15 Cover Letter Templates to Perfect Your Next Job Application

Rachel Leist

Published: August 10, 2022

Are cover letters necessary? I'm not in HR, but I've been approached by applicants who wondered whether their cover letter would actually be read. My answer is one not many of them wanted to hear: "sometimes." Sometimes it will be read. Other times, you can get away with just sending in your resume — like when you network your way into applying for a position.

cover letter templates; Business person using a cover letter template

The truth is, you can't really predict on a case-by-case basis — and you're better safe than sorry. For the most part, having a cover letter will give you an upper hand in ways your resume doesn't. It allows you to show off your writing skills, provide details that you couldn't fit on your resume, demonstrate your passion, and show your willingness to put in as much time and effort as possible.

→ Click here to access 5 free cover letter templates [Free Download]

If you’ve ever rolled your eyes or balked at an application that required a cover letter, this guide is for you. We’ll go over how to write a cover letter and provide cover letter templates to help you perfect your own.

Application Letter

An application letter is a written document addressed to an employer by a job applicant, explaining why they're interested in and qualified for an open position. More commonly known as a cover letter, this document can come in the form of an email, MS Word document, or similar application template offered by the employer.

Seems fairly basic, right? Cover letters can hold different levels of importance to an employer depending on the industry you're in and the job you're applying for. According to a CareerBuilder survey, 49% of recruiters say sendign a cover letter along with your resume boosts your chance of landing the role.

If you do plan to write a cover letter, keep in mind there are certain qualities it should have that are not included in the definition above.

open cover letter for any job

5 Free Cover Letter Templates

Five fill-in-the-blank cover letter templates to help you impress recruiters.

  • Standard Cover Letter Template
  • Entry-Level Cover Letter Template
  • Data-Driven Cover Letter Template

You're all set!

Click this link to access this resource at any time.

What to Include in a Cover Letter

So, what should you include? We'll let the 11 templates below this list do most of the talking. No matter which one you download, pay attention to the following elements — all of which should shine through in the letter you send to your future manager.

Fill out this form to access your templates.

1. contact information.

Cover letters shouldn't just carry your contact information, but also that of the company to which you're applying. Contact info includes your phone number, email address, and any social media accounts you're willing to share and receive connections to.

Home addresses aren't required, but they can be a helpful reassurance to the employer that you already live nearby and would have no trouble coming into the office.

Avoid offering phone numbers, email addresses, or actual addresses that belong to your current employer. Using your personal Gmail address over your work email, for example, ensures your correspondence with recruiters remains separate from all of your current work communication.

2. A Personal Address Line

For as often as you see "to whom it may concern" at the top of cover letters today, do your best to avoid writing this exhausted line.

Address lines that specify a person or company grab your reader's attention much more quickly, and show the employer that you've taken the time to tailor your application letter to them. Don't have the name of the hiring manager? "Employers at [company name]" will do just fine.

A "hook" is a clever introduction that "hooks" your reader into wanting to learn more. Think about yourself as a job candidate — what makes you unique? What about your career might a recruiter be intrigued by that you can package into an interesting first sentence?

4. Why You're Qualified

It's a no-brainer that you should summarize your professional experience in your cover letter. However, today's best applications describe why this experience qualifies the applicant for the job they're applying for. For example, don't just state that you spent three years writing for a company blog. Explain that this type of work lends itself to managing your new potential employer's content calendar every week.

5. General Knowledge of the Business

Grammatical errors could mean your application is thrown in the trash, but that's not the only thing that could get your letter tossed aside. Using a generic "one-size-fits-all" cover letter — especially if you forget to change the name of the company — will also hurt your chances of landing an interview.

So, if you take the time to write a cover letter, take the time to comment on the business itself. Why are you applying to this company? What about their business stuck out to you as a professional?

Now, let's take a look at an example cover letter , what makes it effective, along with 11 templates you can download or draw inspiration from.

Cover Letter Example

Cover letter example.

Image Source

The example above illustrates how to write a marketing cover letter using the elements we listed.

Besides the contact information and the address line, the first few paragraphs explain why the candidate is qualified for the position. This example uses specific data to show why they would be a good fit.

Additionally, in the second to last paragraph, the candidate discusses why they're interested in the specific company, demonstrating general knowledge of the business.

By combining all the elements to a cover letter, this is a great example to use for inspiration.

Featured Resource: 5 Professional Cover Letter Templates

Cover Letter Templates

14 Free Cover Letter Templates for Your Next Job Application

Template 1: basic.

Basic cover letter template with 7 qualities to learn from.

The example above is a basic (but great) cover letter. The numbered sections are explained in more detail below.

The level of formality your header has will depend on the company to which you apply. If you're applying to a formal business, it's important to use a formal header to open your cover letter, like in the sample above. Put your address, the date, and the company's address. But if you're applying to a company that isn't as formal, you don't need to include yours and the company's addresses. You can still include the date, though.

2. Greeting

Using "To Whom It May Concern" is okay, but you may want to take the time to research the name of the recruiter or hiring manager online. If you do your research and aren't confident you found the right name, then you should definitely use the generic greeting — but if you are sure, then it shows you put in the effort to find their name and it will catch the recruiter's eye.

If you have the recruiter's name, do you greet them by their full name, or by their courtesy title (i.e. Mr., Ms., or Mrs.)? Similar to the header, it depends on the company's level of formality. If you're applying to a corporate business, you may want to consider using "Mr. Snaper" instead of "Jon Snaper." If you're applying to a start-up or a business with a more casual culture, you can use "Jon Snaper," as shown in the example.

3. Introduction

Your opening paragraph should, in 1-3 sentences, state why you're excited to apply and what makes you the perfect candidate. Get right to the point, and don't worry about explaining where you found the posting or who you know at the company. This isn't a place to go into detail about why you're a great candidate — that's for the second paragraph. Here, simply list a few key reasons in one sentence to set up the rest of your letter. Keep in mind that the recruiter may cross-reference your cover letter with your resume, so make sure the two sync up.

4. Paragraph 2: Why You're a Great Fit for the Job

Next, sell yourself and your experience by choosing one or two concrete examples that show why you're a great fit for the position. What did you do at a previous company that gave you relevant experience? Which projects have you worked on that would benefit the new company? How will your prior experience help this company grow? Stay humble in your explanation of credentials while still showing that you would be an asset to the team. Use this paragraph to show you're genuinely excited and interested in the position.

5. Third Paragraph: Why the Company Is a Great Fit for You

While it's certainly important you're a good fit for the job, it's also important that the company is a good fit for you. "A cover letter typically describes why you're great for a company — but how will you benefit from getting hired?" asks former HubSpot Team Development Manager Emily MacIntyre . "We want to know why our company appeals to you, and how it will be a mutually beneficial working relationship."

In the third paragraph, show you're serious about growing and developing your career at this new company. What impresses and excites you about the company? Is there something that you feel strongly about that aligns with the company's goals? For example, the candidate in the sample letter used this space to show his personal commitment to environmental causes aligns with the company's green initiatives.

6. Strong Closer and Signature

Don't get lazy in the final few sentences of your cover letter — it's important to finish strong. Be straightforward about your interest and enthusiasm about the new position, and tell them you're available to talk about the opportunity at any time. Be sure to include your phone number and email address. At this point, the ball is (rightly) in the recruiter's court to decide how to follow up.

Last but certainly not least, thank them for their time and consideration. Use a formal sign-off like "Best," "All the best," or "Sincerely," and finish by typing out your full name. You don't need to sign it with a pen.

Template 2: Data-Driven Marketing Cover Letter

Get it here..

Data-driven marketing cover letter template

When applying to a data-driven position, it might be tempting to inject your cover letter with, well, the data to describe what you've done for other employers. But in an application letter — particularly for the marketing industry — how you convey this data is just as important as the data itself.

The cover letter template above, which we created here at HubSpot, can help you present the data that's most important to you as a candidate such that it'll matter to your future employer.

