it. This article covers the basics of R sound speech therapy and how it can help your child learn to speak more accurately.

It isn't too concerning if your child can't pronounce R as a preschooler. Rs are the most difficult letter to pronounce, and often kids won't fully develop the ability until the age of seven. However, if you are finding your attempts to teach your child to pronounce their Rs properly is causing conflict, it could interfere with family dynamics and your child's confidence.

The inability to pronounce Rs is a speech impediment called rhoticism. It is so common there is speech therapy specifically designed to help children pronounce their Rs. This is a complete guide to R speech therapy and how it can help your child learn to make the R sound stress-free.

Master 'R' Sounds with Ease!

What is Rhoticism?

Rhoticism is the most common speech disorder children experience. Inability to pronounce the R sound usually leads to a child pronouncing their Rs as Ws. This is because there are more variations of the letter R pronouncement than any other letter. Adding to the difficulty, it isn't easy to show a child how to position their mouth and tongue to make the sound correctly. For example, when showing a child to make the letter B, they can see the movement of your lips, making it easier for them to mimic you and make the sound.

When Should a Child Be Able to Say Their R's?

Illustration of the different stages of a child

R is usually the last letter children learn to make. In most cases, a child begins to say forms of their Rs by about two and a half and has it perfected by the age of six. For some, however, development might not be perfected until as late as age seven . In most cases, rhoticism isn't addressed until a child approaches age seven or eight, but R sound speech therapy and coaching can start sooner.

Why Are There So Many Variations of R?

The R sound occurs most frequently when speaking English. It is challenging to master because it has so many variations in pronunciation. Where the R occurs in the word influences how the R should sound. Variations include:

  • R as in run
  • RL as in pearl
  • IRE as in fire
  • AR as in far
  • EAR as in dear
  • OR as in door
  • ER as in sister
  • AIR as in dare

With so many variations, you can see why it might be more challenging for a child to learn to master each sound with the rest of their letters.

How Can I Help My Child Say Rs?

Parents can also learn to assist their child with some fun exercises such as:

Illustration of the letter R connecting to vowels with a green arrow

Connect Rs to Vowels

Many children find it easier to say their Rs with a vowel. R blends speech therapy such as making your way through the vowels, making it easier to understand how to pronounce R in different variations. First, pronouncing the vowel, either long or short, holding the sound, and then adding an R at the end helps your child hear how the letters sound together. For long A, you would begin with them saying aaaaaa and then adding the R to say aaaaaarrrrrr as in air. Then for the short, they would start saying ahhhhhhh and then add the R to say ahhhhrrrrr as in car.

Illustration of a red tongue

Tongue Movement

As mentioned, one of the challenges with R's is the difficulty providing visual cues to show them how to pronounce the letter. Since you can't show them your tongue, you can try using your arm to show them by extending your arm out to the front and then pulling it up towards your body as you pronounce the R.

Illustration of a lion with a blue mane

R Sound Activities

Always approach the exercises as something fun you can do together, so your child isn't self-conscious or nervous. For example, Rs are very much like growls. Have your child act out being certain animals like a cranky dog growling or a mighty lion roaring. Have them roll the R out as they mimic each animal. Pirates also make an R sound when they say "argh." You can dress up as pirates to practice the sounds. You can also watch their favorite cartoon and whenever a character makes an R sound have them shout it out or repeat it.

Illustration of a smiling face that resembles the sun

Use Rs Every Day

Find opportunities to pronounce Rs with your child, whether pointing out foods in the grocery store with Rs, items in a park, or even when your child hears you say an R.

Practicing R words speech therapy at home can be very helpful, but success is more likely with the help of a speech therapist.

What Causes Rhoticism?

Speech disorders like rhoticism are related to difficulty making sounds when speaking. In the case of rhoticism, it is related to not tensing their tongue enough or failing to move it correctly. Trying to master the up and backward movement when pronouncing R's can be tricky, which is why children often start by making a W sound instead. The child sees most letters pronounced with the lips, while Rs are pronounced with the tongue.

How Does R Speech Therapy Help?

R sound speech therapy can make a world of difference for your child. Your child's therapist provides a safe learning environment where they won't feel judged or pressured. Speech therapists take time to build a rapport with their patients to feel more comfortable during the process. Parents can often inadvertently cause a child to feel they are under attack or doing something wrong. Speech therapists alleviate that family stress providing neutral ground where a child can feel less vulnerable. Their goal is to assist your child in learning how to move their tongue to achieve the correct positions to pronounce their Rs correctly.

A list of r words to help with Rhoticism

Each child is treated as an individual with an assessment to understand their challenges and then use different methods to find the approach that they respond to best. Therapists make articulation therapy fun using games and activities that children respond to well. Your child will improve over time, enjoying small successes each session until the Rs roll naturally off their tongue. Through practice, they learn how to make R sounds, add Rs to syllables, then words, phrases, and complete sentences with confidence !

We invite you to learn more about how Articulation Speech Therapy at Nobles Speech Therapy can help your child pronounce the R sound better and overcome other speech difficulties.

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S Sound Speech Therapy for Kids

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Natalie Snyders SLP

Making the life of a busy school SLP easier and a bit more beautiful everyday!

in Articulation (Speech Sounds) · Helpful Ideas for Other SLPs · Therapy Ideas

How I Approach the /r/ Sound in Therapy

Help  what do i do with /r/.

One question I get asked a lot is, how do you teach the /r/ sound?  Now, I wouldn’t consider myself an /r/ guru by any means(!), but as an SLP in an elementary school, I have had a fair share of /r/ cases.  Today, I would like to share what has worked for me (disclaimer: it might be different for you!).

speech therapy r sound

Some people approach /r/ from a traditional articulation perspective, and look at simply initial, medial, and final positions of words.  Personally, I have found that treating the different /r/ sounds separately has more success.

What are the different /r/s?  I typically look at initial (or prevocalic) /r/ and /r/ blends (such as in the word br ight), then the six vocalic /r/ sounds – /ar/ , /air/ , / ear/ , /er/ , /ire/ , and /or/ .


First, I try to get a picture of how the articulation disorder is impacting my student by using my Articulation Student Self-Rating Scale .

speech therapy r sound

Next, I do an overall screening of the /r/ sound to help determine if my student is stimulable for /r/ in any contexts.  I like to use my own progress monitoring tool for /r/ and either use the overall screening or administer all the probes at word level – another good option is the in-depth screening from the Entire World of R.

Articulation Progress Monitoring for R


When I’m assessing the results, I look for the /r/ context that has either the most correct productions, or the context that has the closest to correct productions.  I have my own personal five point scale (rather than simply correct/incorrect) that I’ve found to be quick and easy for me to use.

speech therapy r sound

Interestingly, a study by Schellinger, Munson, & Edwards from 2016 found that a visual analogue scale to rate articulation is a potentially useful clinical measure for the /s/ and voiceless /th/ sounds that they studied, which is similar to the scale I have for /r/.   (See citation below)

After analyzing the results of the screening, I start work on the /r/ context that has either the highest rate of accuracy, or the one that has the highest amount of close (~+) productions.


If I need to write this in the present level of the IEP, I typically use a template like this to fill in the individual student information:

speech therapy r sound

I will attach a PDF copy of the rating scale to the IEP on the goal page to make sure a future SLP would understand what I mean by the different ratings.

speech therapy r sound


After getting frustrated with writing goals for mastery of /r/ when my students didn’t always get that perfect /r/ in all positions and contexts, I now use the above rubric and write goals such as:

“STUDENT will produce the TYPE OF /r/ in words or sentences with a 4 or 5 rating on the attached rubric with at least X% accuracy.”

I will often split the goals up into initial /r/, /r/ blends, and vocalic /r/s, but sometimes I need to specify each individual vocalic /r/ in a separate goal.  And for some students, I know the 4 or 5 rating may not be achievable, especially if it is a persistent error and they are starting across the board at a “1” rating – then I might make something like:

“STUDENT will produce the TYPE OF /r/ in words or sentences with a 3 or greater rating on the attached rubric with at least X% accuracy.”

(Don’t forget to attach the rubric to the IEP paperwork if you write your goals this way!)


I typically start with on auditory discrimination – can they tell the difference between a /w/, weak /r/, and a strong /r/ that I produce?  I might have them give me a thumbs up, thumbs down, or a thumb sideways to see what they think.  This is also a good way to start a session – I often start my /r/ sessions with 10-20 auditory discrimination trials, even when we are further along with the sound.

Next, I typically focus with discussing placement in different ways – for some students, this only takes a few sessions, while for others, it can take a month.  Different things seem to “click” with different students, so I typically try them all until I find one that seems the most helpful.  A few things to try:

  • The Sounds of Speech website offers helpful placement videos.
  • This video from The Peachie Speechie helps explain placement very well.
  • I have also used this dental floss trick to help students figure out exactly how far back their tongue needs to go.
  • The Karla method works for some students – this video helps explain it at about the 2 minute, 10 second mark.

Once we find something that works, I start working on co-articulation.  This is where you use a stronger /r/ to help strengthen a weaker /r/, and usually uses a stronger final vocalic /r/ or initial, prevocalic /r/.

speech therapy r sound

This isn’t fancy – I typically write a list of syllables or words and we work on “smashing” them together to “trick” our brains into using the stronger /r/.  Then we slowly fade the stronger /r/ word by whispering it, then saying the paired word at normal volume.  We work towards just “thinking” the stronger /r/ word, and then fading it out completely.  (Note – I tend to avoid using /r/ words with rounded vowels in this stage if they still have some closer to /w/ productions, as I’m trying to get them out of the habit of rounded lips.)  Some students really do well with this, and others spend more time here.

Once we’ve got it solidly in a certain context in one position of words, I use a more traditional articulation approach to strengthen it in all positions of words, then work up to phrases, sentences, reading aloud, and conversation.

One thing I have found that seems to be helpful when they finally find a “strong” /r/ – have them record a short video for themselves, talking through exactly what they did, because their own words and explanation will help them more in the future much more than your own ever will.


In all sessions, I’ve found it’s really important to continually talk about what our tongue and mouth is doing when making the /r/ sounds.  It’s easy to forget to review it once a student is farther along with the sound, but it’s very helpful to keep reminding.  Some students are better at explaining themselves than others – some, I have to ask questions like, “Now, can you tell me – was your tongue flat or up in the back on that word?”

One really exciting thing that I have observed over the years in articulation therapy is that strengthening one /r/ context also strengthens other /r/ contexts, even if you don’t work on them directly in therapy.  This is really neat to discover when you use a progress monitoring tool on a quarterly basis!

I hope these tips help, and please share any of your own tips for the /r/ sound in a comment below!

Sarah K. Schellinger, Benjamin Munson & Jan Edwards (2017).  Gradient perception of children’s productions of /s/ and /θ/: A comparative study of rating methods, Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 31:1, 80-103, DOI:  10.1080/02699206.2016.1205665

If you like these tips, be sure to sign up for my email newsletter for more great ideas!   bit.ly/NatalieSnydersNewsletter

speech therapy r sound

December 9, 2020 at 9:42 pm

excellent information that is like a great review even for us elder seasoned SLP’s

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February 9, 2021 at 11:06 am

Being in undergrad for speech, I have learned a lot about articulation and some about how to elicit sounds but I found this blog post to be so helpful! The /r/ sound seems to be a big struggle for a lot of elementary age students. I loved how you used a self assessment to gauge the student’s attitude towards producing this sound and how it impacts them in an educational environment. The resources on how to describe placement was also very helpful because each student learns differently.

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March 8, 2021 at 1:42 pm

This is a great post! I am an undergraduate student with the hope to become a licensed SLP following graduate school. In my years as an undergrad, I have found that the /r/ sound is a sound that causes trouble for a variety of kids. (It is one of the sounds that takes the longest to master). I enjoyed how you use a rating scale when screening or in simple activities to get a feel for where your students are when producing this sound. I think providing and using one of these scales it can make it easier for you as the SLP to get a feel for what students need to work on/improve on. I also like that you mentioned communication with students when working on sounds such as /r/ needs to be prominent. It is important for students to be aware of their position of the tongue and what is going on when they are producing sounds, as being aware of these things can benefit their understanding and overall progress.

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May 24, 2022 at 8:30 am

This is an excellent description! Once I switched to this approach, students had significant gains.

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October 28, 2022 at 3:19 pm

This is the first time I have actually come across anyone discussing how to rate /ɹ/ sounds! I love it. Thank you so much for this information. I am a CF working in private practice and am surprised to find that I am seeing kids on my caseload who really only need to be seen for the /ɹ/ and /θ / sounds! So at 5 years old, we are going for it as it seems to be indicated on the McLeod and Crowe 2018 article!

