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Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies

Editor-in-Chief

Dr Farhan Ahmad Nizami

Dr Afifi Al-Akiti 

Dr Moin Ahmad Nizami

Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies

About the journal

The Journal of Islamic Studies is a multi-disciplinary publication dedicated to the scholarly study of all aspects of Islam and of the Islamic world …

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Qurʾānic and Ḥadīth Studies virtual issue

Journal of Islamic Studies are proud to share their latest virtual issue on the theme of ‘Qurʾānic and Ḥadīth Studies’.

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Networks and Travel Virtual Issue

Browse this virtual issue from the Journal of Islamic Studies on the theme of ‘Networks and Travel’.

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The Journal of Islamic Studies is accepting papers on the scholarly study of all aspects of Islam and of the Islamic World. In particular, papers dealing with history, geography, political science, economics, anthropology, sociology, law, literature, religion, philosophy, international relations, environmental, and developmental issues are welcomed.

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  • Harvard Library
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Introduction to Religion

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Encyclopaedia of the Qur’an English-language dictionary of terms, themes, place names related to the Qur'an. Includes concordance to the Qur'an.

Encyclopaedia of Islam three Comprehensive and authoritative encyclopedia of concepts, people, places related to the Islamic world and culture. Each entry has a bibliography.

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World: Digital Collection Offers extensive comparative and systematic analyses of Islamic beliefs, institutions, movements, practices, and peoples on an international scale. Articles range from brief essays to major interpretive and synthetic treatments of topics such as the Islamic state, pilgrimage, law, marriage, and foreign relations.

The Oxford History of Islam Introductory but detailed articles on Islam from its origins to present day, in various geographic regions. 

Find Journal Articles

Index Islamicus Index to articles, books, and reviews on Islamic studies from 1906-present.

Middle Eastern & Central Asian Studies Includes articles, books, theses, and grey literature on the Middle East, Central Asia, and North Africa.

Find Primary Sources

Islamic Heritage Project Contains digitized versions of Islamic manuscripts, texts, and maps from Harvard's collections.

Twentieth Century Religious Thought: Islam Important published works and manuscripts by leading 20th-century Islamic thinkers. Includes content in both English and Arabic.

Christian Muslim Relations Online, 600-1900 Indexes works by and about Christians and Muslims in relation to one another. Includes a description of the work, its significance, the manuscript locations, works that deal with the subject of the work, and keywords.

Find Sacred Texts & Commentaries

Find the Qur'an and commentaries in HOLLIS.

Early Western Korans Online: Koran Printing in the West, 1537-1857 Contains all Qur'an editions in Arabic printed in Europe between 1537 and 1857, as well as translations directly from the Arabic (until about 1860).

Find Bibliographies

Oxford Bibliographies Online - Islamic Studies Extensive listings of key resources related to sub-topics within Islamic studies.

Search HOLLIS Advanced Search (in Library Catalog) for [name of religion] + bibliography as a subject . If you are looking for a bibliography in English, you should use the refining options on the left-hand side under Language to limit to items in English.

HOLLIS search for Islam and bibliography as subjects

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University libraries, research guides, islamic studies: open access peer-reviewed journals.

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Open Access Peer Reviewed Journals in Islamic Studies

Peruse this curated list of open access, scholarly journals related to Islamic Studies . Check out our list of open access journals in Religious Studies , too! 

Open Access Peer-Reviewed Journals in Philosophy

  • Directory of Open Access Journals: Philosophy, Psychology, & Religion The Directory of Open Access Journals was launched in 2003 at Lund University, Sweden, with 300 open access journals and today contains more than 10000 open access journals covering all areas of science, technology, medicine, social science and humanities.
  • International Journal of Islamic Thought IJIT provides a unique peer-reviewed forum to postgraduate students, scholars, professors, and researchers in various topics within Islamic thought.
  • Tsaqafah A journal of Islamic civilization and culture, published by Universitas Darussalam Gontor.
  • Islamic Lifestyle Centered on Health A peer-reviewed journal focused on health and lifestyle from an Islamic perspective.
  • Theosophy: Journal of Mysticism, Sufism, and Islamic Thought Theosophy attempts to foster a better understanding of Sufism and Islamic thought, both locally and internationally.
  • Refleksi: Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Ushuluddin specializes in Qur'an and Hadith studies, Islamic Philosophy, and Religious studies, and is intended to communicate original research on these subject.
  • KADER Kelam Araştırmaları Dergisi An open-access journal on contemporary Islamic thought and theology.
  • Intellectual Discourse ID is a multi-disciplinary, flagship journal of the International Islamic University Malaysia, dedicated to the scholarly study of all aspects of Islam and the Muslim world. Particular attention is paid to works dealing with history, geography, political science, economics, education, psychology, sociology, law, literature, religion, philosophy, international relations, environmental and developmental issues.
  • Journal of Al-Tamaddun JAT publishes articles and research papers pertaining to history, civilization, thought, systems and development from an Islamic perspective in Malay, English and Arabic.
  • Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies JAIS is an international, peer-reviewed, open access, academic journal. It is also the world's most widely read journal in the field of Arabic, Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies. The main aim of the journal is to promote the study of history, language, literature and culture through the publication of research articles.
  • Journal of Indonesian Islam The journal puts emphasis on aspects related to Islamic studies in an Indonesian context, with special reference to culture, politics, society, economics, history, and doctrines.

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Middle East & Islamic Studies Databases for Research: Home

  • Top Reference Databases (Getting Started)
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Spotlight * NEW

Databases (general * multidisciplinary).

Archives of Arabic cultural and literary journals موقع أرشيف المجلات الأدبية والثقافية العربية

Full-Text Online Arabic Sources: A Preliminary List List of online databases that contain full-text Arabic materials, i.e., which allow for searching within the texts.

  • Islamkundliche Untersuchungen Digital   The  series  Islamkundliche Untersuchungen ,  published by  Klaus Schwarz  Publishers since  1970, is one of the most important series related to Islamic Studies in Germany. Following an agreement with the publishers in 2009, the ULB Halle started digitizing out of print titles belonging to the series and made them available as Open Access titles in its repository  MENAdoc . 

Digital Library of the Middle East "The Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) and Stanford Libraries today announced the release of a public, open platform for the Digital Library of the Middle East (DLME), which aims to become one of the world’s largest online archives of Middle Eastern and North African artifacts. The DLME aggregates, through an ongoing program, digital records of published materials, documents, maps, artifacts, audiovisual recordings, and more from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. An international collaborative effort under development for four years, the DLME currently brings together 127,443 digital records of materials held in museums, libraries, and archives worldwide. It also provides an array of applications, tools, and descriptions that enrich the content and facilitate browsing, search, and interpretation. The DLME is intended to serve as a resource for teachers, students, and researchers, as well as for the general public."

Shamaa provides specialists and stakeholders free internet access to the educational studies produced in the Arab countries, as well as those available through international organizations with whom Shamaa has concluded cooperation agreements. Shamaa also welcomes submissions by researchers on education in the Arab countries produced worldwide. It indexes peer-refereed articles, Master theses and PhD dissertations, books, reports and conference proceedings dated 2007 onward in Arabic, English and French. The database includes bibliographic information, abstracts and, when available, the full text of educational studies

BRILL Collections:   Middle East and Islamic Studies E-Books Online, Collection

Women of Islamic Studies    Women of Islamic Studies  is a crowdsourced database of women scholars who work on Muslims and Islam. This ongoing project is in its beta version. Once sufficient data has been collected I will partner with a university for a more stable home.

" Middle East Women’s Activism   digital archive is a collection of interviews with 96 women of different generations in Egypt, Jordan and Lebanon, which form the basis of a monograph, entitled,  Embodying Geopolitics: Generations of Women’s Activism in Egypt, Jordan and Lebanon . All interviews were conducted by Nicola Pratt, University of Warwick, in 2013-2014 as part of a British Academy Mid-Career Fellowship exploring the relationship between gender and geopolitics in the context of the Middle East. The research received approval from the University of Warwick Humanities and Social Sciences Research Ethics Committee and consent was given at the time of interview to make this material publicly available. The archive will be of interest to researchers in the fields of gender studies and post-independence social history in Egypt, Jordan and Lebanon. The interviews consist of women’s personal narratives of their family background and education, how they became involved in public work (al-‘amal al-‘am), information about their activism and how it has changed over time and the impact of/their involvement in major national events, amongst other details."  Middle East Women's Activism

Contemporary Archive of the Islamic World The book series Contemporary Archive of the Islamic World offers political and economic reports about the countries of the Islamic world from the mid-1970s until the present-day. The series is an invaluable resource for researchers and is also suitable for classroom use.

Index Islamicus. 1906- ."Produced by an editorial team based at the London School of Oriental and African Studies, this database covers European-language books, articles, conference proceedings, and reviews of works dealing with all facets of Islam and the Islamic world. Coverage begins with 1906; the database is updated quarterly." [ Guide to Reference ]. Indexing before 1906: Wolfgang Behn's Index Islamicus 1665-1905: A Bibliography of Articles on Islamic Subjects in Periodicals and Other Collective Publications (Olin Reference Z 7835 .M6 P35) "provides retrospective coverage back to 1665 that is not available through the online Index Islamicus. Behn lists over 21,000 articles from journals, conference proceedings, and collected works in a variety of European languages." [ Guide to Reference ].

Encyclopedia of Arabic language and linguistics  Leiden : Brill / General Editors: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong  The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics represents a unique collaboration of a few hundred scholars from around the world and covers all relevant aspects of the study of Arabic and deals with all levels of the language (pre-Classical Arabic, Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, Arabic vernaculars, mixed varieties of Arabic). No other reference work offers this scale of contributions or depth and breadth of coverage.

The Arabic Papyrology Database "The Arabic Papyrology Database is a tool enabling you to access the editions of Arabic documents written on different material such as papyrus, parchment or paper. Those productive editions are an often unraised treasure for almost every aspect of Islamic history up to the 16th c. A.D. "

“ Knowledge Production Project ” by Jadaliyya, “a dynamic, open-access archive, search tool, and data visualization platform. This project, almost a decade in the making, endeavors to collect, catalogue, and and make available for analysis knowledge produced on the Middle East since 1979 in the English language, in eight databases.”

Qatar Digital Library : A partnerships between the Qatar Foundation, the Qatar National Library and The British Library. A wide range of content, including archives, maps, manuscripts, sound recordings, and photographs. Items are accompanied with notes and links, in both English and Arabic.

Access to Mideast and Islamic Resources (AMIR) : A guide for open-access journal and digitized collection put together by librarians Charles Jones and Peter Magierski. Users can sign up for updates.

A Chronology of 19th Century Periodicals in Arabic (1800-1900): Includes indexes for persons, organizations, locations, and holding institutions. The Zentrum Moderner Orient (ZMO), a German research institute devoted to an interdisciplinary and comparative study of the Middle East, Africa, Central Asia, South and Southeast Asia from a historical perspective.

Ensani : Portal jami' ulum insani پرتال جامع علوم انسانی This portal [in Persian only]  offers free search and access to journal articles in social sciences and humanities fields ( literature, economics, history, education, geography, law, psychology, linguistics, social sciences, Islamic science, political science, library science, philosophy and logic, management, women studies, art studies ). Most articles are available as full-text and can be freely downloaded.

Islam and Islamic Studies Resources : A Guide for primary sources (sacred texts, official documents), scholarly materials, tools for students learning Arabic, information about Islamic communities and current issues. Prof. Alan Godlas (Department of Religion, University of Georgia).

Transcultural Islam Research Network : Aims to deepen understanding of Islamic cultures and issues. A project of the Duke Islamic Studies Center, in partnership with the Carolina Center for the Study of the Middle East and Muslim Civilizations and the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies. Includes a lot of informative resources, including new publications, research groups, and web resources.

Making of Modern Law: Foreign, Comparative and International Law, 1600-1926 : This collection includes pre-1926 treatises and similar monographs, sourced from the collections of the Yale, George Washington University, and Columbia law libraries, in the following areas: International Law; Comparative Law; Foreign Law; Roman Law; Islamic Law; Jewish Law; and Ancient Law.

Muslim, Christian, and Jewish Relations in the Middle East : "This forum aims to promote the humanistic study of urban religious cultures in the Middle East and North Africa during the Islamic era, i.e., in the period following the rise of Islam in the seventh century. It seeks to draw the attention of researchers to useful resources, and particularly to printed books, manuscripts, and images in the library collections of the University of Pennsylvania."

IRCICA Farabi Digital Library is a project aiming at facilitating and supporting libraries make their digital collections available to worldwide scholars. To do so, IRCICA developed a  stand alone software allowing libraries to easily display their digital materials, and hosts the digital library.