Notice the three bullet points near the center of the letter above, preceded by the statement: "... I've developed a strategy that has helped the company achieve ..." This setup is important, because while you can add as many statistics as you want to this template, your data points should describe how your current/former business benefited from your work, rather than how you, yourself, benefited.

Template 3: Straight-to-the-Point Cover Letter

cover letter template: Straight-to-the-point

Harvard Business Review contributor David Silverman hailed the above cover letter example as "The Best Cover Letter I Ever Received." For context, Silverman believes there are only a handful of times when writing a cover letter is actually necessary:

  • When you know the name of the hiring manager.
  • When you know something about what the job requires.
  • When you've been referred to the job personally.

Under those three circumstances, a straight-to-the-point cover letter like the one above could be your best bet. Because it's so concise, however, make a point to add your own letterhead above the message itself. It might be easy for a recruiter to sift through a short and sweet cover letter like the one above, but it's just as easy for it to get lost in the shuffle of their application list without a unique design or format.

Template 4: Referral Cover Letter

cover letter template: Referral cover letter

Just because a friend or colleague recommended you for a job doesn't mean the company is all set to hire you. Therefore, the cover letter template above is written specifically for referrals. We made this one here at HubSpot. Download it here (it comes with four other cover letter templates , too).

As you can see in the picture above, the first paragraph of the cover letter is dedicated entirely to acknowledging the circumstances of your applying: You know someone who works there — no harm in that. But there might be harm in not mentioning it to the hiring manager. Telling the reader about your connection at the company shows you're aware and confident of the actions you take to get the opportunities you're interested in.

Ultimately, it's better than the recruiter hearing about your employee connection from somebody else.

As for the rest of the cover letter, treat your message the same way you would if you had applied with no connection from within. Your skills and successes are no less important because of your internal referral.

Template 5: Photo Letterhead Cover Letter

Photo letterhead cover letter

The cover letter template above was designed by Microsoft Office, and as comprehensive as it looks, it's completely free to download and modify.

As it looks right now, this cover letter contains about half photo, half text. Feel free to shrink (and change) the image to give yourself more room to tell your story. Of course, a nice washed-out image that expresses who you are can be part of that story ...

Template 6: Digital Creative Cover Letter

cover letter template: digital creative letter

This sixth template is perfect for the applicant who wants to emphasize the many different digital channels they areon. This template goes well with a resume of the same format.

As you personalize this letter with your own experience, make note of the social networks and industry software included in this template. You'll see there’s additional space along the top to add your LinkedIn and personal website to fill with your own information.

You can improve upon this template by formatting your most important highlights and accomplishments with bullet points. This will make the document easier to read for the hiring manager and emphasizes the value you provide.

Template 7: Marketing Manager Cover Letter

cover letter template: Marketing-specific cover letter

Our seventh cover letter comes from Monster.com. This cover letter, shown above, is focused specifically on a marketing role.

Notice how the writer includes references to important marketing metrics and terminology. If you're applying to a data-driven role, you might not want to fill the page with a story of your experience in paragraph form, like Template 1 does at the beginning of this article. Instead, consider highlighting three (or four, or five) of your successes that you believe the hiring manager would resonate most with, in bulleted form.

As a marketing professional, breaking up your letter with bulleted details like the ones above shows a respect for the hiring manager's limited time — a mentality that all marketers must understand when communicating with a brand's audience.

Template 8: Career Day Follow-Up Cover Letter

cover letter template: Career day follow-up cover letter

This is a unique kind of cover letter from Princeton University.

LinkedIn, Glassdoor, Monster, and Indeed might take the lion's share of your job searches online, but still some employment opportunities come out of a trade show, job fair, or similar networking event. For those occurrences, you have the follow-up cover letter template above.

This cover letter has everything you need to help an employer recall a conversation you had with him/her at a career fair. As you can see in the second paragraph, the letter is particularly useful to people who are about to graduate college.

Template 9: Logo and Watermarked Cover Letter

cover letter template: Logo and watermarked cover letter by Microsoft Office

Here's another cover letter template from Microsoft Office. This one has a light touch of color in the design just above the letterhead, but make no mistake — the template caters to any professional looking to make a good first impression on their future employer.

Don't let the logo space on the top-right of the page confuse you. This can be the logo of the company to which you're applying — to quickly get the attention of the recruiter — or your own logo. Perhaps you freelance on the side or simply like branding yourself. This cover letter template is meant for customization.

Template 10: Data Scientist Cover Letter

cover letter template: Princeton Data Science Cover Letter

This is our second template from Princeton University. While this is focused on a data scientist role, it is an excellent template to use for students applying to jobs prior to graduation.

The text emphasizes how the applicant’s academic research and projects makes them an ideal candidate for the position. The format is also simple enough to submit as a pdf, as text in an email message or an application text box.

Template 11: Business Cover Letter

cover letter template: Business cover letter

The cover letter template above is perfect for entry- and mid-level marketers who want to show a little extra professionalism in their opening note to a potential employer.

The multi-colored header (you can change the color if you wish) shows just the right amount of creativity and can go quite well with a resume of the same style. If you don't have enough experience to fill the entire page, don't worry. Feel free to write to a length you think is representative of who you are and what the hiring manager wants to see.

No matter how long your final cover letter is, the above template is your opportunity to show your attention to detail — from your contact information in the top header, to the personalized address line where you can include the name of the hiring manager. Like we said, "to whom it may concern" is pretty outdated, anyway.

Template 12: Entry-Level Cover Letter

Entry level job cover letter

The cover letter template above, written by HubSpot, is specifically designed for entry-level applicants.

When you only have a few years experience, it's important to display how you gained your skills and what you learned from your education or internships. Additionally, it's important to mention why you want to work at the company you're applying to.

No matter your experience, the template above will help you decide what skills you want to highlight and flesh out in your cover letter.

You can download it here (it comes with four other cover letter templates , too).

Template 13: Healthcare Cover Letter

cover letter template: Healthcare cover letter

Additionally, phrases like "I'd love to put my skills to work for your clinic" and "Please contact me at your convenience and let me know how I can help you" focus on what the business will gain as a result of hiring the applicant, rather than what the applicant is looking to gain.

Template 14: Freelance Cover Letter

cover letter template: freelance cover letter

If you're looking for freelance work, your biggest goal is to get your strengths across quickly, so busy clients won't pass by your cover letter entirely. Additionally, if you're sending out multiple cover letters to different clients, you'll want to target each one to that client's unique goals.

For instance, if one client is looking for SEO-optimized content related to marketing, you'll want to highlight past experience writing marketing content; this will change if, for instance, the client is looking for fitness content.

For this reason, it's a good idea to structure your cover letter so you start with a) past credentials or references, and b) bullet-point information related to the client's goal, as shown in the cover letter above.

Template 15: Director Cover Letter

cover letter template: cover letter for director

In the cover letter above, the candidate does a good job outlining how she succeeded in a leadership role previously: "For the past five years, I have successfully developed and maintained all data systems, including schedules and records for a business employing more than 100 people."

You'll want to demonstrate how your skills align with a Director position — both through organization and leadership — and, when possible, where you received recognition for your hard work (i.e. "I earned an award for Most Valuable Administrative Staff Member").

Write a Winning Cover Letter

Writing a cover letter is easier said than done. Don't hesitate to spend a lot of time writing and editing it. Tap into the incredible potential of AI tools, such as the HubSpot paragraph rewriter , to infuse each paragraph with a flawless touch of excellence. Or, ask a friend or family member to read it over and give you feedback. If the recruiter does end up reading it, you'll be thankful you did.

Editor's note: This post was originally published in November 2014 and has been updated for comprehensiveness.

Professional Cover Letter Templates

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21+ Cover Letter Examples in 2024 [For All Professions]

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No matter where you are in your career, or what job you’re applying for, submitting a cover letter with your resume is a must . 

Done right, a cover letter will effectively complement your resume and explain to the hiring manager in more detail why you’re the right person for the job.

Writing a cover letter, however, is easier said than done. 

You have to effectively demonstrate that you’ll be able to perform the responsibilities listed in the job description and that you’d be a better fit for the company compared to other candidates. 