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March 26, 2023 at 7:37 am

This is one of the most helpful posts concerning /r/ production and writing of goals that I have read. I have been an SLP for 25 years and have evolved in not only my instruction of the /r/ but in writing the goals. I have struggled with goals for /r/ in the public school setting as it can be so discouraging to students if their productions have improved but are still not perfect. This rubric is a great way fro them to see progress along the way. Thank you so much.

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May 9, 2023 at 9:42 pm

Verrrrrrry helpful! I am a SLP who worked in the hospital environment for 19 years, and for the last two years, in the school environment. I have always found the /r/ to be tricky to consistently teach successfully. As I have gotten older, I too have started to classify /r/ in /r/ blends, prevocalic and postvocalic /r/ . I agree that this is a helpful method. However, I think your post is most excellent and helpful! I love how you break down the “different productions of /r/” , and give credit to the various productions. in your rubric. This seems ingenious to me! I also totally agree that it is very important to constantly verbally discuss tongue positioning. I am excited to incorporate your ideas for an IEP tomorrow involving a girl transitioning into middle school.

Thank you very much for this!

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speech therapy r sound practice sheet for drill

The speech therapy R sound – there’s just no one right answer for everyone! If this tricky sound is tricky for your and your students, I have just a few tips and reminders to help you and your students ( If you’re too busy to read this entire post, scroll down to the last section that includes my top 5 tips for the /r/ sound !)

When I got my job at a middle school, I saw more students working on /r/ than ever before. I attended online seminars, read every bit of research I could find, read /r/ curriculum books, and reflected on my experience working with students on the /r/ sound to really uncover everything I could about this sound!

So, without further ado, here are some of the things I’ve learned about the /r/ sound, broken apart by how to elicit the sound, the therapy hierarchy I follow, and where to start when you need to target /r/. Plus, other cool info and my top tips. Enjoy!

speech therapy r sound materials - articulation menus to elicit and practice /r/

Elicitation and Stimulability of the Speech Therapy R Sound

I worked really hard to compile effective elicitation strategies on teaching /r/ in this previous blog post of mine. Definitely check that out if you haven’t seen it! Spoiler alert: using a mirror is a super helpful strategy that I often forget. Bonus points if it’s a mirror where the student can see themselves AND you at the same time.

One of my other favorite tools for targeting stimulability is  this website . I’ve shared about it before on social media but, in case you missed it, you need to check this free online tool out! It includes tons of videos and tutorials (that you can use directly with students!!) for eliciting the /r/, /s/, and “th” sound. I can’t believe it’s free but I’m really thankful for it. I use it all the time!

/R/ Therapy Hierarchy

Following a therapy hierarchy for the skills I teach is critical for me so that I can provide the most effective therapy possible. After all of my researching and learning, the hierarchy below is the one I follow with great results:

1 – Auditory discrimination using minimal pairs (w/r) 2 – Stimulability/elicitation 3 – Syllables 4 – Words then phrases then sentences 5 – Carryover

I break apart all of the forms of /r/ and only target one at a time. For example, I might only target “ar” sounds until the student demonstrates progress on that sound. Then, I’ll move onto “ear” and then I’ll move onto “or”. I try not to mix these variations of /r/ until the student is demonstrating success with them consistently. Based on information from the Entire World of R books, I don’t move on until my student demonstrates 80% success on a given form of /r/.

Where to Start?

speech therapy r sound practice sheets and elicitation techniques

This used to be so tricky for me! I’ll admit that I used to start with either /r/ blends, prevocalic /r/, or “er”. Now, I know better and make decisions on where to start on a student by student basis!

Below is the process I follow in order to determine where to start when targeting the /r/ sound:

  • Is the student stimulable for any forms of /r/? I assess all of them try to start with sounds they can produce 60% of the time or more. Research on the /r/ sound has shown that most students can produce some form of /r/ correctly some of the time. This is a great place to start.
  • If all else fails, start with “ar” or “ear”. Lately, I’ve noticed that most of my students demonstrate increased success with “ar”. The Entire World of R books say that the most correctly articulated vowel-r combination is “ear” (following by “ar”) so personally, I’d consider both of those great places to start. They’re really visual and allow your students to product the correct vowel and transition into the /r/.
  • Avoid starting with blends that incorporate bilabial sounds (e.g., “br” in “bring”) because that can often encourage the lip rounding we are trying to avoid when producing /r/! Same goes for “or”… I usually save that one for later!

Just like I recommend when doing the cycles approach, reassess your students frequently. Sometimes, your students will demonstrate progress on variations not even targeted giving you another sound that’s stimulable and successful!

Other R Info

While reading The Entire World of R Elicitation Strategies book, one thing really stood out to me. The authors of the book feel strongly that therapists should NOT use “er” to elicit a prevocalic /r/. For example, do not practice drills such as “errrr-red” or “errr-run”. I shared info about this on  Instagram  but I thought I should mention that here as well. Students may come to us with this bad habit from previous therapy and if that happens to you, it’s important to start by breaking that ineffective cue.

Last, because R isn’t a “right” or “wrong” type of sound (i.e., there’s a lot of variability between right and wrong), it might be helpful to have your students rate their productions on a visual analog scale. Not only is this  evidence-based , but it will better help you give immediate feedback to your students about their productions.

I have a FREE visual analog rating scale for speech sounds that you can download here !

My Top 5 Speech Therapy Tips For the R Sound

  • Work on only one variation of /r/ at a time. This will increase motivation AND progress.
  • Start with stimulable variations of /r/ that the student already has some success with.
  • Stick to activities that allow you to elicit a high number of productions each session (100-150+ is my goal every session). Don’t get caught up with cute activities when drill will work just as well.
  • Consider a 5 minute articulation style approach whenever possible. This makes it easier to stick to drill and forget all the fluffy time fillers.
  • Talk about HOW to produce each sound frequently. Do this before starting any new variation of /r/. For example, talk about how it feels to produce “ah” and then how to move your articulators to produce “r”. Then, put them together to say “ar”! I might say “Your tongue moves back and up and it should be tight! Your mouth should close a little”. I’ve found that the more explicit and direct I am during this step, the faster progress my students make. We talk about where to put their tongue, how open their mouth should be, and how to move from one sound to another almost every session.

speech therapy r sound

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No-prep articulation printables using high frequency words for r.

This resource includes printables to target R in isolation, syllables, words, phrases, sentences, and in reading! In addition, there are vocalic R and R blend targets included. The worksheets work incredibly well for short, drill-based articulation sessions.

If you’re looking to learn more about /r/, I’d personally recommend the resources below:

  • No Prep Articulation Articulation Activities Using High Frequency Words for R – my packet including functional words, organized by /r/ vowel sound!
  • Speech Therapy Articulation Menus for the R Sound – another one of my classic products – pretend takeout menus to target each of the /r/ variations in a fun way with lots of practice targets!
  • The Entire World of R Elicitation Techniques Book
  • Step Up to R
  • R Made Simple  – As a disclaimer, this program follows a completely different protocol than what I discussed in this email, however I’ve found it to be really helpful for certain older students working on /r/, especially those who have been in therapy for a long time.

Hope these tips and resources are helpful!

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About the Author

Shannon is a pediatric SLP and the creator behind Speechy Musings. As an SLP, she is most passionate about language, literacy, and AAC. Outside of being an SLP, she loves hiking, camping, dogs, and travel.

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speech therapy r sound

Expert Tips for Treating the /R/ Sound

  • May 3, 2022

The /r/ sound can be tricky to work with, but there are so many ways that we can address it! Often times, it’s just all about finding the right approach that works best for your student. In today’s episode, I cover various ways that you can work on the /r/ sound and hopefully will provide you with some new strategies for your SLP tool box.

Although the /r/ sound is typically acquired by 5-6 years of age, in reality, this is not always the case. There are cases of students age 8 or older not having mastered the /r/ sound. /r/ sound can develop at different stages and times and treating it can be tricky but doesn’t have to be. There’s no right or wrong way but we will be discussing some of the strategies in this episode.

Different strategies and expert tips in treating the /r/ sound:

One allophone at a time.

Getting a good grasp on in which context that /r/ sound is misarticulated. A good R screener helps assess the /r/ in different distinct allophone combinations. For example:

  • AR as in car
  • EAR as in near
  • ER as in butter

Once an assessment has been done, you can determine which sounds the students might already have and can build on those they need help with. Choosing a proper target helps reduce frustration as it can take several sessions to break through.

Transition Movements

According to Pam Marshalla, it helps to think about prevocalic or postvocalic /r/ alongside its preceding vowel sound. To put this in practice, choose words that end in R and ask the client to remove the R to focus on the vowel, so the client can focus on the motor plan for the preceding CV cluster. For example, star becomes ‘sta’. To effectively do this, you must add the r back slowly using the proper cueing hierarchy.

The Butterfly Effect

Many SLPs write about the success they have had with their clients’ targeting /r/ using the ‘Butterfly Effect’. I will touch on briefly on Angela Jordan’s process. Another way to reinforce this would be to use visual or tactile reinforcers, such as a mirror or tongue depressor to show the client the proper placement.

Bite Blocks

This can be controversial for some. According to Julie Hoffman M.A. CCC-SLP, bite blocks help facilitate the proper oral motor positioning for eliciting /r/. According to Hoffman, one can “eliminate lip rounding by having the client smile during /r/ productions. One could also place a small bite block between the lips while smiling, as the bite block will fall out if the lips are rounded.” Lip rounding during the production of the /r/ sound distorts the intended phoneme because the mouth needs to be open to properly produce it.

Encourage Self-Monitoring

One of the hardest aspects of targeting /r/ is that the client oftentimes doesn’t even realize they’re mispronouncing anything. The client has habituated a sound in place of /r/ that is easier so that discriminating between what is a correct and what is an incorrect /r/ sound is vital to their success in therapy. Pam Marshalla explains that as clinicians, we should be rewarding our clients for ‘listening to themselves to determine how well they did.” This provides the client with the autonomy they need to produce the /r/ sound correctly and independently!

I will also be sharing a few more tips for treating the /r/ sound from an old worksheet I had from graduate school. So be sure to check out my podcast.

R sound is tricky and can be discouraging. I hope you found some of these strategies to be helpful. Hang on and keep trying!

References and resources:

  • https://www.sayitright.org/R_Phonetic_Consistency.html
  • https://pammarshalla.com/mastering-vocalic-r/
  • https://www.electronic-therapy.com/blog/articulation-strategies-and-tips-for-the-r-sound/
  • https://www.speechpathology.com/ask-the-experts/developmental-milestones-and-communication-strategies-917
  • https://pammarshalla.com/struggling-with-r-training-auditory-self-monitoring/
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Full Transcript of Podcast: Expert Tips for Treating the /R/ Sound

Episode 93: expert tips for treating the /r/ sound.

You're listening to the Speech Space Podcast, a podcast full of tips and resources for SLPs. I'm your host, Jessica Cassity, and this is Episode 93.

Hey there! Today, we are going to be discussing some expert tips for targeting the /r/ sound in articulation therapy. Before we get started here in a moment, I did want to mention that this podcast is brought to you by The Digital SLP membership site, which is a site that features time-saving interactive digital resources that are great for in-person and teletherapy sessions. You can learn more or you can sign up by heading on over to thedigitalslp.com/digitalslp.

All right, so let's just dive right in and start talking about the /r/ sound. Typically, we expect our students to have acquired the /r/ sound by about five or six years old, and that's just gonna be a very average, you know, typical development. But we know in reality that the /r/ sound is definitely not always mastered by that age. And sometimes we're even going to see children who are eight and older who are having difficulty with that /r/ sound. Treating the /r/ sound can be a very tricky thing, but it doesn't have to be. And there's definitely no right way to target it in therapy, but we're gonna go ahead and we're gonna talk about some different approaches that we can try. You know, it's a funny thing. I have two children and one of them pretty much said the /r/ sound from the time she could talk. I mean, I know she definitely was saying it by age three and then the other one, I actually ended up doing speech therapy with around age five. So it just goes to show that, you know, the /r/ sound can really develop at such different times. I know it's a sound that often worries parents as well. My philosophy, and I know everyone has their own opinion on this, but my philosophy is the earlier that you intervene the better, just due to the muscle memory that's being formed. And you know, of course we know that sometimes if we don't intervene, then it will naturally correct itself. But we also know sometimes when we don't intervene, it will not. So it was easy enough for me to work with my daughter since we were together so frequently, but of course it would be up to the SLP or the parent to really decide if a child is a candidate for working on the /r/ sound and speech therapy or not.

