Essay on “Population explosion in Pakistan” for CSS, PMS, and All Judiciary Examinations


  • November 21, 2021
  • Essay for CSS PMS and Judiciary Exam

This is an essay on “Population explosion in Pakistan” for CSS, PMS, and All Judiciary examinations. Increasing Population is a serious issue in today’s modern world. It can result from an increase in births, a decline in the mortality rate, an increase in immigration, or a depletion of resources. So here is a complete essay on the topic of “population explosion in Pakistan” for CSS, PMS, and All Judiciary Examinations.

In this essay, you will learn about the causes of the Population explosion in Pakistan, the effects of population, and various measures to stop population.

Essay on “Population Explosion in Pakistan”

Population in the world.

Conditions in Pakistan

Population table

Better medical facility

Lack of education, lack of planning of the government as per the resources, the desire for a male child, early marriages, abundant food resources, effect on economic growth.

  • Problems in urban cities like Karachi

Effect on agriculture

Urbanization, social evils, role of media, role of a religious scholar, education for all, resources as well as population.

  • Chinese model

Essay on “Population explosion in Pakistan” for CSS, PMS, and All Judiciary Examinations

Conditions in pakistan and population table.

At the time of partition, the area, which today comprises Pakistan, had a population of 33 million. The following table shows the population of Pakistan at different times since its inception.

According to experts, under the same growth rate, the population of Pakistan would be greater than that of China by the year 2035.

Even after sixty-four years of its independence, Pakistan is still struggling to find a respectable place in the comity of nations. All the efforts made in the past seem to have gone in vain. Every sector of life today tells a sorry tale. The problem that could be blamed for all this sorry mess is overpopulation in the country. Overpopulation emerges as the main villain in Pakistan for a number of reasons. Every other problem mentioned earlier seems to have grown from the. demon of this overpopulation.

Literally speaking, overpopulation arises when the resources in a country fall short of meeting the needs of its people. A number of factors could lead to the emergence of overpopulation. Birth rate 1s the most common indicator that the countries today use to keep a check on population. Pakistan today suffers from a high birth rate in the country. But the birth rate was high even in the past and still, overpopulation was nowhere to be seen. What factors today have translated the high birth rate into overpopulation? The advancements in the medical field have led to a sharp decline in the death rate.

The life expectancy has increased due to the use of imported health technologies. So, a decline in the death rate has in other words led to the problem of overpopulation. Pakistan is a developing country and like many others like it is trying hard to survive in the capitalist world. A huge population of around eighteen crores, that could have been an asset to the country is today a huge liability. Fast increasing population is thus a source of constant danger for Pakistan .

Following is a brief discussion of some of the causes of overpopulation in our country:

  • Warm climate (puberty attained by females at an early age)
  • Joint family systems
  • Lack of recreational facilities
  • The belief that God is ‘Raziq’ (the belief that every child brings its food with him/her)
  • Love for male issues (couple going for more babies)
  • Illiteracy, people think that more children mean more working hands

There are three main causes of overpopulation. The first and second are linked to the advancement of medicine and public health, while the third is related to food distribution. Even though these are the main causes today, more causes can come about in the future.

First is the understanding of diseases and the use of medicine. Before the realization of the germ theory, many individuals did not know that diseases were spread through germs such as bacteria and viruses. With the adoption of these practices, humans were able to understand that germs caused these diseases and could be countered through practices such as medicine and vaccinations. With this new knowledge, death rates plummeted and new health practices relating to child birth helped improve birth rates.

Illiteracy is another important cause of overpopulation. That lacking education fails to understand the need to prevent excessive growth of population. They are unable to understand the harmful effects that overpopulation has. They are unaware of the ways to control the population. Lack of family planning is commonly seen in the illiterate lot of the world. This is one of the major factors leading to overpopulation. Due to ignorance, they do not take to family planning measures, thus contributing to a rise in population.

In Pakistan rural areas there is a trend of a large number of families and due to lack of awareness and proper knowledge people go on producing more and more children. So this trend could be changed if education will be provided to all members of society.

We think that we are progressing and adopting new values and trends but this is really not true and this is a fact that parents prefer boys over girls and consider their son as their future asserts. Who can support them later in life? So the desire for a male child is also the main reason for population growth in a society like Pakistan. So if we want to control the rising population so we should consider boys and girls like the same and value them. If this thing will be included in our thinking that girls also support their parents so this will discourage the practice of producing more and more children just for the desire of the male child.

Early marriage is also the main reason for the increase in population growth. As soon the girl grows parents start thinking about their marriages and when they find the reasonable proposal for them so they are in a hurry that they should get married and leave their education. Early marriages really contribute to rising in population growth and if we want to control it then early marriages should be avoided and education can help in delaying the age of marriage of the girls.

Next is the vast improvement of public health. Public health refers to the acquisition of three basic needs humans need: food, shelter, and water. For example, since the creation of plumbing, individuals have had the opportunity of accessing water. Another is the improvement of shelters which also allow humans to survive for longer periods.

Another is the improvement of food distribution. It is amazing to think that food can be transported all over the world and combined with preservation services, such as canned food, certain food can last forever. The improvement of food distribution bad ended the worries of starvation in many regions of the world; however, certain regions (such as parts of Africa) still exhibit famines from the lack of food.

Now let’s talk about some severe effects of population:

Overpopulation has badly hampered the economic growth in the country. The high population is responsible for a decline in per capita income. This leads to a decline in the 9urchasing power of the people. As the demand for goods decreases then “Demand & Supply” lack the investment in the country will also suffer. Such a stagnant economy will lead to the closing of factories and businesses and in return add to joblessness and poverty.

Even if the country somehow is successful in attracting foreign investment, still overpopulation will not allow these investments to have a positive effect on the country’s economy. A greater population means more hungry souls to feed. With the number of productive earning members in a family small compared to unproductive members, there is felt a drag on the limited income of poor families. This is the problem of the “Dependency ratio” which is acutely felt in poor countries.

For years, social services in the country have suffered even after sincere efforts by successive governments. The fact remains that more schools, hospitals, and parks are of little comfort if the the population keeps on increasing at an alarming rate.

Agriculture is another sector, which has been adversely affected by the rapid increase in population. About 70% of Pakistan’s population is employed in the agricultural sector. Overpopulation is even having an adverse effect on agricultural outcomes. More population means smaller farms, and that leads to a decline in productivity. Availability of cultivable land in 1990 was 0.17 hector per person and the estimated availability of cultivable land by the year 2025 will be 0.07 hector per person. The same would happen with the forests and also with the availability of freshwater.

People having smaller farms have no other choice but to migrate in the hope of a better life . This leads to urbanization, which itself is a major social problem .

Overpopulation has contributed to an increase in the number of social evils. Lawlessness, crime, and corruption are all the result of the population explosion. The fight over resources has divided the society into two groups i.e. those who have all and are not willing to share it and the second group that is fighting for its mere survival. This fight between haves and have-nots has the inherent seeds of conflict in it, which if erupted could imperil the peace and order in the society.

Overpopulation in cities has also contributed to toxic pollution. A greater number of vehicles on the roads mean the availability of large quantities of poisonous gas for people to inhale. Sewage problems and lack of clean drinking water can also be attributed to the population problem.

The world has touched the seven billion mark in population. After years of industrialization and technological advances, the world still suffers in providing basic necessities to the masses. Apart from a few exceptions in Europe having a negative birth rate, overpopulation is a common problem of many nations around the world.

Many of the countries have tried hard and to some extent, they have been successful. China, around three decades ago, was facing shortages in food but today it is the largest growing economy in the world. The “One Child Policy” has done wonders for this new economic power. China has also proved the fact that through proper planning a huge population could be transformed into an economic asset.

Solution for Population Explosion in Pakistan

Now the question arises of how we can tackle this problem. So for this here are some of the solutions.

It is the right time that we nip the evil in the bud with proper planning. Education is the key to success against the menace of overpopulation. It will not only generate awareness against the hazards of overpopulation among the masses but will also create a healthy environment for birth control methods to flourish. The poor literacy rate in Pakistan is certainly adding to the difficulties, already being faced by the health workers in their fight against the problem.

The role of media is also an important factor. With most of the population, illiterate electronic media could prove to be a huge success in getting the message across. Print media too needs to emphasize the problems of overpopulation on a more regular basis. Availability of birth control. methods in the remote areas of the country should be ensured. The role of lady health workers should be expanded and the good office of every union council should make their supervision compulsory.

“Devolution Plan” was devised to make the participation of people at the grassroots level. Now it is time we solved the problem of overpopulation with greater participation and support from these local councils. But this task will be not as easy to accomplish, as it may appear to be.

According to a report by Population Action International Washington, a great reason for the population increase in Pakistan is that the Government has made a very insignificant investment in the social sector owing to religious problems and secondly women having no say and freedom. A  conservative society like ours is certainly not ripe to carry out a war against overpopulation. Therefore, the role of religious leaders emerges as an important aspect if we are to succeed against this menace. Big landowners,s in rural areas too can influence the masses. It is high time they joined in against the fight for a better future.

Once these two classes are on the side of the government, there is no way that the government will not be able to solve the problem. Another factor that has for long proven to be a hurdle in solving the population problems is the poor state of our womenfolk in society. The rights of women must be restored and the discrimination against them must be stopped. In this context, Anti-Women Practices Bill was recently passed on Nov 16, 2011.

Many women in the country are aware of the problems generated by having large families but they.have little say in deciding about the strength of the family. ln a male-dominated society like ours women often falls victim to the blind wishes of their male partners. Women often die in labor and owing to the lack of gaps between successive births. Their health also deteriorates to an alarming stage.

Following recommendations can be implemented in order to control the population:

  • Family planning facilities be made a part of health facilities,
  • There should be a greater role for local and provincial governments
  • Role of NGOs and doctors in the disbursement of Aid received for family panning
  • Males should be urged to cooperate more
  • Status of women to be raised in society as done by the present government by giving more seats in assemblies
  • Better health and educational facilities for women
  • The issue to be taken as a national crisis
  • Role of media to be encouraged especially in rural areas
  • Government programs should involve Ulemas and NGOs
  • Greater participation of landlords

The problem of overpopulation is very serious because it leads to frustration, which means chaos. Chaos means anarchy and anarchy endangers the state.