And unless you’re a professional writer, this can be a very hard task.

Fortunately, we created these cover letter examples to inspire you and help you get started with your own cover letter!

Let’s dive in!

21 Cover Letter Examples 

#1. career change cover letter example .

cover letter example for career change

Here’s what this cover letter does right:

  • Has an ideal length. This cover letter includes all the relevant information for the hiring manager without getting into too much detail.
  • Relevant introduction. The candidate explains that they’re changing careers and why they want to work in this new field from the get-go.
  • Explains their related experience. The candidate explains how their previous experience in retail sales can help them succeed in PR.

Check out our guide video guide to learn how to write a Cover Letter that gets you HIRED!

#2. Recent Graduate Cover Letter Example 

cover letter example for a recent graduate

  • Personally greets the hiring manager. The candidate has taken the time to find the hiring manager’s name and address them by it, which makes the opening of the cover letter much more personal.
  • Wraps up with a call to action. The candidate wraps up the cover letter by suggesting a meeting with the hiring manager, which makes them more memorable.
  • Explains why the candidate is the right person for the internship. In this cover letter for an internship , the candidate explains how they’ve previously interned in a different firm, which gives them the experience to succeed in this role.

Have you just graduated from college? Make sure to check out our guide on writing an entry-level cover letter from start to finish! 

#3. Middle Management Cover Letter Example

Cover Letter Example for Middle Management

  • Use of bullet points. The candidate presents the information in a concise and reader-friendly way, making it easy for the hiring manager to find their key achievements. 
  • Formal closing. The candidate has used a formal and polite tone to conclude their cover letter, which combined with a call to action makes them look professional and passionate about getting the job. 
  • Explains how the company would benefit from hiring them. The candidate outlines exactly what they could do for the company, which not only highlights their skills but also shows they’ve done their research on the company’s needs. 

#4. Business Manager Cover Letter Example

cover letter example for business manager

  • Detailed header. In addition to the must-have contact details, this candidate has also included their professional Twitter and LinkedIn profiles, making it easy for the hiring manager to look more closely into their career. 
  • Concise and to the point. This candidate has used short paragraphs and bullet points to make the cover letter easy to skim through. 
  • Wraps up with a call to action. By letting the hiring manager know they’ll be contacting them soon, they’re more likely to make an impression.

Check out this article for a complete writing guide and an inspiring business manager resume sample. 

#5. Ph.D. Cover Letter Example

cover letter example for phd

Here’s what this cover letter does right: 

  • Attention-grabbing introduction. In the opening paragraph, this candidate explains why they’re passionate about pursuing a Ph.D. in great detail. 
  • Explains the candidate’s qualifications in detail. The candidate builds on their passion by explaining how they’re also qualified for the degree because of their education history and academic achievements. 

#6. Senior Executive Cover Letter Example

cover letter example for senior executive

  • Professional and minimalistic template. This senior executive has used a professional but minimalistic template that lets their work experience do the talking. 
  • Achievement-oriented opening paragraph. Right from the get-go, this candidate explains what makes them so good at their job, effectively grabbing the hiring manager’s attention.  
  • Wraps up with a call to action. By suggesting to have a meeting and discussing how they can help the company meet its goals, the candidate stands more chance to make a positive lasting impression. 

#7. Architect Cover Letter Example 

Cover Letter Example

  • Modern resume template. This architect has picked a template that perfectly matches his industry, as it is professional and modern at the same time. 
  • A personal greeting to the HR. They address the hiring manager by their first name, which helps make a better first impression. 
  • Measurable achievements. By quantifying their achievements, the candidate proves their achievements instead of just claiming them.

Struggling with your architect resume ? Check out our full guide!

#8. Business Analyst Cover Letter Example 

cover letter examples

  • Detailed contact information. The candidate has listed both their LinkedIn and Twitter profiles, providing the HR manager an opportunity to learn more about the candidate.  
  • Mentions what the candidate can do for the company. This cover letter doesn’t just explain why the job would be great for the candidate, but also how the candidate would benefit the company. Win-win, right? 
  • Error-free and reader-friendly. It’s super important for the cover letter to have no spelling or grammatical errors and be reader-friendly. This candidate made sure they did both.

Need a resume alongside your cover letter? Check out our guide on how to write a business analyst resume . 

#9. Consultant Cover Letter Example 

best cover letter example

  • Professional cover letter template. Being an experienced consultant, this candidate has picked a professional template that doesn’t steal the spotlight from their achievements. 
  • Experience and achievement-oriented. The candidate has effectively elaborated on their top achievements relevant to the job. 
  • Highlights the candidate’s passion. To show they want the job, this candidate has also explained how passionate they are about their profession.

For more advice on landing a job as a consultant, check out our guide to writing a consultant resume .

#10. Digital Marketing Cover Letter Example

Cover Letter Example for Digital Marketing

  • Creative cover letter template. This digital marketer highlights their originality by picking a creative cover letter template. 
  • Lists the candidate’s awards. The candidate has taken advantage of the cover letter to list their most noteworthy awards in the industry. 
  • Concludes with a call to action. As they used a call to action to conclude their cover letter, the HR manager will be more likely to remember them.

Want to take your digital marketing resume to the next level? Check out our guide!

#11. Graphic Designer Cover Letter Example 

Cover Letter Example for Graphic Designer

  • Detailed contact information. The candidate has included additional contact information such as their website link, as well as their LinkedIn and Twitter profiles.  
  • Ideal length. This cover letter is concise, which means that the HR manager is more likely to read it from start to finish.  
  • Draws attention to the candidate’s strong points. Although this candidate is a recent college graduate, they’ve managed to effectively show that they have enough knowledge and experience to do the job right.

Read this guide to write a graphic designer resume that’s just as good as your cover letter!

#12. Administrative Assistant Cover Letter Example

Cover Letter Example for Administrative Assistant

  • Minimalistic cover letter template. The candidate picked a well-designed but minimalistic template for their cover letter. 
  • Focused on skills and achievements. This cover letter is packed with the candidate’s skills and achievements, proving he can be an excellent employee. 
  • Formal closing. Politeness can go a long way and the candidate has used this to their advantage to make an impression. 

Our article on how to write an administrative assistant resume can help you take your job application to the next level.

#13. Front Desk Cover Letter Example

Cover Letter Example for Front Desk

  • Modern cover letter template. This template incorporates memorable colors and clear lines, which make the cover letter very visually appealing. 
  • Attention-grabbing introduction. Using an attention-grabbing intro, the candidate is more likely to make an impression. 
  • Calls the HR to action. By including a call to action, the candidate is reminding the HR of their immediate availability. 

#14. Human Resources Cover Letter Example

Cover Letter Example for Human Resources

  • It is concise and to the point. The candidate doesn’t dwell on unimportant details the HR won’t be interested in. 
  • Uses a traditional cover letter template. The cover letter design is more on the conventional side, which fits the industry better. 
  • Highlights the candidate’s strong points. The candidate has rich work experience and they use the cover letter to elaborate on it. 

This HR resume guide can help you get your resume just right.

#15. Sales Agent Cover Letter Example 

Cover Letter Example  for Sales Agent

  • Attention-grabbing cover letter template. As a salesperson, this candidate knows how important first impressions are, so they’ve picked a catchy cover letter template. 
  • Has an ideal length. At the same time, they’ve also made sure to keep their cover letter at just the right length. 
  • Lists the candidate’s career highlights. The candidate has made perfect use of the space by mentioning their most impressive professional achievements. 

Check out this sales agent resume guide to create an attention-grabbing sales resume .

#16. Receptionist Cover Letter Example

Cover Letter Example for Receptionist

  • Modern but minimalistic cover letter template. The template’s design hints the candidate is creative but professional at the same time. 
  • Uses a catchy introduction. The candidate has used an attention-grabbing opening paragraph to catch HR’s attention. 
  • Concludes the cover letter formally. The candidate proves that they’re polite and well-spoken, a quality very much important for the role they’re applying for. 