The Interactive Encyclopedia of the Palestine Question , which it has been developing as part of a joint project with the Palestinian Museum.

The fully bilingual (English–Arabic) platform is entirely devoted to the history of modern Palestine, from the end of the Ottoman era to the present. The Encyclopedia, the first of its kind, was developed for use by academics, students, journalists, and the general public. It currently consists of the following sections:

An Overall Chronology that presents the main events and developments that shaped Palestinian modern history in the realms of war, diplomacy, politics, culture, and economy;

Thematic Chronologies , or subsets of the Overall Chronology, that facilitate access to entries relevant to specific topics;

Highlights , written by leading academics and experts in the field, that cover important events and institutions, political, military and legal-constitutional developments, as well as crucial aspects of Palestinian cultural, social, or economic life or experience;

Biographies of Palestinian intellectuals, artists, leaders, combatants, and politicians who have influenced the history of Palestine since the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries;

Places , the digitized version of the seminal book All That Remains, dedicated to the 418 Palestinian villages destroyed in 1948;

Documents, consisting of hundreds of primary texts, photographs, maps, and charts.   The Encyclopedia has come to fruition following years of preparation and several stages of implementation. Throughout this process, utmost attention has been given to introduce a description of the Palestine Question that is simultaneously committed and objective and to present Palestinians as they are—purposeful actors, and not just victims, who build with both successes and setbacks their political, social, and cultural institutions inside and outside Palestine.

Digital Sources for the Study of the Ottoman Empire and Turkey  *  [ Click here to download the overview of Digital Sources for the Study of the Ottoman Empire and Turkey . ]

Database for Ottoman Inscriptions -Osmanli Kitableri Projesi The Database of Ottoman Inscriptions (DOI) is searchable digital database comprising information about, as well as transliterations and pictures of, all the Turkish, Arabic and Persian architectural inscriptions created in the Ottoman lands during Ottoman times. For more information, click here .

Historians of the Ottoman Empire  " intends to comprise all the historians who have lived and produced within the geographical limits of the Ottoman Empire -- regardless of the language." The  Historians of the Ottoman Empire  is intended to be a major reference work for scholars and students of the Middle East, North Africa, South-East Europe, and the Caucasus, as well as for non-specialists interested in the histories and cultures of these regions.

11 Essential Digitized Collections for Middle East Historians - HAZINE

ارشيف المطبوعات السورية | Syrian Prints Archive

Documenting and archiving new Syrian prints (newspapers, magazines, and periodicals) issued after the outbreak of the Syrian Revolution. Making all Syrian prints available on one website, obviating the need to search and surf through tabs of websites and social media webpages. Providing basic information about Syrian prints, including contact info.   Classifying and categorizing the Syrian prints according to place of issuance, periodicity of issuance and affiliations. Correcting misprints related to dates of issuance, in addition to converting Hijri calendar to western calendar to enhance the search. Providing surfing, sharing, rating, downloading, and printing features. Providing search within a specified time frame and within texts in PDF files.'

islamic religion research papers

 Diarna : The Geo-Museum of North African and Middle Eastern Jewish Life   "Diarna ( דיארנא ديارنا “ Our homes ” in Judeo-Arabic): The Geo-Museum of North African and Middle Eastern Jewish Life is working to digitally preserve the physical remnants of Jewish history throughout the region. We are in a race against time to capture site data and record place-based oral histories before even the memories of these communities are lost.   Diarna pioneers the synthesis of digital mapping technology, traditional scholarship, and field research, as well as a trove of multimedia documentation. All of these combine to lend a virtual presence and guarantee untrammeled access to Jewish historical sites lest they be forgotten or erased."

Database of Arabic Literature in Western Research : Scholarly books and articles about Arabic literature in western languages (18th century-present). Oxford Literary Publication and Documentation

The Golha Project : A searchable encyclopedia of Persian poetry and music with audio recordings of all of the Golha radio programs (1956-1979), as well as biographies of hundreds of poets and performers. It comprises a database of more than 1000 hours of audio material, searchable by 18 different search criteria such as musical modes, instruments, poetic verse, poetic genre, singer, and songwriter names. Iran Heritage Foundation (IHF).

Brockelmann in English : the history of the Arabic written tradition online 2017-    [Leiden, The Netherlands] : Brill, 2017- Online [Translation of : Brockelmann, Carl, 1868-1956. Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur .]

Arab Acquis Corpus   Arab-Acquis is a large dataset for evaluating machine translation between 22 European languages and Arabic. Arab-Acquis consists of over 12,000 sentences from the JRCAcquis (Acquis Communautaire) corpus translated twice by professional translators, once from English and once from French, and totaling over 600,000 words. This resource was developed at the Computational Approaches to Modeling Language ( CAMeL ) Lab in  New York University Abu Dhabi .

Archnet : Islamic Architecture Community of scholars, students, and professionals working in architecture, planning, landscape design, and the related fields. The project was developed at the University of Texas at Austin and the MIT School of Architecture and Planning in co-operation with the Aga Khan Trust for Culture.

ARTstor Digital Library : Islamic Art and Architecture Collection (Sheila Blair, Jonathan Bloom, Walter Denny); Shangri La, Doris Duke Foundation for Islamic Art.

The Quranic Arabic Corpus is an annotated linguistic resource for the Quran, including the Arabic grammar, syntax and morphology for each word. The corpus provides three levels of analysis: morphological annotation, a syntactic treebank and a semantic ontology. Also includes the full text of the Quran, translation into English, and audio recitations (require iTunes). A free resource under the GNU public license; maintained by the School of Computing, University of Leed.

“ Qur’an Details search page allows scholars to search among 4,700 detailed entries for historically interesting Qur’an pages, spanning 110 collections from all over the world, and representing all eras and all places of production. Using this facility, scholars can make specialist searches for terms including:  • Qur’an page description (type of illumination, decoration or binding) • Qur’an type (fragment, Juz etc.) • Qur’an Sura reference • Script (kufic, naskh, etc.) • Number of lines per page • Page size (height and width) • Qur’an name (e.g. Oljaytu's Baghdad Qur’an), and •  Calligrapher name.

BiblioIslam   : provides access to more than 250,000 academic theses, books, journal articles, research essays and conference papers - in English and Arabic.

Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding (Georgetown University): "'Of special interest is the Islamic resources link, which pulls together Web sites of major Muslim publications, organizations, and academic programs around the world." (CHOICE Review Online)

Islamicity.com : This website is maanged by Human Assistance and Development International (HADI), a non-profit organization "working for the socoi-economic, seducationalm, and scientific development of people worldwide".

The Omar Ibn Said Collection The Library of Congress has acquired and made available online the Omar Ibn Said Collection, which includes the only known surviving slave narrative written in Arabic in the United States. In 1831, Omar Ibn Said, a wealthy and highly educated man who was captured in West Africa and brought to the United States as a slave, wrote a 15-page autobiography describing his experiences. This manuscript is important not only because it tells the personal story of a slave written by himself, but also because it documents an aspect of the early history of Islam and Muslims in the United States. The Omar Ibn Said Collection consists of 42 original documents in both English and Arabic, including the manuscript in Arabic of “The Life of Omar Ibn Said” – the centerpiece of this unique collection of texts. Other manuscripts include texts in Arabic by another West African slave in Panama and from individuals located in West Africa.

islamic religion research papers

Arabic Ontology الأنطولوجيا العربية

A new cross-search dictionary tool from Mustafa Jarrar of Birzeit University. "Linguistic Search Engine: The largest Arabic lexical database:Arabic Ontology + 150 Arabic dictionaries."

Kurdish Digital Library  - Kurdish Institute of Paris,  The Institute has digitized a thousand books related to Kurds and the Middle East general. Some books can be downloaded as pdf.

The Doha Historical Dictionary of Arabic  “The Doha Historical Dictionary of Arabic​ aims to oversee the compilation of a historical lexicon of the Arabic language as it has developed over the last two millennia. Once completed, the final work will detail the origins of every word in its corpus and record the transformations in each word’s meaning, in addition to the location of its first appearance. To achieve this, the Doha Historical Dictionary of Arabic will rely on an extensive body of primary materials in the Arabic language, drawn from centuries of the Arabic canon.."

Muslims of the Midwest   digital archive features numerous interviews and resources that will  be of interest to scholars and students alike. The archive is housed at Michigan State University and was largely funded by a University of Illinois Humanities Without Walls grant.

General Databases with International Content (Multidisciplinary)

Proquest research library it contains bibliographic descriptions, abstracts, and lots of full-text articles covering over 150 subjects and topics such as business, economics, education, health, industrial relations, management, public policy, religion and statistics.  proquest research library provides one-stop access to thousands of full-text periodicals from one of the broadest, most inclusive general reference databases. search from a highly-respected, diversified mix of scholarly journals, professional and trade publications, and magazines. [ how to use the database ]..

Image result for [How to use the database JSTOR

Access World News Access World News from NewsBank provides full-text information and perspectives from over 700 international sources. Each newspaper or wire service provides unique coverage of local and regional news, including specific information about local companies, politics, sports, industries, cultural activities, and the people in the community. Paid advertisements are excluded.

U.S. Declassified Documents Online  Searchable database of previously classified federal records spanning the twentieth and twenty first centuries. The types of materials include intelligence studies, policy papers, diplomatic correspondence, cabinet meeting minutes, briefing materials, and domestic surveillance and military reports. Database allows users to to locate the full text of documents and filter their search results by document type, issue date, source institution, classification level, and date declassified as well as other document characteristics.

Historical abstracts (Online) Published since 1954, Historical Abstracts currently covers over 1,700 journals published worldwide in over forty languages. The database comprises over 720,000 entries from periodicals, with full-text links to over 135,000 articles and dissertations and masters' theses. Each year, the editors of Historical Abstracts add over 16,000 abstracts and citations, over 3,000 book citations, and over 1,200 citations of dissertations and masters' theses to the database from the current literature and publications. Additional bibliographical entries are also added to the database by editorial projects such as retrospective coverage of journal issues published prior to 1954.

International political science abstracts (Online)  Current indexing and abstracting of the world's leading journals in political science

Directories & Guides

General directories (for research).

International directory of Middle East scholars (1995-) , (also known as: IDMES) Searchable, detailed information about Middle East Studies scholars throughout the world. New York: Columbia University

Middle Eastern & Central Asian Studies | EBSCO

International research centers directory International research centers directory (Online) Farmington Hills, MI : Gale/Cengage. English. International Research Centers Directory (IRCD) is the most current, comprehensive resource on government, university, and independent nonprofit research organizations in over 150 countries. Research has been broadly defined to include fundamental, applied, and developmental studies, as well as data gathering, analysis, and synthesis activities, outside the United States.

Muslims of the Midwest digital archive features numerous interviews and resources that will be of interest to scholars and students alike. The archive is housed at Michigan State University and was largely funded by a University of Illinois Humanities Without Walls grant.

Digital Sources for the Study of the Ottoman Empire and Turkey  *  [ Click here to download the overview of Digital Sources for the Study of the Ottoman Empire and Turkey . ]

Thesaurus d'Epigraphie Islamique, Edition 2020  /  Conceived and directed by L. KALUS, co-directed by F. BAUDEN, developed by F. SOUDAN. "This project aims to bring together all the Arabic, Persian, and Turkish (or even in other languages) inscriptions of the Muslim world until the year 1000 AH, that is to say, the period usually identified as the Middle Ages.

Open Access

The primary aim of DOAB is to increase discoverability of Open Access books. Academic publishers are invited to provide metadata of their Open Access books to DOAB.

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Islamic Studies and the Alphabetical List of Open Access Journals in Middle Eastern Studies

Alphabetical List of Open Access Historical Newspapers and Other Periodicals in Middle East

Arabic Newspapers of Ottoman and Mandatory Palestine  A digitization project from the National Library of Israel which has digitized 27 newspapers from 1908-1948. Project URL: http://web.nli.org.il/sites/nlis/en/jrayed# .

Directory of Free Arab Journals (DFAJ)  : DFAJ  collects journals issued in Arabic, English, and French languages in all branches of human knowledge.

T he Directory of Open Access Repositories – Open DOAR – lists several digital repositories in Egypt such as American University in Cairo’s DAR.

Medieval and Early Modern Orients  (MEMOs) is an AHRC-funded project that seeks to further knowledge and understanding of the early interactions between England and the Islamic worlds. Through our pages and our blog we hope to create an accessible space to reveal the exciting discoveries of researchers as they navigate the seas of history and literature, and investigate the intersecting webs of our pasts.

Islamkundliche Untersuchungen Digital   The series Islamkundliche Untersuchungen , published by Klaus Schwarz Publishers since 1970, is one of the most important series related to Islamic Studies in Germany. Following an agreement with the publishers in 2009, the ULB Halle started digitizing out of print titles belonging to the series and made them available as Open Access titles in its repository MENAdoc . 