Pakistan is today standing at a crossroads. It will either perish forever or will emerge as a stronger nation. What is needed is a vision and a sincere leadership that could transform dreams into reality. The problem of overpopulation has now started to haunt us and unless we tackle it pragmatically our dream of a bright and glorious future will just remain a pious wish. It needs a multipronged attack to deal with overpopulation.

A strong Pakistan should be our first priority and if we have to make certain hard decisions for its accomplishment no one should hesitate to lead and pull the trigger. Indeed, Pakistan comes first even before our personal vested interests.

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  • Challenge and Solutions of Population Explosion By Prof Abdul Shakoor Shah

Challenge and Solutions of Population Explosion By Prof Abdul Shakoor Shah

ALTHOUGH increasing population is our victory against death and disease, yet population increase is the ultimate cause of wars. In a state with an escalating population, if you’re doing nothing, you’re losing ground. We all are perturbed about the growing population but the dilemma is we do not bother about it in time. Our eternal foe, hunger, is at our threshold. The world’s population is increasing by 1.10 % annually which means 83 million additional people. The worldwide population is expected to touch 8.6 billion in 2030, 9.8 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion in 2100. 50.4 % of the global population is male and 49.6 % is female.

Pakistan’s population is projected to reach over 227 million by 2025. We must make New Year’s resolutions to cope with the mounting population. Our future population will comprise younger people on a large scale. Pakistan’s 63% population will be below 30 years of age, in other words it means unemployment on an enormous scale. We are bound to create 1.5 million new jobs annually just to maintain the current unemployment rate. Exception of oil-rich countries, no one has succeeded yet to make a breakthrough with high income. High population rate impedes the growth rate of the country in every field. It will also intensify nutrition problems which are already in the worst state.

According to a recent national survey, our 60% population is facing food insecurity and nearly 50% women and children are malnourished. These nutritional inadequacies hinder the development of the intellectual faculties of school-going children and young adults consigned to such diets, and could thus perpetuate intergenerational inequalities of opportunity and income. Human development will jolt back and vital fields like education, health, security, housing and others will get severe setback. Mounting population will badly affect our natural resources. The worsening climatic changes will be triggered up. If population growth is not taken seriously, our social fabric will be shattered. We must follow the Chinese model to stop population shift from suburbs to cities. We have to decentralize our infrastructure and human development projects. Our cities are getting overcrowded from every aspect.

The reason is we have utterly failed to facilitate the people in rural areas. We have focused Lahore as the whole Punjab. We are in dire need to integrate the public and private sector through a transparent accountability system to launch a joint mission in this regard. Government cannot solve every issue solely, it must give due heed to the entrepreneurial private sector to generate the required number of jobs. It seems that the government is determined neither to do something for public welfare nor it will let anyone else do. We should come out of the typical shell and look for new regional opportunities. We must develop a sense of competitiveness among the citizens with security assurance.

The government must trigger search and research for more natural resources for addressing the population phenomena. Rapid GDP growth is the sure way to curb this monster. We must eradicate all regional and social inequalities in our economic sector for the smooth growth of GDP. It is the need of the hour to review our development history and hew out the roadmap for future planning and development to avoid the past blunders. We must collaborate with emerging world economies in all fields to learn new approaches and techniques to better ourselves. We should implement the best practices of the successful nations in our country in this regard. We have to prefer and respect our local manufacturing to be called Pakistani-Model. We should rely on our own resources so that our local industries can grow.

The method of developing social and human capital, empowering women, raising awareness can prove very fruitful. Empower women. Studies show that women with access to reproductive health services find it easier to break out of poverty, while those who work are more likely to use birth control. We must promote education, it is observed that highly educated people have small families. The government should give incentives to people along with family planning so that the population can be controlled. We can use the Thailand model to reduce population increase. We should give due attention to our agricultural research, agricultural technologies and agricultural production. We cannot kill the people we have either to control birth rate or boost up our agriculture so that the phenomenal overpopulation can be handled. We must plan out to send the immigrants back to their homelands so that overpopulation can be controlled.

Our government should plan to start social marketing on a national scale about the danger of overpopulation. There is a large number of orphan children in our country, they need parental love and care. We can focus on adoption to stop population explosion and the government should give due concession to the families who adopt children in the country. The government should strictly stop child marriage and early marriage especially in rural areas where this problem is in prevalent form. The government can offer baby bonuses to families for controlling the population. Provinces and districts should marginalize population boundaries to keep a check on increasing population in their area. The distribution of funds and subsidies can be linked to population control. The government can start an online program for raising awareness. We must also review our academic syllabus and include lessons about the havoc of population increase on all levels. Let us all exert our energies collectively as one nation to stop the population ball from rolling on.

—The writer is Prof in English and freelance columnist, based in Lahore.


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What are the social, economic and political consequences of unchecked population growth? Discuss in context of Pakistan. | For CSS and PMS Aspirants

What are the social, economic and political consequences of unchecked population growth? Discuss in context of Pakistan. | For CSS and PMS Aspirants

  • Laraib Rafique Rai
  • February 2, 2021
  • CSS , CSS Solved Pakistan Affairs

Written By Laraib Rafique Rai

Overpopulation has become a daunting challenge for the entire world. It is a multidimensional issue, for it instigates many other political, social and economic problems in society. Pakistan, along with other issues, is confronting overpopulation. She is the worlds’ 5th densely populated country; the number is constantly rising. According to the world bank’s report in 2019, Pakistan’s population is 216.6 million with a growth rate of 3.6 per cent annually. Unfortunately, the situation is quite alarming, for the country lacks resources to satisfy such a large number of people. Consequently, the unchecked population growth has appalling implications on Pakistan’s social-political and economic development.

population explosion essay css

Consequences of unchecked population growth in Pakistan

The rampant expansion of population propagates many social, political and economic implications in Pakistan, which are discussed below.

Economic implications of overpopulation

A growing population comes with an increased demand for food, water, housing, energy, healthcare, education, transportation and more. However, Pakistan is not in the state of providing a quality life to its residents. The country has an insufficient supply of consumable resources, but the demand is much higher. Pakistan is an agricultural country. However, to accommodate the rising number of people, most of the arable land is converted into housing societies, which has created a shortage of food supply. Food scarcity has further affected economic development in two ways. First, an inadequate supply of food has led to undernourished people, which lowered their productivity. Second, Food deficiency compelled the government to import food grains; placing an unnecessary strain on the foreign exchange resources. Overpopulation is also breeding illiteracy in the country. Pakistan, unfortunately, spends a meagre budget on education. According to the International Crisis Group, Pakistan is among the 12 countries that spent less than 2 per cent of their GDB on the education sector. Currently, in Pakistan-an estimated 22.8 million children aged 5-16 are out of school-representing 44% of the total population (UNICEF).

population explosion essay css

Furthermore, the drastic growth of the population is responsible for unemployment. Also, It has lowered the per capita income. Consequently, it has diminished the saving capacity of people, which, in turn, has hindered capital formation. In parallel, it has perpetuated poverty and deprivation in the country by increasing residents’ living costs. Another considerable impact of the immense growth of people is Brain drain. Owing to the lack of opportunities, society’s skilful faction has headed towards the developed countries in pursuit of better livelihood. Above all, overpopulation has straddled the country’s economic growth.

Political Implications Of Overpopulation

Overpopulation poses several political implications in Pakistan. The government is inept at providing a quality life to its huge populace. Thus, the deficiency of food, water, health facilities, education-along with unemployment, inflation and soaring poverty- has played havoc in the country. The situation is getting outrageous. As the people, out of frustration, get indulged in unlawful activities.

Consequently, the crime rate has shot up strikingly. Similarly, unequal distribution of resources has established a sense of deprivation among the masses. As a result, the country’s people get themselves exploited by the non-state actors, against the state. To meet the demands of an increasing population, the country’s debt ratio is increasing; affecting its foreign policy. In the same way, there is a huge trust deficit between the public and the government, which has hampered the country’s political stability.

population explosion essay css

Social Implications of Overpopulation in Pakistan

Overpopulation has evoked formidable social implications for has erupted the social fabric of the country by lowering the quality of life. People suffer from various diseases owing to the unavailability of basic health facilities. Also, the illiteracy rate is quite high, and the quality of education is compromised, which results in unemployment. Despite this, uncontrolled population growth leaves dreadful impacts on the environment, such as environmental pollution, climate change, depletion of resources, and pandemics. In Pakistan, smog, extreme weather conditions followed by extended summer, scarcity of water, and lethal viral infections are prominent. Henceforth, the extensive population growth has indirectly escalated extremism, terrorism, and mushroomed up society’s moral degradation.

Critical Analysis

Pakistan, like other developing countries, is exposed to the savage threat of overpopulation. The issue is dynamic and harmful for the country’s economic, political and social stability. The resources are inadequate to last the necessities of people. For example, water resources are on the verge of darkening in Pakistan; unfortunately, no substantial steps have been taken to overcome it. Thus, a huge gap has been generated between the demand and supply of goods and services. Apart from that, a majority of the public is non-productive and a burden on the economy. Additionally, the incompetence of the government to generate employment opportunities is the icing on the cake. In cut short, it is right to say, overpopulation is the mother of all the social evils prevalent in the land of pure.

population explosion essay css

To conclude, Pakistan is a country, enriched in natural resources but poorly managed. The government must act proactively to curb the menace of overpopulation. The policymakers should initiate family planning campaigns nationwide to spread awareness among the masses. Besides that, generating employment opportunities is first and foremost obligation of the government. Similarly, a proper natural resource management system should be introduced under the Federal Government’s supervision to augment the preservation of natural resources. Also, more damns are needed to be constructed to meet public demands. Moreover, technological advancement in agriculture is a morsel of hope for the Land of pure as it can boost up the agricultural sector. The Billion Tree Tsunami is a promising project to improve the classified forests’ ecosystem and restore the degraded land in the country. Moreover, like all other problems, overpopulation is also curable. In this regard, awareness plays a pivotal role today; it would decide humanity’s future on earth. If the awareness spreads and people become familiar with the consequences and causes of overpopulation, they would work unitedly for a better future.