So let's go ahead and talk about some different strategies that you can use when working on the /r/ sound. The first thing that you really wanna do is you want to get a good grasp on in which context that /r/ sound is being misarticulated. So something that can be really helpful is a really good /r/ screener that's going to assess the /r/ in different distinct allophone combinations. So maybe /ar/ as in car, or /air/ as in software, /ear/ as in near, /er/ as in butter, /ire/ as in tire. You get the idea. But because of coarticulation, sometimes, a student can master the /r/ sound in one combination of sounds and not another. So once you assess this area then you can determine which sounds the student might already have. And you can build on that context of the /r/ that they already have. You know, choosing proper targets that can help to decrease some of that frustration that often happens in the beginning of some sessions, whenever you're first getting started with that /r/ sound. I know sometimes it can take several sessions to really breakthrough. But if you can find that they, for example, they do not have the prevocalic /r/ as in rain, but maybe they have /ire/ as is tire, and then you have something to work with there, and you can build upon that. And you can link words together to try to get your student to transition into saying some different sounds. But you can build on that /ire/ because the /er/ sound is in there. You can build on that to try to get your student where they need to be perhaps with making that prevocalic /r/.

The next thing we wanna think about, and it is related to the coarticulation that we were just speaking of, but it can be helpful to think about prevocalic and postvocalic /r/ alongside their preceding vowel sounds. So, like I said coarticulation, but this is a little bit of a different approach than just the screening and the different context, like we talked about in the first tip. So to put this one into practice, we are going to choose words that end in /r/ and then ask our student or our client to remove the /r/ to focus on the vowel so that the client can focus on the motor plan for the proceeding CV cluster. So, for example, star becomes "sta". In order to effectively do this, you must add the /r/ back slowly using the proper queuing hierarchy. So the steps to transition might look like this: practice "doh" for door, and then practice "doh" "run" with a distinct pause between those two words. And then you're gonna practice "dohrun" with no pause and a long transition so "dohhhhhhrun", and then practice "dohrun" with a short transition, and then practiced "door" with the rest of the second word emitted or spoken silently, and then practice "door". So that would be an example of the hierarchy there. And Pam Marshalla has a lot of great information on her website about this. So I'm going to add a link to her site where she talks more about some of these transition movements in using the prevocalic and postvocalic /r/ alongside their preceding vowel sounds.

The next thing we're going to talk about is the butterfly effect. Many SLPs write about the success that they've had with their clients targeting /r/ using the butterfly effect. And for those of you who are not familiar, here's a description of the process. So, first you wanna have the student practice the following: so first is their lips do not move. And then secondly, the jaw moves only slightly. Third, the tongue is in the back of the mouth with the sides elevated. And then fourth, the student can feel the tongue on the top molars. Another way to reinforce that would be to use visual or tactile reinforcers like a mirror or a tongue depressor to show the student or client the proper placement.

The next thing we're going to talk about are bite blocks. Now I know these can be a bit controversial depending on your view of them. I know some SLPs who will not touch them and others who use them all the time. So just keep that in mind when listening to this one. But bite blocks can help to facilitate the proper oral motor positioning for eliciting the /r/ sound. And it can be really helpful in eliminating lip rounding. Now, if you didn't wanna use a bite block or you didn't have one, one way to help with eliminating the lip rounding is to have your client or student smile when making the /er/ sound. What you could also do if you did have access to a bite block is you could put a small bite block between the lips while smiling as the bite block will fall out if the lips are still rounded. So lip rounding during the production of the /er/ sound distorts the intended phoneme because the mouth needs to be opened properly to produce it. And I just noticed, I don't know this is gonna bother any other SLPs listening, but I was saying the /r/ sound most of this podcast. And then I just switched to calling it the /er/ sound. So as an SLP, as most of you listening, no, it generally is referred to as the /er/ sound, but whenever I'm writing out the title, I say the /r/ sound. I don't know why. So, hopefully you all are still with me and know that I'm talking about the same thing as I'm saying the /r/ sound or the /er/ sound. Anyway, just wanted to get that out of the way, because that was bothering me a little bit.

All right. Let's move on to the last tip that we have here, and that is to encourage self-monitoring. One of the hardest aspects of targeting the /er/ sound is that the client oftentimes doesn't even realize that they're mispronouncing anything. Sometimes that student has habituated a sound in place of /r/ that is easier than discriminating between what is a correct /r/ sound and what is an incorrect production of the /r/ sound. So having them become aware of the difference between the two is essential to success in whenever you're working on the /r/ sound. So we wanna make sure that we're acknowledging when our clients are listening to themselves to determine how well they did with different productions of the sound. You know, this provides a client with the autonomy that they need to produce the /r/ sound correctly and independently. Okay, so I hope that you found those to be helpful, but I'm not done yet. I found an old worksheet from graduate school and this is actually a really cool assignment. And, you know, I'm giggling a little bit because I saved everything. And as much as I am the Digital SLP, I still have a lot of papers leftover from grad school. But on this paper, what our assignment was, was to write out all of these different strategies for working on the /r/ sound. And I was so grateful for this because I actually did have a client and they were working on the /r/ sound. And so I used this list of strategies. So I'm not gonna go over the whole list today. I might do a part two but I am gonna throw out a couple of the suggestions that I found useful that year in graduate school for the client that I was working with. So I'm sure that many of you have had success with minimal pairs, but one of the things that helped us to start to differentiate between the /w/ and the /r/ sound was to use a good minimal pair word list. So we did that. That was one of the two tips that I'm going to share with you. The other one, actually, there's two more that I'm going to share with you. The other one was that we pretended that the roof of his mouth were train tracks and his tongue was the train. And so he had to start at the front of the tracks and start to move his tongue all the way back along the tracks while making sound. So, I'm going to try to make some sound here without a visual cue, this might sound a little funny. But so he would start like almost in the position of the /l/ so "ohlrr", just like that. And as he dragged his tongue back, then it would start to change in to more of an /r/ sound. And now we know not everyone makes the /r/ with their tongue in the same position. So that is something to keep in mind, but for this particular client, that was an effective strategy. So we used that train strategy and then to build on that actually, what you can do, if you do find that that is somewhat helpful, then you can use the /l/, the /n/, or the /d/ sounds and have your student or client work on putting your tongue in those positions for those sounds and then pulling the tongue back so it would make the "ler", "ner",or "der" sounds and that can help with some of that positioning as well.

So I hope that you found those tips to be helpful. The /r/ can be such a tricky, tricky sound to work on. But there are so many different approaches out there. And if you keep trying them, then I am completely confident that you will be able to help your student or client because eventually something always works. And I always like to tell parents about that because it can be really discouraging to be working or watching your child and not see any progress for several sessions in a row. And sometimes it's just a matter of it clicking. You know, sometimes it's on that fourth session where something clicks and then from that point on it gets a lot easier. But you have to hit that breakthrough moment. So it's key to just kind of hang on until then and keep trying different strategies until you find something that works well for both you and your student or client.

So thank you so much for tuning in today. I appreciate you listening. If you would like to sign up for a free trial of The Digital SLP, you can do that by heading on over to thedigitalslp.com/digitalslp. And if you would like to check out the show notes, you can do that by heading on over to thedigitalslp.com/podcast. Thanks again for listening. I look forward to putting out another episode in a couple of weeks.


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Chicago Speech Therapy

How to Teach the R Sound by Chicago Speech Therapy

The /r/ sound is a particularly tricky letter to teach because the way your mouth produces the sound changes depending on the other letters it is combined with. In fact, there are 8 different vocalizations of the letter /r/: /ar/, /air/, /ear/, /ire/, /or/, /er/, /rl/, and the simple /r/ by itself. Furthermore, the sound of each vocalization is affected by its placement at the beginning, middle or end of a word. The website SayItRight.org is a great resource devoted entirely to understanding and facilitating the pronunciation of the /r/ sound. Here is a great article on their site describing the complexity of the /r/ sound.

Generally, the sound is made by bringing the tongue up and to the back of the mouth. While the bulk of the tongue rests on the roof of the mouth between the hard palate and the soft palate, the tip of the tongue hovers just below the hard palate. The sound is voiced, which means that the sound that /r/ produces comes from the vibration of the speaker’s vocal cords.

Since the /r/ sound is so challenging, both to speak and to teach, it is very important to track your child’s progress with the sound. Catching problems early makes it significantly easier for a licensed speech pathologist to help remediate problems with this difficult sound. Children usually begin getting the sound at two and a half years and should master it by age seven. If your child is eight years old and is still unable to correctly form the sound, it is strongly recommended that you seek the help of a children’s speech therapist to help your child get back on track with his or her speech.

There are also many great activities you can do at home with your little one to help stimulate their articulation. Regularly focusing on specific sounds with your child also gives you a way to actively monitor their progress and identify any problems. Try these tips with your kiddo:

  • Verbal cues

Because the /r/ sound changes with the vowel it is attached to, it often helps to use a vowel sound to lead into the pronunciation of /r/. Begin by saying a long “eee” for your child. Hold it for a few seconds, to show that the sound continues. Gradually combine it with the /r/ sound, “eeee-rrrr”. Your child should be able to turn the /e/ sound into the /r/ sound this way. Practice the same with other vowels.

  • Visual Cues

The /r/ sound happens inside of the mouth and is guided by the movement of the tongue, which is difficult to see and to communicate to your little one. To help with this, use a visual cue to show the tongue movement to your child. Kim Marino details several great cues, such as putting your arm out in front of you and then pulling it up and in towards your body as you make the /r/ sound to demonstrate how your tongue is moving to your little one.

  • Tactile Cues

With certain sounds, such as the /r/ sound, speech therapists have found that tools that help kids position their mouth correctly show great success in improving articulation. Many companies, such as Speech Buddies, offer fun, colorful implements to guide kids’ tongue placement.

Despite its difficulties, the /r/ sound can be tremendous fun for you and your little one. As a fun activity to practice articulation, pretend you and your child are wild animals and “grrrrowl” like a bear, “rrrroarr” like a tiger, and bark like a dog, “rrruff, rrruff!” Think of other fun characters that are known for their /r/ use, such as pirates (“Arrgh!”) or use every day moments to incorporate the sound, such as “brrrrr, it’s cold!!” Use your imagination!

Are you concerned about your child’s progress in speech and language development?

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The Pedi Speechie

R Words for Speech Therapy (Lists and Activities)

Looking for R words for speech therapy? Speech-language pathologists looking for a quick list of initial r words, medial r, and final r target words to practice during speech therapy, make sure to bookmark this post. You’ll also find some great ideas for making r therapy more effective with a variety of engaging games, articulation worksheets, and speech therapy activities. Not only does this blog post provide a list of prevocalic r, vocalic r, and r blends, but it also suggests a variety of strategies for r remediation. SLPs will be able to have a list of words on hand to easily use in the therapy room.

r words for speech therapy

This post contains affiliate links, which means we could receive a commission if you click a link and purchase something that we have recommended.

Correct Production of R

There are different ways to make the R sound! These different approaches vary in tongue placement and positioning. The most common approaches are known as the bunched r and the retroflex r. The bunched r literally involves the tongue bunching and lifting up and back towards the throat. The sides of the tongue make contact with the upper posterior molars. The retroflexed tongue position involves a more flattened tongue, with the tip of the tongue pointed up towards the alveolar ridge. Read more about bunched r vs retroflex r here , plus check out some tips to teach either method!

Young children often have difficulty producing the R sound. McLeod and Crowe published this article , which reported that nearly all speech sounds are developed by age 6. A child’s speech intelligibility can be impacted by difficulty with R sound production.

r words speech therapy word lists for articulation

Common R Speech Sound Errors

R is often thought of as one of the most challenging sounds to learn! Here are some common R speech sound errors:

  • Oftentimes in younger children, the w sound is substituted for the R sound. An example might be “wabbit” for “rabbit”. This is known as the phonological process of gliding. Minimal pairs might be useful in this situation.
  • Occasionally, students might substitute l for r (for example, “light” for “right”).
  • R might also be substituted by a “y” sound (an example would be “ram” vs “yam”).
  • Other R speech sounds might lose their “R” quality and sound more like a vowel sound. “ER” might be placed by a neutral schwa, for example.

A licensed speech-language pathologist can listen carefully to distinguish which r sound errors a student might be making.

References: Bauman-Waengler, J.A.  Articulatory and Phonological Impairments: A Clinical Focus . Third ed., Pearson Education Limited, 2013. 

How To Teach the R Sound in Speech Therapy

For children who substitute w/r, minimal pairs are often very beneficial. A rounded lip shape may also be contributing to this substitution, so providing cues and reminders to keep the lips retracted while saying R in the initial position of words can be helpful. Try having the student look in a mirror while practicing this sound. Providing accurate feedback is also important.