Kurdish Digital Library  - Kurdish Institute of Paris, The Institute has digitized a thousand books related to Kurds and the Middle East general. Some books can be downloaded as pdf.

https://openlibrary.org/images/logo_OL-lg.png

Bibliothèque diplomatique numérique [FRANCE] Ministère français de l'Europe et des affaires étrangères (MEAE).  Histoire diplomatique * Documents diplomatiques * Ministères des Affaires étrangères * Des diplomates : formation, récits et portraits * Droit international * Traités, accords et conventions * Protectorats et mandat français * Publications officielles étrangères ou intergouvernementales.

islamic religion research papers

Digital Mu ṣḥ af "The Digital Muṣḥaf Project aims to create a database of images of early Qurʾānic fragments from dispersed muṣḥafs or codices of the Qurʾanic text and, as far as possible, virtually re-create the original codices so that they are available for scholars and the public in one place together with descriptions and metadata.

" The Memory of Modern Egypt " provides access to open sound recordings.

" The Gamal Abdel Nasser Digital Archives "   Speeches  

"The Sadat Digital Archives":   أنور السادات  

Digitized Collections Databases

  • AUB Libraries Digital Collections is a gateway to our digitized and preserved collections featuring manuscripts, maps, photos, posters, books, multimedia and other resources. This online growing repository aims to continuously disseminate knowledge about AUB, the region, our history and cultural heritage for the purpose of research, teaching and education. It is also a hub for collaboration with other departments, faculties, scholars in addition to external partners libraries and institutions to support digital scholarship initiatives.
  • Arabic Collections Online - Digital Library  Arabic Collections Online (ACO) is a publicly available digital library of public domain Arabic language content.
  • An Arabic and Middle Eastern Electronic Library
  • The Arabic Papyrology Database : Features primary documents reflecting everyday life, legal and administrative practice in the first centuries of Islam.
  • Arab American newspapers * Arab American Newspapers Project / Khayrallah Center at NC State University 
  • Cultural Imaginings: the Creation of the Arab World in the Western Mind : A collaboration between The George Washington University's Gelman Library and Georgetown University's Lauinger Library to digitize about  2,500 monographs and a number of bound manuscripts from the Middle East and North Africa.
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Crafts of Syria / Dr Marcus Milwright , Professor of Islamic Art and Archaeology, Department of Art History and Visual Studies University of Victoria

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Toward a Framework for Islamic Psychology and Psychotherapy: An Islamic Model of the Soul

Abdallah rothman.

Department of Psychology, Kingston University London, Penrhyn Road, Kingston-upon-Thames, KT1 2EE UK

Adrian Coyle

A uniquely Islamic theoretical framework for an Islamic psychology has yet to be established. To do so requires that we understand how human beings are conceptualized within the cosmology that characterizes the Islamic tradition. This paper presents a model of the soul from within an Islamic paradigm, generated through a grounded theory analysis of interviews with 18 key informants with relevant academic or religious expertise. The model elaborates aspects of a mechanism for the development of the soul that constitutes a potential foundation for an Islamic theory of human psychology and has particular relevance for Islamic approaches to psychotherapy.

Introduction

Over the past few decades, the question of how best to define and realize the integration of Islam and psychology has gained much attention, culminating in what Kaplick and Skinner ( 2017 ) call an “Islam and psychology movement.” Despite the fact that in 1979 Malik Badri cautioned Muslim psychologists against adopting Western theories and called for an Islamic paradigm of psychology, the majority of research efforts within this movement over the past 10 years have focused on cultural or religious adaptations of Western models (Haque et al. 2016 ). A uniquely Islamic theoretical framework for an Islamic psychology has yet to be established. To do so requires that we understand at a foundational level how human beings are conceptualized within the cosmology that characterizes the Islamic tradition.

The understanding of human nature and the relative conception of structural aspects that make up the human psyche or “soul” determine much of how we make sense of behavior and motivation and are fundamental to the philosophical underpinnings of theoretical approaches to psychology and psychotherapy (Coon and Mitterer 2012 ). It is inappropriate to adopt the theoretical orientations that underpin contemporary Western psychology because most of these have been influenced by concepts of human nature other than those derived from Islam (Delaney and DiClemente 2005 ). Defining an Islamic psychology in an Islamically meaningful way would be impossible without first constructing a conceptual framework or model of human nature with Islamic integrity (Muhammad 1996 ). This would constitute a foundation for various forms of applied psychology such as Islamic psychotherapies. This paper engages with that task by presenting and analyzing the input of scholars from diverse disciplines of Islamic thought in the form of qualitative interview data and, through this analysis, developing an Islamic model of the soul.

Among the handful of studies that have attempted to tackle the ambitious project of developing a uniquely Islamic psychological framework, the work of Keshavarzi and Haque ( 2013 ) is important as it articulates many of the necessary considerations in this endeavor. They discuss a broad range of considerations, including cultural attitudes to and religious perspectives on mental health, but they focus on the four aspects of the soul (the nafs or lower self, the qalb or heart, the aql or intellect, and the ruh or spirit) that were identified/elaborated in the twelfth century by al-Ghazali ( 2015 ) and have been referenced by many authors in the ‘Islam and psychology’ movement (for example, Abu-Raiya 2012 ; Haque 2004 ; Skinner 2010 ). Keshavarzi and Haque ( 2013 ) outline how these four aspects can provide a framework for interventions, with each representing a “level” of the soul as a relative target point for intervening according to assessment and diagnosis. Prior to that, Skinner ( 2010 ) had alluded to a similar conception of assessment and treatment using these aspects as a guide.

Abu-Raiya ( 2012 ) presented a “systematic Qur’anic theory of personality” which also outlines a framework of the psychological nature of the human being around these four aspects but adds the three developmental stages as found in the Qur’an: nafs al ammarah bil su (soul that inclines to evil), nafs al lawwama (self-reproaching soul), and nafs al mutmainah (soul at rest). The inclusion of these stages is significant in that they impart a dynamic element to the framework and indicate a natural progression of the soul toward growth. The same applies to Briki and Amara’s ( 2018 ) “perspective of Islamic self” that is built on Ibn al Qayyim’s ideas (Haque 2004 ) and draws from a “dynamical social psychology,” whereas Abu-Raiya ( 2012 ) draws substantial comparisons with Freudian theory and uses it as a resource in his framework.

While there is a dearth of literature and research on the psyche, the self or the soul within the realm of Islam and psychology (Haque et al. 2016 ; Kaplick and Skinner 2017 ), these few papers have been useful in laying some groundwork and suggesting potential directions for further expansion of a theoretical framework for the domain. What all of these efforts have in common is that, although their concepts and principles were taken directly from sources within the Islamic tradition, the synthesis and understanding of these concepts were the product of only one or two individuals whose expertise is mainly in the field of psychology. In addressing the need to develop a comprehensive theory within an Islamic epistemological paradigm, Elmessiri ( 2006 ) asserted that the project must be a collaborative effort by a team of scholars who organize relevant thought and knowledge in a “creative attempt to apprehend the paradigms implicit in different Islamic texts and phenomena” (p. 68). This range of perspectives is necessary due to the variety of interpretations and definitions of Islam (Ahmed 2015 ; el-Zein 1977 ; Iqbal 2001 ), as well as the numerous branches of knowledge within the Islamic tradition that offer critical insight into and explanation of relevant teachings and concepts in regard to human psychology.

This paper presents a study that aimed to develop a data-grounded, consensual model of the soul from within an Islamic paradigm. The research question that underpinned the study was: what are the core principles and concepts regarding the conceptualization of the person from within an Islamic paradigm? It is hoped that, in later work, such a model could constitute a foundation for an Islamic theory of human psychology and Islamic approaches to psychotherapy.

Participants

Participants were sought who had academic or religious expertise related to Islamic conceptions of human psychology and who could therefore act as “key informants,” sharing their own views and commenting from their informed positions on the views of others in their field (Gilchrist 1992 ). Forty individuals were ultimately identified and were invited to take part. Most were authors of books or articles relevant to the research question but others were identified through personal recommendations and “snowballing”. All were experts in their field and many were leading thinkers in topics related to Islamic psychology.

Eighteen people agreed to participate: 17 men and one woman who ranged in age from 39 to 89 years. Participants came from nine countries across four continents. The sample included practising Muslims, non-practising Muslims, and non-Muslims. Five participants were Islamic psychologists involved in research and/or clinical work; four were scholars in Islamic spirituality who were based in academic contexts; three were academic scholars in Islamic philosophy; three were non-academic Islamic religious scholars; three were traditional Islamic spirituality practitioners. Not all participants were recruited at the same time. Instead recruitment occurred progressively in a process referred to as “theoretical sampling” which characterized the research approach adopted in this study. This is explained below.

Except for the Islamic psychologists, many participants had little background in psychology and most were not previously familiar with the concept of Islamic psychology per se. While participants with an academic background provided historical and often interdisciplinary perspectives on Islamic thought, participants with a traditional religious background were able to provide context to practical applications of such knowledge.

Data Generation

Data were generated through individual semi-structured interviews conducted by the first author. The interview schedule featured open-ended questions that were developed to elicit participants’ personal views and opinions on what might constitute an Islamic psychological understanding of the human being, based on their relevant knowledge and study of related fields. The topic of an Islamic conception of human psychology was introduced, and the participants’ personal stance and ideas were explored without specific direction from the interviewer: for example, “What are the key principles and concepts that might characterize an Islamic conception of psychology?” The interview schedule then focused on the particular principles that the participants identified as central, such as “How do virtues and vices come into play in the process of purification of the soul?”

When a favorable ethical opinion for the study had been obtained from the researchers’ university context, the field work began with piloting to test the schedule. Fifteen interviews were then conducted in person and three by video conference. The interviews lasted on average for 60 min but varied from 30 to 90 min. Each interview was digitally recorded and subsequently transcribed verbatim.

Analytic Procedure

Transcripts were analyzed using the qualitative analytic procedure known as constructivist grounded theory, formulated by Charmaz ( 2014 ). This builds upon the original version of grounded theory developed by Glaser and Strauss ( 1967 ) who advocated “developing theories from research grounded in data rather than deducing testable hypotheses from existing theories” (p. 4). The approach enables new theoretical insights to be developed directly from a systematic interrogation of data and is particularly useful in areas where existing theory is incomplete, inappropriate or entirely absent (Charmaz 2014 ; Payne 2016 ). The constructivist approach to grounded theory methodology takes a relativist position, acknowledging the constructed nature of human experience and the multiplicity of possible standpoints of both participants and researchers. It views their input and the resulting analysis as part of a collaborative process of constructing and developing theoretical insights.

In accordance with the grounded theory approach, data generation and data analysis proceeded alongside each other. Data were engaged with through an initial process of “open coding” which involves identifying and labeling units of transcript text, for example, a word, phrase, sentence or larger section of text (Payne 2016 ). As these labels or “codes” were developed, they were compared to other codes, and (possible) relationships were recorded in process notes called “memos.” Analytic observations and conceptual connections gave rise to the construction of “theoretical categories,” which represent thematic concepts that organize the data relative to the developing theory or model (Charmaz 2014 ). During this process, sampling continued by recruiting new participants who could further elucidate emerging theoretical categories, an approach called “theoretical sampling” which is characteristic of grounded theory methodology (Glaser and Strauss 1967 ). The idea here is that, as theory is developed from the data, the question of where and with whom to sample next is answered by considering what aspects of the emergent theory or model might benefit from further clarification and elaboration.

The initial set of potential theoretical categories was then refined/developed through a process of “axial coding” (Charmaz 2014 ; Payne 2016 ). During axial coding, possible relationships between categories are noted, hypothesized and tested against data obtained in ongoing theoretical sampling until saturation is reached. Payne ( 2016 ) defines saturation as the gathering of further examples of meaningful units from the transcripts until no new instances of a particular category emerge. In this study, saturation was reached just before the eighteenth participant’s transcript was analyzed, as data collected from interviews at this point were only producing recurring codes and categories. The emergent model of an Islamic psychological conception of the soul was then re-“grounded” by going back to the data and validating it against actual text (Payne 2016 ). In the data excerpts that are used to illustrate the model in the next section, pseudonyms have been assigned to participants and their status is indicated when their pseudonym is first mentioned; dots indicate pauses in speech and empty square brackets indicate where material has been edited/excised.

The analysis produced eight theoretical categories relevant to the research questions. These categories and the relationships discerned between them constituted a coherent model of the soul, which is presented diagrammatically in Fig.  1 later in this paper. The concepts that make up the categories reflect the participants’ reliance on tafsir (exegesis) of the Qur’an and hadith in their interview responses, drawing upon writings of both modern and early scholars of Islamic theology and philosophy.