CSS 2022 Solved Pakistan Affairs Past Papers

The following are the CSS 2022 Pakistan Affairs solved past papers questions. These questions have been evaluated and checked by Pakistan’s top Pakistan Affairs and Current Affairs coaches, who are either lecturers or officers and scored the highest marks in this paper. They include Miss Saba Baloch (CSS-2021), Miss Aimeen Mirza (CSS 2018), Miss Nirmal Hasni (DD NAB), Sir Rameez Ch. (Lecturer & Deputy Director), and Miss Zaineb Azam (the highest scorer – 76). Moreover, these questions have been attempted on the same pattern taught by Sir Syed Kazim Ali to his students who have been scoring the highest marks for years.

CSS 2021 Solved Pakistan Affairs Questions

population explosion essay css

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Issue Brief on “Pakistan’s Population Explosion and the Youth Bulge”

population explosion essay css

Pakistan is globally recognised as a country facing challenges in controlling its population growth. Its alarming population growth rate of 2.4pc per annum, which translates to between 4m and 5m children being added to the total each year, is no less than an existential threat. [1] Unfortunately, there still appears to be no well-thought-out and cohesive population control program in the offing. With shrinking resources, Pakistan’s population is expected to increase from 2.4 to 2.8 which is an alarming trend. The government must address the issue by using all means.

The rapid growth of the population also poses serious risks to internal security. At 230m people, Pakistan is the fifth most populous nation in the world and is on track to around 300m by 2030. The National Security Policy announced at the beginning of 2022 rightly recognised human security as a precondition for internal security. [2] But nothing more has emerged on that score. The government needs to involve the media in creatively furthering the narrative about the benefits of limiting family size. That must be backed up with access to dependable family planning services through the public healthcare system. A recent major study jointly undertaken by several international organisations including WHO found that women in Pakistan have an estimated 3.8m unintended pregnancies each year, most resulting from unmet need for modern contraception. The data also showed that 52pc of married women of reproductive age who want to avoid pregnancy are not using a modern contraceptive method. We are now faced with a perfect storm. Inadequate investment in education and poor economic growth have generated enormous resentment and anger among a youth cohort that sees few prospects for advancement amid contracting employment opportunities. The effects of climate change are bearing down unmistakably upon us, and making scarce resources even more so. Unpredictable weather patterns and rising temperatures are adversely affecting harvests and exacerbating food insecurity. Population pressures also leave us much more vulnerable to international developments such as the ongoing Russia-Ukraine war that disrupt global supply chains. Shortages of water and electricity have already begun to spark unrest; the smallest provocation, it seems, is enough to trigger mob violence in a people whose patience has been stretched thin by poor governance, rising inflation and urban crime.


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  • v.5(4); 2013

The world population explosion: causes, backgrounds and projections for the future

J. van bavel.

Centre for Sociological Research / Family & Population Studies (FaPOS), Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Leuven, Parkstraat 45 bus 3601, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the total world population crossed the threshold of 1 billion people for the first time in the history of the homo sapiens sapiens. Since then, growth rates have been increasing exponentially, reaching staggeringly high peaks in the 20th century and slowing down a bit thereafter. Total world population reached 7 billion just after 2010 and is expected to count 9 billion by 2045. This paper first charts the differences in population growth between the world regions. Next, the mechanisms behind unprecedented population growth are explained and plausible scenarios for future developments are discussed. Crucial for the long term trend will be the rate of decline of the number of births per woman, called total fertility. Improvements in education, reproductive health and child survival will be needed to speed up the decline of total fertility, particularly in Africa. But in all scenarios, world population will continue to grow for some time due to population momentum. Finally, the paper outlines the debate about the consequences of the population explosion, involving poverty and food security, the impact on the natural environment, and migration flows.

Key words: Fertility, family planning, world population, population growth, demographic transition, urbanization, population momentum, population projections.


In the year 1900, Belgium and the Philippines had more or less the same population, around 7 million people. By the year 2000, the population of the Western European monarchy had grown to 10 million citizens, while the South East Asian republic at the turn of the century already counted 76 million citizens. The population of Belgium has since then exceeded 11 million citizens, but it is unlikely that this number will rise to 12 million by the year 2050. The population of the Philippines on the other hand will continue to grow to a staggering 127 million citizens by 2050, according to the demographic projections of the United Nations (UN 2013).

The demographic growth rate of the Philippines around the turn of the century (2% a year) has already created enormous challenges and is clearly unsustainable in the long term: such growth implies a doubling of the population every 35 years as a consequence of which there would be 152 million people by 2035, 304 million by 2070, and so on. Nobody expects such a growth to actually occur. This contribution will discuss the more realistic scenarios for the future.

Even the rather modest Belgian demographic growth rate around the turn of this century (0.46%) is not sustainable in the long term. In any case, it exceeds by far the average growth rate of the human species (homo sapiens sapiens) that arose in Africa some 200.000 years ago. Today, earth is inhabited by some 7 billion people. To achieve this number in 200.000 years, the average yearly growth rate over this term should have been around 0.011% annually (so 11 extra human beings per 1.000 human beings already living on earth). The current Belgian growth rate would imply that our country would have grown to 7 billion in less than 1500 years.

The point of this story is that the current growth numbers are historically very exceptional and untenable in the long term. The demographic growth rates are indeed on the decline worldwide and this paper will attempt to explain some of the mechanisms behind that process. That doesn’t change the fact, however, that the growth remains extraordinarily high and the decline in some regions very slow. This is especially the case in Sub Saharan Africa. In absolute numbers, the world population will continue to grow anyway for quite some time as a result of demographic inertia. This too will be further clarified in this paper.

The evolution of the world population in numbers

In order to be sustainable, the long term growth rate of the population should not differ much from 0%. That is because a growth rate exceeding 0% has exponential implications. In simple terms: if a combination of birth and growth figures only appears to cause a modest population growth initially, then this seems to imply an explosive growth in the longer term.

Thomas R. Malthus already acquired this point of view by the end of the 18th century. In his famous “Essay on the Principle of Population” (first edition in 1789), Malthus argues justly that in time the growth of the population will inevitably slow down, either by an increase of the death rate or by a decrease of the birth rate. On a local scale, migration also plays an important role.

It is no coincidence that Malthus’ essay appeared in England at the end of the 18th century. After all, the population there had started to grow at a historically unseen rate. More specifically the proletariat had grown immensely and that worried the intellectuals and the elite. Year after year, new demographic growth records were recorded.

At the beginning of the 19th century, the number of 1 billion people was exceeded for the first time in history. Subsequently growth accelerated and the number of 2 billion people was already surpassed around 1920. By 1960, another billion had been added, in 40 instead of 120 years time. And it continued to go even faster: 4 billion by 1974, 5 billion by 1987, 6 billion by 1999 and 7 billion in 2011 ( Fig. 1 ).

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This will certainly not stop at the current 7 billion. According to the most recent projections by the United Nations, the number of 8 billion will probably be exceeded by 2025, and around 2045 there will be more than 9 billion people 1 . The further one looks into the future, the more uncertain these figures become, and with demography on a world scale one must always take into account a margin of error of a couple of tens of millions. But according to all plausible scenarios, the number of 9 billion will be exceeded by 2050.

Demographic growth was and is not equally distributed around the globe. The population explosion first occurred on a small scale and with a relatively moderate intensity in Europe and America, more or less between 1750 and 1950. From 1950 on, a much more substantial and intensive population explosion started to take place in Asia, Latin America and Africa ( Fig. 2 ). Asia already represented over 55% of the world population in 1950 with its 1.4 billion citizens and by the year 2010 this had increased to 4.2 billion people or 60%. Of those people, more than 1.3 billion live in China and 1.2 billion in India, together accounting for more than one third of the world population.

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In the future, the proportion of Asia will come down and that of Africa will increase. Africa was populated by some 230 million people around 1950, or 9% of the world population. In 2010 there were already more than 1 billion Africans or 15% of the world population. According to UN projections, Africa will continue to grow at a spectacular rate up to 2.2 billion inhabitants in 2050 or 24% of the world population. The proportion of Europe, on the other hand, is evolving in the opposite direction: from 22% of the world population in 1950, over 11% in 2010 to an expected mere 8% in 2050. The population of Latin America has grown and is growing rapidly in absolute terms, but because of the strong growth in Asia and especially Africa, the relative proportion of the Latin American population is hardly increasing (at most from 6 to 8%). The proportion of the population in North America, finally, has decreased slightly from 7 to 5% of the world population.

What these figures mainly come down to in practice is that the population size in especially the poor countries is increasing at an unprecedented rate. At the moment, more than 5.7 billion people, or more than 80% of humanity, are living in what the UN categorise as a developing country. By 2050, that number would – according to the projections – have increased to 8 billion people or 86% of the world population. Within this group of developing countries, the group of least developed countries, the poorest countries so to speak, is growing strongly: from 830 million now, up to an expected 1.7 billion in 2050. This comprises very poor countries such as Somalia, Sudan, Liberia, Niger or Togo in Africa; Afghanistan, Bangladesh or Myanmar in Asia; and Haiti in the Caribbean.

The growth of the world population goes hand in hand with global urbanisation: while around the year 1950 less than 30% of people lived in the cities, this proportion has increased to more than 50%. It is expected that this proportion will continue to grow to two thirds around 2050. Latin America is the most urbanised continent (84%), closely followed by North America (82%) and at a distance by Europe (73%). The population density has increased intensely especially in the poorest countries: from 9 people per square km in 1950 to 40 people per square km in 2010 (an increase by 330%) in the poorest countries, while this figure in the rich countries increased from 15 to 23 people per square km (a 50% growth). In Belgium, population density is 358 people per square km and in the Netherlands 400 people per square km; in Rwanda this number is 411, in the Palestinian regions 666 and in Bangladesh an astonishing 1050.