Older students with articulation disorders often struggle with the production of vocalic r words. School slps may wish to read this article for a deep dive into elicitation techniques for vocalic r. It includes 5 effective tips for teaching the vocalic r sounds. One simple idea is to try using a tongue depressor to gently lift the tongue up and back while smiling and saying “ER”. The teeth should be slightly apart, and the smile should be held during production. This can assist with eliciting vocalic er using a bunched R tongue positioning.

Watch this youtube video to see examples of how to teach R .

R Word Lists for Articulation Therapy

Do you need a list of functional words to work on the R sound in your speech therapy session? R can occur in many different positions of a word, and specific r words may be targeted in speech therapy sessions. The following word lists contain words with r in the beginning of a word (initial R), vocalic R words (initial, medial, and final positions of words), and initial R consonant blends. These R articulation word lists allow the speech therapist to easily work on a target sound and speech goals in speech therapy at the word level. Or, have your student practice at the sentence level or conversation level by using targeted words in sentences. Quickly pull these word lists up during your speech therapy session and pair them with the  game  or activity of your choice. These word lists provide less complex syllable shapes to more complex multisyllabic words.

Initial R Words (Prevocalic R Words) for Speech Therapy

Here is a list of r words in the initial position to use in speech therapy (prevocalic R words):

Vocalic AIR Words Speech Therapy

Here is a list of vocalic air words in the initial position, medial position, and final position of words.

Vocalic AR Words Speech Therapy

Here is a list of vocalic ar in the initial position, medial position, and final position of words.

Vocalic EAR Words Speech Therapy

Here is a list of vocalic ear in the initial position, medial position, and final position of words.

Vocalic IRE Words

Here is a list of vocalic ire in the initial position, medial position, and final position of words.

Initial and Medial

Vocalic OR Words Speech Therapy

Here is a list of vocalic or in the initial position, medial position, and final position of words.

Vocalic ER Words Speech Therapy

Here is a list of vocalic er in the initial position, medial position, and final position of words.

Vocalic RL Words Speech Therapy

Here is a list of vocalic rl in the medial position and final position of words.

Initial R Blend Words Speech Therapy

Here is a list of initial r blends for speech therapy.

Initial BR Words

Initial dr words, initial fr words, initial kr words, speech therapy activities for the r sound.

R can be a difficult sound to remediate, so great resources are a MUST in speech therapy! So try using a comprehension program, a fun game, or effective activities and worksheets for your students.

Comprehensive R Program for Vocalic R

If you need a systematic program that’s going to ensure great success for your R students, you’ll want to check out this R program . For students having a difficult time achieving success using a traditional articulation method, it’s beneficial to try a whole new game plan. This program is based on the extensive research of Sandra Holtzman, and is based on her R CEU course , with permission. It incorporates orofacial myology basics, which is often the piece that many failed approaches have been missing.

Jessica G., SLP, reviewed, “I’m so grateful for this resource !!!! Targeting “r” was like my worst nightmare and when students weren’t making progress I felt so discouraged and did not know what else I could do to improve accuracy. Thanks to Karen and this amazing resource, I actually get excited to treat “r” now. The approach used actually works and my students finally seem to understand tongue positioning better (and maybe I do too!). This is definitely worth buying! Thank you!”

vocalic r speech therapy activities

Vocalic R Playing Card Game Companion

Do you need to review vocalic r in different word positions? Check out this card game companion , which pairs with a popular color-coded card game. It uses the colors and symbols on the playing card, and matches those with a target vocalic R word. Your player would draw a card, then check his vocalic r sheet to see which target word corresponds with the card he has drawn. Trust me, your elementary students will love this one! It’s fast, easy, and motivating!   Please note: The Pedi Speechie is in no way associated with the well-known card game, which is trademarked.

  • Playdough Articulation Manicure Activity

The trick to making articulation drill fun? Try doing a speech manicure ! This articulation activity, which includes r articulation and vocalic r articulation targets, will become an instant hit in your speech therapy room. It’s ideal for younger and older students because picture-supported cards and text-only cards are provided. It’s simple to use. The speech-language pathologist chooses the target sound, and the student chooses the play dough color (in other words, the “nail polish” color). After saying a target word, the student places play dough onto the “nail”, and continues to repeat the process until the manicure is complete!

r articulation activity

P.S. Don’t have any play dough on hand? You could also try pairing this activity with a magnetic wand and chips .

Mixed Group R and R Blends Worksheets

Trying to target language AND articulation goals in a mixed group? Let’s face it, sometimes the day can get chaotic! This mixed groups resource is designed to help maintain a school SLP’s sanity during a busy day. How does it work, exactly? Articulation words are sorted by noun or verb. While one student works on articulation, another student can work on language goals- using the same target words.

Use the noun articulation pictures to work on goals such as describing, following directions, spatial concepts, and making inferences. Use the verb articulation pictures to work on goals such as verb tense and creating sentences. These activity sheets are no prep and low ink, so you truly can use these while on-the-go. Just print them out and hand one out to each student.

r articulation worksheets for speech therapy

These mixed group worksheets are also available as a bundle . The bundle includes other articulation targets, including k and g, sh, ch, j, l and l blends, and s and s blends. Lou Ann M., SLP, reviewed, “This resource was easy to use. No prep! Worked well for mixed groups. Able to target multiple goals. Definitely will be using this over and over!”

More Articulation Word Lists for Speech Therapists

Short on time and need a quick summary of this article? Scroll up to see r words speech therapy lists. Then, try out these best-selling articulation worksheets and activities to work on the r sound:

  • Comprehensive R Program
  • Vocalic R Playing Card Companion
  • Mixed Groups Articulation and Language Bundle

Don’t miss these other articulation word lists!

  • S Word Lists
  • L Word Lists
  • F Word Lists
  • K Word Lists
  • TH Word Lists

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speech therapy r sound

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speech therapy r sound

1000+ R Words, Phrases, Sentences, and Reading Passages Grouped by Place, Syllable, & Blend

As promised here are the words for your unlimited use .

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SEE ALSO:  How to Say the R Sound [VIDEO]

speech therapy r sound

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speech therapy r sound

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**NEW** Click on words for picture, audio, & extra practice content!

Br - blends, cr - blends, dr - blends, fr - blends, gr - blends, pr - blends.

prairie dog

SEE ALSO:   The Best Free App for Speech Therapy

speech therapy r sound

Initial R by Syllables

wrist watch

racquet ball


Rhode Island

right handed

rolling pin

wrestling match






riding safety

Rocky Mountains





roasting marshmallows

Roman Catholic

Roman numeral



Republican Party

Medial R by Syllables



maple syrup

waffle iron


Memorial Day






Final R by Syllables

falling star



shooting star


El Salvador

SEE ALSO:   The Best Books for Speech Therapy Practice

Speech therapy books for targeting multiple goals

Initial R Phrases and Sentences

cute rabbit

raccoon tail

tennis racquet

pretty rainbow

scoop of raisins

rake leaves

reach up high

read quietly

recycle bin

old rhinoceros

bowl of rice

ride safely

diamond ring

small wrench

write it out

I see a rabbit in the grass.

The raccoon has a striped tail.

They all wanted to race together.

He hit the ball with the racquet.

I am listening to an old radio.

Use the rag to clean the floor.

The rain was pouring down.

I see more than one rainbow.

I want raisins in my cereal.

We rake leaves in the fall.

The rat was looking for some cheese.

She is trying to reach the rings.

It was fun to read about princesses.

She is showing people how to recycle.

Red is my favorite color.

The rhinoceros has big horns.

She is holding a ribbon.

We want rice for dinner.

He went on a motorcycle ride.

She had a beautiful diamond ring.

Don't rip the paper we need it.

The rock is heavy.

There is a big rug in my house.

He likes to run by himself.

He used the wrench to fix the leaky faucet.

He is holding his wrist.

She writes in her journal every week.

Medial R Phrases and Sentences

suspect arrest

charged battery

fresh blueberries

digital camera

fresh carrots

cherry on top

breakfast dairy

beaded earring

erase a mistake

fairy costume

thick forest

tall giraffe

small hearing aid

dry macaroni

married couple

peel orange

talking parrot

pirate ship

nice squirrel

number zero

The police officer made an arrest.

She is holding an arrow.

He needed a battery for his game.

He ate blueberries for breakfast.

She has a digital camera.

We pick carrots from the garden.

I would like a milkshake with a cherry on top.

Dairy is always good for breakfast.

Her earring was too heavy.

If you make a mistake, erase it.

She dressed up as a fairy.

Many trees are in the forest.

Their house has two garage doors.

The giraffe has a long neck.

He puts the hearing aid in his ear.

He dressed up like a hero.

We want macaroni and cheese for dinner.

They are a married couple.

He is going to eat the orange.

How does a parrot talk?

The pirate is looking for treasure.

The squirrel was looking for nuts.

Mom read a story to her son.

I want syrup on my pancakes.

The walrus has huge tusks.

The doctor showed her the x-ray.

Our address has a zero in it.

Final R Phrases and Sentences

hungry bear

butter popcorn

wooden chair

family dinner

clothes dryer

roaring fire

tall ladder

near the hole

white paper

nice to share

ocean shore

square block

classroom teacher

whisper softly

The bear was hunting for food. 

I put butter on my popcorn.

The car is fast.

Matthew sat down on the chair.

They did a cheer at the pep rally.

They sat down for a family dinner.

We knocked on the door three times.

She put the clothes into the dryer.

The fire kept them warm.

The wood floor made the room look great.

She will be four years old in October.

She has long, pretty hair.

Use the ladder to reach the fruit.

The ball is near the hole.

Please take out a sheet of paper.

Can I have a bite of your pear?

Can I pour you a glass of water?

She is nice to share her ice cream.

Let's go play by the sea shore.

The spider waited for flies in the web.

A square has four sides.

The star was hanging on the tree.

She is our 5th grade teacher.

Don't make me tear these papers.

She whispered into the girl's ear.

The fence had barb wire on it.

It is almost the end of the school year.

R Reading Paragraphs

Garage scientist.

Whenever I have free time, I race to my garage. I have all kinds of crazy experiments going on in there. I don't mean testing rats or anything. I mean really cool experiments. 

For example, right now I am experimenting to see if carrots can recharge batteries. I have had other experiments that have gone longer. My experiment to see if raisins will make the speakers in my radio louder has been going on for over a year now. 

There are so many more ideas that I want to experiment with - making a fireproof door, testing to see what rainbows are made of, trying to see if I can teach rats to read. 

If my brain was made of trees, it would be a forest of ideas. Science is radical!

My buddy Randy is my hero. He has won many awards, ribbons, and trophies. But he doesn't care about all of that. He does what he does to help others. Here are a few things he has done that make him such a great guy. 

First of all, he is married and is an awesome dad. He has been a teacher for 15 years and has won teacher of the year three times! He volunteers to read to students at after school programs and pick up garbage on the side of the road on the weekends. 

He recycles paper, plastic, and glass which is good for the environment. He helps people with hearing aids get them for less money. He once saved a baby giraffe from drowning at the zoo. He is writing two books. One about ways to improve classroom education and another with fun short stories for kids. 

There are hundreds of other examples I could share with you. Randy puts his heart and strength into everything he does. He is a real role model and I try to follow the example he sets.

Pirate Fanatic

My sister has a friend who thinks he is a pirate. He wears a red bandana on his head, has a pet parrot that he keeps on his shoulder, and walks around saying, "Arrr matey." 

As if this wasn't strange enough, he also has a really big collection of earrings. Not normal earrings either, weird ones.

He has earrings that look like rocks, wrenches, raccoons, cameras, walrus, and even a pair that look like rakes. I understand that some pirates wear earrings, but I thought they would be scarier like hooks, or circles, or daggers. 

I feel like I should tell my sister's friend to research the type of earrings that pirate's wear. Without the right gear, a person who is trying to look like a pirate will just look strange. If he ever met a real pirate, the pirate would probably make fun of him for how he looked. 

Return to Top of R Words Page

Initial BR by Syllables

breast stroke


British Isles

broken down

Brooklyn Bridge


Brussels sprouts

Medial BR by Syllables

paint brush

white bread


London Bridge

paint brushes


whole wheat bread


Golden Gate Bridge

Initial BR Phrases and Sentences

metal bracelet

smart brain

sliced bread

eat breakfast

long bridge

broken plate

big brother

fresh baked brownie

Her grandmother gave her the bracelet.

Her friends say she is a brain.

The bread was cut in slices.

I love bacon, eggs, and orange juice for breakfast.

The bridge connects the two cities.

The plate was broken.

He swept the area with a broom.

He loves his brother.

She had a fresh baked brownie for her treat.

Medial BR Phrases and Sentences

scary cobra

cornbread muffin

bushy eyebrow

fabric store

wood hairbrush

new paintbrush

orange toothbrush

piece of white bread

The cobra wanted to strike.