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An Islamic model of the soul

Although diverse insights were offered from different branches of knowledge and variations in interpretation were apparent, there was consensus about the distinct foundational elements of an Islamic conception of the soul. While all eight of the categories were noteworthy, four reflect more foundational aspects of the emergent model, namely “Nature of the soul,” “Structure of the soul,” “Stages of the soul,” and “Development of the soul” (see Table  1 ). Due to space constraints, we will elaborate in detail the category entitled “Development of the soul” as it has greatest relevance to applications of an Islamic psychology, particularly in Islamic psychotherapies. However, this category builds upon the other three foundational categories and so we shall first outline them and illustrate them sparingly from the data set.

Table 1

Theoretical categories and subcategories

Nature of the Soul

All 18 participants identified the concept of fitrah , defined as human nature or natural disposition, as being central to the conceptualization of an Islamic psychology. The consensus among participants was that fitrah posits that all human beings are born with the same sound nature, which most agreed is pure and which comes from and has a direct link to God. Yaqoub (a non-academic Islamic religious scholar) explained “the fitrah is an allusion to the original imprint of this tawhid [divine unity].” Participants reported that after conception a process of corruption begins, as the person makes their way through the trials of the dunya (temporal world) which begins to distance them from and cover over their pure nature.

Many participants related that having knowledge of God is a fundamental feature of the nature of the human soul from an Islamic perspective. John (an academic scholar of Islamic spirituality) explained that as a result of the fitrah “there is a deeper part of ourselves that knows God and we are naturally drawn back to that knowledge,” or as Abdelsalam (a non-academic Islamic religious scholar) said, “we have this primordial disposition to want to know Him… and that’s how we are hardwired.” In other words, the idea is that we may be out of touch with our knowledge of and witnessing of God, but we always have the ability to get back to it. Participants seemed to agree that the primary reason for most psychological problems is a misalignment with the fitrah . Yahya (an Islamic philosophy scholar) asserted “your psychological state has to be harmonious, your psyche, your mind … has to be harmonious with your fitrah. ”

Structure of the Soul

Many participants frequently used the word ‘self’ in reference to the Islamic concept of nafs . However, Mustafa (an Islamic psychologist) offered an important distinction that “the term ‘self’ as used in modern psychology is an immaterial complex psychological concept but nafs in Islam refers to a real spiritual being inhabiting our physical body. It is the soul.” In discussing the structure of the soul, most participants referenced the four main aspects ( nafs , qalb , aql , and ruh ) presented in al-Ghazali’s twelfth century work the ihya ilumidin ( The Revival of the Religious Sciences , 2015) which are used to describe different functions or qualities of the one integral soul. Participants explained that every human being has forces of good and evil fighting in the battleground of his or her soul and, although one integrated whole, the distinction between these aspects helps us understand different functions that play a part in this struggle.

In this context, the term nafs is used to refer to the lower self, similar to the ego, in that it is the part of the soul that inclines toward the dunya through desires, distracting a person from Allah and opening them to the influence of shaytan (the devil). The qalb was explained by participants to be the spiritual center of the human being and a pivotal part of what determines the relative state of the soul. Participants described the qalb as having the ability to turn either toward the dunya and shaytan via the nafs or toward Allah via the higher aspect of the soul, and, as John and Cesar (academic scholars of Islamic spirituality) pointed out, the root of the Arabic word means “to turn.” A unique feature of the qalb that was reported is that it is the place where consciousness resides. This cognitive aspect of the qalb , participants indicated, is often referred to as the aql and was explained as the part of the qalb that “intellects,” with emphasis on the verb form of the Arabic word as used in the Qur’an. The ruh was explained as the part of the soul where God’s imprint resides within the fitrah , and it was reported to be unchanging and pure. Participants saw the ruh as being unique to an Islamic psychological conception of the soul in that it functions as a direct access point to God, where the human being can potentially receive divine knowledge, guidance, and healing.

Stages of the Soul

Whereas participants specified that the ruh is an aspect of the soul that does not change, the other aspects of the soul are always in a state of flux, causing the soul to go through stages of development. Yahya specified that this changing nature of the nafs is why we need to be diligent in keeping the qalb , aql and nafs aligned and on the right path by exerting effort in the struggle of the soul. It was understood that our relative engagement with and success in that struggle determines the state of our soul and which of the stages we are in at any given time. While there were discrepancies as to how many stages exist, with five or even seven referenced, most participants agreed that the three main stages, as found in the Qur’an, are: nafs al ammarah (soul that inclines to evil), nafs al lawwama (self-reproaching soul), and nafs al mutmainah (soul at rest).

Nafs al ammarah was explained as a state in which a person is not exerting concerted effort in controlling the nafs , and essentially allowing the lower self to run wild. Yaqoub specified that this stage/state is not necessarily characterized by evilness per se but that it is an “evilness premised on the state of individuation,” where the person is anchored in selfishness rather than in awareness of God and they are in a state of ghafla (forgetfulness of God). Nafs al lawwama was described by participants as the stage when most of the work on the soul is being done. It was conceived as the place of the battleground where a person strives to resist the downward pull toward nafs , dunya , and shaytan and reach toward the ruh , akhirah (afterlife), and Allah through diligence and self-awareness. It was reported that people rarely cross into the final stage, nafs al mutmainah , and that even those who do are liable to fall back down to the lowest stage if lacking discipline. Therefore, nafs al mutmainah was talked about as the ideal to strive for more than something that is really expected to be achieved. Still it was conceived as having great importance as it posits the trajectory toward development that all participants seemed to feel was an integral aspect of the Islamic conception of the soul.

Development of the Soul

The human project of development.

In the conception of the structure of the soul and understanding the makeup of the human being and human nature from a psychological point of view, it was almost impossible for most of the participants not to equate this knowledge directly with the process of purification of the soul. Several participants pointed out that the Islamic paradigm of understanding the human being views the purpose of human life as an opportunity to purify the soul and many described it as a project of development: to uncover the fitrah inside by purifying the nafs . Thus, as both Rahim (an Islamic psychologist) and Abdelsalam specifically pointed out, any conception of an Islamic psychology would necessarily involve this purification process, and it would be absurd to envisage a study of psychology without it. Rahim said, “It’s a more complete existence. It’s not focused on just getting people back into the capitalist system for instance, and just defining human functioning as being productive in a material sense,” pointing out that a Western approach to psychology would seldom include the state of the soul in a treatment plan.

Another idea that Abdelsalam presented was that an Islamic perspective would not have any use for the study of the soul without a direct link to treatment. He said:

“So it is not just the study of psychology but the process of cleansing, the process of cleaning, making the mirror shine. You know the nafs is like a mirror and it is turbid and it needs to reflect the light of the divine, you know, and it’s turbid, full of dirt. So these are all benefit for the study, so it is not just like studying the nafs for the sake of the nafs .”

He went on to draw the analogy of the study of anatomy versus the treatment of illness in the body, and that an Islamic perspective of psychology is inextricably linked to the process of cleansing the soul. He then pointed out that while the terms ilm an nafs (knowledge of the soul) or fiqh an nafs (deep knowledge of the soul)—as Yahya said al-Ghazali used—are more about the study of the structure of the soul, tazkiyat an nafs (purification of the soul) was traditionally viewed as a practical way of living and is more about putting that knowledge into application, or the process of shining the mirror.

Tazkiyat an nafs (Purification of the Soul)

Almost all participants used this metaphor of shining a mirror in reference to doing work on the soul to clean the heart and uncover the fitrah . The usefulness of this metaphor seemed to be that it exemplifies the idea that the purity or light that one is attempting to shine is not the person’s own, but that their soul can be a reflection of the divine light if cleaned and if the crust is removed that accumulates from the illusion of separation resulting from life in the dunya . In reference to this Cesar said, “the nafs has an ability to kind of cover up the ruh so that really with the ruh it’s about polishing and clearing and letting the light, letting the ruh itself shine.”

One term commonly used in reference to this cleaning process is tazkiyat an nafs , a deep process of inner work to purify and perfect the soul to allow it to shine in its highest state, the essence of that higher state being the ruh . Both Shaykh Abdalbarr and Shaykh Aziz (traditional Islamic spirituality practitioners) described this process as a higher level of purification and attributed it to a person perfecting their intentions and actions by doing things in addition to minimum requirements, such as extra worship. This can be seen as a more advanced form of “polishing the mirror” work. However, according to several participants, this is a higher spiritual state than most people will achieve in life, closer to the stage of nafs al mutmainah . In reference to the writings of the ninth century Islamic philosopher Harith al Muhasibi, who was influential in the development of an Islamic conception of psychology, Gareth (an academic scholar of Islamic spirituality) explained that:

“He focuses on the undeveloped form of the soul. So, in other words, you know, the whole idea of purification takes one to the highest level – the nafs al mutmainah or the tranquil, serene soul. But he doesn’t really focus on that. He focuses on what your soul is like now, in its kind of general state – what most people experience. That’s his main focus, I think that’s important.”

Several participants talked about that which is of relevance to the majority of people as they struggle to simply chip away at the crust covering the mirror rather than polishing an already mostly uncovered reflection. This more fundamental process was commonly referred to as jihad an nafs (struggle of the soul) and, although tazkiyat an nafs could be included in this term, jihad an nafs was conceived to be more generally referring to work on the soul at any level.

Jihad an nafs (Struggle of the Soul)

Thus, the main focus for most of the participants in asking them to conceive of an Islamic paradigm of the person in relation to psychology was that it primarily entails struggling against the powerful influence of the nafs in the process of trying to come back into alignment with fitrah . It was reported that this is essentially what is at the heart of the deen (religion) of Islam and what much of the commentary on the Qur’an elaborates. As Yahya pointed out, in reference to the scholars who wrote those Qur’anic commentaries, “It’s the mujahada , the struggle over the nafs , it’s back to psychology. It’s just that they don’t call it psychology [] We’re calling it psychology.” He then went on to say:

“Islamic psychology is to do with those nafs , the jihad – the mujahada , the struggle over the nafs . Because when we struggle… because the nafs is this… is sort of influenced by certain contingent happenings from the environment, from our instincts or from environmental influences that cause us to deviate from fitrah .”

This struggle involves looking at the state of the soul and being self-reflective. Therefore, participants explained that it generally happens within the stage of nafs al lawwama , when the person is able to have self-reproach. In reflecting on the self, as John said, “It’s thought that one would find out where one’s weaknesses lie. And one has to deal with them.” The jihad (struggle) then is not simply about fighting against the nafs ; rather it involves a constructive response to the discovery of faults.

It was explained by many participants that the act of dealing with these weaknesses, lower impulses or bad character traits involves training the nafs and following the guidance from the Islamic tradition as a map to the desired outcome. Hamit (an Islamic psychologist) said, “We believe foundationally that there’s a training process, that the training process entails that one try to bring one’s nafs or self in conformity with the Islamic tradition.” Yahya said, “and that’s why we need Qur’an and Sunnah [prophetic tradition]—to guide us on to that path, to bring us back to our state of fitrah .” Thus, from the viewpoint of an Islamic paradigm of psychology, the religious obligations and advice from the Qur’an along with the example of the Prophet Muhammed were represented by all participants as the treatment for the nafs in the process of reform. Whereas this guidance is in the form of a holistic, all-encompassing path of life and one that is embarked upon over the course of a lifetime, it was not thought of as an easy fix. In explaining this process of conforming to the guidance from the Islamic tradition, Hamit said, “That’s not an easy process to begin and at the beginning that’s not gonna feel very natural, and it’s normal to allow for that discomfort… towards the discipline of formulating the nafs .”

Tahdhib al akhlaq (Refinement of Character)

Need for moral reform.

While there may be fairly consensual ideas of well-being and ideal functioning, Western psychology does not necessarily have one universal set of moral guidelines (however that is understood) to hold people accountable to or encourage alignment with, whereas an Islamic psychology necessarily involves the moral framework and guidance set out by the Qur’an and Sunnah as the benchmark for human ideals. In reference to the Western model, Hamit said, “It’s relativistic…there’s all ‘small ts,’ there’s no ‘big T’. It’s whatever you really feel inclined towards and that we trust that human inclination.” The “t” that Hamit is referring to here is “truth.” In other words, from this paradigm of secular generality that Hamit is invoking, the proposition is that everyone’s own truth (small t) is potentially equally valid, with little to no universal or objective truth (big T) that people are expected to be held accountable to, outside of the general expectation to protect the well-being of self and others. Many participants talked about the need for moral reform, for a person to work on improving their character, as an integral part of what must happen in the stage of nafs al lawwama , on the path of aligning with fitrah and striving toward the stage of nafs al mutmainah .