Although the world population will continue to grow in absolute figures for some time – a following paragraph will explain why – the growth rate in percentages in all large world regions is decreasing. In the richer countries, the yearly growth rate has already declined to below 0.3%. On a global scale, the yearly growth rate of more than 2% at the peak around 1965 decreased to around 1% now. A further decline to less than 0.5% by 2050 is expected. In the world’s poorest countries, the demographic growth is still largest: at present around 2.2%. For these countries, a considerable decrease is expected, but the projected growth rate would not fall below 1.5% before 2050. This means, as mentioned above, a massive growth of the population in absolute figures in the world’s poorest countries.

Causes of the explosion: the demographic transition

The cause of, first, the acceleration and, then, the deceleration in population growth is the modern demographic transition: an increasingly growing group of countries has experienced a transition from relatively high to low birth and death rates, or is still in the process of experiencing this. It is this transition that is causing the modern population explosion. Figure 3 is a schematic and strongly simplified representation of the modern demographic transition.

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In Europe, the modern demographic transition started to take place in the middle of the 18th century. Until then, years of extremely high death rates were quite frequent. Extremely high crisis mortality could be the consequence of epidemic diseases or failed harvests and famine, or a combination of both. As a consequence of better hygiene and a better transportation infrastructure (for one, the canals and roads constructed by Austria in the 18th century), amongst other reasons, crisis mortality became less and less frequent. Later on in the 19th century, child survival began to improve. Vaccination against smallpox for example led to an eradication of the disease, with the last European smallpox pandemic dating from 1871. This way, not only the years of crisis mortality became less frequent, but also the average death rate decreased, from an average 30 deaths per 1000 inhabitants in the beginning of the 19th century to around 15 deaths per 1000 citizens by the beginning of the 20th century. In the meantime, the birth rate however stayed at its previous, high level of 30-35 births per 1000 inhabitants.

The death rate went down but the birth rate still didn’t: this caused a large growth in population. It was only near the end of the nineteenth century (a bit earlier in some countries, later in others) that married couples in large numbers started to reduce their number of children. By the middle of the 20th century, the middle class ideal of a two children household had gained enormous popularity and influence. The reaction by the Church, for example in the encyclical Humanae Vitae (1968), came much too late to bring this evolution to a halt.

As a consequence of widespread family planning – made even easier in the sixties by modern hormonal contraceptives – the birth rate started declining as well and the population tended back towards zero growth. Nowadays the end of this transition process has been more than achieved in all European countries, because the fertility has been below replacement level for several decades (the replacement level is the fertility level that would in the long term lead to a birth rate identical to the death rate, if there would be no migration) 2 .

That the population explosion in the developing countries since the second half of the 20th century was so much more intense and massive, is a consequence of the fact that in those countries, the process of demographic transition occurred to a much more extreme extent and on a much larger scale. On the one hand, mortality decreased faster than in Europe. After all, in Europe the decline in mortality was the result of a gradual understanding of the importance of hygiene and afterwards the development of new medical insights. These insights of course already existed at the start of the demographic transitions in Asian, Latin American and African regions, whereby the life expectancy in these regions could grow faster. On the other hand, the total fertility – the average number of children per woman – at the start of the transition was a lot higher in many poor regions than it initially was in Europe. For South Korea, Brasil and the Congo, for example, the total fertility rate shortly after the Second World War (at the start of their demographic transition) is estimated to be 6 children per woman. In Belgium this number was close to 4.5 children per woman by the middle of the nineteenth century. In some developing regions, the fertility and birth rate decreased moderately to very fast, but in other regions this decline took off at an exceptionally sluggish pace – this will be further explained later on. As a consequence of these combinations of factors, in most of these countries the population explosion was much larger than it had been in most European countries.

Scenarios for the future

Nonetheless, the process of demographic transition has reached its second phase in almost all countries in the world, namely the phase of declining fertility and birth rates. In a lot of Asian and Latin American countries, the entire transition has taken place and the fertility level is around or below the replacement level. South Korea for example is currently at 1.2 children per woman and is one of the countries with the lowest fertility levels in the world. In Iran and Brasil the fertility level is currently more or less equal to Belgium’s, that is 1.8 to 1.9 children per woman.

Crucial to the future evolution of the population is the further evolution of the birth rate. Scenarios for the future evolution of the size and age of the population differ according to the hypotheses concerning the further evolution of the birth rate. The evolution of the birth rate is in turn dependent on two things: the further evolution of the total fertility rate (the average number of children per woman) in the first place and population momentum in the second. The latter is a concept I will later on discuss in more detail. The role of the population momentum is usually overlooked in the popular debates, but is of utmost importance in understanding the further evolution of the world population. Population momentum is the reason why we are as good as certain that the world population will continue to grow for a while. The other factor, the evolution of the fertility rate, is much more uncertain but of critical importance in the long term. The rate at which the further growth of the world population can be slowed down is primarily dependent on the extent to which the fertility rates will continue to decline. I will further elaborate on this notion in the next paragraph. After that, I will clarify the notion of population momentum.

Declining fertility

Fertility is going down everywhere in the world, but it’s going down particularly slowly in Africa. A further decline remains uncertain there. Figure 4 shows the evolution per world region between 1950 and 2010, plus the projected evolution until 2050. The numbers before 2010 illustrate three things. First of all, on all continents there is a decline going on. Secondly, this decline is not equal everywhere. And thirdly: the differences between the continents remain large in some cases. Asia and Latin America have seen a similar decline in fertility: from 5.9 children per woman in 1950 to 2.5 at the start of the 21st century. Europe and North America had already gone through the largest part of their demographic transition by the 1950’s. Their fertility level has been below replacement levels for years. Africa has indeed seen a global decrease of fertility, but the average number of children is still at an alarmingly high level: the fertility merely decreased from 6.7 to 5.1 children per woman.

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These continental averages hide a huge underlying diversity in fertility paths. Figure 5 attempts to illustrate this for a number of countries. Firstly let us consider two African countries: the Congo and Niger. As was often the case in Europe in the 19th century, fertility was first on the rise before it started declining. In the Congo this decrease was more extensive, from around 6 children in 1980 to 4 children per woman today, and a further decline to just below three is expected in the next thirty years. Niger is the country where the fertility level remains highest: from 7 it first rose to an average of just below 8 children per woman in the middle of the 1980’s, before decreasing to just above 6.5 today. For the next decades a decline to 4 children per woman is expected. But that is not at all certain: it is dependent on circumstances that will be further explained in a moment. The demographic transition is after all not a law of nature but the result of human actions and human institutions.

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Around 1950, Pakistan and Iran had more or less the same fertility level as Niger, but both countries have seen a considerable decline in the meantime. In Pakistan the level decreased slowly to the current level of 3 children per woman. In Iran the fertility decreased more abruptly, faster and deeper to below the replacement level – Iran today has one of the lowest fertility levels in the world, and a further decline is expected. The Iranian Revolution of 1978 played a crucial role in the history of Iran (Abassi-Shavazi et al., 2009): it brought better education and health care, two essential ingredients for birth control.

Brasil was also one of the countries with very high fertility in the 1950’s – higher than the Congo, for example. The decrease started earlier than in Iran but happened more gradually. Today both countries have the same total fertility, below the replacement level.

Child mortality, education and family planning

Which factors cause the average number of children to go down? The literature concerning explanations for the decrease in fertility is vast and complex, but two factors emerge as crucial in this process: education and child survival.

Considering child survival first: countries combining intensive birth control with very high child mortality are simply non-existent. The statistical association between the level of child mortality and fertility is very tight and strong: in countries with high child mortality, fertility is high, and vice versa. This statistical correlation is very strong because the causal relation goes in both directions; with quick succession of children and therefore a lot of children to take care for, the chances of survival for the infants are lower than in those families with only a limited number of children to take care of – this is a fortiori the case where infrastructure for health care is lacking. A high fertility level thus contributes to a high child mortality. And in the other direction: where survival chances of children improve, the fertility will go down because even those households with a lower number of children have increasing confidence in having descendants in the long term.

It is crucial to understand that the decline in child mortality in the demographic transition always precedes the decline in fertility. Men, women and families cannot be convinced of the benefits of birth control if they don’t have confidence in the survival chances of their children. Better health care is therefore essential, and a lack of good health care is one of the reasons for a persistently high fertility in a country like Niger.

Education is another factor that can cause a decline in fertility. This is probably the most important factor, not just because education is an important humanitarian goal in itself (apart from the demographic effects), but also because with education one can kill two birds with one stone: education causes more birth control but also better child survival (recently clearly demonstrated by Smith-Greenaway (2013), which in its turn will lead to better birth control. The statistical correlation between level of education and level of fertility is therefore very strong.

Firstly, education enhances the motivation for birth control: if parents invest in the education of their children, they will have fewer children, as has been demonstrated. Secondly, education promotes a more forward-looking lifestyle: it will lead people to think on a somewhat longer term, to think about tomorrow, next week and next month, instead of living for the day. This attitude is necessary for effective birth control. Thirdly, education also increases the potential for effective contraception, because birth control doesn’t just happen, especially not when efficient family planning facilities are not or hardly accessible or when there are opposing cultural or family values.

The influence of education on birth control has been demonstrated in a vast number of studies (James et al., 2012). It starts with primary education, but an even larger effect can be attained by investment in secondary education (Cohen, 2008). In a country like Niger, for example, women who didn’t finish primary school have on average 7.8 children. Women who did finish primary school have on average 6.7 children, while women who finished secondary school “only” have 4.6 children ( Fig. 6 ). The fertility of Niger would be a lot lower if more women could benefit from education. The tragedy of that country is that too many people fall in the category of those without a degree of primary school, with all its demographic consequences.

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One achieves with education therefore a plural beneficial demographic effect on top of the important objective of human emancipation in itself. All this is of course not always true but depends on which form of “education”; I assume that we’re talking about education that teaches people the knowledge and skills to better take control of their own destiny.