She had a cornbread muffin for dinner.

He had a bushy eyebrow.

She got her fabric at the store.

She just bought the hairbrush.

Grab a paintbrush and get started.

The dentist gave her a new toothbrush.

I bought a loaf of white bread.

We saw a zebra in the jungle.

BR Reading Paragraphs

Lucky bride.

My brother is getting married on Friday. He wants the wedding day to be perfect for his bride. He is planning to visit her house early and make her breakfast in bed. Two of her favorite things to eat are brownies and cornbread, so he is actually going to make her brownie oatmeal and cornbread muffins. 

She loves zebras and he bought her a picture of a baby zebra from a store, just east of the Brooklyn Bridge. He bought her a beautiful bracelet to wear at the wedding. 

He has other gifts that he wants to bring her, but I told him to wait until after the wedding for some of them. She is really smart so he is getting her a squishy foam brain that she can put on her desk at work. He also wants to give her a new set of paintbrushes for her studio. 

If he treats her this good all of the time, I'm sure she won't break his heart.

World Records

The Guinness Book of World Records is full of amazing facts that will raise your eyebrows. From broken bones to tiny brains, it covers the world's most interesting, fanatical, and dedicated people. 

Some records have never been broken even though many people try. There are records for people who own entire houses full of brown fabric, barns full of toothbrushes, and cars full of moldy white bread. One person holds a record for riding a broom over a thousand miles. 

Some records are held by more than one person. Like the four bread store owners who sold a bridge, or the three brothers who hold a record for having cobras on their head for the longest amount of time. 

Why would anyone wear a cobra on their head? Some might think that is brave, but I would think something was wrong with their brain. 

If you visit a city with a Guinness Book of World Records museum, I recommend getting up early, eating a big breakfast and spending all day in one. You will have fun and wild stories to bring home to your friends and family.

Initial DR by Syllables

drawing board

dressing room

dressing up

driver's seat

driving range

drummer boy

dry cleaner



drawing table

Medial DR by Syllables

fruit drink

eye dropper

hair dresser

lemon drink

line drawing

orange drink

race driver


truck driver

driving safety

lemon-lime drink


pineapple drink

salad dressing

taxi driver

ambulance driver




Initial DR Phrases and Sentences

chinese dragon

draw a picture

night dream

wood dresser

drink water

The statue was of a dragon.

The drain was not clogged.

He started to draw a picture.

She had a happy dream.

The dresser is made of wood.

She wanted to drink water.

The faucet started to drip.

They went for a drive on a dusty road.

The snare drum is played in a marching band.

Medial DR Phrases and Sentences

new address

tidy bedroom

playing children

cherry cough drop

one hundred

laundry basket

heavy raindrops

high snowdrift

light sundress

Every home has a unique address.

I always keep my bedroom tidy.

The children are best friends.

The cough drop made him feel better.

He is one hundred years old today.

The laundry basket is full.

Raindrops are falling on her.

The car was covered by a snowdrift.

She wore her sundress to the beach.

DR Reading Paragraphs

Snowdrift drama.

In the winter, wind blows the snow to create snowdrifts. Some storms are so drastic that snowdrifts bury cars on our street in snow. 

Snowdrifts can be anything you can dream up. The neighborhood children and I always played in snowdrifts around our houses. We would dig the snow out and pretend to drive the drifts like cars. 

I would sit in the driver's seat and my friend Drew would be co-pilot. One time we shaped the snowdrift into the shape of a dragon. Another time, we shaped the snow into a bunch of little drums. 

We would also make snowmen. We took dirty laundry and clothes we found in our dresser drawers, and dressed our snowmen head to toe. 

Once we accidentally used my sister Drea's dress. Drea got pretty mad at us and took her dress to the dry cleaners right away. If you ask me she was a little too dramatic about the whole thing. 

I dreaded that she would tell my mom and I would get in a lot of trouble. I pictured my mom dragging me all over the store to help buy Drea a new dress. Luckily, Drea and I made a deal. I promised to bring her favorite drink to her anytime of the day for one month. 

Now I'm worried I will drop the drinks I take to her.

Unique Drummers

My cousin Drake is a professional drummer. He's not the typical kind of drummer though. At his shows, he and the other drummers will drum on almost anything. 

I have seen them drum on people's drink cups, drill bits, drain pipes, a washer and dryer, and a hundred other things. His drumming group is very entertaining to watch. 

They mostly perform on stage in concert halls. They perform outside concert halls too though. They have performed at a driving range, in someone's bedroom, at a drag race, and at a drugstore. 

The drummers usually don't ask questions about where they play, as long as they get paid for their time. They have dreams to play in New York City some day. The band is saving their money to drive there, but don't have enough yet. 

Next month they are holding a special performance at the drive-in theater. It is a Halloween based concert so one of the band members is going to dress up as Dracula and drum on a mummy. The drummers hope this concert will raise the extra money they need to drive to New York. 

As a band of drummers, they are very driven to meet their goals and dreams. 

That's what it takes to be a performer. 

Initial FR by Syllables

French fries

French toast

fresh water


frontal lobe

front runner



fruit salad





Medial FR by Syllables

girl friend

Good Friday







San Francisco

South Africa







Initial FR Phrases and Sentences

picture frame

freckle face

French fries and Ketchup

delicious french toast

Friday night

best friend

pink frosting 

Her picture was in the frame.

Her freckle face is gorgeous.

Give me a lot of Ketchup for my French fries.

She had French toast for breakfast.

Our date is on Friday night.

He is my best friend.

The frog caught the fly with its tongue.

She wanted pink frosting on her cupcake.

They had their choice of fruit.

Medial FR Phrases and Sentences

kind boyfriend

ugly bullfrog

deep-fry food

cute girlfriend

cut grapefruit

play leapfrog

refresh yourself

beautiful sea front

The thunder scared me and I was afraid.

Her boyfriend is very kind and respectful.

A bullfrog is gross.

Deep-fry foods for a better taste.

I like being with my girlfriend.

I eat grapefruit in the morning.

They are playing leapfrog.

She used the water to refresh herself.

Their house was right on the sea front.

FR Reading Paragraphs

Freaky french toast.

Fran's boyfriend, Fred, enjoyed making her breakfast on Friday.

This Friday he said he would make her French toast with frosting, fruit, and whip cream. Fred's French toast recipe was amazing. It had been passed down from his great grandmother who made French toast in France.

Fred never told anyone the recipe.

All Fran knew was that he deep-fried the bread in a special mixture that had frozen grape juice, cinnamon, and nutmeg in it. The French toast was so good it was freaky.

Being Fred's girlfriend was great and getting French toast every Friday was a huge perk. Fran hoped that Fred would tell her the secret French toast recipe one day.

Until then, she would just enjoy how frequently she could eat them.

Freckle Watcher

In my free time I like to freckle watch. Freckle what? I know, it sounds like a weird hobby. I tried to refrain from it, but the truth is, I can't. I think freckles are so cool.

I have seen freckles that look like frogs, French fries, and even Africa. I get different responses when I ask to see people's freckles. Unfortunately, people aren't always the most friendly when you ask if you can look at their freckles.

Sometimes I go days without looking at any. It can be frustrating. Most people are friendly and unafraid and will show theirs to me. I have made good friends with complete strangers because I asked to see their freckles.

I was introduced to my girlfriend, Francesca, by one stranger. He said Francesca was interested in art and thought freckle shapes would be a fresh idea for one of her projects.

I wouldn't give up my hobby of freckle watching for anything. 

Initial GR by Syllables

grade school

grass snake

ground floor






Great Britain

grizzle bear

Ground Hog Day

grounds keeper

ground zero


grandfather clock

grand piano


group therapy

Medial GR by Syllables

concord grapes


study group



















Initial GR Phrases and Sentences

her grandpa

tiny grasshopper

green crayon

brown grizzly bear

cute groundhog

She loves her grandpa.

Grapes come in many colors.

I need to cut the grass.

The grasshopper has big legs.

I always color the grass green.

It is fun to grill in the summer.

The grizzly bear is hungry for fish.

The groundhog came out of its hole.

Medial GR Phrases and Sentences

Let's agree

blue-green feathers

one hundred degrees

white egret

hand engrave

flowery fragrance

hungry birds

migrate north

You shake hands when you agree.

You can see when she is angry.

The bird has blue-green feathers.

One hundred and six degrees is hot.

The egret was walking in the water.

He learned how to engrave from his father.

The perfume had a flowery fragrance.

The baby birds are hungry.

Every year they migrate north.

GR Reading Paragraphs

Hungry grizzly.

My grandpa and I ran away from a grizzly bear in the woods. We were camping near a stream. We had caught some fish and put it on the grill for dinner. When the grizzly ran toward us, grandpa said he could tell it wasn't angry. It was just hungry.

We both agree that the fragrance of the fish was strong and was all the grizzly wanted. We are grateful he wasn't hungry for us and that the fish and our other groceries were enough to gratify his hunger. We are also grateful that we parked our truck close to camp so we could get in it for protection.

It is the best camping story my grandpa and I have together and, even though it was scary, I don't regret going.

Phil the Groundhog

I grew up in a town that has a large group of people who are passionate about our town groundhog Phil.

During the year, Phil meets and greets people at our local library. He lives there in his groundhog habitat. Our town has Groundhog Phil statues all over it to show our pride for Groundhog Day - a bagpipe playing groundhog, statue of liberty groundhog, a mayor groundhog, and a firefighter groundhog to name a few. Phil even has his own official souvenir shop.

Every year on Groundhog Day, we all meet at Gobbler's Knob to see Phil predict the weather. The town officials go on the grandstand and have a ceremony where they talk to Phil and see if we will have a long or short winter.

We have a great time and look forward to it every year. 

Initial CR/KR by Syllables

cream cheese

crow's nest

cruise ship



crop duster




cracker barrel

cranberry tree


credit rating

credit union

critical mass

cross-country skis

cross reference

crossword puzzle

Medial CR/KR by Syllables

bike crossing



water craft



railroad crossing

aircraft carrier


micro detector

Initial CR/KR Phrases and Sentences

hard shell crab

start to crawl

box of crayons

crave chocolate

busy crosswalk

start to cry

I think a crab just pinched me.

The wall had a big crack.

The baby just started to crawl.

He shares his box of crayons.

They were acting crazy in the kitchen.

Our crib was hard to put together.

I crave a big chocolate bar.

Cross the street at the crosswalk.

The baby started to cry.

Medial CR/KR Phrases and Sentences

broke and bankrupt

gross cockroach

wet concrete

cold ice cream

messy packrat

soft pie crust

garden scarecrow

tell the secret

fluffy whip cream

The company went bankrupt last month.

Do you see that cockroach?

Sidewalks are made out of concrete.

Here is your bowl of ice cream.

He is a packrat, he keeps everything.

Wrap the pie crust around the dish.

The scarecrow keeps birds away from the garden.

She is telling her a secret.

May I have some whip cream on my pie?

CR/KR Reading Paragraphs

Ice cream cake.

The ice cream cake was melted all over the floor. Kristina's party had gone perfectly until her friend, Crystal, had forgot to put the ice cream cake in the freezer. Kristina wanted to cry! She had been craving ice cream cake for days. It was her favorite ice cream cake - mint with cookie crust, topped with whip cream and cherries.

She wanted to try and save the cake, but a cockroach had crawled into it and then hid in a crack in the wall. Cockroaches drove her crazy and it made her feel worse about losing the ice cream cake.

"I'll go buy another one," said Crystal. She ran outside, crossed the street, and went to the cake shop. She was back in minutes with a new ice cream cake - mint with cookie crust, topped with whip cream and cherries. It was exactly like the one that melted.

"How did you get another one so fast?" Kristina asked.

"I have a secret to tell you," Crystal responded, "I had two cakes made just in case something like this happened. I forget to do stuff like this all the time. I would probably go bankrupt if I bought ice cream cakes all the time. Thank goodness I don't!"

Crystal, Kristina, and their friends laughed and all enjoyed a slice of ice cream cake.

Creative Uncle Creed

People I know say my Uncle Creed is crazy. He lives across from the beach. Every day he goes to the beach and finds crabs. Then he takes them home and puts them in a crib.

Not a box, not a cage, a crib.

Then he takes crayons and colors the tops of their shells.

"When the crabs move around they create what I call 'moving art'," he says. Some call it crazy, I call it creative.

He also collects scarecrows, broken pieces of concrete, crumbs, and fake crystals. He keeps them all in crates in his front yard, but I don't know where he gets them all from. People call him a packrat, but they shouldn't criticize. We all collect "stuff."

He has done some pretty incredible things. He has given a crow a bath in a creek, fed a cricket cream cheese, and crawled on cranberries to make his own cranberry sauce.