Take your receptionist resume to the next level with this receptionist resume guide .

#17. Information Technology Cover Letter Example

Cover Letter Example for Information Technology

  • Mentions measurable achievements. Numbers make an impact, which is why this candidate has included measurable achievements. 
  • Lists both soft and hard skills. The candidate has mentioned a great mix of soft and hard skills, showing how well-rounded they are. 
  • Contains relevant contact information. The candidate’s GitHub, website name, LinkedIn, and Twitter profiles are all great additions to the resume. 

Looking for tips to help you write a great IT resume ? Check out our guide!

#18. Real Estate Cover Letter Example

Cover Letter Example for Real Estate Agent

  • Ideal length. Short and to the point, this cover letter is bound to get noticed by the HR manager. 
  • Wraps up with a call to action. This candidate reinforces the HR to call them back through a final call to action. 
  • Mentions the right skills. On top of their sales accomplishments, the candidate touch upon important soft skills such as customer service and communication . 

This real estate resume guide will help you take your resume from good to great.

#19. Teacher Cover Letter Example

Cover Letter Example for Teacher

  • Mentions relevant contact information details. This candidate has included optional (but relevant) contact information details, such as their LinkedIn, Quora, and Medium profiles. 
  • Achievement-oriented. The candidate has elaborated on their achievements in more detail throughout their cover letter. 
  • Highlights the candidate’s passion. For some jobs, being passionate is much more important than for others. Teaching is one of these jobs, which is why this candidate explains their passion for the job. 

Our guide on how to write a teacher resume has all the tips you need to land the job.

#20. Project Manager Cover Letter Example

Cover Letter Example for Project Manager

  • Leverages a catchy introduction. Through a catchy introductory paragraph, this candidate is sure to grab the HR’s attention and get them to read the rest of their cover letter.
  • Lists measurable accomplishments. This candidate explains exactly what they’ve achieved using numbers and hard data. 
  • Personally greets the HR. A personal greeting sounds much better than “Dear Sir/Madam,” and the candidate knows this. 

This guide on how to write a project manager resume can help you perfect your appication.

#21. Paralegal Cover Letter Example

Cover Letter Example for Paralegal

  • Minimalistic cover letter template. This cover letter design looks good but doesn’t steal the show from the candidate’s abilities. 
  • Mentions the candidate’s academic achievements and extracurricular activities. Although the candidate is a recent graduate, they’ve used the cover letter to explain they have enough skills and achievements to do the job. 
  • Lists measurable achievements. The candidate proves they did well in their internship by mentioning quantifiable achievements. 

Check out this paralegal resume guide to perfect yours.

What is a Cover Letter? 

A cover letter is a one-page document that you submit as part of your job application, alongside your resume . 

Its purpose is to introduce you and briefly summarize your professional background. On average, your cover letter should be from 250 to 400 words long .

A good cover letter can give the hiring manager more insight into what makes you a good candidate and help them make up their mind about whether they should invite you for an interview. A bad cover letter, though, will get ignored (at best) and lose you the job (at worst).

So, to make sure this doesn’t happen, it’s essential to know how to write a convincing cover letter.

The first thing to remember is that a cover letter is a supplement to your resume, not a replacement. Meaning, you shouldn’t just repeat whatever is mentioned in your resume and call it a day. 

Optimally, you should use your cover letter to shed more light on your skills and qualifications, as well as explain anything you didn’t have space for in your resume (e.g. a career gap or why you’re changing careers).

If you’re writing a cover letter for the first time, though, putting all this together might seem pretty tough. 

Fortunately, you can follow our tried-and-tested format to make the experience much easier:

  • Header - Input your contact information.
  • Greeting the hiring manager - Open the cover letter with a “Dear Sir or Madam,” or use the hiring manager’s name if you know what that is.
  • Opening paragraph - Grab the hiring manager’s attention by getting straight to the point. Mention what your professional experiences are, and what role you’re applying for.
  • The second paragraph - Explain why you’re the perfect candidate for the job. Mention your top 2-3 achievements, your top skills, why you want to work in that specific industry, and whatever else is relevant.
  • The third paragraph - End your cover letter with a call to action. E.g. “I would love to meet personally and discuss how I can help Company X.”
  • Formal closing - Something like this: “Thank you for your consideration. Best, John Doe.”

Here’s what this looks like in practice:

cover letter structure

9 Tips to Write a Cover Letter (the Right Way)

Now that we've covered the basics, let's talk about cover letter tips . Below, we'll give you all the knowledge you need to take your cover letter from "OK" to "great."

#1. Pick the right template

A good cover letter is all about leaving the right first impression.

And what’s a better way to leave a good impression than through a professional, well-formatted, and visual template?

You can simply pick one of our tried-and-tested cover letter templates and you’ll be all set!

cover letter examples templates

#2. Add your contact details on the header

The best way to start your cover letter is through a header. 

Here’s what you want to include there:

  • Phone Number
  • Name of the hiring manager / their professional title
  • Name of the company you’re applying to

Optionally, you can also include the following:

  • Social Media Profiles - Any type of profile that’s relevant to your field. Social Profiles on websites like LinkedIn, GitHub (for developers), Medium (for writers), etc.
  • Personal Website - If you have a personal website that somehow adds value to your application, you can mention it. Let’s say you’re a professional writer. In that case, you’d want to link to your content portfolio site or blog.

#3. Greet the hiring manager the right way

Once you’ve listed all your relevant contact information, it’s time to address the hiring manager reading your cover letter. 

A good practice here is to find the hiring manager’s name and address them directly instead of using the traditional “dear sir or madam.” This shows that you’re really invested in the company and that you took your time to do some research about the job.

So, how can you find out the hiring manager’s name?

One way to do this is by looking up the head of the company’s relevant department on LinkedIn. Let’s say you’re applying for the position of Communication Specialist at Novoresume. The hiring manager is probably the Head of Communications or the Chief Communications Office.

Or let’s say you’re applying for the position of server at a restaurant. In that case, you’d be looking to find out who the restaurant manager is.

If this doesn’t work, you can also check out the “Team” page on the company website; there’s a good chance you’ll at least find the right person there.

If you still can’t find out the hiring manager’s name, here are several other greetings you can use:

  • Dear [Department] Hiring Manager
  • Dear Hiring Manager
  • To whom it may concern
  • Dear [Department] Team

#4. Create an attention-grabbing introduction

Recruiters get hundreds, sometimes even thousands, of applications. Chances are, they’re not going to be reading every single cover letter end-to-end.

So, it’s essential to catch their attention from the very first paragraph.

The problem with most cover letter opening paragraphs, though, is that they’re usually extremely generic, often looking something like this: 

Hey, my name is Jonathan and I’d like to work as a Sales Manager at XYZ Inc. I’ve worked as a sales manager at MadeUpCompany Inc. for 5+ years, so I believe that I’d be a good fit for the position.

As you can probably tell, this opening paragraph doesn’t tell the hiring manager anything other than that you’ve worked the job before - and that’s not really helpful in setting you apart from other candidates. 

What you want to do, instead, is start off with 2-3 of your top achievements to really grab the reader’s attention. Preferably, the achievements should be as relevant as possible to the position. 

For example:

My name’s Michael and I’d like to help XYZ Inc. hit and exceed its sales goals as a Sales Manager. I’ve worked with Company X, a fin-tech company, for 3+ years. As a Sales Representative, I generated an average of $30,000+ in sales per month (beating the KPIs by around 40%). I believe that my previous industry experience, as well as my excellence in sales, makes me the right candidate for the role of X at Company Y.

The second example shows how the candidate is a top performer. The first just shows that they’ve worked a sales job before.

Which one are YOU more likely to invite for an interview?

#5. Show you’re the perfect person for the job

One great thing about cover letters is that they allow you to expand more on the top achievements from your resume and really show the hiring manager that you’re the right person for the job. 

A good way to do that is to first read the job ad and really understand what skills/experiences are required, and then to ensure that your cover letter touches upon the said skills or experiences.