It is one thing to get people motivated to practice birth control but obtaining actual effective contraception is quite another matter. Information concerning the efficient use of contraceptives and increasing the accessibility and affordability of contraceptives can therefore play an important role. There are an estimated 215 million women who would want to have contraception but don’t have the means (UNFPA, 2011). Investments in services to help with family planning are absolutely necessary and could already have great results in this group of women. But it’s no use to put the cart before the horse: if there is no intention to practice birth control, propaganda for and accessibility of contraception will hardly have any effect, as was demonstrated in the past. In Europe the lion’s share of the decline in fertility was realized with traditional methods, before the introduction of hormonal contraception in the sixties. There is often a problem of lack of motivation for birth control on the one hand, as a result of high child mortality and low schooling rates, and a lack of power in women who may be motivated to limit fertility but are confronted with male resistance on the other (Blanc, 2011; Do and Kurimoto, 2012). Empowerment of women is therefore essential, and education can play an important role in that process as well.

Population momentum

Even if all the people would suddenly practice birth control much more than is currently considered possible, the world population would still continue to grow for a while. This is the consequence of population momentum, a notion that refers to the phenomenon of demographic inertia, comparable to the phenomenon of momentum and inertia in the field of physics. Demographic growth is like a moving train: even when you turn off the engine, the movement will continue for a little while.

The power and direction of population momentum is dependent on the age structure of the population. Compare the population pyramids of Egypt and Germany ( Fig. 7 ). The one for Egypt has a pyramidal shape indeed, but the one for Germany looks more like an onion. As a consequence of high birth rates in the previous decades, the largest groups of Egyptians are to be found below the age of forty; the younger, the more voluminous the generation. Even if the current and future generations of Egyptians would limit their fertility strongly (as is indeed the case), the birth rate in Egypt would still continue to rise for quite some time, just because year after year more and more potential mothers and fathers reach the fertile ages. Egypt therefore clearly has a growth momentum.

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Germany on the other hand has a negative or shrinking momentum: even if the younger generations of Germans would have a larger num ber of children than the generation of their own parents, the birth rate in Germany would still continue to decrease because fewer and fewer potential mothers and fathers reach the fertile ages.

The population momentum on a global scale is positive: even if fertility would decrease overnight to the replacement level, the world population would continue to grow with 40% (from 7 billion to 9.8 billion). Only the rich countries have a shrinking momentum, that is -3%. For Europe the momentum is -7%. The population momentum for the poorest countries in the world is +44%, that of Sub Saharan Africa +46% (Espenshade et al., 2011).

Consequences of the population explosion

The concerns about the consequences of population explosion started in the sixties. Milestone publications were the 1968 book The Population bomb by biologist Paul Ehrlich, the report of the Club of Rome from 1972 (The Limits to Growth) and the first World Population Plan of Action of the UN in 1974 among others.

In the world population debate, the general concerns involve mainly three interconnected consequences of the population explosion: 1) the growing poverty in the world and famine; 2) the exhaustion and pollution of natural resources essential to human survival; and 3) the migration pressure from the poor South to the rich North (Van Bavel, 2004).

Poverty and famine

The Malthusian line of thought continues to leave an important mark on the debate regarding the association between population growth and poverty: Malthus saw an excessive population growth as an important cause of poverty and famine. Rightfully this Malthusian vision has been criticized a lot. One must after all take the reverse causal relation into account as well: poverty and the related social circumstances (like a lack of education and good health care for children) contribute to high population growth as well.

Concerning famine: the production of food has grown faster since 1960 than the world population has, so nowadays the amount of food produced per person exceeds that which existed before the population explosion (Lam, 2011). The problem of famine isn’t as much an insufficient food production as it is a lack of fair distribution (and a lack of sustainable production, but that’s another issue). Often regions with famine have ecological conditions permitting sufficient production of food, provided the necessary investments in human resources and technology are made. The most important cause of famine is therefore not the population explosion. Famine is primarily a consequence of unequal distribution of food, which in turn is caused by social-economic inequality, lack of democracy and (civil) war.

Poverty and famine usually have mainly political and institutional causes, not demographic ones. The Malthusian vision, that sees the population explosion as the root of all evil, therefore has to be corrected ( Fig. 8 ). Rapid population growth can indeed hinder economical development and can thus pave the way for poverty. But this is only part of the story. As mentioned, poverty is also an underlying cause of rapid population growth. Social factors are at the base of both poverty and population growth. It’s those social factors that require our intervention: via investments in education and (reproductive) health care.

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Impact on the environment

The impact of the population explosion on the environment is unquestionably high, but the size of the population represents only one aspect of this. In this regard it can be useful to keep in mind the simple I=PAT scheme: the ecological footprint or impact on the environment (I) can be regarded as the product of the size of the population (P), the prosperity or consumption level (A for affluence) and the technology used (T). The relationship between each of these factors is more complex than the I=PAT scheme suggests, but in any case the footprint I of a population of 1000 people is for example dependent on how many of those people drive a car instead of a bike, and of the emission per car of the vehicle fleet concerned.

The ecological footprint of the world population has increased tremendously the past decades and the growth of the world population has obviously played an important role in this. The other factors in the I=PAT scheme have however played a relatively bigger role than the demographic factor P. The considerable increase in the Chinese ecological footprint of the past decades for example, is more a consequence of the increased consumption of meat than of population growth (Peters et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2008). The carbon dioxide emission of China grew by 82% between 1990 and 2003, while the population only increased by 11% in that same period. A similar story exists for India: the population grew by less than 23% between 1990 and 2003, while the emission of carbon dioxide increased by more than 83% (Chakravarty et al., 2009). The consumption of water and meat in the world is increasing more rapidly than the population 3 . The consumption of water per person is for example threefold higher in the US than in China (Hoekstra and Chapagain, 2007). The African continent has at present the same number of inhabitants as Europe and North America together, over 1 billion. But the total ecological footprint of Europeans and Americans is many times higher than that of Africans (Ewing et al., 2010). Less than 18% of the world population is responsible for over 50% of the global carbon dioxide emission (Chakravarty et al., 2009).

If we are therefore concerned about the impact of the world population on the environment, we can do something about it immediately by tackling our own overconsumption: it’s something we can control and it has an immediate effect. In contrast, we know of the population growth that it will continue for some time anyhow, even if people in poor countries would practice much more birth control than we consider possible at present.

The population explosion has created an increasing migration pressure from the South to the North – and there is also important migration within and between countries in the South. But here as well the message is: the main responsibility doesn’t lie with the population growth but with economic inequality. The primary motive for migration was and is economic disparity: people migrate from regions with no or badly paid labour and a low standard of living to other regions, where one hopes to find work and a higher standard of living (Massey et al., 1993; Hooghe et al., 2008; IMO, 2013). Given the permanent population growth and economical inequality, a further increasing migration pressure is to be expected, irrespective of the national policies adopted.

It is sometimes expected that economic growth and increasing incomes in the South will slow down the migration pressure, but that remains to be seen. After all, it isn’t usually the poorest citizens in developing countries that migrate to rich countries. It is rather the affluent middle class in poor countries that have the means to send their sons and daughters to the North – an investment that can raise a lot of money via remittances to the families in the country of origin (IMO, 2013). There is after all a considerable cost attached to migration, in terms of money and human capital. Not everyone can bear those costs: to migrate you need brains, guts and money. With growing economic development in poor countries, an initial increase in migration pressure from those countries would be expected; the association between social-economic development and emigration is not linearly negative but follows the shape of a J turned upside down: more emigration at the start of economic development and a decline in emigration only with further development (De Haas, 2007).

7 Billion and counting… What is to be done?

A world population that needed some millennia before reaching the number of 1 billion people, but then added some billions more after 1920 in less than a century: the social, cultural, economic and ecological consequences of such an evolution are so complex that they can lead to fear and indifference at the same time. What kind of constructive reaction is possible and productive in view of such an enormous issue?

First of all: we need to invest in education and health care in Africa and elsewhere, not just as a humanitarian target per se but also because it will encourage the spread of birth control. Secondly, we need to encourage and support the empowerment of women, not just via education but also via services for reproductive health. This has triple desirable results for demographics: it will lead to more and more effective birth control, which in itself has a positive effect on the survival of children, which in turn again facilitates birth control.

Thirdly: because of the positive population momentum, the world population will certainly continue to grow in absolute figures, even though the yearly growth rate in percentages is already on the decline for several years. The biggest contribution we could make therefore, with an immediate favourable impact for ourselves and the rest of the world, is to change our consumption pattern and deal with the structural overconsumption of the world’s richest countries.

(1) Unless otherwise specified, all figures in this paragraph are based on the United Nations World Population Prospects, the 2012 Revision, . Concerning projections for the future, I reported the results of the Medium Variant. Apart from this variant, there are also high and low variants (those relying on scenarios implying respectively an extremely high and extremely low growth of the population) and a variant in which the fertility rates are fixed at the current levels. It is expected that the actual number will be somewhere between the highest and lowest variant and will be closest to the medium variant. That’s why I only report this latter value.

(2) In demography, the term «fertility» refers to the actual number of live births per women. By contrast, the term fecundity refers to reproductive capacity (irrespective of actual childbearing), see Habbema et al. (2004).

(3) See

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population explosion essay css

Beyond the brink: Pakistan's population explosion

Us Pakistanis are a staggering 225 million people and counting … we’ll be more by the time you finish reading this.

A ticking time bomb of population growth threatens Pakistan, joining the league of the world's top five most populous countries, with a staggering 225 million people and counting. The repercussions are hitting hard, straining vital resources, crippling the economy, and overwhelming social infrastructure.

Understanding population growth in Pakistan

Pakistan's population has been experiencing exponential growth over the past few decades. Several factors contribute to this increase including: high birth rates, limited access to family planning services, cultural norms, and religious beliefs. According to the UN, Pakistan's population is projected to reach 403 million by 2050 if the current growth rate continues unchecked.

Population control in Bangladesh

Bangladesh, which shares a similar cultural and historical background with Pakistan, has managed to curb its population growth significantly.