In talking about this need for moral reform in the Islamic conception of human psychology, Tarkki (an Islamic philosophy scholar) referenced the importance of some of the early classical scholars of Islamic philosophy and their “treatises in moral philosophy, with people like Yahya ibn Adi or Miskaweh, each of whom produced a work called the reformation of morals or the…sort of the improvement of character, tahdhib al akhlaq. ” Tahdhib al Akhlaq literally means the reformation or refinement of character and, similar to tazkiyat an nafs and jihad an nafs , involves working on the nafs . The distinction with tahdhib al akhlaq however is that it is specifically about redirecting blameworthy character traits and adopting praiseworthy ones. This involves, again, redirecting away from what the nafs wants, with the assumption that those desires are generally not what is best for the person and may lie at the heart of psychological distress or disorder. As Cesar put it, “With the uncontrollable, insatiable, you know, desires the human beings have can lead to tremendous moral problems.” Participants specified that these inclinations are not seen as psychological deficiencies in the person but as normal characteristics of the uncontrolled nafs . John said, “It’s understanding these as not just fissures of the psyche, but inclinations of the nafs and treating them on that level as inclinations of the nafs. ” Similarly, Yaqoub pointed out that this view does not cause the person to identify with a diagnosis and perceive it to be static but instead to view it as a passing state that has a known treatment.

Muhlikat and munjiyat (Vices and virtues)

The Greek philosophy tradition of virtue ethics, as explored by the likes of Plato and Aristotle, and the connected field of moral psychology were influential in the development of discourse on human psychology by classical Islamic scholars (Iqbal 2013 ). Tarkki argued that, “Al-Ghazali is far more focused than any other author I know up to that point…in trying to figure out what the systematic bases for our various shortcomings, psychological shortcomings, would be… so the moral psychology aspect.” Many of the participants recognized the significant contribution that Islamic scholars like al-Ghazali offered to the field of moral psychology, particularly those who had an academic orientation to the study of Islamic philosophy and spirituality and the history of such thought. Gareth pointed out that while these scholars may have been influenced by Greek philosophy, they had a different orientation to the application and purpose of such knowledge. He said, “They’re really looking at it from the paradigm of what is the method to get you out of these character traits and get into the character traits that you should have that will make you purified.” So, vice and virtue, in the Islamic context, become specifically about illness and treatment in the process of purifying the soul.

Almost all of the participants who spoke in detail about the process of tahdhib al akhlaq identified al-Ghazali’s contribution as being most significant in that he developed a systematic framework for the treatments of these illnesses of the soul in his discussions on the muhlikat (vices) and munjiyat (virtues). In describing al-Ghazali’s system Abdelsalam said, “The munjiyat are the things that help you to get to your goal but the muhlikat are the things that keep you away from your goal.” Often the cure for a certain vice is its opposite in the form of a virtue, as Abdelsalam went on to say, “because to rule with justice you need to get rid of zulm [injustice], which is the opposite to justice.” Enas (an Islamic psychologist) pointed out that not only did al-Ghazali give an exhaustive list of illnesses, or muhlikat , and their treatments, or munjiyat, but he also outlined a program for how to go about treating each one, found particularly in book three of his ihya ilumidin.

Participants described the muhlikat as natural tendencies within the nafs of the human being which pull a person toward the lower part of the self and a downward trajectory in the realm of dunya and the forces of shaytan . Yahya said, “At the psychological level we have this tendency towards greed, towards power, towards lust, and so on.” Often many of these destructive character traits were conceived of as appetites of the nafs . Tarkki said:

“Appetites and the spirited part of our soul in various ways have to do with our more selfish impulses…but at the same time they…don’t allow for an alignment of the way we live our lives with the sort of larger order of the universe or of reality and of course that’s detrimental to us ourselves.”

These appetites were understood as distractions from alignment with our fitrah and as needing to be systematically controlled and disciplined. In discussing al-Ghazali’s writing on the muhlikat , Kyle (an Islamic philosophy scholar) said that “He talks about breaking the appetite of hunger…pursuing a strategy to try to break hunger’s hold on us.”

In addition to base bodily desires such as hunger, participants noted that al-Ghazali gives a great deal of attention to vices of the heart, where the nafs influences the qalb and infect it with things like greed, envy, or anger, a trait that gets an entire chapter in the ihya illumidin due to its apparent centrality in the downfall of human character. Also given a great deal of focus is the general tendency for human beings to think highly of themselves and be selfish. Tarkki described the danger in this:

“The desire for status and or whether it’s sort of superiority over our neighbors or just feeling good about ourselves or sort of papering over our shortcomings or failure to want to own up to them, and so on, that that leads to us even to sort of aim for the wrong kinds of things in life and to be reticent about going to any kind of hard work in genuinely improving ourselves.”

The munjiyat were described by participants as the Godly qualities that are a part of our birthright within our fitrah , and connected to the ruh aspect of the soul. They noted that when we adopt these character traits as treatments for the illnesses of our nafs , we get closer to embodying that innate Godly nature within and, as Abdelsalam pointed out, this is where we can access our higher purpose as human beings as khalifahtullah (vice-regent of God). In referring to what is meant by the biblical as well as Qur’anic saying that humans were created in God’s form, Abdelsalam explained that “He has made us such that we can rule over ourselves and over … you know … with the same justice and wisdom.” Thus, by demonstrating these qualities sincerely and authentically, the notion is that we elevate our status and move upward on the trajectory toward nafs al mutmainah , this being the focus of human existence in the dunya and therefore the focus of an Islamic perspective of the psychology of the person.

An Islamic Model of the Soul

The model presented in this paper and illustrated in Fig.  1 was developed from the participants’ consensual understanding of the nature, structure and development of the soul as it relates to human psychology from the Islamic tradition. The theoretical categories are a synthesis of different sources and different strains of Islamic scholarship and spiritual-religious knowledge. However, the research interest in developing a model that, in later work, could constitute a foundation for Islamic approaches to psychotherapy, as well as for an Islamic theory of human psychology, may have oriented participants (and the analysis) more to some sources (for example, al-Ghazali) than others. Hence the resultant Islamic model of the soul is best thought of as a contribution to “a” theory of Islamic psychology, with a recognition that there could conceivably be multiple versions of Islamic psychology or Islamic psychologies.

Drawing together the elements that we have elaborated, according to this model, the human soul has an innately pure and good nature, fitrah , that comes from and is connected to God but that becomes covered over and forgotten as a natural part of life in the dunya . Throughout its life in the dunya , within the soul there exists a dynamic interplay of conflicting forces that affect the psychological state of the person and determine relative levels of alignment or misalignment with fitrah. This process is represented by the purple elements in the middle of the model in Fig.  1 .

The qalb , which is the spiritual center of the person, and where the faculty of intellect is located as the aql , has the potential to turn in either of two directions which shapes the relative, transient outcome of this conflict. It can turn toward the lower impulses of the nafs and become further misaligned with fitrah by the influences of the dunya and shaytan , resulting in increased negative characteristics of the muhlikat and a state of ghafla . This process is represented by the red elements toward the bottom half of the model in Fig.  1 , from the nafs downward. Or it can turn toward the higher, Godly nature of the ruh with the remembrance of Allah and the akhirah (afterlife), resulting in increased positive characteristics of the munjiyat , and come more in alignment with the soul’s state of fitrah. This process is represented by the blue elements toward the top half of the model in Fig.  1 , from the ruh upwards.

The relative state of the soul in relation to either of these two poles at any one time is articulated in three distinct stages of the soul’s development throughout life in the dunya , namely: nafs al ammarah bil su , nafs al lawwama , and nafs al mutmainah . The model posits that the soul has an inherent inclination toward growth and an upward trajectory in relation to this model, due to its primordial nature of knowing God, and that the Islamic tradition, as guided by the Qur’an and Sunnah, encourages and maps out a path for the human being to pursue this trajectory. This is demonstrated in the description of processes along the path that act as mechanisms for exerting effort in the dynamic interplay within the soul as it struggles between the two opposing forces, namely jihad an nafs , tahdhib al akhlaq , and tazkiyat an nafs .

These findings reflect and support those reported by Abu-Raiya ( 2012 ) and Keshavarzi and Haque ( 2013 ), particularly in the centrality of the elements of the soul ( nafs , qalb , aql , ruh ). However, the specific dynamics of how these aspects interrelate and interact with each other were under-developed in Keshavarzi and Haque’s ( 2013 ) work. Those dynamics are a key feature of the model developed in the present study which, in its consistently Islamic grounding, diverges more significantly from the work of Abu-Raiya ( 2012 ). His Qur’anic theory of personality follows some of the a priori assumptions of Freudian theory and “holds a largely negative view of human nature” (p. 231), which more closely resembles a Christian paradigm of human nature (Niebuhr 2004 ).

In addition to a more positive view of human nature in the sense of the soul being innately pure, the Islamic model of the soul presented in this study possesses several features that distinguish it from most secular Western models of human nature. The notion that the spiritual center of the human being is the heart is a significant distinction, together with the contention that the intellect and consciousness are located in this heart center rather than in the mind, as most psychological theories posit. Furthermore, the idea that this center of consciousness within the human being is inherently connected and can be consciously connected to a primordial, divine consciousness is absent from Western, secular theories of human nature. The concept of the ruh as a point of access within the person which can directly receive guidance and/or healing from God and the utilization or lack of acknowledgement of this aspect within psychotherapy could have a significant impact on therapeutic guidance and treatment goals for Muslim clients. These, along with other crucial conceptual differences highlighted in the findings, suggest the need for more than just Islamically adapted or integrated approaches to psychotherapy. They substantiate the necessity of a unique framework grounded in an Islamic paradigm, as represented by this model and any theory of Islamic psychology of which it is a foundational constituent. Building upon this model, the three aspects identified here that collectively form a mechanism for the development of the soul ( tazkiyat an nafs , tahdhib al akhlaq , and jihad an nafs ) have particular relevance to application in psychotherapy and implications for further research in the development of indigenous approaches. A useful next step in deepening the model and advancing those endeavours would be to engage analytically with relevant classical and modern Islamic texts, including those invoked by participants in the present study, and with the views and experiences of practitioners of versions of Islamic psychotherapy and of psychotherapy with Muslim clients. The authors are presently engaged in this work, which extends and builds upon the foundations offered in this article, and look forward to sharing their findings in due course.

Conflict of interest

Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants in the study.

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Effectiveness of Islamic spiritual care: foundations and practices of Muslim spiritual care givers

Affiliation.

The paper discusses the effectiveness of Islamic spiritual and religious care based on the ethnographic research with 15 Muslim spiritual caregivers. Six themes emerged from the interviews with fifteen Muslim spiritual caregivers. These six themes describe what the spiritual care providers see as effective Muslim spiritual care: (1) The most effective Muslim spiritual care is rooted in the Qur'an and the Hadith; (2) Effective Muslim spiritual care also means creating a caring relationship with the patient; (3) Muslim scholars are one of the important sources of effective Islamic spiritual care; (4) The insights of psychology and the social sciences are a necessary part of effective Islamic spiritual care; (5) There is a need for continuing education; (6). Styles of effective Muslim spiritual care are varied.

  • Attitude to Health / ethnology
  • Cultural Characteristics*
  • Middle Aged
  • Pastoral Care / methods*
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care / ethnology*
  • Professional-Patient Relations
  • Religion and Medicine*
  • Spirituality*
  • United States

Islamophobia Research and Documentation Project

The islamophobia research and documentation project (irdp), an initiative of the center for race & gender, focuses on a systematic and empirical approach to the study of islamophobia and its impact on the american muslim community..

Led by Dr. Hatem Bazian , the IRDP highlights research and projects that explore the maintenance and extension of existing power paradigms by bringing together academics, thinkers, practitioners and researchers from around the globe who engage, question and challenge the existing disparities in economic, political, social and cultural relations.

Tile background with words Islamophobia Research and Documentation Project

The Islamophobia Research and Documentation Project (IRDP), an initiative of the Center for Race & Gender, focuses on a systematic and empirical approach to the study of Islamophobia and its impact on the American Muslim community. Led by Dr. Hatem Bazian , the IRDP highlights research and projects that explore the maintenance and extension of existing power paradigms by bringing together academics, thinkers, practitioners and researchers from around the globe who engage, question and challenge the existing disparities in economic, political, social and cultural relations.

Today, Muslims in the U.S., parts of Europe, and around the world have been transformed into a demonized and feared global “other,” subjected to legal, social, and political discrimination. Newspaper articles, tv shows, books, popular movies, political debates, and cultural conflicts over immigration and security produce ample evidence of the stigmatization of Islam within dominant culture. The challenge for understanding the current cultural and political period centers on providing a more workable and encompassing definition for the Islamophobia phenomenon, a theoretical framework to anchor present and future research, and a centralized mechanism to document and analyze diverse data sets from around the U.S. and in comparison with other areas around the world.