In my previous role as a Facebook Marketing Expert at XYZ Inc. I handled customer acquisition through ads, managing a monthly Facebook ad budget of $20,000+. As the sole digital marketer at the company, I managed the ad creation and management process end-to-end. This means I created the ad copy and images, as well as picked the targeting, ran optimization trials, and so on.

Other than Facebook advertising, I’ve also delved into other online PPC channels, including:

  • Google Search

#6. Explain why you’re a great company fit

The HR manager doesn’t only look at whether you’ll be good at the job or not. They’re looking for someone that’s also a good fit for the company culture.

After all, employees that don’t fit in are bound to quit, sooner or later. This ends up costing the company a ton of money, up to 50% of the employee’s annual salary . 

To convince the hiring manager that you’re a great company fit, do some research on the company and find out what it is you like about them, or about working there. You want to know things like:

  • What’s the company’s business model?
  • What’s the company's product or service? Have you used it?
  • What’s the culture like? Will someone micro-manage your work, or will you have autonomy on how you get things done?

Then, turn your top reasons for liking to work there into text and add them to your cover letter! 

#7. Wrap up with a call to action

To make the end of your cover letter as memorable as possible, you want to:

  • Wrap up any points you couldn't in the previous paragraphs. Mention anything you’ve left out that you think could help the hiring manager make up your mind.
  • Thank the hiring manager for their time. After all, it never hurts to be polite. 
  • Finish the cover letter with a call to action. A call to action is a great way to make your cover letter ending as memorable as possible. 

#8. Write a formal closing

Once you’re done with the final paragraph, all you have to do is write down a formal “goodbye” and you’re good to go.

Feel free to use one of the most popular conclusions in a cover letter:

  • Best Regards,
  • Kind Regards,

#9. Proofread your cover letter

Last but not least, make sure to always proofread each and every document that you’ll be including in your job application - cover letter included. 

The last thing you want is to be claiming you’re a great candidate for the job with a cover letter full of typos! 

For an even more comprehensive guide on how to write an impactful cover letter , check out our article ! 

Cover Letter Writing Checklist 

Cover Letter Writing Checklist

Frequently Asked Questions

Do you still have some questions about cover letters? Check out the answers below:

1. How do I write a simple cover letter? 

To write a cover letter that’s simple but also professional, make sure to include a header with your personal information, a formal greeting to the hiring manager, an attention-grabbing opening paragraph, a second paragraph explaining why you’re a good candidate for the job, and a formal closing (preferably with a call to action). 

2. What are the 3 parts of a cover letter? 

The three parts of a cover letter are: 

  • The introduction , namely the header, the greeting to the hiring manager, and the opening paragraph. 
  • The sales pitch is usually the body of the cover letter. 
  • The conclusion involves a formal closing and a signature line.

3. What makes a great cover letter?

A great cover letter should be personalized for each job you’re applying for, instead of being overly generic. It’s also preferable to address the hiring manager by their name and not use the overly-used “Dear Sir/Madam.”

To make a great first impression, you should mention 1-2 of your top achievements in your opening paragraph - the more job-specific they are, the better. Also, don’t stop at showing the hiring manager why you’re a great candidate for the job. Make sure to also talk about how you’re a good culture fit for the company.

Last but not least, wrap up your closing paragraph with a call to action to give the hiring manager a little extra something to remember you by. 

4. When is a cover letter necessary?

Unless the job ad specifically states otherwise, you should always include a cover letter with your job application .

Even if the hiring manager doesn’t read it, you will look more professional simply by including one.

And that’s a wrap! We hope our cover letter examples and writing tips will inspire you to write a cover letter that will land you your next job.

If you’re looking for more invaluable career advice and articles, make sure to check out our career blog , or any of these related articles: 

  • How to Write a Resume
  • Cover Letter Mistakes to Avoid at All Costs
  • Cover Letter Format (w/ Examples & Free Templates)

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5 Easy-to-Use Online Resume Tools to Make Better CVs and Land Jobs

T he first step to landing your dream job is to make a resume that will impress any recruiter. From open-source and privacy-friendly online CV makers to AI-assisted cover letters, these free tools make it easier than ever to create a resume that will stand out from the crowd.

1. OpenResume (Web): Open Source, 100% Free and Ad-Free, Privacy-Friendly

A common issue with several online resume builders is that even though they tout they are free, there are several hidden clauses. They'll have ads, or ask you to sign up to store your personal and professional information on their servers or ask for a fee to remove watermarks when downloading the final PDF. OpenResume is an attempt to solve all those issues by building an open-source, completely free, and ad-free online resume builder which also protects your privacy.

OpenResume guides first-time resume makers to create a new CV with a template that relies on best standards and practices. Simply fill the data in the boxes as asked, and you'll see the resume updating in real-time in the preview. You can tweak colors, fonts, and paper size at any time.

The app works in your browser cache, so you won't be sending any of this data to the internet, keeping your information private and safe. OpenResume also includes a parser to check how ATS systems will read your CV, letting you then write an ATS-friendly resume .

2. Leet Resumes (Web): AI Analyzes and Upgrades Your Current Resume

After using writers to create thousands of free resumes for job applicants, Leet Resumes has trained an AI to analyze those resumes and use those learnings to make changes to your existing resume. It's completely free too.

Start by uploading your current resume as a PDF or DOC file. Leet Resumes will then take you through a series of steps to spruce up the CV. It will determine what your next job positions could be, suggest words and skills to add to your current resume, and coax information from you through pointed questions. Once you finish the questionnaire, Leet Resumes will create a new CV for you with all this information.

You can download the resume for free and then even tweak it if you want to make changes. Leet Resumes follows only one resume template design, but it's a standard recommended by founder Marc Cenedella, an expert in recruiting who has also written multiple books on how to write winning resumes.

3. Chat Career (Web): AI-Crafted Resume Tailored for Job Postings

One of the essential tips for a winning resume is to tweak it slightly for each job that you're applying for. It shows you have read the job posting and understood the requirements. Chat Career uses AI to help you make such tailored resumes.

When you start the app, you'll need to add the job description from the company's posting. Then, you can either upload your current CV, give it access to your LinkedIn bio, or craft a new resume from scratch. Chat Career will then review whether you are fit for the job. The AI asks questions in a chat window, much like using ChatGPT. Answer questions in plain English, and provide as many details as you want.

It will brainstorm with you about how you should highlight your experience and qualifications and even suggests how to add missing elements for maximum job fit. Once the process is done, you'll get a new resume, ready to send to this job. And if you save your profile, you can then use Chat Career to quickly generate tailored resumes for any future job postings.

4. CoverLetterGPT (Web): Generate Cover Letters Quickly With ChatGPT

Much like tailoring your CV for the job description, it's good practice to write a cover letter that addresses the hiring manager directly. The key to writing a good cover letter is to succinctly explain why you are the right fit for the job, how your resume will reflect that, and to display your personality through your words. A lot of people struggle with it, but the whole process is much smoother when AI assists you.

As the name suggests, CoverLetterGPT will help you write a cover letter using ChatGPT without needing to learn ChatGPT prompts or even create an OpenAI account. Add the job title, company, job description, and upload your current CV. Once CoverLetterGPT analyzes this input, it'll spit out a cover letter in a few seconds that you can copy-paste into a document.

CoverLetterGPT also lets you easily prompt ChatGPT to change any sentence or paragraph in the cover letter it has generated. Highlight the text, and you'll get an option to ask ChatGPT to make it more concise, detailed, professional, or informal. You can also ask for a whimsical sign-off to add a little fun to your letter.

5. SwiftCV (Web): Free, Beautiful Personal Online Resume Web Page

Can you really afford to apply for a job in the 2020s without an online CV? And it needs to look a little better than a basic web page where you've uploaded your resume as a PDF. SwiftCV makes it easy for anyone with no knowledge of creating websites to make a beautiful online resume that you can share with recruiters.