He is amazing at crossword puzzle. It has never taken him more than two minutes to finish any crossword.

He is building his own spacecraft too - not to go to space, just to learn how to build one.

People call me crazy, but I want to be like my Uncle Creed some day.

Initial PR by Syllables


practical joke


praying mantis














Medial PR by Syllables

sound proof



low pressure




April Fools Day


life preserver

vice president

word processor








Initial PR Phrases and Sentences

pray quietly

fierce predator

nice present

salty pretzel

cute princess

desk printer

win the prize

She kneeled by her bed to pray.

Predators are animals that hunt for their food. 

He has a small present.

We bought a pretzel at the store.

This coat has a high price.

She is wearing a princess crown.

Will you please fix our printer?

He won the prize.

He is proud of his paper.

Medial PR Phrases and Sentences

approved message

ripe apricot

month of April

cook's apron

architect blueprint

ink fingerprint

making a footprint

be surprised

waterproof boots

The business request was approved.

An apricot is delicious.

My birthday is in April.

The cook had an apron on to keep clean.

The architect created the blueprint.

Security clearance requires a fingerprint card.

She left a footprint in the sand.

He was surprised when he opened the gift.

His yellow boots are waterproof.

PR Reading Paragraphs

Pretzel prank.

You have heard the story of the princess who pricked her finger. This is the story of the prince who ate a pretzel.

Everyone in the kingdom loved the prince. He was proud of his kingdom. He protected the people and ruled with humility. The people gave him presents. The people in the kingdom rarely had any problems with one another.

Once when the prince was in the marketplace, he bought and ate a pretzel from one of the shops. While eating the pretzel, there was a puff of smoke, and then the people saw a prune on the ground. The people gasped and didn't know what to do. They asked the man who sold the prunes what they could do, but he didn't know.

Finally, someone stepped out of the crowd revealed the prince high up on the castle wall. "It was just a prank," he said, "The prince is not a prune. We played a magic trick on you."

The people all breathed a sigh of relief and were happy to have their prince back.

Predators and Prey

Predators are animals that hunt for their food. Prey are the animals that predators try to eat.

Typically, predators will prowl around and watch their prey to see what kind of movements they make. Even though prey are the animals being hunted, they are not dumb. Many types of prey are pretty smart.

For example, prairie dogs use a variety of pitched, warning barks to warn each other of different predators. Some birds will protect their eggs by pretending to be hurt. This lure predators away from their eggs.

Both predators and prey have their own problems. Predators don't always know if they will eat and prey don't always know if they will live. Personally, I'm glad I can go to the store to get my food. 

Initial TR by Syllables

train station






treasure chest

treasure hunt














Medial TR by Syllables


country club

railroad track

rainbow trout

state trooper











no trespassing

remote control

St. Patrick's Day





Initial TR Phrases and Sentences

red tractor

horse trailer

hidden treasure

silver truck

loud trumpet

The tractor helps plant the crops.

They pulled the trailer into the yard.

The train was moving fast.

Take the trash out today.

The pirates found the hidden treasure.

The tree was 50 feet tall.

He rode his trike in the driveway.

A silver truck drives by.

He practiced the trumpet in the living room.

Medial TR Phrases and Sentences

stage actress

red fire truck

good orchestra

short pinetree

horse race track

down the railroad track

old remote control

subtract numbers

nice waitress

The actress rehearsed for her performance.

The fire truck was standing by in case of a fire.

The orchestra will perform tonight.

The snow had fallen on the tree.

The horses ran fast down the race track.

The railroad track turns at the mountain.

I use the remote control to fly the plane.

You need to subtract for these problems.

The waitress took her order.

TR Reading Paragraphs

Tracy's training.

Tracy was an actress and she was going to be in a movie about farms. To play her role, she had to learn to drive a tractor, clean a pig trough, take out trash, and hike on trails during short camping trips. But that was just the beginning of the things she needed to learn.

She put a lot of trust in Troy, the farmer who taught her how to do these things. She grew up in a big city and never had the type of training that Troy gave her.

In the beginning, Tracy thought living on a farm in the country, driving a truck, and living in a trailer would be a tough transition. It didn't take her long to realize how much hard work living on a farm was.

She learned how to trust others, work hard, and even jump on a trampoline. After she finished filming the movie, she had a lot of great memories and thought to herself, "I wouldn't have traded anything for this experience."

Caution! Train Tracks

Tre rode his trike all over the neighborhood. He did just what his mom asked. "Stay in control, don't do tricks, and never go near the train tracks," she said.

One day when Tre was out riding, he heard the siren on a fire truck. Tre rode his trike as fast as he could toward the sound. Just before he got to the train tracks, he saw the fire truck. Then he saw another thing that looked like a truck. It was smashed everywhere.

Tre saw someone close by and asked what had happened.

"The truck got stuck on the train tracks," the man said. "Luckily he got out before the train hit the car," he continued, "That would have been tragic."

Tre realized right then why his mom had warned him to stay away from the train tracks.

He had wanted to try and ride over the tracks just to see if he could, without getting into trouble. He was glad he had listened and not tried.

"Train tracks are dangerous," Tre said. From then on Tre watched the train go by from the tree house in his yard. That was close enough for him.

This list of functional words was professionally selected to be the most useful for a child or adult who has difficulty with producing the "R" sound.

We encourage you to use this list when practicing at home.

Home practice will make progress toward meeting individual language goals much faster.

Speech-Language Pathologists (SLPs) are only able to see students/clients 30-60 mins (or less) per week.

This is not enough time  for your child to overcome an articulation disorder with the "R" sound. But with high caseloads...

...it's all SLPs can do.

There's  only so much time  in the day.

Every day that your child goes without practice  it becomes more and more difficult  to correct an "R" error because he/she continues to say it incorrectly. 

speech therapy r sound

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speech therapy r sound

How to Teach the “r” Sound

Amy Linde, MA, CCC-SLP

  • October 21, 2019

speech therapy r sound

In English, the “r” sound is one of the trickiest for some kids to learn! There are many tricks to try and help improve a child’s ability to make the /r/ sound. In this post, I’m sharing my favorite!

There are actually many different variations of a correct /r/ sound. The key is that the tongue needs to be in the correct placement, and have enough tension, to make what we distinguish to be a “correct” /r/. The technique featured here specifically is intended to teach a bunched vocalic “ar.” If you or a loved one is struggling to make the /r/ sound correctly, head over to our articulation disorders page to learn about how Verboso can help!

Teaching the "r" Sound

What you need:.

  • a client who can imitate “ah”
  • maybe a mirror or tongue depressor for troubleshooting

First, start out with some placement cues and definition/identification of target structures. Instruct the client to bite the back sides of the tongue with his/her molars. Reinforce this attempt. Then, instruct the client to do the same thing, but this time, open his/her mouth, and keep the back sides of his/her tongue “glued to the upper molars.” Reinforce this and repeat.

Now, instruct the client to open his/her mouth and then lift the back sides of the tongue up to the upper molars. Reinforce and repeat.

Assuming the child has been successful with learning the appropriate movement of the tongue, they are ready to try the sound shaping portion of this instruction.

Instruct the client to say “ah” and reinforce (“great job!”) Repeat the placement exercise for a quick review (e.g. “Remember how we were lifting the back sides of your tongue? Do that for me again”).

At this point, instruct the client to sustain “aahhh” and then raise the back sides of the tongue to the upper molars (e.g. “Very nice, now this time, I want you to say “aaahhhhh” and while you’re saying it, lift your tongue like you just did”.)

What occurs is an “ah” that starts to have some rhotic tension.

This is a good time to reinforce, reinforce, reinforce! Have the child repeat this sequence 5-10 times.

With a little luck, they’ll have a great sounding “ar” already.

If you want more tension to get an even better “ar”, check the following:

  • Is the tongue actually going to the correct place? If not, go back through the placement cues.
  • Instruct the client to push up against their molars as hard as they can, like they’re trying to push their tongue clear to the ceiling.
  • Check the lower lip: “er” should have tension with partial lip rounding of the lower lip, with tension through the jaw. A mirror is helpful, with side by side modeling at this stage, if you’re trying to get that extra tension.

Common Pitfalls when Teaching "r"

  • Don’t let you ear be tricked by adding laryngeal tension instead of lingual tension (i.e. “growling” through the “er”—listen carefully for tension that’s from the tongue and enhanced/supported by tension of the lower lip)
  • Be careful that in the first few sessions of teaching this method you’re demanding of perfect responses. Because proprioceptive feedback is so limited with “r” and “er,” it can be very challenging to refine later on in the hierarchy. You shouldn’t need to spend more than a session working at isolation level before you start getting high levels of accuracy. If not, figure out which component of the instruction is in error and try repeating those specific steps a few times.

20 tips for treating /r/ speech errors

Oh /r/….it’s a later developing sound that can be so tricky to get right! A lot of persistent speech sound disorders include challenges with /r/

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Amy Linde, MA, CCC-SLP

Amy Linde, MA, CCC-SLP

speech therapy r sound

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speech therapy r sound

How to Teach the R Sound in Articulation Therapy – To Use Bunched or Retroflex, That is the Question

speech therapy r sound

There are two ways to produce the R sound – bunched and retroflex. It’s really easy for us as therapists to get a little too comfortable teaching only one variation but I’m here to tell you… that could be the reason your student hasn’t made more progress.

I’m a firm believer in selecting the form of R sound production that is most suited for the child… but how do we determine if bunched or retroflex is best?

That is a question I get asked A LOT and I speak about all the time in my VIP emails . Here is how I do it:

speech therapy r sound


if they are already stimulable for R, watch their tongue and/or ask them how they are producing it. If they’ve already got a solid R- there’s no need to change it. Stay on that bunched (or retroflex!) path.

If they are not stimulable for R, no problem.

They do not need to have their R for us to determine which variation to start teaching. To decide, I start by describing and eliciting a bunched R. Visuals always help (and I have a free bunched vs retroflex visual for you at the end of this post.) I discuss keeping their tongue wide, pulled back like a mountain, and then I watch.

If their tongue does a “backflip” then we start using retroflex. If they are able to keep their tongue tip neutral, then we stick with bunched.

In summary…. watch their mouth! This may mean you get down on the ground with a flashlight so you can see what’s going on. (YES I do this regularly.)

Although I use a bunched R naturally, I actually most often teach retroflex. I have developed a method of Teaching R that has been really helpful. You can read more about it in this blog post .

If you are looking for additional support in getting your student started with R, check out Eliciting R . It covers everything from stimulability checks, to choosing bunched or retroflex, to elicitation strategies with tons of visuals and cues.

speech therapy r sound

I am excited to hear how this little trick goes for you! I’m always happy to connect on instagram .

If you’re interested in getting hooked up with more R tips and receiving a free visual that describes Bunched vs Retroflex R (like the one below), we can do that too! Just click here to become a VIP! (Very Important Pathologist) You can unsubscribe at any time.

speech therapy r sound

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speech therapy r sound

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speech therapy r sound

Hi! I'm Lindsey!

I’m a pediatric SLP who specializes in the R sound. Fun fact- I actually used to dread the R but after dedicating a lot (like…  a lot a lot ) of time to researching and troubleshooting… I now love it! So much, in fact, that I currently spend my days treating “R kids” via my private practice and creating R resources and continuing education for SLPs via Speechy Things. I’m so glad you found me! Let’s “Rock the R” together!

speech therapy r sound

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"something i looked forward to every week.".

“I’m so grateful I was able to work with Lindsey. As a teenager, it has been a blessing to find an SLP as encouraging and approachable as Lindsey. Her method of self reflection has really helped me realize the flaws in my speech, and through that I was able to improve. Every session was met with a smile, and Lindsey’s supportive practices made therapy not only fun, but something I looked forward to every week. Thanks to Lindsey I was able to undo fifteen years of poor R’s, and replace it with strong, understandable speech.”

- Anna, 15-year-old client


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  • Dec 4, 2022

R Sound Speech Therapy: Causes and Tips to Pronounce R

A speech therapist teaching to pronounce R sound to a child

Do they say ‘wabbit’ instead of ‘rabbit’, 'callut' instead of 'carrot'?

This is known as rhotacism and is a type of articulation disorder . Here, the child presents with difficulty pronouncing the ‘R’ sound. 'R' is one of the common tricky sounds for a child to master. Hence, the more you understand what makes this sound so difficult and where your child may be having difficulty, the easier it will be for you to understand the role of an SLP in R sound speech therapy.

A child masters the use of the ‘R’ sound quite late in their speech development . It completely develops by the age of 6 to 7 years. It's often easier to say ‘R’ sounds with vowels, before vowels in words like ‘ripe’, and post vowels in words like ‘car’, and the child develops this use of ‘R’ by 3-5 years of age.