Defining Islamophobia

The term “Islamophobia” was first introduced as a concept in a 1991 Runnymede Trust Report and defined as “unfounded hostility towards Muslims, and therefore fear or dislike of all or most Muslims.” The term was coined in the context of Muslims in the UK in particular and Europe in general and formulated based on the more common “xenophobia” framework.

The report pointed to prevailing attitudes that incorporate the following beliefs:

  • Islam is monolithic and cannot adapt to new realities
  • Islam does not share common values with other major faiths
  • Islam as a religion is inferior to the West. It is archaic, barbaric, and irrational.
  • Islam is a religion of violence and supports terrorism.
  • Islam is a violent political ideology.

For the purposes of anchoring the current research and documentation project, we provide the following working definition:

Islamophobia is a contrived fear or prejudice fomented by the existing Eurocentric and Orientalist global power structure. It is directed at a perceived or real Muslim threat through the maintenance and extension of existing disparities in economic, political, social and cultural relations, while rationalizing the necessity to deploy violence as a tool to achieve “civilizational rehab” of the target communities (Muslim or otherwise). Islamophobia reintroduces and reaffirms a global racial structure through which resource distribution disparities are maintained and extended.

People of IRDP

Hatem with glasses against grey background

Hatem Bazian

Chair and Founder, I slamophobia Research and Documentation Project

Hatem Bazian  is a co-founder and Professor of Islamic Law and Theology at Zaytuna College, the 1st Accredited Muslim Liberal Arts College in the United States. In addition, Prof. Bazian is a lecturer in the Departments of Near Eastern and Asian American and Asian Diaspora Studies at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Bazian between 2002-2007, also served as an adjunct professor of law at Boalt Hall School of Law at the University of California, Berkeley. He teaches courses on Islamic Law and Society, Islam in America: Communities and Institutions, De-Constructing Islamophobia and Othering of Islam, Religious Studies, and Middle Eastern Studies. In addition to Berkeley, Prof. Bazian served as a visiting Professor in Religious Studies at Saint Mary’s College of California 2001-2007 and adviser to the Religion, Politics and Globalization Center at UC Berkeley.

In Spring 2009, Prof. Bazian founded at Berkeley the Islamophobia Research and Documentation Project at the Center for Race and Gender, a research unit dedicated to the systematic study of Othering Islam and Muslims. Prof. Bazian in Spring 2012 launched the Islamophobia Studies Journal, which is published bi-annually through a collaborative effort between the Islamophobia Research and Documentation Project of the Center for Race and Gender at the University of California at Berkeley, the Arab and Muslim Ethnicities and Diasporas Initiative for the School of Ethnic Studies at San Francisco State University; the Center for Islamic Studies at the Graduate Theological Union, the International Centre for Muslim and non-Muslim Understanding at the University of South Australia, and Zaytuna College. In addition to academic work, Dr, Bazian is a weekly columnist for the Turkish Daily Sabah Newspaper and Turkey Agenda online magazine. Dr. Bazian is founder and national Chair of American Muslims for Palestine, board member of the Islamic Scholarship Fund, Muslim Legal Fund of America, President of Dollar for Deen Charity, and Chair of Northern California Islamic Council.

IRDP Publications

Irdp events.

Flyer for 2023 International Islamophobia Conference

2023 International Islamophobia Conference

05.05 - 04.2023  |  Maude Fife Room, 3 rd  Floor, Wheeler Hall, UC Berkeley

AGENDA Friday, May 5, 2023 9:30 - 10:30 am:  Opening and Welcome 10:45 am - 12:25 pm:   Panel One -- Islamophobia in the Great White North 12:15 - 3:00 pm:   Lunch Break and Friday Prayers 3 - 4:45 pm:   Panel Two -- Disrupting Narratives of Islamophobia?: The Qatar 2022 World Cup 4:30 - 5 pm:  Coffee Break 5 - 6:30 pm:   Roundtable on Reporting Islamophobia 6:30 pm:   Reception-Dinner Saturday, May 6, 2023 9:00 - 10:30 am:    Panel Three -- Literary and Cultural Production 10:45 am - 12:15 pm:   Panel Four -- Crescent Horizons 12:15 - 2:00 pm:   Lunch Break 2 - 3 pm:   Panel Five -- Transnational Perspective on Gendered Islamophobia 3:45 - 5:15 pm:   Panel Six -- France/ Quebec and Secular States Governing Islam 5:30 - 6:45 pm:   Panel Seven -- Internalized Islamophobia: Destroying American Muslim Communities from Within Sunday, May 7, 2023 9:00 - 10:30am:  Panel Eight -- Media, Schooling & Campus Life 10:45 – 12:15 Panel Nine-European Horizons: Racialization of Space and Practice 12:15 - 2:00 pm:   Lunch Break 2:00 - 3:30 pm:   Panel Ten -- Securitization 3:45 - 5:15 pm:   Panel Eleven -- Islamophobia and Political Horizons: Structural Unbelonging of Muslims 5:30 - 6:30 pm:   AGM and Closing Plenary

Learn more. Hosted by International Islamophobia Studies Research Association (IISRA ), and sponsored by CRG's  Islamophobia Research and Documentation Project (IRDP) , Center for Islamic Studies at Graduate Theological Union ,   Graduate Theological Union , Centre for Ethnicity and Racism Studies - University of Leeds , Northern California Islamic Council , Islamophobia Studies Journal, ReOrient Journal, Islamophobia Studies Center at UC Berkeley , Othering and Belonging Institute , Asian American Research Center, and  UMR .

Flyer for 11-14-2019 IRDP Event

Rethinking The Boundaries Of Sunni Islam In Indonesia & Malaysia

11.14.2019| 6:00 - 7:30 PM |  Northgate 105

Mohamed Nawab Bin Mohamed Osman , Fulbright Visiting Fellow, Center for Race & Gender

This lecture seeks to examine the contemporary Sunni Muslim identity in Malaysia and Indonesia. It seeks to de-construct previously held typologies of Sunni Islam in both countries such as the tradtionalist-reformist divide and the Middle Eastern-Localised Islam divide. Instead the seminar seeks to show that, throughout the past four decades, Sunni Muslim identity in Malaysia and Indonesia underwent severe transformative processes. As a result of the relatively independent influence of cultural dynamics and of national, regional and international structural factors, new Sunni Muslim identities have emerged. WIth a comparative focus on Salafism, Sufism and Traditionalists, the paper explores the processes of emergence and transformation of Sunni identity in Malaysia and Indonesia.

Mohamed Nawab Osman  is a Fulbright Visiting Fellow at the Center for Race & Gender. He is also Assistant Professor at the Nanyang Technological University in Singapore. Nawab is the author of  Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia: Identity, Ideology and Religo-Political Mobilization  (Oxfon: Routledge, 2018) and the editors of  Contesting Muslim Identities: The Political of Islam in South and Southeast Asia  (Edinburgh: Edinburg University Press, 20202) (forthcoming),  Malaysia’s 14th General Election and UMNO’s Fall: Intra-Elite Feuding in the Pursuit of Power  (Oxbridge: Routledge, 2019) (with Edmund Terence Gomez), and  Pathways to Contemporary Islam  (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2019). His research interests include Islam and Political in South and Southeast Asia, Islamophobia in Asia and Religion in the International Relations of Asia. At UC Berkeley, he is working on a book manuscript examining the confluence between Islamophobia and that Nation-Building process in Myanmar, Malaysia and India.

Event hosted by  CRG's Islamophobia Research and Documentation Project (IRDP) .

Flyer for 2019 IRDP Symposium

Virtual Internment: Islamophobia, Social Technologies Of Surveillance And Unequal Citizenship -- The 10th Annual International Islamophobia Conference

04.15 - 21.2019| Berkeley School of Law, UC Berkeley

The Ethnic Studies Library is hosting a month-long Islamophobia exhibit that include published books in the field, journals, special reports and posters marking the occasion of the 10th Annual Conference.

Program MONDAY, APRIL 15, 2019  |  5:00 PM – 6:30 PM Munir Jiwa , Founding Director, Center for Islamic Studies, Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, USA “A Decade On: Revisiting the Five “Media Pillars” of Islam.””

TUESDAY, APRIL 16, 2019 | 7:00 PM – 9:00 PM Hatem Bazian , Islamophobia Research and Documentation Project, UC Berkeley “Virtual Internment Islamophobia, Social Technologies of Surveillance and Unequal Citizenship.”

Ramon Grosfoguel , University of California, Berkeley, USA “Epistemic Surveillance and Academic Walls.”

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 17, 2019 | 5:00 PM – 6:30 PM Mattias Gardell , Nathan Söderblom Professor in Comparative Religion, and Director of Research at the Centre for the Multidisciplinary Studies of Racism at Uppsala University, Sweden “Torture, Terror and Truth.”  

THURSDAY, APRIL 18, 2019 | 5:00 PM – 9:00 PM Debbie Almontaser , Founder and CEO, Bridging Cultures Group Inc., New York, USA “Leading While Muslim: The Experiences of American Muslim Principals after 9/11.”

Jasmin Zine , Wilfrid Laurier University, Toronto, Canada “Islamophobia and the Security-Industrial Complex”

Salman Sayyid , Director of the Centre for Ethnicity and Racism Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK “The Geopolitics of Islamophobia”

FRIDAY, APRIL 19, 2019 8:30 am – 8:45 AM:  City of Berkeley Proclamation Presented by Councilwoman Cheryl Davila

8:45 - 9:00 AM:  Hatem Bazian , Director, IRDP, UC Berkeley

9:00 am – 10:30 AM:  Panel 1  - Islamophobia Through History, Counterinsurgency and Façade of National Security Chair: Munir Jiwa , Founding Director, Center for Islamic Studies, Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, USA

Nader Salass , Columbia University, New York, USA “Pathogenic Invisibility: A Historical Pattern of Unequal Protection in African American and Muslim Discriminatory Surveillance Cases Against the NYPD.”

Ibrahim Bechrouri , French Institute of Geopolitics , Paris 8 University and Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University, Paris, France “Islamophobia and the Virtual Counterinsurgency at Home.”

Elsadig Elsheikh , Director of the Global Justice Program, Haas Institute for a Fair and Inclusive Society, Berkeley, USA Basima Sisemor e, Global Justice Program, Haas Institute for a Fair and Inclusive Society, Berkeley, USA “The Facade of National Security: Islamophobia and Xenophobia in the United States.”

10:45 AM - 12:15 PM:  Panel 2 - Big Brother, Muslim Existential Threat, Fear and Surveillance Chair: Victoria E. Robinson , Director of American Cultures Program and Comparative Ethnic Studies, UC Berkeley

Azeezah Kanji , Legal Academic and writer, Toronto, Canada “Wanted: Big Brother’s Little Sisters – The Female Gaze in the National Security Panopticon.”

Reem Bahdi , Faculty of Law, University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada Ayesha Mian Akram , University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada “Virtual Internment and The Muslim Existential Threat in Canada.”

Steven Fink , University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, Wisconsin, USA “Fear and Surveillance: Fox News and Fox Reality Crime Shows’ Contribution to the Virtual Internment of Muslims in America.”

12:15 - 2:15PM:  Lunch Break and Friday Prayers Break

2:15 - 3:45 PM:  Panel 3 - The Muslim Ban, Building Walls and Shaping Public Opinion Chair: Norah Arafeh , Berkeley Law School, Berkeley, USA

Zainab Ramahi , Berkeley Law, University of California, Berkeley, USA “The Muslim Ban Cases: A lost opportunity for the Court and a lesson for the future.”

Abbas Barzegar , National Director of Research and Advocacy, CAIR National, D.C., USA Zainab Arain is the Research and Advocacy Manager at CAIR, D.C., USA “The Anti-Muslim Mainstream: American Philanthropy and the Islamophobia Network.”

 Seyda Karaoglu , George Washington University, Virginia, USA “The Role of Public Opinion and Media on the European Union’s Policy Toward the Refugee Crisis.”

4:00 - 5:30 PM:  Panel 4 - The Epistemic of Institutionalized Islamophobia Chair:  Marianne Farina , CSC, Dominican School of Philosophy and the Theology

Nawroos Shibli , Senior Research Fellow at the Canadian Arab Institute and Balsillie School of International Affairs (BSIA), University of Waterloo, Canada “Institutionalizing Is[law]mophobia: Freedom of Religion, Minority Rights Regimes and the European Court of Human Rights.”

Robert K. Beshara , Integrated Studies, Northern New Mexico College, New Mexico “The Epistemic and Ontic Resistance of US Muslims to Islamophobia/Islamophilia.”