Create an account, and you can start adding details in different sections, as prompted by SwiftCV. You can also import your LinkedIn profile to quickly populate your online CV. The app makes good use of company logos, font colors, sizes, and other icons to make a resume that looks modern and professional. It also follows a responsive design, so your CV can be read on a computer or phone.

In the end, you'll get an online CV with a custom URL for you. SwiftCV also shows you analytics data of people who viewed your profile, so you can track who is interested. The free version has a few limitations (such as the downloadable PDF and website having SwiftCV branding), but most job-seekers probably don't need to pay for the premium version.

Don't Rely on AI Alone

It's amazing how AI is helping users to create better resumes and CVs, especially for those who don't have senior professionals to guide them through the process. But you do run the risk of not standing out from the crowd if you over-rely on AI. To add a personal touch, use the AI suggestions as a starting block, and edit it to infuse your personality into the resume or cover letter.

5 Easy-to-Use Online Resume Tools to Make Better CVs and Land Jobs

Politics latest: Starmer 'categorically' denies threatening Speaker - who reveals fears of 'finding friends have been murdered'

Commons Speaker Sir Lindsay Hoyle is under big pressure over his handling of the SNP's motion for a ceasefire in Gaza. His decision to allow a vote on a Labour amendment saw Tory and SNP MPs storm out - and dozens of them have signed a motion declaring they have no confidence in him.

Thursday 22 February 2024 15:06, UK

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  • Starmer denies threatening Speaker on Gaza vote
  • SNP says Sir Lindsay Hoyle 'cannot continue' in role
  • Speaker reveals police meetings over 'frightening' threats
  • 63 MPs sign no confidence motion in Speaker  |  See the full list
  • How MPs can force Speaker out
  • Explained: What happened in the Commons  |  Why MPs are angry
  • Beth Rigby:  Anger on Conservative benches is intense
  • Sam Coates:  No-confidence motion only going one way
  • Live reporting by Charlotte Chelsom-Pill

News is moving fast here in Westminster as the Speaker faces pressure after yesterday's chaos in the Commons over the Gaza ceasefire votes.

This post has the very latest figure for how many MPs have signed a no-confidence motion in Sir Lindsay Hoyle.

Context: It's important to note this early day motion won't necessarily force Sir Lindsay out.

He is not bound to resign if a certain number of MPs back it and there is unlikely to be a debate on it.

Rather, the EDM is being used as a mechanism by his critics to show the strength of feeling in parliament after what happened yesterday with the Gaza ceasefire votes.

Sir Lindsay sparked outrage among SNP and Tory MPs when he selected a Labour amendment to the SNP's motion.

Convention dictates that only the government can amend an opposition motion, but Sir Lindsay opted to choose Labour's amendment as well as the government's.

Scroll down for more detailed updates the latest reaction and analysis from our team of correspondents.

A Conservative MP has revealed his elderly parents were threatened with being stabbed to death following an opposition day debate like the SNP one held yesterday.

"We all face difficult votes in this House, I myself saw the consequences of one of those votes when after an opposition day debate some time ago, my elderly parents were threatened with being stabbed to death," James Grundy, the MP for Leigh, told the Commons.

His comments came after yesterday's SNP opposition day descended into chaos. One of the issues it has thrown up is around MPs' safety.

House Speaker Sir Lindsay Hoyle is under pressure after opting to select amendments tabled by both Labour and the government to a Gaza ceasefire motion put forward by the SNP.

Convention dictates only the government can amend an opposition motion, but Sir Lindsay said he had MPs' safety in mind when he made the unusual decision.

Mr Grundy told the Commons while the move may have meant Labour MPs "were protected from potential threats of violence and murder", Tory MPs were "consequentially more exposed to such threats".

"We cannot continue like this, such breaches of procedure are unacceptable, everyone's right in this House to vote in the way that they wish, and their security should be equal across all benches," he said.

Commons leader Penny Mordaunt replied: "It is not just what is directed against us, it is directed against members of our family, perhaps most appallingly honourable members' children as well."

Lib Dem leader Sir Ed Davey has told Sky News that embattled Commons Speaker Sir Lindsay Hoyle "handled himself very professionally" last night.

He said: "I just regret that some people, some parties are trying to make political gain out of this, which I don't think does them any credit."

Challenged on that assertion, Sir Ed said the Speaker's approach of putting three amendments up for debate seemed "a pretty fair approach to me".

"The Liberal Democrats have been asking the SNP for some time now, indeed, the previous debate, we asked the SNP to include this process, peace process, towards a two-state solution, and the SNP refused to do that for no clear good reason," he said.

"And I have to say we were left with the impression, sadly, that they were more interested in domestic political politics in Scotland than in making sure the House could come together so the UK parliament could send a clear signal."

He went on to say the SNP "weren't listening to other parties in how they put forward this debate, and therefore I think they did put the Speaker in a difficult position."

Sir Ed also said the Speaker deserves "some real credit" for coming to the House and apologising after he "saw the upset".

We've just heard from the leader of the Liberal Democrats about the chaotic events in parliament last night.

Sir Ed Davey told Sky News that what happened "did not show parliament in a good light".

A "serious subject" was being debated, he said, and it was an "important moment for the House of Commons to come together and send a very clear signal to Israel that we wanted an immediate bilateral ceasefire" and get "proper peace talks".

"And I think what we saw last night was really reprehensible," he added.

Asked about the position of the Speaker, who is under huge fire from the SNP and Tories, Sir Ed replied: "The Liberal Democrats have confidence in Speaker Hoyle.

"I think he was in a very difficult position. I think he wanted to enable a full debate over such a sensitive, important matter."

Sir Ed said the Speaker was operating in "good faith", and had to "take into account the worries that people had about the security and safety of MPs."

There are now 63 MPs who have signed a motion of no confidence in Speaker Sir Lindsay Hoyle.

Here's the full list of Conservatives:

  • William Wragg
  • Gary Sambrook
  • Jill Mortimer
  • John Stevenson
  • Kieran Mullan
  • Anthony Mangnall
  • James Duddridge
  • Chris Green
  • Bob Blackman
  • Tom Randall
  • Jonathan Lord
  • Karl McCartney
  • Derek Thomas
  • Jack Brereton
  • James Grundy
  • Brendan Clarke-Smith
  • Lee Anderson
  • Graham Brady
  • Eddie Hughes
  • Geoffrey Clifton-Brown
  • Marco Longhi
  • Simon Baynes
  • Shaun Bailey
  • Matt Warman
  • Steve Double
  • Danny Kruger
  • Miriam Cates
  • Robert Goodwill
  • Jonathan Gullis
  • Kelly Tolhurst

And from the SNP:

  • David Linden
  • Stewart Malcolm McDonald
  • John McNally
  • Gavin Newlands
  • Pete Wishart
  • Patricia Gibson
  • Joanna Cherry
  • Alison Thewliss
  • Anum Qaisar
  • Douglas Chapman
  • Carol Monaghan
  • Drew Hendry
  • Anne McLaughlin
  • John Nicolson
  • Kirsty Blackman
  • Ronnie Cowan
  • Dave Doogan
  • Amy Callaghan
  • Brendan O'Hara
  • Stephen Flynn
  • Mhairi Black
  • Richard Thomson

Independent:

  • Rob Roberts

Downing Street has refused to say whether the prime minister has confidence in the Speaker of the Commons. 

That's as dozens of MPs sign a motion of no confidence in Sir Lindsay Hoyle (see post at 10.40am).

Asked whether Prime Minister Rishi Sunak has confidence in the Speaker, Mr Sunak's official spokesman said: "The prime minister's focus is on addressing the situation in the Middle East.

"And as I say, that is what he's spending his time focused on."

The spokesman added the PM is "clear that on the Speaker, that's a matter for House process and not the government".

The list of MPs who have signed the no-confidence motion includes dozens of Tory and SNP MPs. 

The leader of the SNP in Westminster, Stephen Flynn, earlier withdrew his party's support for Sir Lindsay, saying his position is "untenable" (see post at 1.05pm).

By Jennifer Scott , political reporter

Senior Labour MP Dame Margaret Hodge tells Sky News threats towards MPs have increased since the war between Israel and Hamas.