Bangladesh faced a population crisis in the 1970s, with a high fertility rate and a rapidly growing population. The government recognised the need for immediate action and implemented various policies and programmes to address the issue. One of the landmark initiatives, launched in 1976, was the National Family Planning Programme. This programme aimed to provide accessible and affordable family planning services to couples across the country.

Through this initiative, Bangladesh emphasised the importance of family planning, educated the population about contraceptive methods, and made contraceptives readily available. Additionally, the government partnered with non-governmental organisations and community-based groups to create awareness and deliver family planning services effectively.

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Success stories and lessons for Pakistan

Bangladesh's efforts in population control have given rise to remarkable results. From a fertility rate of around 6.3 in the 1970s, the country has successfully reduced it to 2.1, as of the latest available data. This achievement is considered a significant milestone, as a fertility rate of 2.1 is considered the replacement level, where the population size stabilises.

To achieve such success, Bangladesh focused on empowering women and enhancing their access to education and healthcare, leading to an increase in women's participation in the workforce. Educated and empowered women are more likely to make informed decisions regarding family planning, leading to reduced birth rates.

Moreover, Bangladesh's efforts in improving healthcare and reducing child mortality also contributed to population control. When families have confidence in the survival of their children, they tend to have fewer children.

Furthermore, the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) in Bangladesh is higher than that of Pakistan. CPR measures the percentage of married or in-union women aged 15 to 49 who are using, or whose sexual partner is using, any method of contraception. Bangladesh's CPR stands at 65.0%, while Pakistan's CPR is 34.1%. This substantial variation reflects the disparity in family planning services and awareness between the two countries.

Challenges Posed by Population Growth in Pakistan

Pakistan's rapid population growth has led to various challenges, including increased pressure on resources, inadequate healthcare facilities, and a strain on educational institutions ― overcrowded classrooms and insufficient resources hinder the delivery of quality education. The demand for food, water, housing, and energy has surged, leading to resource scarcity and environmental degradation.

The healthcare system faces difficulties in providing quality services to the growing population. Maternal and child mortality rates remain high, and the burden of disease has intensified.

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Causes of high population growth in Pakistan

Lack of family planning and birth control The lack of sufficient family planning and birth control measures stands as a significant factor contributing to the country's rapid population growth. A prevalent issue, particularly in rural areas, is the limited awareness and reluctance to adopt modern contraceptive methods. As a result, many families have larger numbers of children than they can adequately support. The absence of accessible family planning services and comprehensive education on reproductive health leads to unintended pregnancies and exacerbates the strain on resources, healthcare, and education systems. Empowering individuals with the knowledge and tools to make informed decisions about family planning will not only help curb the population growth but also improve the overall well-being and prosperity of Pakistan's communities.

High infant mortality rate: Historically, Pakistan has grappled with high infant mortality rates, primarily attributed to limited access to adequate healthcare and sanitation facilities. This unfortunate reality compelled families to have larger numbers of children, as they hoped some would survive to adulthood. While progress has been made in recent years to improve healthcare and reduce infant mortality, this past reality continues to influence population growth patterns. The fear of losing children at a young age still resonates with many families, leading to a preference for larger family sizes as a form of insurance against the uncertainties of infant survival. By ensuring better survival prospects for infants, Pakistan can gradually shift towards a more sustainable population growth trajectory.

Low literacy rate and education: The persistently low literacy rate, particularly among women, plays a significant role in driving higher population growth. The lack of access to education limits individuals' understanding of the importance of family planning and reproductive health. Educated individuals are more likely to comprehend the benefits of smaller family sizes, leading to informed decisions about family planning and birth control. However, the prevailing educational disparities, particularly in rural and marginalised communities, hinder the dissemination of crucial information about reproductive health and family planning. Empowering both men and women with education and knowledge is essential to breaking the cycle of high population growth. By investing in quality education, promoting gender equality, and advocating for comprehensive reproductive health education, Pakistan can pave the way for a more informed and empowered society, contributing to sustainable population management and overall development.

Social and cultural norms: Social and cultural norms have a profound impact on shaping reproductive behaviours, particularly in certain communities where having many children is seen as a symbol of prestige and family honor. These deep-rooted traditions often prioritise larger family sizes, perpetuating the notion that having numerous children signifies prosperity and social standing. Consequently, there is limited acceptance and understanding of family planning methods within these communities. Challenging these norms requires sensitively addressing cultural beliefs and engaging community leaders to promote awareness about the benefits of smaller family sizes and comprehensive family planning. Encouraging open dialogues about reproductive health and breaking the stigma surrounding birth control can empower individuals to make informed choices about their family size, contributing to a more sustainable population growth in Pakistan. By combining culturally sensitive approaches with education and advocacy, the nation can gradually shift away from excessive population growth and foster a society where reproductive decisions are based on informed choices rather than social pressures.

Religious beliefs and practices: In Pakistan, religious beliefs and practices play a significant role in influencing population growth. As a country where religion holds immense significance in the lives of its people, certain interpretations of religious teachings may encourage larger families. Some religious beliefs emphasise the importance of procreation and view children as a blessing and a source of divine favor. Consequently, these interpretations may contribute to a cultural preference for larger family sizes within religious communities. It is essential to recognise the sensitivity of religious beliefs and engage in constructive dialogues to promote understanding about family planning and reproductive health. By fostering a balanced approach that respects religious values while also advocating for informed reproductive choices, Pakistan can work towards addressing population growth in a way that is culturally respectful and sustainable. Education and awareness campaigns can play a crucial role in highlighting the importance of family planning and empowering individuals to make decisions that align with their religious beliefs and personal circumstances.

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Effects of high population growth

The rapid increase in population has various consequences for Pakistan:

Pressure on resources With expanding population, the demand for essential resources such as water, food, and energy has reached unprecedented levels, exerting immense strain on the country's already limited natural reserves. The growing needs of its people are putting a considerable burden on the infrastructure and the environment, threatening the sustainability and equilibrium of vital ecosystems.

Unemployment and poverty The challenge of high population growth exacerbates the pressing issues of unemployment and poverty. With a rapidly expanding workforce, the economy finds it increasingly difficult to generate enough jobs to accommodate the influx of job seekers. As a result, unemployment rates soar, leaving a significant portion of the population struggling to secure stable and dignified livelihoods. The lack of employment opportunities directly contributes to the persistence of poverty, trapping many individuals and families in a cycle of economic hardship.

Strain on healthcare and education The escalating population places considerable strain on the healthcare system and education infrastructure, posing significant challenges in providing essential services to all citizens. As the population expands, the demand for healthcare services increases, stretching the already limited resources and facilities to their limits. Access to quality healthcare becomes more difficult for many, particularly in remote and underserved areas, leading to disparities in healthcare outcomes. Similarly, the education sector faces similar challenges, with a surge in the number of students overwhelming schools and colleges. As a result, maintaining the standard of education becomes a daunting task, hindering the country's ability to provide equal educational opportunities to all.

Environmental impact The mounting population has significant environmental implications, giving rise to increased waste generation and pollution, which, in turn, exacerbates environmental degradation and contributes to the effects of climate change. With more people producing waste and demanding resources, the pressure on natural ecosystems intensifies. Improper waste management practices strain the environment, as landfills overflow and pollution contaminate air, water, and soil.

The accelerated pace of urbanisation further encroaches on green spaces and exacerbates deforestation, threatening biodiversity and ecological balance. Moreover, the escalating emissions from industries, transportation, and energy consumption contribute to climate change, resulting in extreme weather events, erratic rainfall patterns, and rising temperatures. Addressing these environmental challenges requires a concerted effort from the government, industries, and individuals to adopt sustainable practices, promote renewable energy, implement effective waste management systems, and foster environmental awareness and conservation efforts to safeguard Pakistan's natural heritage for future generations.

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Policies to counteract underlying causes of high population growth in Pakistan

Family planning and awareness programmes: To control population growth effectively, Pakistan must prioritize family planning and create awareness about its benefits. Family planning allows individuals to make informed choices regarding the number and spacing of their children, leading to healthier and more sustainable families.

Educational campaigns on family planning, contraception, and reproductive health should be promoted through various media platforms and community outreach programs. Engaging religious leaders and influencers in these campaigns can help dispel misconceptions and myths surrounding family planning methods.

Women empowerment and reproductive rights: When women are educated, financially independent, and have access to reproductive healthcare, they can make informed decisions about their reproductive choices. Investing in women's education and healthcare is an investment in the future of the country. Furthermore, ensuring women's reproductive rights is essential for population control. Women should have the right to decide when and how many children they want to have, empowering them to break free from traditional norms and achieve their aspirations.

Healthcare and child mortality: Pakistan must invest in improving healthcare infrastructure, ensuring access to quality healthcare services for all citizens, especially in rural areas. Reducing child mortality rates is directly linked to population control. When families are assured of their children's survival, they are more likely to have fewer children. Pakistan can learn from Bangladesh's successful efforts in reducing child mortality and implement similar strategies to achieve positive outcomes.

Economic implications of population growth: Population growth has significant economic implications for Pakistan. A rapidly growing population poses challenges to economic development, as the demand for jobs and resources increases. Investing in education, skill development, and job creation is essential to harnessing the demographic dividend.

Urbanisation and rural development: Balancing urban and rural development is crucial to controlling population growth. Providing adequate opportunities and facilities in rural areas can discourage mass migration to urban centers. This balanced approach ensures that resources are distributed more equitably, leading to a more stable population growth pattern.

The take home

Knowledge holds the key to recognising the severity of Pakistan's population challenge and aiding the government in tackling this critical issue. Women's empowerment emerges as a potent force in curbing population growth rates, while raising literacy levels is crucial to achieving our population control goals. Singapore and China's successful adoption of two-child and one-child policies offer valuable lessons. To combat poverty, disparity, and other pressing problems, Pakistan must prioritise population regulation as the initial step. Meaningful discussions on family planning are imperative. Our resources are depleting, cities overcrowded and polluted, and the environment deteriorating. Pakistan's multiple woes, from poverty to climate change, are exacerbated by unchecked population growth. We must act now to unlock Pakistan's potential and address the social and economic challenges that lie ahead.