 Ali Çaksu , Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey “Islamophobia, The Chinese Style: Internment Camps for Uyghur Muslims.”

5:30 - 7:00 PM:  ASWAT Ensemble Countering Islamophobia Through Cultural Performance and the Arts SATURDAY APRIL 20, 2019

9:00 - 10:30 AM:  Panel 5 - Racialized Emotions, Religious Identity and Muslims as Outlaws Chair:  Kristin George , Sociology Department, UC Berkeley.

Arij Elmi , Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Ontario, Canada Nadiya Ali , York University, Canada Dahab Ibrahim , Ryerson University, Canada “Islamophobia as an Affective Field: Racialized Emotions, Surfaces and Boundaries.”

Marwa Abdalla , Southwestern University in Georgetown, Texas, USA “The Negotiation and Communication of Religious Identity Among Muslim Minority Populations: A Theoretical Model.”

Cyrus McGoldrick , Alliance of Civilizations Institute, Ibn Khaldun University, Istanbul, Turkey “The Sacred Man: Muslims as Outlaws in the American Political Imagination.”

10:45 AM – 12:15 PM:  Panel 6 - Islamophobia, Comparative Geographies, and Reform Discourses Chair: Khalid Kadir , International & Area Studies, UC Berkeley

Randa Abdel-Fattah , Macquarie University Sydney, Australia “Islamophobia and Racial Australianization.”

Rhonda Itaoui , Western Sydney University, Sydney, Australia “Gendered Geographies of Islamophobia in the San Francisco Bay Area.”

M. Bilal Nasir , Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Chicago, USA “Policing Becoming: Moral Conversion, Racialization, and Liberal Reform in Los Angeles.”

12:15 - 1:30 PM:  Lunch Break

1:45 - 3:15 PM:  Panel 7 - Hindutva, Geopolitics of Moderate Islam and Muslims in the Indian Press Chair:  Munir Jiwa , Founding Director, Center for Islamic Studies, Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, USA

Mohamed Nawab Mohamed Osman , Malaysia Program, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore “Islamophobia and the Glocalisation of Hindutva in Bali.”

Prashant Waikar , Malaysia Programme, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore “The Geopolitics of Moderate Islam in Malaysia and Indonesia.”

 Azhar Ul Hassan Sumra , Islamic University Islamabad. Currently, and Virtual University of Pakistan, Lahore “Muslims and Islam in Indian English Press: Exploring the Islamophobia Discourse.”  

3:30 - 5:00 PM:  Panel 8 – Islamophobia Industry Muslims Versus Muslims Lived Experiences Chair:  Somayeh Nikooei , Director, Our Three Winners Foundation

Richard Silverstein , Independent Journalist and Contributor to Tikun Olam, Seattle, USA “Israel: Exporting the Surveillance State”

Paula Thompson , IRDP and Center for Islamic Studies, Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, USA “Getting Played: Gamification, Islamophobia and the Video Game Industry.”

Omar Salha , SOAS, University of London, London, UK “The Beautiful Game: Muslim Footballers as Ambassadors of Faith”

SUNDAY APRIL 21, 2019  9:15 - 10:45 Am:  Panel 9 - From the Cold War to the Coldness of Institutionalized Islamophobia Chair:  Hatem Bazian , IRDP, Berkeley,USA Sofia A. Ragozina , National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia “Afghan War, Cold War and Collapse of USSR: Roots of Islamophobia in Russian Public Discourse”

Baptiste Brodard , Swiss  Centre for  Islam  and Society, University  of  Fribourg, Switzerland. “Institutional Islamophobia in Switzerland: From Statutory Agencies’ Observations to a Personal Case of ‘Virtual Internment’”

Moazzam Begg , Outreach Director for CAGE, London, UK “Torturing Islam: A Modern American Affair”

11:00 AM - 12:30 PM:  P anel 10 - France’s Islamophobia: From the Colonial Past to the Liberal Present Chair:  Munir Jiwa, Director, Center for Islamic Studies, Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, CA

Hamza Esmili , EHESS/ENS, Paris, France and Visiting Scholar at UC Berkeley “Fighting Against ‘Radicalization’, Establishing Sovereignty”

 Flora Hergon , School of Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (EHESS), Paris, France “House Searches and State of Emergency in France (2015-2017): (Post)colonial Counter-Terrorism and Security Islamophobia”

Adam Mohamed Aziz , Rutgers University, New Jersey, USA “French Islamophobia: No-Go Zones, Sexuality Politics, and the Figure of the Terrorist Indigène.” 

12:30 - 2:00 PM:  Lunch Break

2:15 - 3:45 PM:  Panel 11 - Islamophobia, Education and Community Diversity Chair:  Hatem Bazian , IRDP, Berkeley,USA

Hassina Alizai , Queen University, Ontario, Canada “Impact of Islamophobia on Post-Secondary Muslim Students Attending Ontario Universities.”

R. David Coolidge , Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, USA “American Muslims, Human Diversity, and “The Labor of Thought.””

Muhammad Taimoor Bin Tanveer , Sabahittin Zaim University, Istanbul, Turkey “Emergence of Islamophobia Bourgeoisie in Pakistan-A State Owned Policy of Virtual Internment.”

4:00 - 5:30 PM:  Panel 12 - China’s Rising Islamophobia and Comparative Narratives Chair:  Elsadig Elsheikh , Global Justice Program, Haas Institute for Fair and Inclusive Society

Yasmeen Azam , California State University, Long Beach, USA “China’s War of Terror: How Islamophobic Discourse Fuels Occupation.”

Ibrahima Diagne , Northern New Mexico College, USA “A French Athlete’s Experience and Reflections on Islamophobia: France and US.”

5:30 PM:  Closing Remarks:  Hatem Bazian , IRDP, Berkeley, USA

--- Presented by UC Berkeley Center for Race and Gender’s Islamophobia Research and Documentation Project (IRDP) and Islamophobia Studies Center.  Co-Sponsored by the Centre for Ethnicity and Racism Studies, University of Leeds, UK,  Haas Institute for Fair and Inclusive Society, Islamophobia Studies Journal & Re-Orient Journal Center for Islamic Studies at GTU, Northern California Islamic Council, Council on American Islamic Relations, Asian American and Asian Diaspora Studies, Near Eastern Studies Department, Ethnic Studies Department at UC Berkeley, American Cultures Program at UC Berkeley, and the Our Three Winners Foundation.

3-19-2019 IRDP Event

Islamophobia Series: “Islamophobia & Bullying In K-12”

03.19.2019 | 4:00 - 5:30 PM  | 691 Barrows Hall

Amna Salameh has a background in education, she serves on both the Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports (PBIS) committee and the Office of Educational Equity (OEE) committee at the Elk Grove Unified School District. She completed her Bachelor of Arts in International Studies from Louisiana State University, and finished her Master of Arts in Education, with a concentration in Curriculum and Instruction, from California State University of Sacramento. Her master’s project was titled, “Professional Development on Islamophobia: A Multicultural Framework For Secondary Public School Educators.” Amna is a frequent presenter and lecturer on topics surrounding Islam and islamophobia in the College of Education at California State University of Sacramento, where she is a part-time professor in the Humanities and Religious Studies Department.

--- This talk is produced by the Islamophobia Research & Documentation Project, an initiative of the Center for Race & Gender, focuses on a systematic and empirical approach to the study of Islamophobia and its impact on the American Muslim community. Co-Sponsored by the Islamophobia Studies Center.

2-19-2019 IRDP Talk Flyer

Islamophobia Series: “Adverse Effects of Anti-Radicalization Movements in France”

02.19.2019 | 4:00 - 6:00 PM  | 691 Barrows Hall

Aicha Bounaga ,  Visiting Researcher, CRG’s Islamophobia Research & Documentation Project

--- This talk is produced by the Islamophobia Research & Documentation Project, an initiative of the Center for Race & Gender, focuses on a systematic and empirical approach to the study of Islamophobia and its impact on the American Muslim community. Co-Sponsored by the Islamophobia Studies Center.

Event flyer for 4-27--29-2018_IRDP Conference

The Road Traveled -- The 9th Annual International Islamophobia Conference

04.27.2018 | 8:30 AM – 6:30 PM |  Maude Fife Room, 315 Wheeler Hall

04.28.2018 | 9:00 AM – 6:00 PM |  370 Dwinelle Hall 

04.29.2018 | 9:30 AM – 5:00 PM |  370 Dwinelle Hall 

The UC Berkeley Center for Race and Gender Islamophobia Research and Documentation Project (IRDP) ;  Centre for Ethnicity and Racism Studies, University of Leeds, UK; Islamophobia Studies Journal & Re-Orient Journal;  Islamophobia Studies Center, Center for Islamic Studies at GTU; and Zaytuna College present: 

The Road Traveled --  The 9th Annual International Islamophobia Conference

FRIDAY, APRIL 27

8:30am – 8:45am: City of Berkeley Proclamation

Presented by Councilwoman Cheryl Davila

8:45-9:10am:  Welcome & Conference Opening

Hatem Bazian , Director, IRDP, UC Berkeley and Zaytuna College

9:15am – 9:45am: Conference Theme – Keynote: The Road Travelled: Looking at the Field 20 Years After the Runnymede Trust Report

Salman Sayyid , Director of the Centre for Ethnicity and Racism Studies, University of Leeds

10:15am – 11:45am: Panel 1 - From “Race Matters” to Racializing Muslims and Shari’a

Mark Fathi Massoud, UC Santa Barbara Kathleen M. Moore, UC Santa Barbara Shari’a Matters: Race, Law, and Religion Among American Muslims

Marwa Abdalla , Department of Communication at San Diego State University The Rhetorical Functions of Hijab in Discourses on Islam, Muslims, and Islamophobia

Chair:   Victoria E. Robinson , Director of American Cultures Program and Comparative Ethnic Studies, UC Berkeley

12:00 noon – 2:30pm  Lunch Break 

For those observing Friday prayers, Juma’ Prayers are held on campus at 1:15PM at Hearst Gymnasium, a short walking distance from Boalt Hall School of Law and volunteers can provide direction.

2:30pm – 4:15pm: Panel 2 - Securing the “Nation” and Surveilling the Muslim Subject

Saul Takahashi , Japan Representative of the Business & Human Rights Resource Centre and Waseda University Blanket police surveillance of Muslims in Japan: Muslims as a ‘security risk’

Paula Thompson , Center for Islamic Studies at the Graduate Theological Union Cyber (in)Security: Islamophobia, Networks and Cyberspace

Hagar Elsayed , University of Windsor Law School in Canada On the Path of Radicalization: Policing of Muslim Americans Post 9/11

Baptiste Brodard , Swiss Centre for Islam and Society, University of Fribourg in Switzerland Institutional Islamophobia in Switzerland: the case of the prison system and statutory social services

Chair:   Stephen Small , UC Berkeley, Department of African American Studies

4:30pm – 5:15pm:  Book Release 

Khaled Beydoun , University of Detroit Mercy School of Law and IRDP Affiliated Faculty American Islamophobia: Understanding the Roots and Rise of Fear

Chair: Hatem Bazian, Director, IRDP, UC Berkeley and Zaytuna College

5:15pm – 6:30pm: Documentary-Special Screening  

SATURDAY 28TH, 2018

9:00am – 10:45am: Panel 3 -  Media Discourses: The Muslim Elephant that Never Leaves the Screen

Nawroos Shibli, Balsillie School of International Affairs at the University of Waterloo “They hate us for our freedom:” [Mis]Representations of Islam in American Media, A Discourse Analysis”

Mariusz Bogacki , Tilburg University, Netherlands Defining Islamophobia and its socio-political applications in the light of Charlie Hebdo attacks in Paris.

Diba Ataie , Department of International & Multicultural Education, Human Rights Education Program, University of San Francisco Reconciling Hyphenated Identities: Muslim American Youth Reflection on College Life in the Midst of Islamophobia

Chair:  Kristin George , Sociology Department, UC Berkeley.