Muslim MPs in particular are having a "terrible, terrible time", she says, as rows over whether to back a ceasefire in the region rage on.

"Security has had to be increased and people have been more guarded," she adds. "But it doesn’t affect me, I won't let it affect me."

Dame Margaret believes the Speaker was "right" to choose the Labour amendment in yesterday's debate, saying: "If you are going to have a debate on such a contentious and febrile issue, it seems to me to be crazy that standing orders would get in the way of everyone being able to support the position they want to.

"People are dying. They are dying, dying, dying as we speak, and we have these rows about procedures."

She also praised Sir Lindsay Hoyle for having always made MPs' safety a "priority", even before he took the chair.

The Jewish MP said he "talked about it a lot in the early days" when he was deputy speaker, and he was "always the person to go to" when she faced antisemitic abuse during Jeremy Corbyn's tenure leading the Labour Party.

Dame Margaret said his apology to the House last night "wasn't needed", adding: "If you are going to have debate, shouldn't you put it in context and let democracy prevail?"

Away from the Speaker's future, Defence Secretary Grant Shapps has just given an update in the Commons on the UK's support for Ukraine.

He said the UK's contribution so far has been "monumental", referencing a comment he said President Volodymyr Zelenskyy had made to him during his visit to Ukraine. 

And he pledged the UK "won't stop supporting the brave Ukrainians, our friends, until they have won and have victory".

Outlining the UK's support so far, he said the UK's total package of military support to Ukraine has exceeded £7bn. Including economic and humanitarian support, that figure reaches more than £12bn.  

"Our efforts, always a step ahead of our allies, have made a genuine difference," he said.

Mr Shapps announced a new package of 200 brimstone anti-tank missiles "in a further boost to defend Ukraine". 

He also said the UK Defence Drone Strategy had been launched today to stay "ahead on this new frontier technology".

Stressing what is at stake, he said: "This year will be make or break for Ukraine, so it's time for the West and all civilised nations to step up and give Ukraine the backing it needs."

It comes amid continued uncertainty over America's commitment to supporting Ukraine, with Republicans holding up a new funding package President Joe Biden has been hoping to send.

There are also concerns about what stance Donald Trump would take should his presidential run be successful.

Amid chaos in the Commons last night, "from the river to the sea, Palestine will be free" was reportedly projected on to parliament.

Often heard at pro-Palestine marches across the world, for some it is a call to end the Israeli occupation of the West Bank. 

But to others, including many Jewish groups, it is an antisemitic slogan.

Commons leader Penny Mordaunt has said reports it was beamed on to parliament are being investigated.

She said: "That is being looked at by both the Speaker's Office, parliamentary security, the Metropolitan Police, and Westminster City Council who will be responsible for pursuing prosecutions in that case."

Former minister and Tory MP Paul Scully describes the chaos in the Commons last night as "febrile" and says there was some "genuine anger" because the "security fears of MPs were real".

He tells Sky News about his own experiences, including getting over 2,500 aggressive emails from two constituents alone over the Israel-Hamas conflict, and says he was "pretty anxious" when he left parliament last night.

"But I don’t have it as bad as some of my colleagues," he adds.

"Last time there was a vote on a ceasefire, one of my colleagues in the Lords got really triggered by antisemitic abuse and three cameras being shoved in his face on a Tube platform.

"The protests and abuse has just escalated, and when things like last night happen in the Commons, it is just a tinderbox."

By Jennifer Scott, political reporter

Dozens of MPs from both the Tories and the SNP have signed up to a no-confidence motion in Sir Lindsay in the form of an early-day motion.

EDMs are rarely debated, but they offer MPs a way of drawing attention to their views and stating them publicly.

So while it may highlight their unhappiness with the Speaker, it doesn't push him out the door.

Yet Sir Lindsay is going to have to fight to keep his job now and win over his critics.

How would parliament choose a new Speaker?

According to the Institute for Government, there's no formal means of removing the Speaker from their role.

But MPs can hold a vote of no-confidence in him or her, making it extremely difficult for them to hold on - and perhaps pushing them towards resigning.

If Sir Lindsay did step down - either because of a vote or the threat of one coming his way - the chair would need to be filled.

Candidates would be put forward via written nominations, and if one secured more than 50% of the vote among MPs, a motion would be put to the Commons to confirm their appointment.

If the motion didn't pass, selection and voting would start again.

If nobody secured 50% in the first place, the candidate with the lowest vote share would be removed from the ballot and the vote would be repeated until someone hit the threshold and a winner emerged.

Read more here:

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iPhone Battery and Performance

Understand iPhone performance and its relation to your battery.

Your iPhone is designed to be simple and easy to use. This is only possible through a combination of advanced technologies and sophisticated engineering. One important technology area is battery and performance. Batteries are a complex technology, and a number of variables contribute to battery performance and related iPhone performance. All rechargeable batteries are consumables and have a limited lifespan — eventually their capacity and performance decline such that they need to be replaced. Learn more about iPhone batteries and how battery aging can affect iPhone performance.

About lithium-ion batteries

iPhone batteries use lithium-ion technology. Compared with older generations of battery technology, lithium-ion batteries charge faster, last longer, and have a higher power density for more battery life in a lighter package. Rechargeable lithium-ion technology currently provides the best technology for your device. Learn more about lithium-ion batteries .

How to maximize battery performance

“Battery life” is the amount of time a device runs before it needs to be recharged. “Battery lifespan” is the amount of time a battery lasts until it needs to be replaced. One factor affecting battery life and lifespan is the mix of things you do with your device. No matter how you use your device, there are ways to help. A battery’s lifespan is related to its “chemical age,” which is more than just the passage of time. It includes different factors, such as the number of charge cycles and how it was cared for. Follow these tips to maximize battery performance and help extend battery lifespan. For example, keep iPhone half charged when it’s stored for the long term. Also avoid charging or leaving iPhone in hot environments, including direct sun exposure, for extended periods of time.

When batteries chemically age

All rechargeable batteries are consumable components that become less effective as they chemically age.

As lithium-ion batteries chemically age, the amount of charge they can hold diminishes, resulting in shorter amounts of time before a device needs to be recharged. This can be referred to as the battery’s maximum capacity — the measure of battery capacity relative to when it was new. In addition, a battery’s ability to deliver maximum instantaneous performance, or “peak power,” might decrease. For a phone to function properly, the electronics must be able to draw upon instantaneous power from the battery. One attribute that affects this instantaneous power delivery is the battery’s impedance. A battery with a high impedance might be unable to provide sufficient power to the system that needs it. A battery's impedance can increase if a battery has a higher chemical age. A battery’s impedance will temporarily increase at a low state of charge and in a cold temperature environment. When coupled with a higher chemical age, the impedance increase will be more significant. These are characteristics of battery chemistry that are common to all lithium-ion batteries in the industry.

When power is pulled from a battery with a higher level of impedance, the battery’s voltage will drop to a greater degree. Electronic components require a minimum voltage to properly operate. This includes the device’s internal storage, power circuits, and the battery itself. The power management system determines the capability of the battery to supply this power and manages the loads to maintain operations. When the operations can no longer be supported with the full capabilities of the power management system, the system will perform a shutdown to preserve these electronic components. While this shutdown is intentional from the device perspective, it might be unexpected by the user.

Preventing unexpected shutdowns

You're more likely to experience unexpected shutdowns when your battery has a low state of charge, a higher chemical age, or when you're in colder temperatures. In extreme cases, shutdowns can occur more frequently, making the device unreliable or unusable. For iPhone 6, iPhone 6 Plus, iPhone 6s, iPhone 6s Plus, iPhone SE (1st generation), iPhone 7, and iPhone 7 Plus, iOS dynamically manages performance peaks to prevent the device from unexpectedly shutting down, so you can still use your iPhone. This performance management feature is specific to iPhone and doesn't apply to any other Apple products. Starting with iOS 12.1, iPhone 8, iPhone 8 Plus, and iPhone X include this feature; iPhone XS, iPhone XS Max, and iPhone XR include this feature starting with iOS 13.1. Learn about performance management on iPhone 11 and later .

iPhone performance management works by looking at a combination of the device temperature, battery state of charge, and battery impedance. Only if these variables require it, iOS will dynamically manage the maximum performance of some system components, such as the CPU and GPU, in order to prevent unexpected shutdowns. As a result, the device workloads will self-balance, allowing a smoother distribution of system tasks, rather than larger, quick spikes of performance all at once. In some cases, you might not notice any differences in device performance. The level of perceived change depends on how much performance management is required for your device.