Population Explosion Essay for Students and Children

500+ words essay population explosion essay.

Population explosion refers to the number of people that live in an area. It is a major issue for developing countries. Also, the government is not taking proper measures to control this problem. Besides, it generates many issues in the country that cause many problems for people.

Population Explosion Essay

Meaning of Population Explosion

It refers to the rapid increase in the population of an area among human beings. Furthermore, it is a situation where the economy is not capable of coping with the increasing demand of its population.

Causes of Population Explosion

The cause of the population explosion includes many factors and reasons. These includes:

Increase in the birth rate- Due to lack of control on delivery and unawareness of people the birth rate is increasing rapidly. In addition, the gap between death and birth has gone way wider than what we can think of. Furthermore, the birth rate has increased many folds in comparison to the death rate.

A decrease in infant mortality rate- Mortality rate refers to the number of death of infants below the age of 6 months. Due to science and technology , we are able to minimize this rate and now only a few cases of death are known per thousand death.

The life expectancy growth- Earlier the life expectancy of people was around 55-60 years. But due to better and improved medical facilities, we are now able to increase the life expectancy of people. Now the average age of a person increased to 70-75 years.

Besides, these better living conditions, good quality food, better nutrition , and better sanitation facilities also helped in increasing life expectancy.

High level of illiteracy- The literacy level of women is one of the biggest problems of family planning. In India, people pay very little importance to women’s education and marry them at an early age. That’s why they do not have knowledge about birth control methods and the use of contraceptives.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Effects of Population Explosion

The population explosion affects natural resources and many sectors of the economy in many ways:

Unemployment- Due to the increase in the population the demand for jobs and employment also increases. But, due to a lack of resources and employment opportunities , there are millions of jobless people in India.

In addition, the condition of unemployment is growing day by day. To face this problem most the people are either migrating to other countries for better job opportunities.

Poverty-  Due to the large population there a large number of people who belong to below the poverty line and they do not have adequate knowledge of the overpopulation of the country. Also, they are the major contributor to a high birth rate.

Prevention of population explosion

There are various methods by which we can prevent a population explosion. The government can take measures to aware of the population about the various methods that can help in controlling the population. Also, it should implement some strong campaign for family planning and birth control.

population explosion essay css

To sum it up, the population explosion has caused huge pressure on the surface of the earth. Also, we can control many issues of the earth by controlling population growth. Besides, many problems like food insecurity, illiteracy, poverty, and unemployment can be minimized by controlling the population.

FAQs about Population Explosion Essay

Q.1 What are the major reason for the population explosion? A.1 The major factors that are responsible for population explosion are illiteracy, reduced mortality, increased birth rate, and an increase in life expectancy.

Q.2 What are the major reason for the population explosion in India? A.2 The major reason for the population explosion in India are unemployment, large population, poverty and illiteracy, small health condition and several other problems.

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Essay on Population Explosion

After the Republic of China, India is the most populous country in the world. Presently, India is the second-largest populated country in the world that occupies 2.4% of the world’s land area and represents 17.5% of the world’s population. This means that one out of six people on this planet is an Indian.

It is estimated by the United Nations that India with 1.3 billion inhabitants would surpass China’s population of 1.4 billion by 2024 to become the world’s most populous country. Population Explosion is considered as a threat and burden on the Earth.

What is Population Explosion?

Population Explosion refers to the rapid increase in the number of people in an area. It is a situation where the economy of the country cannot cope up with the rapid growth of the population. Furthermore, in simpler words, it is a situation where the economy cannot provide proper facilities to its people.

Evidently, the largest contributing countries to population explosion are the poorer nations and are termed as developing countries. In India, the state of Uttar Pradesh is the most populated state and Lakshadweep is the least populated. Hence we can say that population explosion is inversely related to the development of that area.

Population Explosion has become the mother of evils in our country because too much population is trapping people in a web of poverty and illiteracy that further escalates the problem. Any time of the day, whether it is a metro station, airport, railway platforms, road, highway bus stop, shopping mall, market, or even a social or religious gathering, there is always a swelling crowd of people in India.

Causes of Population Explosion

The major cause of this population explosion is the difference between the birth rate. The birth rate is the number of individuals born in a population in a given amount of time. The human birth rate is the number of individuals born per year per 1000 in the population. For example, if 35 births occur per year per 1000 individuals, the birth rate is 35 ) .

The death rate is the ratio between deaths and individuals in a particular population during a particular period. In simple words, the incidence of deaths in a given population during a defined time (such as one year) is expressed per 1000 individuals ).

Apart from these, some other factors are partially responsible for population explosion, such as:

A decrease in infant mortality rate (Mortality rate refers to the number of deaths of infants below the age of 6 months.), 

The increase in life expectancy (An estimate of the average number of additional years that a person of a given age can expect to live). 

Earlier the life expectancy of people was around 55-60 years. Now the average age of a person has increased to 70-75 years.) but due to better and improved medical facilities, we can now increase the life expectancy of people. 

Earlier, there was a balance between the birth and death rate due to limited medical facilities, people dying in wars, and other calamities. According to the 2011 census, the birth rate has actually come down but then the death rate has also declined due to the medical advancements. 

Illiteracy is another cause of an increase in population. Low literacy rate leads to traditional, superstitious, and ignorant people. For example, Kerala has a very high literacy rate and it constitutes only 2.76% of India’s population as compared to Uttar Pradesh having maximum illiteracy rate and forms 16.49% of the population. Educated people are well aware of birth control methods. 

Family planning, welfare programs, and policies have not fetched the desired result. The increase in population is putting tremendous pressure on the limited infrastructure and negating India’s progress.

The superstitious people mainly from rural places think that having a male child would give them prosperity and so there is a considerable pressure on the parents to produce children till a male child is born. This leads to a population explosion. 

Poverty is another main reason for this. Poor people believe that the more people in the family, the more will be the number of persons to earn bread. Hence it contributes to the increase in population. 

Continuous illegal migration of people from neighbouring countries like Nepal, Bangladesh is leading to a rise in the population density in India.

Religion sentiment is another cause of the population explosion. Some orthodox communities believe that any mandate or statutory method of prohibition is sacrilegious. It is difficult for India to exercise a check on the religious grounds for its secularism.

Impact Due to Population Explosion

The growth of the population has a major impact on the living standards of people. That is why, despite our incredible progress in the agricultural and industrial spheres, our capita income has not risen appreciably.

Hence given below are some of the major problems which are just because of the population explosion:

Natural Resources of that particular region: Natural resources are materials from the Earth used to support life and meet people’s needs. Hence if there are many people, then there is a high requirement for Natural Resources.

Unemployment: When a country becomes overpopulated, it gives rise to unemployment as fewer jobs support many people. The rise in unemployment gives rise to crime, such as theft, as people want to feed their families and provide them with basic amenities of life.

High Cost of Living: As the difference between demand and supply continues to expand due to population explosion, it raises the prices of various essential commodities, including food, shelter, and healthcare. It means that people have to pay more to survive and feed their families.

Poverty: Another major issue of population explosion is the increase in poverty as people are unemployed due to a lack of job opportunities and an abundant workforce. 

Illiteracy: Because of unemployment, they cannot provide better education to the coming generation, giving us back population explosion.

Starvation: When resources are scarce, starvation, ill health, and diseases caused by diet deficiency such as rickets become eminent.

Some Major Effects of the High Population are as Follows

The rapidly growing population in India has led to the problem of food scarcity and heavy pressure on land. Even though 60% of its population is engaged in agriculture, yet people do not get even the barely necessary amount of food. 

Generating employment opportunities for such a huge population in India is very difficult. Therefore, illiteracy is growing rapidly every year. 

Development of infrastructural facilities is not able to cope up with the pace of growing population. So facilities like transportation, communication, housing, education, and healthcare are becoming inadequate to provide provision to the people.

The increasing population leads to unequal distribution of income and inequalities among the people widened.

Unmanageable population size may lead to the failure of the government to provide the basic facilities to the people. 

Economic development is slow in a country where the population is growing at a very fast rate. This also leads to low capital formation. 

Ignorance, illiteracy, unhygienic living conditions, and lack of recreation have always been the cause of population problems in India. 

Rapid growth in population is also an indication of the wastage of natural resources.

Preventive Measures

To tackle this problem, the government needs to take corrective measures. The entire development of the country depends on how effectively the population explosion is stemmed. 

The government and various NGOs should raise awareness about family planning and welfare. Hoardings with slogans like “Hum do, humare do” and “Chota Parivar, Sukhi Parivar” should be put up in hospitals and other public places. These slogans mean that a small family is a happy family and two children for two parents. The awareness about the use of contraceptive pills and family planning methods should be generated. 

The health care centres should help the poor people with the free distribution of contraceptives and encourage the control of the number of children. 

The government should come forward to empower women and improve the status of women and girls. People in rural places should be educated and modern amenities should be provided for recreation.

So we can summarise the topic by stating that population explosion is a term used to state the rapid growth of people in a particular area. It is because of lack of education, illiteracy, lack of proper knowledge of sex education, rituals, and superstition in the country’s most populated area. 

Overpopulation results in a lack of development and exploitation of resources, whereas India’s strength in the global world in various fields cannot be ignored. By raising public awareness and enlisting strict population control norms, India will be able to tackle this issue.

It doesn’t mean that will happen very quickly and without any effort. It will take time because India constitutes one of the huge countries of about 138 Crore (2020) people. Proper, effective, and steady steps will lead India to a greater good.

 It helps the country control the population explosion and also helps to provide good results in several other things like the good environment, abundant natural resources, proper employment, proper literacy rate with high growth in development, etc.

All this could be possible if we take some measures and be good citizens of this country. So that is how we can overcome this issue of population explosion.


FAQs on Population Explosion Essay

1) What is Population Explosion?