It is the use of consonants with the 'R' sound, which is tricky in words like ‘press’, the child often develops 'R' blends by the age of 3-8 years of age. That coincides with first grade. Hence, it leads to the misconception that ‘just wait it out, the child will develop with age. Sometimes it is also referred to as residual R error. A few common mistakes a child may make in rhotacism are saying ‘wice’ instead of ‘rice’, saying ‘bewwy’ instead of ‘berry’, or saying ‘fathe’ instead of ‘father’.

Causes of rhotacism!

No rhotacism is not genetic.

However, several scientific pieces of research have implicated the role of various attributing factors-

Tongue tie (ankyloglossia) - Everyone's tongue has a fold of skin that attaches it to the base of the mouth. But if the skin fold is attached to the tip of the tongue, it can restrict the movement of the tongue and thereby hamper the pronunciation of sounds like 'L' and 'R' difficult. Timely intervention is very important for this, as a delay can lead to difficulties for the child in learning the pronunciations and surgical complications.

The word phonemic awareness means the child's brain doesn’t know what a certain speech sound, sounds like. It usually happens when there is a lack of stimulation or wrong stimulation, meaning when the parents or family members talk in a baby voice and the child sees a different shape of the mouth or perceives a different placement of the tongue and no one corrects the child when they say 'wabbit' instead of 'rabbit' thinking it's cute, and the child doesn't end up learning the correct way to pronounce the sound.

Why your child cannot pronounce R?

The ‘R’ sound is one of the most difficult sounds to be mastered a child because of several reasons.

One of the reasons being there are more than 30 different ‘R’ sounds in the English language. The placement of the tongue in our mouth is influenced by its position before and after the vowels and consonants or at the end, middle, or start of the word. For instance, the words ‘ripe’, ‘teacher’ and ‘frog’ all require different placement of tongue for their pronunciation.

We are well aware that children learn how to speak by watching how we speak right. Visual cues can be quite helpful in learning words like ‘b’ (we can ask the child to put their lips together) or in words like ‘the' (we can ask the child to put the tip of the tongue between their teeth). Whereas, it is difficult to show a child how to place their tongue in the mouth to produce the ‘R’ sound, as the tongue is elevated at the back of their mouth.

There is more than one correct way to pronounce the 'R' sound. You may be thinking what are we trying to imply here? When you compare the pronunciation of 'P' with your peers it would be the same in all. But when the pronunciation of the 'R' sound was compared among family members with the help of MRI, it was observed that there were differences in the placement of the tongue while pronouncing the 'R' sound. In some people, the tip of the tongue was higher up than the body, and it was vice versa in others. Therefore it becomes quite tricky for a speech-language pathologist too, to determine what placement works the best for the child, and in helping them learn it.

What is an example of an R Blend?

Before we talk about what an R blend is, let's take a look at what consonant blends are.

The term consonant blend, also known as consonant cluster or consonant sequence, is used when two consonants are grouped with no vowel in between them and both the sounds in the blend retain their sounds.

Now let's see what an R blend is. An r blend is a set of consonants in which ‘r’ is the second constant. The 7 most common r blends are gr, pr, cr, dr, fr, br, and str. Here’s a list of a few words that include r blend-

Importance of R sound speech therapy.

Some errors in the ‘R’ sound may be developmental and may get better on their own as the child develops. But others may not and they may require the help of a speech-language pathologist (SLP). An SLP will assess the problem the child is facing and will discuss with you the extent to which the error can be fixed.

After assessment and diagnosis, the SLP will organize a treatment plan for the child, that includes scheduling online speech therapy sessions along with home training and exercise plans. For a child to overcome the impediment, your input is very important, the SLP will provide you with worksheets and they may suggest a few exercises that can help the child perform at home to overcome the error quickly and more efficiently.

Few tricks to aid you in helping your child learn the R sound!

Even though the ‘R’ sound can be quite tricky to explain to someone, here are a few speech therapy exercises through which you can make it easier for your child to learn the ‘R’ sound:-

Using your arm to explain the placement of the tongue while producing the ‘R’ sound to them, you can extend your arm and fold it towards your body to show the child how to produce the ‘R’ sound.

Blending sounds with the vowels, you can teach the child to first pronounce the vowel like ‘A’ and then add an ‘R’ sound to it like ‘aaaaarrrrrr’’.

Use opportunities in everyday activities, whenever you watch TV and their favorite cartoon uses an ‘R’ sound you should repeat the sound in a fun way as that may pique the interest of your kid and they may repeat after you.

Poems are also a fun way to teach the child the r sound, poems like 'row, row, row your boat', or ' Mary, Mary, quite contrary'. You can make up your version too, as this requires the involvement of your child its extra fun for them.

Reading books with the r sound, you can prompt the child to repeat every time any word with the r sound comes up. Books like Dr. Seuss books with a lot of r’s, RIKKI TIKKI TAVI by Rudyard Kipling, and much more.

Few games to make learning the R sound fun!

In order to learn something it is important we practice it regularly, the same agenda is applicable here as well the goal of all these games is to help your child practice hearing and saying the R sound.

Make it fun for them to use ‘R’ sounds, for instance, if your child is into pirates you can dress up as pirates or play a pirate game and say ‘argh’ like pirates say it.

Your child learns how to roll their tongue while imitating the sounds various animals make like ‘growling’ like a dog or ‘roaring’ like a lion.

Rhyming words is one of the oldest and the best exercises to help the child learn the r sound. Like the car, far or rat, bat or tar, war.

While coloring with crayons, the child has to say 'crayon' every time they pick a new color.

R diving- you put many cards that have words with the R sound written on them. Then you both have to take turns picking out cards, the person has to read the word written on the card out loud. You continue picking cards until you pronounce something wrong. The person with more cards wins.

Why is the R sound important?

Being a high-frequency sound, the ‘R’ sound is the most frequently used in our everyday speech and the most common cause of speech impediment in the child. Therefore, if the child cannot pronounce the ‘R’ sound, they have difficulty expressing themselves and as adults, they may sound immature to their peers. They often experience embarrassment and have low self-esteem in social settings or when they need to speak in front of many people. Some studies have linked this speech impediment with decreased ability to stand up for themselves when being bullied as kids and reluctance to speak up as adults. It can also have an impact on the academics of the child due to obvious reasons. If this articulation error persists at further age, it can have an impact on the career choice of the person, they choose the careers that involve minimal verbal communication. Therefore, we cannot fixate enough on the importance of visiting the speech-language pathologist on time and receiving appropriate R sound speech therapy.

Sounderic provides online speech therapy sessions for children with various communication disorders. We would love to help you. Get in touch with us on WhatsApp at +919644466635 or schedule a consultation with us at https://www.sounderic.com/service-page/speech-language-consultation-for-kids?referral=service_list_widget

Follow us on Facebook , and Instagram or join our community of 18,000 parents from all across the world here, " Speech therapy guide for parents ".

1. https://mommyspeechtherapy.com/?p=1116

2. https://www.andalusiaspeech.com/post/2018/10/31/speech-impediment-or-normal-development

3. https://the-speech-studio.medium.com/whats-so-hard-about-the-r-sound-6a1ac22a1b66

4. https://www.twinkl.com/teaching-wiki/r-blend-words

5. https://www.oaktreekids.com/blog/2020/2/25/why-is-the-r-sound-so-hard-for-some-kids

6. https://www.torontospeechtherapy.com/blog/2019/pronounce-r-sounds

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R Sound Articulation: How Speech Therapy Helps with Rhotacism

The letter “r” is one of the most difficult consonant sounds for many people to articulate correctly. The inability to produce this sound is called rhotacism, and it is a common problem that affects both children and adults. Speech therapy can help individuals with rhotacism improve their ability to articulate this sound correctly.

In this article, you will learn more about...

  • the definition of rhotacism is and what causes it,
  • the benefits of speech therapy for someone with rhotacism, and
  • the different treatment options available for someone with rhotacism.

Let’s dive in.

What is Rhotacism and What Causes It?

Rhotacism is a speech disorder wherein an individual has difficulty articulating the “r” sound. It is also known as r-deletion, r-substitution, or lallation (the substitution of “l” for “r”). One common difficulty is with the “hard r” sound, which refers to a specific pronunciation of the “r” sound, typically found in certain dialects or accents. It is characterized by a strong, emphasized “r” sound at the end of a word or syllable, such as in the word “car” or “hard.”

This speech disorder can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Developmental Delays – Children who experience developmental delays often experience difficulties in speech production. This can be due to delays in the development of the muscles and coordination required for speech.

2. Neurological Disorders – Certain neurological conditions, such as dysarthria or apraxia, can affect the muscles used in speech and make it difficult to produce the “r” sound. These conditions affect the brain’s ability to control the muscles used for speech and can cause slurred or difficult-to-understand speech.

3. Physical Conditions – Tongue tie, cleft palate, and other impairments involving the mouth, tongue, or throat can affect the way the muscles move and make it difficult to form the “r” sound. Trauma or injury to the mouth, tongue, or throat can also cause rhotacism. This can happen if the individual experiences an accident, injury, or surgery that affects the muscles or nerves used for speech.

4. Lack of Exposure – Lack of exposure to the “r” sound during early years can lead to difficulty in pronouncing it later in life. This may happen if the individual grows up in a language or culture that does not use the “r” sound frequently.

5. Dialect or Accen t- In some dialects or accents, the “r” sound is pronounced differently. Individuals who speak these dialects or accents may find it difficult to produce the “r” sound in a different way, especially when they start learning new languages.

Working With a Speech Therapist to Treat Rhotacism

Speech therapy is an effective treatment for rhotacism. A Speech-Language Pathologist (SLP) can help improve the ability to produce the “r” sound correctly. The SLP will assess and develop a plan of treatment tailored to the individual’s needs. The therapy sessions may include a variety of exercises and techniques designed to help the individual identify and correct any errors in their speech.

Here are a few examples:

  • Articulation Therapy involves working on the specific movements and positions of the mouth and tongue required to produce the “R” sound correctly. The therapist may use visual aids, such as mirrors or diagrams, to help the individual see the correct positioning of their mouth and tongue.
  • Auditory Discrimination Training is another technique that may be used in speech therapy. This involves helping the individual differentiate between the “r” sound and other consonant sounds, such as “l” or “w”. The therapist may use listening exercises or games to help the individual develop their ability to identify and produce the correct sound.

Progressing in Treatment

As the individual progresses in treatment, the SLP may introduce activities that involve reading aloud or engaging in conversations. By doing so, the individual is able to practice their articulation of the “r” sound in a more natural setting. The SLP will also help them develop strategies for self-monitoring their speech and providing feedback when needed.

Benefits of Speech Therapy

For children with speech sound disorders, early intervention can prevent the disorder from impacting their social and academic development. For adults, speech therapy can improve their ability to communicate effectively in personal and professional settings.

Improved communication skills can also lead to increased confidence and self-esteem. Individuals who are able to articulate the “r” sound correctly may feel more comfortable speaking in front of others and participating in social activities.

Speech therapy for rhotacism can also help individuals with related speech disorders. For example, individuals with a lisp may also struggle with articulating the “R” sound correctly. By improving their ability to produce this sound, they may also improve their ability to speak more clearly and confidently overall.

In addition to the benefits for the individual, speech therapy for rhotacism can also have benefits for their family and friends. Clear communication is essential for building strong relationships, and improving communication skills can lead to stronger, more meaningful connections with others.

Rhotacism, in short…

Rhotacism is a common speech disorder that can have a large impact on communication skills. Speech pathologists can help by creating treatment plans that include drills, activities, and conversation practice to aid articulation of the “r” sound. With the support of an SLP and continued practice, individuals can make marked improvements in their ability to communicate. Speech therapy for rhotacism can lead to increased confidence and self-esteem, better communication skills, and stronger social connections.

Do you know anyone that has difficulty articulating the letter “r”? Schedule a consultation with one of our speech pathologists to know the best treatment plan that suits their needs.

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Why were so many metro stations in Moscow renamed?

Okhotny Ryad station in Soviet times and today.

Okhotny Ryad station in Soviet times and today.

The Moscow metro system has 275 stations, and 28 of them have been renamed at some point or other—and several times in some cases. Most of these are the oldest stations, which opened in 1935.

The politics of place names

The first station to change its name was Ulitsa Kominterna (Comintern Street). The Comintern was an international communist organization that ceased to exist in 1943, and after the war Moscow authorities decided to call the street named after it something else. In 1946, the station was renamed Kalininskaya. Then for several days in 1990, the station was called Vozdvizhenka, before eventually settling on Aleksandrovsky Sad, which is what it is called today.