In cases that require more extreme performance management, you might notice effects such as:

Longer app launch times

Lower frame rates while scrolling

Backlight dimming (which can be overridden in Control Center)

Lower speaker volume by up to -3dB

Gradual frame rate reductions in some apps

During the most extreme cases, the camera flash will be disabled as visible in the camera UI

Apps refreshing in background might require reloading upon launch

Many key areas aren't affected by this performance management feature. Some of these include:

Cellular call quality and networking throughput performance

Captured photo and video quality

GPS performance

Location accuracy

Sensors like gyroscope, accelerometer, barometer

For a low battery state of charge and colder temperatures, performance-management changes are temporary. If a device battery has chemically aged far enough, performance-management changes might be more lasting. This is because all rechargeable batteries are consumables and have a limited lifespan, eventually needing to be replaced. If you are impacted by this and would like to improve your device performance, replacing your device battery can help.

For iOS 11.3 and later

iOS 11.3 and later improve performance management by periodically assessing the level of performance management necessary to avoid unexpected shutdowns. If the battery health is able to support the observed peak power requirements, the amount of performance management will be lowered. If an unexpected shutdown occurs again, performance management will increase. This assessment is ongoing, allowing more adaptive performance management.

iPhone 8 and later use an advanced hardware and software design that provides a more accurate estimation of both power needs and the battery’s power capability to maximize overall system performance. This allows iOS to anticipate and avoid an unexpected shutdown more precisely. As a result, the effects of performance management might be less noticeable on iPhone 8 and later. Over time, the rechargeable batteries in all iPhone models will diminish in their capacity and peak performance and will eventually need to be replaced.

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Battery Health

For iPhone 6 and later, iOS 11.3 and later add new features to show battery health and recommend if you need to replace the battery. You can find these in Settings > Battery > Battery Health (with iOS 16.1 or later, find these in Settings > Battery > Battery Health & Charging).

Additionally, you can see if the performance-management feature, which dynamically manages maximum performance to prevent unexpected shutdowns, is on, and you can choose to turn it off. This feature is enabled only after an unexpected shutdown first occurs on a device with a battery that has diminished ability to deliver maximum instantaneous power. This feature applies to iPhone 6, iPhone 6 Plus, iPhone 6s, iPhone 6s Plus, iPhone SE (1st generation), iPhone 7, and iPhone 7 Plus. Starting with iOS 12.1, iPhone 8, iPhone 8 Plus, and iPhone X include this feature; iPhone XS, iPhone XS Max, and iPhone XR include this feature starting with iOS 13.1. Learn about performance management on iPhone 11 and later . The effects of performance management on these newer models might be less noticeable due to their more advanced hardware and software design.

Devices updating from iOS 11.2.6 or earlier will initially have performance management disabled; it will be reenabled if the device subsequently experiences an unexpected shutdown.

All iPhone models include fundamental performance management to ensure that the battery and overall system operates as designed and internal components are protected. This includes behavior in hot or cold temperatures, as well as internal voltage management. This type of performance management is required for safety and expected function, and cannot be turned off.

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Your battery's maximum capacity

The Battery Health screen includes information on maximum battery capacity and peak performance capability.

Maximum battery capacity measures the device battery capacity relative to when it was new. A battery will have lower capacity as the battery chemically ages, which might result in fewer hours of usage between charges. Depending upon the length of time between when the iPhone was made and when it's activated, your battery capacity might show as slightly less than 100 percent.

Batteries of iPhone 14 models and earlier are designed to retain 80 percent of their original capacity at 500 complete charge cycles under ideal conditions.* Batteries of iPhone 15 models are designed to retain 80 percent of their original capacity at 1000 complete charge cycles under ideal conditions.* With all models, the exact capacity percentage depends on how the devices are regularly used and charged. The one-year warranty includes service coverage for a defective battery in addition to rights provided under local consumer laws. If it is out of warranty, Apple offers battery service for a charge. Learn more about charge cycles.

As your battery health degrades, so can its ability to deliver peak performance. The Battery Health screen includes a section for Peak Performance Capability where the following messages might appear.

Performance is normal

When the battery condition can support normal peak performance and does not have the performance management features applied, you'll see this message:

Your battery is currently supporting normal peak performance.

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Performance management applied

When the performance management features have been applied, you'll see this message:

This iPhone has experienced an unexpected shutdown because the battery was unable to deliver the necessary peak power. Performance management has been applied to help prevent this from happening again. Disable…

Note that if you disable performance management, you can’t turn it back on. It will be turned on again automatically if an unexpected shutdown occurs. The option to disable will also be available.

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Battery health unknown

If iOS is unable to determine the device battery health, you'll see this message:

This iPhone is unable to determine battery health. An Apple Authorized Service Provider can service the battery. More about service options…

This might be due to having an improperly installed battery or an unknown battery part.

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Performance management turned off

If you disable the applied performance-management feature, you'll see this message:

This iPhone has experienced an unexpected shutdown because the battery was unable to deliver the necessary peak power. You have manually disabled performance management protections.

If the device experiences another unexpected shutdown, the performance-management features will be reapplied. The option to disable will also be available.

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Battery health degraded

If battery health has degraded significantly, the below message will also appear:

Your battery’s health is significantly degraded. An Apple Authorized Service Provider can replace the battery to restore full performance and capacity. More about service options…

This message doesn't indicate a safety issue. You can still use your battery. However, you might experience more noticeable battery and performance issues. A new replacement battery will improve your experience. More about service options .

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Important Battery Message

If you see the message below, it means the battery in your iPhone is unable to be verified. This message applies to iPhone XS, iPhone XS Max, iPhone XR, and later.

Unable to verify this iPhone has a genuine Apple battery. Health information not available for this battery. Learn more...

Reported battery health information isn't available. To have your battery checked, contact an Apple Authorized Service Provider. More about service options .

Learn more about this message as it appears on iPhone 11 and iPhone 11 Pro and later .

Getting further assistance

If your device performance has been affected by an aged battery and you would like to get help with a battery replacement, contact Apple Support for service options.

Learn more about battery service and recycling .

Recalibration of battery health reporting on iPhone 11, iPhone 11 Pro, and iPhone 11 Pro Max

iOS 14.5 and later include an update to address inaccurate estimates of battery health reporting for some users. The battery health reporting system will recalibrate maximum battery capacity and peak performance capability on iPhone 11, iPhone 11 Pro, and iPhone 11 Pro Max.

Learn more about recalibration of battery health reporting in iOS 14.5 .

* When you use your iPhone, its battery goes through charge cycles. You complete one charge cycle when you’ve used an amount that represents 100 percent of your battery’s capacity. A complete charge cycle is normalized between 80 percent and 100 percent of original capacity to account for expected diminishing battery capacity over time.

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    2. A Clear Pitch. Use the next few paragraphs of your cover letter to "hit them with the strongest results you have that are aligned with the opportunity," Godfred says. Ryan Kahn —Muse career coach and founder of The Hired Group —calls this your pitch.

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    Use double cover letter spacing between paragraphs and 1-1.15 between lines. Title your cover letter by JobTitle—CoverLetter—YourName. Let your cover letter layout stay intact en route to the recruiter by saving the file in PDF. Fit all the information included in the letter on one page.

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    Add the current date after that. Enter the company details: name of the hiring manager, name of the company, address of the company. Double space and include your professional cover letter salutation. The perfect cover letter always starts off with this format and makes it look smart and professional, much like this:

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