Population Explosion refers to a rapid increase in people in a particular area. Occurring due to reasons like increased birth in the area, decreased mortality rate, and inflow of residents, population explosion may lead to shortage of resources, negatively affecting the development of the area.

2) How is the birth rate related to population explosion?

Birth rate is directly proportional to population explosion because of people’s lack of knowledge and literacy. Most common in poor families, where more children means more means of income, increased birth rate gradually results in a population explosion.

3) What are the measures to avoid population explosion?

Better education (specially for girl child), creating awareness of family planning, providing proper knowledge of Sex Education, etc. can be some solutions to tackle the issue.

4) What is the difference between death rate and infant mortality rate?

The ratio between deaths and individuals in a particular population during a particular period is the death rate, whereas the infant mortality rate refers to the number of infants below 6 months who died within the same period.

5) What are the major reasons for the population explosion?

The major factors responsible for population explosion are illiteracy, reduced mortality, increased birth rate, and life expectancy.

Thursday 23 February 2017

Over population in pakistan english essay for ba/ma/css exams.

Over Population/Population Expansion English Essay for BA/MA/CSS Exams


Factors of population growth, causes of population expansion, i. cultural value: , ii. polygyny: , iii. desire of male child: , iv. islamic laws: , v. remarriage of widow: , vi. climatic conditions: , vii. lack of recreation:, viii. desire of male child: , ix. having large family size: , x. reduction in mortality rate: , xi. better health facilities: , xii. better food: , xiii. control on epidemics: , xiv. early marriages: , impacts of population growth, steps to reduce population growth, i. reduction in population growth rate: , ii. technical education: , iii. ending of non working: , iv. population planning programs: , v. conscious and awareness campaigns: , vi. optimum use of human resources: , vii. women employment: , viii. promotion of education: , you may also like:.

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Essay on Population Explosion

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  • Jan 5, 2022

How to Write an Essay on Population Explosion-05 (1)

One of the most common topics nowadays is population. It is noted that the Census takes place every ten years and this census shows total population, the growth rate of population, the density of population, taking populace and consumers, birth-rate and death-rate, etc. The last census took place in 2011 whilst the next was to be held in 2021 but due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it is still to take place. Population growth is one of the major reasons for the development as well as the exploitation of the country. When the population rises then all-natural resources are more exploited than usual. It is well known that after the Republic of China, India is the most populous country in the world that occupies 2.4% of the world’s land area with 17.5% of the world’s population. It shows that every sixth person in the world is an Indian. Well, this is not proud anymore because according to the reports by 2030 India would be the first most populated country in the world. Taking the above information into account, here is how you can write an essay on population explosion.

This Blog Includes:

Reasons for population explosion (essay), impacts of population explosion (essay), effects of population explosion (essay).

Population Explosion is commonly considered a threat and burden on the Earth as it not only leads to more demand but also depletion of natural resources. The term population Explosion means a rapid increase in the number of people in an area. Moreover, this situation is considered as a degradation to the economy of the country. Furthermore, this creates a situation where the economy is not providing proper facilities to its people. Evidently, the countries with the largest population explosion are the poorer nations and are commonly known as developing countries. For example in India, Uttar Pradesh is the most populated state and Lakshadweep is the least populated. Thus it is evident that Hence population explosion is inversely related to the development of that area. Population Explosion is the root cause for incremental poverty and illiteracy that are social evils. The overpopulation of India is visible on metro stations, airports, railway platforms, roads, highways, bus stops, shopping malls, markets, or even at social or religious gatherings there are crowds of people which makes travel like activities Hectic. The vital cause of population Explosion is the difference between the birth rate which is the number of infants born in a population in a period of time. For example, if 28 births occur per year per 1000 individuals, the birth rate is 28. 

Also Read: Essay on My Hobby

The major cause for the population explosion is the immense gap between the death rate and birth rate, Other than that, there are other factors also which have led to population explosions such as:

  • Due to the development in the medical sector, we have seen an increase in the life expectancy rate which is helping poeple to live longer.
  • The lack of information and awareness amongst the general public due to illiteracy has also increased the population.
  • Educated people are well-aware of birth control methods, but a large population in the country do not have access to sex education and proper birth control methods. 
  • Tradional people who prefers a male child over a girl, tries to give birth until a male child is born in the family.

Also Read: Essay on Human Rights

It has rightly been stated that prevention is better than cure. Thus finding the root cause is most vital for the prevention of population Explosion. Therefore the most common factors responsible for population explosion are 

  • Depletion of Natural Resources : Rise in population demands more resources which automatically leads to depletion of natural resources of that particular region. Natural resources are the resources from the earth that satisfy human needs. 
  • Unemployment : When it comes to employment then one of the major problems faced by India is unemployment which is majorly due to overpopulation. The rise of fewer jobs is one of the things that results in rising crime, such as theft, snatching because an empty stomach needs food which comes in exchange for money.
  • High Cost of Living : The difference between demand and supply increases due to population explosion. For instance sudden rise in the prices of various essential commodities, including food, shelter, and healthcare which results in more payment in order to survive.
  • Poverty : Another vital issue of population explosion is the expansion of poverty which is directly proportional to unemployment because people are unemployed due to a less availability of jobs. 
  • Illiteracy : Many parents are not able to afford education due to unemployment and this creates illiteracy. Moreover it is a threat to future generations akso. 
  • Starvation : When resources are limited it is pretty much evident to have problems like starvation, ill health, and diseases caused by diet deficiency such as rickets become imminent. 

Also Read: Essay on Disaster Management

Here are some of the after-effects due to the rise in the population of the country.

  • A rapid explosion of population has increased the rate of food scarcity in the country leading to malnourished children.
  • The unemployment rate in India has increased comparatively as there are more people than jobs.
  • Due to the sudden increase in population the government is not being able to provide proper infrastructure and travelling facilities equally to all the citizens.
  • The increasing population has widened the gap between the rich and the poor.

Also Read: Essay on Democracy

The main reasons for population explosion are lack of education, illiteracy, lack of proper knowledge of sex education, rituals, and superstition in the country’s most populated area common example is Bihar, Uttar Pradesh. Further overpopulation leads to a lack of development and exploitation of resources. India is the second-most populous country but the strength in the global world in various fields cannot be ignored. Furthermore, these problems can be tackled by raising public awareness and organising various strict population control norms. All we need to do is take possible measures and become good citizens of the country. 

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Population Explosion Essay

500+ words population explosion essay.

Population explosion means a sudden increase in the number of individuals in a particular species. The term is used to refer to the world’s human population. In India, the Population explosion has become a severe matter of concern because the increase in population leads to poverty and illiteracy. In this situation, it is difficult to cope with the economy of the country with the rapid growth of the population. The Government of India is now looking into the matter seriously, and many states have framed laws to tackle the problem of population explosion.

Major Causes of Population Explosion

1. increase in birth rate.

One of the major causes for the growth of the population is the high birth rate. During the 1891-1990 period, the birth rate declined from 45.8 per thousand in India, but it is still considered high. So, unfortunately, in India, the birth rate has not seen a decrease in spite of the framing laws in terms of family planning, population education, campaigns, etc.

2. Decrease in Death Rate

In recent years, the decrease in the death rate has been another factor contributing to the rapid growth of the population. In 2001, the death rate in India was about 8.5 per thousand. The death rate has seen a decrease due to advancements in the medical field. For example, chronic diseases like typhoid, chickenpox, etc., are no longer dreaded. Even the infant mortality rate has decreased because of proper sanitation facilities, cleanliness, and better prenatal and postnatal care.

3. Early Marriage

Early marriage is also an essential factor in the rapid increase in population. In India, the marriage age of a girl is 18, which is very low compared to other countries, which is about 23 to 25 years. It leads to a longer span of reproductive activity.

4. Religious and Social Reasons

In India, marriage is considered a compulsory social institution, and every person should marry. Every individual in a joint family takes equal responsibility and has access to an equivalent level of consumption. So, people don’t hesitate to increase their family size to a joint family. In India, most people think that one male child is necessary, and in the expectation of getting a male child, they increase their family size.

Another major cause of the population explosion is poverty. In most families, children become the source of income. From a very young age, children start working for their families instead of going to school, and they become a precious asset to the family. So, every individual becomes an earning member and additional income for the family.

6. Standard of Living

It is seen that people with a low standard of living wish to have additional children as it will be an asset for them rather than a liability. As we know, most of India’s population is uneducated, so they don’t understand the importance of family planning. They are unaware that they can enjoy a better quality of life with a small family.

7. Illiteracy

In India, 60% of the population is either illiterate or has minimum education, which leads to minimal employment opportunities. So, due to the high illiteracy rate and belief in social customs, child marriage and preference for a male child still prevail. As a result, there is a rapid population growth rate in India.

Effects of Population Explosion

1. the problem of unemployment.

An increase in population leads to a vast army of the labour force. But, it is difficult to employ such extensive labour working force due to a shortage of capital resources. Disguised unemployment in rural areas and open unemployment in urban areas are fundamental features of an underdeveloped country like India.

2. More Pressure on Land

Overpopulation creates more pressure on land. It adversely affects the economic development of the country. On the one hand, per capita availability of land goes on diminishing and on the other, the problem of subdivision and fragmentation of holdings increases.

3. Environmental Degradation

Extensive use of natural resources and energy production of oil, natural gas, and coal negatively impacts the planet. An increase in population also leads to deforestation, which directly affects the environment, and it also degrades the soil’s nutritional value and causes landslides and global warming.

So, at last, we can wrap up the essay by stating that overpopulation is considered one of the biggest challenges humanity faces.

Students can also get different essays by visiting BYJU’S website. We have compiled a list of crucial CBSE Essays from an exam perspective.

Frequently Asked Questions on Population Explosion Essay

How can population explosion be controlled.

Awareness campaigns on childbirth control and the gap between consecutive children should reach the common public. It is necessary to take such initiatives to keep the population of a country in control.

Which country has the highest population?

China is a country with a maximum population of about 1.448 billion citizens.

How is the younger generation affected due to this population explosion?

The resources which are meant exclusively for the younger generation get split and are divided due to the population explosion of a country.

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