The banner on the entraince reads:

The banner on the entraince reads: "Kalininskaya station." Now it's Alexandrovsky Sad.

Until 1957, Kropotkinskaya station was called Dvorets Sovetov ( Palace of Soviets ). There were plans to build a monumental Stalinist high-rise on the site of the nearby Cathedral of Christ the Saviour , which had been demolished. However, the project never got off the ground, and after Stalin's death the station was named after Kropotkinskaya Street, which passes above it.

Dvorets Sovetov station, 1935. Letters on the entrance:

Dvorets Sovetov station, 1935. Letters on the entrance: "Metro after Kaganovich."

Of course, politics was the main reason for changing station names. Initially, the Moscow Metro itself was named after Lazar Kaganovich, Joseph Stalin’s right-hand man. Kaganovich supervised the construction of the first metro line and was in charge of drawing up a master plan for reconstructing Moscow as the "capital of the proletariat."

In 1955, under Nikita Khrushchev's rule and during the denunciation of Stalin's personality cult, the Moscow Metro was named in honor of Vladimir Lenin.

Kropotkinskaya station, our days. Letters on the entrance:

Kropotkinskaya station, our days. Letters on the entrance: "Metropolitan after Lenin."

New Metro stations that have been opened since the collapse of the Soviet Union simply say "Moscow Metro," although the metro's affiliation with Vladimir Lenin has never officially been dropped.

Zyablikovo station. On the entrance, there are no more signs that the metro is named after Lenin.

Zyablikovo station. On the entrance, there are no more signs that the metro is named after Lenin.

Stations that bore the names of Stalin's associates were also renamed under Khrushchev. Additionally, some stations were named after a neighborhood or street and if these underwent name changes, the stations themselves had to be renamed as well.

Until 1961 the Moscow Metro had a Stalinskaya station that was adorned by a five-meter statue of the supreme leader. It is now called Semyonovskaya station.

Left: Stalinskaya station. Right: Now it's Semyonovskaya.

Left: Stalinskaya station. Right: Now it's Semyonovskaya.

The biggest wholesale renaming of stations took place in 1990, when Moscow’s government decided to get rid of Soviet names. Overnight, 11 metro stations named after revolutionaries were given new names. Shcherbakovskaya became Alekseyevskaya, Gorkovskaya became Tverskaya, Ploshchad Nogina became Kitay-Gorod and Kirovskaya turned into Chistye Prudy. This seriously confused passengers, to put it mildly, and some older Muscovites still call Lubyanka station Dzerzhinskaya for old times' sake.

At the same time, certain stations have held onto their Soviet names. Marksistskaya and Kropotkinskaya, for instance, although there were plans to rename them too at one point.

"I still sometimes mix up Teatralnaya and Tverskaya stations,” one Moscow resident recalls .

 “Both have been renamed and both start with a ‘T.’ Vykhino still grates on the ear and, when in 1991 on the last day of my final year at school, we went to Kitay-Gorod to go on the river cruise boats, my classmates couldn’t believe that a station with that name existed."

The city government submitted a station name change for public discussion for the first time in 2015. The station in question was Voykovskaya, whose name derives from the revolutionary figure Pyotr Voykov. In the end, city residents voted against the name change, evidently not out of any affection for Voykov personally, but mainly because that was the name they were used to.

What stations changed their name most frequently?

Some stations have changed names three times. Apart from the above-mentioned Aleksandrovsky Sad (Ulitsa Kominterna->Kalininskaya->Vozdvizhenka->Aleksandrovsky Sad), a similar fate befell Partizanskaya station in the east of Moscow. Opened in 1944, it initially bore the ridiculously long name Izmaylovsky PKiO im. Stalina (Izmaylovsky Park of Culture and Rest Named After Stalin). In 1947, the station was renamed and simplified for convenience to Izmaylovskaya. Then in 1963 it was renamed yet again—this time to Izmaylovsky Park, having "donated" its previous name to the next station on the line. And in 2005 it was rechristened Partizanskaya to mark the 60th anniversary of victory in World War II. 

Partizanskaya metro station, nowadays.

Partizanskaya metro station, nowadays.

Another interesting story involves Alekseyevskaya metro station. This name was originally proposed for the station, which opened in 1958, since a village with this name had been located here. It was then decided to call the station Shcherbakovskaya in honor of Aleksandr Shcherbakov, a politician who had been an associate of Stalin. Nikita Khrushchev had strained relations with Shcherbakov, however, and when he got word of it literally a few days before the station opening the builders had to hastily change all the signs. It ended up with the concise and politically correct name of Mir (Peace).

The name Shcherbakovskaya was restored in 1966 after Khrushchev's fall from power. It then became Alekseyevskaya in 1990.

Alekseyevskaya metro station.

Alekseyevskaya metro station.

But the station that holds the record for the most name changes is Okhotny Ryad, which opened in 1935 on the site of a cluster of market shops. When the metro system was renamed in honor of Lenin in 1955, this station was renamed after Kaganovich by way of compensation. The name lasted just two years though because in 1957 Kaganovich fell out of favor with Khrushchev, and the previous name was returned. But in 1961 it was rechristened yet again, this time in honor of Prospekt Marksa, which had just been built nearby.

Okhotny Ryad station in 1954 and Prospekt Marksa in 1986.

Okhotny Ryad station in 1954 and Prospekt Marksa in 1986.

In 1990, two historical street names—Teatralny Proyezd and Mokhovaya Street—were revived to replace Prospekt Marksa, and the station once again became Okhotny Ryad.

Okhotny Ryad in 2020.

Okhotny Ryad in 2020.

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speech therapy r sound

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Geographic coordinates of Elektrostal, Moscow Oblast, Russia

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Elektrostal , Moscow Oblast, Russia


  1. /R/ Sound: Medial Position One Page by Ausome SLP

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  2. Roll Your Sound Prevocalic & Vocalic R

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  3. R Sound Articulation Therapy: A Guide for Parents

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  5. R Sound Speech Therapy [Video]

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  1. Teaching the R Sound in Speech Therapy

    Teaching the R sound in speech therapy can be stressful for a speech therapist. Children with speech sound disorders may have difficulty with saying r words. In this blog post, I'm sharing a simple, 5-step strategy SLPs can use to teach the r sound successfully and without frustration.

  2. R Sound Articulation Therapy: A Guide for Parents

    The key to helping your child correctly say the /r/ sound is to look at three important oral structures used in speech: the lips, the tongue, and the throat. The Lips When producing the /r/ sound, we want to make sure to have our lips more in a neutral position or more of a square shape. Some SLPs may also have a child smile. The Tongue

  3. R Sound Speech Therapy: Tips to Make an R Sound

    Attending weekly speech therapy and daily /R/ sound practice outside of the meetings is a key component of progress. We would be happy to help you or your child achieve your communication goals! Get Started About the Author. Allison Geller is a speech-language pathologist (SLP) and the owner of Connected Speech Pathology. She obtained her ...

  4. Complete Guide to R Speech Therapy and How It Can Help Your Child

    Master 'R' Sounds with Ease! Learn More What is Rhoticism? Rhoticism is the most common speech disorder children experience. Inability to pronounce the R sound usually leads to a child pronouncing their Rs as Ws. This is because there are more variations of the letter R pronouncement than any other letter.

  5. Techniques for Eliciting the R Sound in Speech Therapy

    Techniques for Eliciting the R Sound in Speech Therapy : How to Make Teaching R Tongue Placement Easy for your Students I have so so many R kids on my caseload right now. In that past, that statement would be followed with a mournful sigh, or possibly with me throwing my head back and shaking my fists in the air cursing, "why me!?" Let me tell you…

  6. How I Approach R Articulation Therapy

    What are the different /r/s? I typically look at initial (or prevocalic) /r/ and /r/ blends (such as in the word br ight), then the six vocalic /r/ sounds - /ar/, /air/, / ear/, /er/, /ire/, and /or/. FIRST STEPS

  7. How to Teach The R Sound in Speech Therapy

    How to Teach The R Sound in Speech Therapy - YouTube © 2024 Google LLC Lindsey Hockel, MS, CCC-SLP from Speechy Things explains her favorite method for eliciting a retroflex R, as...

  8. My Top 5 Tips for /r/

    1 - Auditory discrimination using minimal pairs (w/r) 2 - Stimulability/elicitation 3 - Syllables 4 - Words then phrases then sentences 5 - Carryover I break apart all of the forms of /r/ and only target one at a time. For example, I might only target "ar" sounds until the student demonstrates progress on that sound.

  9. R Speech Therapy Tips for SLPs

    Step 2: Use Your Arms as a Visual to Teach R in Speech Therapy. You can use your arms as the perfect way to help your students "visualize" how to say the R sound. Clasp your hands together in front of you to make a "tongue". Use your elbows and move them to demonstrate when your speech therapy student has said R or "uh".

  10. Expert Tips for Treating the /R/ Sound

    Different strategies and expert tips in treating the /r/ sound: One Allophone at a Time Getting a good grasp on in which context that /r/ sound is misarticulated. A good R screener helps assess the /r/ in different distinct allophone combinations. For example: AR as in car EAR as in near ER as in butter

  11. How to Teach the R Sound by Chicago Speech Therapy

    Begin by saying a long "eee" for your child. Hold it for a few seconds, to show that the sound continues. Gradually combine it with the /r/ sound, "eeee-rrrr". Your child should be able to turn the /e/ sound into the /r/ sound this way. Practice the same with other vowels. Visual Cues

  12. R Words for Speech Therapy (Lists and Activities)

    Teaching the R sound in speech therapy can be stressful for a speech therapist. Children with speech sound disorders may have difficulty with saying r words. In this blog post, I'm sharing a simple, 5-step strategy SLPs can use to teach the r sound successfully and without frustration. Many students with articulation disorders have difficulty…

  13. Tools for Teaching the R Sound by Peachie Speechie

    Speech therapy techniques for teaching the R sound. Download our step-by-step workbook to help you teach the R sound to your students/clients. It's packed fu...

  14. 1,000+ R Words, Phrases, Sentences, & Paragraphs by Place, Syllable

    SEE ALSO: How to Say the R Sound [VIDEO] Buy Flashcards for R & R Blend Words for $9.99. ... SEE ALSO: The Best Books for Speech Therapy Practice. Initial R Phrases and Sentences. cute rabbit raccoon tail long race tennis racquet old radio dish rag heavy rain pretty rainbow

  15. How to Teach the "r" Sound

    Step 1: First, start out with some placement cues and definition/identification of target structures. Instruct the client to bite the back sides of the tongue with his/her molars. Reinforce this attempt. Then, instruct the client to do the same thing, but this time, open his/her mouth, and keep the back sides of his/her tongue "glued to the ...

  16. How to Teach the R Sound in Articulation Therapy

    There are two ways to produce the R sound - bunched and retroflex. It's really easy for us as therapists to get a little too comfortable teaching only one variation but I'm here to tell you… that could be the reason your student hasn't made more progress.

  17. R Sound Speech Therapy: Causes and Tips to Pronounce R

    Here, the child presents with difficulty pronouncing the 'R' sound. 'R' is one of the common tricky sounds for a child to master. Hence, the more you understand what makes this sound so difficult and where your child may be having difficulty, the easier it will be for you to understand the role of an SLP in R sound speech therapy.

  18. R Sound Articulation: How Speech Therapy Helps with Rhotacism

    The letter "r" is one of the most difficult consonant sounds for many people to articulate correctly. The inability to produce this sound is called rhotacism, and it is a common problem that affects both children and adults. Speech therapy can help individuals with rhotacism improve their ability to articulate this sound correctly.

  19. R Sound Resources

    R Sound Resources. Helpful Resources. Tutorial: Motor-Based Treatment for R Distortions. Speech Motor Chaining "karla" method. Bite-R. Easy R Therapy Book. Bjorem R Coarticulation Deck. staRt app. Speech Tutor App. Graham Speech therapy, llc. Home - About - Services - Shop - Resources - Blog - Contact . Contact Us : (719) 888-9555. hello ...

  20. Coverin

    Mixing and Mastering Engineer Coverin - Listen to samples, read reviews, learn more, contact. Read interview with Coverin, see credits and hire

  21. Why were so many metro stations in Moscow renamed?

    The Moscow metro system has 275 stations, and 28 of them have been renamed at some point or other—and several times in some cases. Most of these are the oldest stations, which opened in 1935.

  22. Geographic coordinates of Elektrostal, Moscow Oblast, Russia

    Geographic coordinates of Elektrostal, Moscow Oblast, Russia in WGS 84 coordinate system which is a standard in cartography, geodesy, and navigation, including Global Positioning System (GPS). Latitude of Elektrostal, longitude of Elektrostal, elevation above sea level of Elektrostal.

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