10:45AM – 11:15AM: Second  Keynote on the Conference Theme – What’s in a Name? Islamophobia, Anti- Muslim Racism, and the Weaponizing of Free Speech

Jasmin Zine , Wilfrid Laurier University

11:30am – 1:00pm:  Panel 4 - Understanding Islamophobia in the Asian Context

Prashant Waikar , S. Rajarantnam School of International Studies (RSIS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU) The Genealogy of Anti-Malay/Muslim Racism in Singapore: Studying Racism Through Racist Language

Junaid Ahmad , Director for the Center for Global Dialogue at the University of Management of Technology, Lahore, Pakista n Native Islamophobia in Contemporary Pakistan

Mohamed Nawab Mohamed Osman, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, A Graduate School of Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Islamophobia in the Discourse of Indonesian Right Wing Christian Movements

Chair:   Maxwell Leung , CA College of the Arts

1:00pm – 2:30 pm  Lunch Break 

2:30pm – 4:00pm: Panel 5 -  Re-Visiting and Re-Producing the Orientalist Subject

Mattias Gardell , Director of Research at the Centre for the Multidisciplinary Studies on Racism at Uppsala University, Sweden. Islamophobia and the Origins of Race and Racism

Maryyum Mehmood , Department of War Studies, King’s College London Islamophobia, Anti-Semitism & Racism: Understanding Racialization of Muslim & Jewish Identities

Omar Salha , Centre for Islamic Studies and Centre for International Studies and Diplomacy at SOAS University of London Power, Empire and Colonial Rule: Re-Orientalism of the Muslim Object

Chair:  Marianne Farina , CSC, Dominican School of Philosophy and the Theology

4:15pm – 6:00pm: Panel 6 -  Learning and Unlearning Islamophobia

May Kosba , Center for Islamic Studies at the Graduate Theological Union Hermeneutics of Civilizing Islam

Amna Salameh , Sacramento State University and IRDP Naved Bakali, Tabah’s Futures Initiative, UAE Islamophobia Research and Documentation Project Report on Countering Islamophobia in Public Schoo ls

Robert Beshara , University of West Georgia Towards Critical Islamophobia Studies

Ayse Kok , Graduate of Oxford University Technology or Ideology? The (Mis-) Assumption of Neutrality of Technology

Chair:  Khalid Kadir , International & Area Studies, UC Berkeley

SUNDAY APRIL 29TH, 2018

9:30am – 11:00am: Panel 7 -  Islamophobia and the Re-Rise of the Far Right in Europe!

Enes Bayraklı , Türk Alman Üniversitesi, Türkisch-Deutsche Universitaet, Turkish German University Farid Hafez , Salzburg University, Department of Sociology and Political Science, Senior Research Fellow, Georgetown University, The Bridge Initiative and IRDP Affiliated Scholar Islamophobia in the European Context: 27 Country Assessment

Kawtar Najib , School of Geography, Sociology and Politics, Newcastle University The Fear of Islamophobia and Terrorism: Impact on the Mobility and Behaviours of French and British Muslims

Seyda Karaoglu, Department of Religion at the George Washington University in Washington Islamophobia à la Française: A Typology in Étienne Dinet’s Hajj Travelogue

Chair:  Elsadig Elsheikh , Global Justice Program, Haas Institute for Fair and Inclusive Society

11:15am – 1:00pm: Panel 8 -  Modes of Islamophobia: From Polite Islamophobia to Trump

Hinasahar Muneeruddin , Religious Studies and Islamic Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill The Hate and Fear of “Trump” Politics: Navigation of Affective Politics by Muslim-Americans in a Post-9/11 Era

Jaideep Singh , Held the Ranjit Singh Sabharwal Chair in Sikh and Punjabi Studies at CSU East Bay, and co-founded the Sikh American Legal Defense and Education Fund (SALDEF) The Rising Specter of Contemporary Christian Supremacy

Reem Bahdi, The University of Windsor, Canada Globalized Islamophobia at The Supreme Court of Canada

Shelina Kassam , Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE), University of Toronto Cloaking Whiteness: The Acceptable Muslim and Racialized Boundaries of Inclusion

Chair:  Munir Jiwa , Director, Center for Islamic Studies, Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, CA

1:00pm – 2:30pm  Lunch Break

2:30pm – 4:00pm: Panel 9 -  Foreign Policy, Israel and Islamophobia, a Strategic Orientation

Paul Larudee , Ph.D. Applied Linguistics, Georgetown University The Israeli government role in promoting Islamophobia internationally

Richard Silverstein , Independent Journalist and Contributor to Tikun Olam Global Islamophobia: the Israel Connection

Hatem Bazian , Director, IRDP, UC Berkeley and Zaytuna College Islamophobia as Foreign Policy: The Domestic/Foreign Nature of the Islamophobia Industry

Chair:  Salman Sayyid , Director of the Centre for Ethnicity and Racism Studies, University of Leeds

4:00pm – 4:30pm:  Third Keynote:  Liberal Proselytizing and Conversion, and the Politics of Self-Policing in Academia

Munir Jiwa , Director, Center for Islamic Studies at the Graduate Theological Union

Closing Remarks:  Hatem Bazian , IRDP, UC Berkeley and Zaytuna College

-- Conference co-sponsors: Asian American and Asian Diaspora Studies, Ethnic Studies, Near Eastern Studies, Arab and Muslim Ethnicities and Diaspora Studies, SFSU School of Ethnic Studies, Council on American Islamic Relations, Centre for Ethnicity and Racism Studies, University of Leeds, UK, Islamophobia Studies Journal & Re-Orient Journal, Center for Islamic Studies at the Graduate Theological Union, Haas Institute for a Fair and Inclusive Society, Islamic Scholarship Fund, Islamophobia Studies Center, Muslim Student Association, Northern California Islamic Council, and Zaytuna College.

Flyer for 4-17-2018 IRDP Event

Israel: A Democracy or A Colonial Project?

04.17.2018 | 6:30 PM  | 110 Boalt Hall

A Palestinian Prisoner Day Commemoration --  Israel:  A Democracy or A Colonial Project? with Haneen Zoabi

Facilitated by Dr. Hatem Bazian

--- Presented by CRG's Islamophobia Research & Documentation Project.  Co-sponsored by the Arab Resource & Organizing Center, Al-Awda SF, American Friends Service Committee, American Muslims for Palestine, Answer-SF, Art Forces, Boalt Law School Students for Justice in Palestine, General Union of Palestinian Students, International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network, International Solidarity Movement, Islamophobia Studies Center, Jewish Voices for Peace Bay Area, Middle East Children’s Alliance, Muslim Student Association UC Berkeley, Norcal Sabeel, Palestine Action Network, Palestine Youth Movement, Palestinian American Coalition, Quit, Students for Justice in Palestine UC Berkeley.

Flyer for 8th Conference IRDP

Islamophobia and the End of Liberalism? -- The 8th Annual International Islamophobia Conference

04.21 - 23.2017 |  Booth Auditorium, Boalt Hall, UC Berkeley School of Law

Islamophobia is most commonly understood to be a problem that impacts adversely on Muslim minorities living in Western countries.   The growing literature on Islamophobia has contributed to this understanding by focusing on the role of media in spreading of negative views about Muslims and Islam, the implication being that the problem of Islamophobia could largely be resolved by fairer media treatment.  It is not clear, however, that Islamophobia is simply about how Muslims are portrayed.   As recent events demonstrate, Islamophobia is implicated in the broader crisis of post-Cold War liberal order.

The electoral triumph of Trump has been hailed as a clear sign that the post-Cold war liberal order is unravelling.  The crisis of post-Cold War liberal order has been read in myriad of ways, including the failure of neo-liberal globalization, the fall-out from the financial crisis of 2008, the advance of technology.  Throughout the Western plutocracies, politicians and parties who would until recently be considered beyond the pale of political respectability are making electoral gains and reshaping the national conversation.  One of the central themes of these challengers to post-Cold war settlement is the desire to ‘take back their country’.  Despite the variety of national and regional contexts in which these narratives of national recovery and restoration are situated, the Muslim presence looms large as an obstacle and a threat.

The Muslim threat enables assertions of national security, cultural integrity and social cohesion to trump demands for diversity, liberty and equality.  Islamophobia is not just  about the fate of Muslims but about the possibility of an inclusive and sustainable future for all.   Not only because the systems of surveillance and restriction deployed to discipline Muslims can be easily redeployed and redirected at other targets, but also because such interventions and controls threaten to reverse the gains in civil rights and multiculturalism that have to come characterize Western plutocracies in the last fifty years.

There is a need for an approach to the study of Islamophobia which explores the way in which it is being institutionalized by policies that promote and police a conception of Western societies that appears to be becoming increasingly exclusive and exclusionary.  This conference provides an inter-disciplinary platform to reflect and respond to the crisis of post-Cold war liberal order by exploring the relationship between Islamophobia and the reshaping of Western societies.

The conference addresses question of the relationship between liberalism (and neo-liberalism) and Islamophobia. We particularly welcome presentations that respond to the following themes:

*  What is the relation between the discourse of ‘take our country back’ and the post-Cold war liberal political order?

*  What intellectual and political resources and possibilities now exist for imagining the West in contravention of Islamophobia?

*  Is the presence of the non-white, culturally unassimilable, rights bearing subject a political problem for western liberalism?

*  What is the relationship between neo-liberal economic policies and rise of Islamophobia?

Presented by the Islamophobia Research and Documentation Project, University of California, Berkeley, Centre for Ethnicity and Racism Studies, University of Leeds, UK, & Islamophobia Studies Journal & ReOrient.

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  1. Journal of Islamic Studies

    The Journal of Islamic Studies is accepting papers on the scholarly study of all aspects of Islam and of the Islamic World.

  2. Islamic Studies Databases & Reference Sources: Home

    It includes biographical articles on distinguished Muslims of every age and land, on tribes and dynasties, on the crafts and sciences, on political and religious institutions, on the geography, ethnography, flora and fauna of the various countries and on the history, topography and monuments of the major towns and cities.

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    Report August 9, 2012 The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity The world's 1.6 billion Muslims are united in their belief in God and the Prophet Muhammad and are bound together by such religious practices as fasting during the holy month of Ramadan and almsgiving to assist people in need.

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    KADER Kelam Araştırmaları Dergisi An open-access journal on contemporary Islamic thought and theology. Intellectual Discourse ID is a multi-disciplinary, flagship journal of the International Islamic University Malaysia, dedicated to the scholarly study of all aspects of Islam and the Muslim world.

  10. PDF Publicly Funded Islamic education in europe and the United States

    Islam and religious education, which stems from ... securitization and the state control of Islam. This paper will present an overview of publicly ... areas in need of future research. Islamic ...

  11. Islamic problems and perspectives in Philosophy of Religion

    The present issue of Religious Studies Archives tries to draw the attention of contemporary philosophers of religion to Islam and the Islamic tradition as a rich source of worth considering philosophical problems and approaches by presenting a collection of best ever papers about Islam published in Religious Studies. Mohammad Saleh Zarepour

  12. PDF Islamic Problems and Perspectives in Philosophy of Religion

    Through introducing the papers selected for the fourth issue of Religious Studies Archives on Islamic problems and perspectives in philosophy of religion, the present paper highlights the fact that the Islamic tradition provides a rich source of issues that are worth investigating by philosophers of religion.

  13. Islamic Studies Research Databases & Reference Sources: Home

    It includes biographical articles on distinguished Muslims of every age and land, on tribes and dynasties, on the crafts and sciences, on political and religious institutions, on the geography, ethnography, flora and fauna of the various countries and on the history, topography and monuments of the major towns and cities.

  14. The concept of Messiah in abrahamic religions: A focused study of the

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  16. Middle East & Islamic Studies Databases for Research: Home

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    The paper discusses the effectiveness of Islamic spiritual and religious care based on the ethnographic research with 15 Muslim spiritual caregivers. Six themes emerged from the interviews with fifteen Muslim spiritual caregivers. These six themes describe what the spiritual care providers see as ef …

  20. Introduction to Part I: Islamic Education: Historical Perspective

    The results of this research demonstrate … Expand. Save. The Shift in the Authority of Islamic Religious Education: A Qualitative Content Analysis on Online Religious Teaching ... Knowledge before Knowledge The Revelation of Knowledge The Plural of Knowledge Definitions of Knowledge Knowledge is Islam (Theology and Religious Science ...

  21. Islamophobia Research and Documentation Project

    Hatem Bazian. Chair and Founder, I slamophobia Research and Documentation Project. Hatem Bazian is a co-founder and Professor of Islamic Law and Theology at Zaytuna College, the 1st Accredited Muslim Liberal Arts College in the United States. In addition, Prof. Bazian is a lecturer in the Departments of Near Eastern and Asian American and Asian Diaspora Studies at the University of California ...

  22. Religion

    Judaism Non-Religion & Secularism Global Religious Futures Religious Freedom & Restrictions + More report | Jan 24, 2024 Religious 'Nones' in America: Who They Are and What They Believe 28% of U.S. adults are religiously unaffiliated, describing themselves as atheists, agnostics or "nothing in particular" when asked about their religion.

  23. The Power of Religion: Islamic Investing in the Lab

    This paper fills the gap in the literature, by providing an express linkage between religious preferences and investment in an Islamic fund. Using an incentivized lab experiment, the analysis compares the extent to which investors with religious preferences are likely to accept inferior financial performance to pursue investments aligned with ...