A GUID Cause, The Women's Suffrage Movement in Scotland - Their struggles for change withing society

  • Introduction
  • About Project 3
  • Skills for paper 2

Extended essay

  • Class debate

Using the Sources section to support your extended essay

Over 50 archive sources on this site will help those of you who are thinking of producing an Extended Essay on the theme of the women's suffrage movement in Scotland.

You'll know already that once you've chosen your issue and your title, you need to use a variety of historical sources to support your arguments. You can use the sources on this site to illustrate and strengthen different points that you want to make in your essay.

Remember to think about the origin and purpose of each source, i.e. who wrote or published it, and why? Is the writer known to be pro- or anti-women's suffrage? Is the writer or photographer aiming to influence public opinion about the women's suffrage campaign?

The archive material in the sources section has been organised into the following topic areas:

  • Sources 1-4: Why did women want the vote?
  • Sources 5-17: What methods did the suffragettes and suffragists use?
  • Sources 18-27 : Arguments for and against women's suffrage
  • Sources 28-37 : Reactions from the authorities, press and public
  • Sources 38-47: The effect of the First World War
  • Sources 48-49 : The impact of the right to vote
  • Sources 50-58: The St Andrew's Hall incident, March 1914

Download PDF

Download a print version of this activity

Mr Marr History

Get help with nationals, higher and advanced higher history, why did women get the vote.

This page analyses the reasons that women finally gained the vote, as well as examining why they did not have the vote in the first place.

You can download a podcast about this topic through  Spotify , iTunes or Podomatic .

* Women and the vote – background

* Changing social attitudes

* Pressure groups – The Suffragists

* Pressure groups – The Suffragettes

* World War One

*  Influence of other countries

*  Male political progress

* Political advantage

Share this:

' src=

  • Copy shortlink
  • Report this content
  • Manage subscriptions

Sample details

  • Words: 1480
  • Views: 1,054

Related Topics

  • Civilization
  • Treaty of Versailles
  • Hyborian Age
  • Adolf Hitler
  • Ancient Greece
  • African American
  • Julius Caesar
  • Spanish Inquisition
  • Historical Criticism
  • King Arthur
  • Weimar Republic
  • Ku Klux Klan

Higher History Women

Higher History Women

The model answer suggests that changes in attitudes towards women in British society played a crucial role in granting specific women the right to vote in 1918. Previously, women were subject to disrespect and undervaluation by society. However, during the 1900s, an increasing number of women started asserting themselves and striving to overcome their inferior status compared to men. This change became apparent with the emergence of the “New Women” concept, which resulted in higher female involvement in different occupations, improved educational opportunities, and increased political participation.

Contrary to popular beliefs, the notion of the “New Women” cannot be solely credited for women obtaining the right to vote. Women took matters into their own hands by establishing movements like Suffragists and Suffragettes to advocate for suffrage. These groups were tired of being neglected and deemed unworthy of voting rights. Furthermore, the rise of the “Reward Theory” during World War 1 also played a significant role. This theory acknowledged women’s active involvement in Britain’s war endeavors, assuming hazardous jobs that were traditionally held by men.

ready to help you now

Without paying upfront

The changing views on women and the breakdown of the “separate spheres” in the 1900s had a significant impact on women’s suffrage. However, it was not the sole factor contributing to their achievement. Previously, women were restricted from earning their own wages and working. Yet, with the emergence of new job opportunities, particularly in “white collar” positions such as clerical or computing assistants in offices, women were able to improve themselves and pursue ambitions. Consequently, these jobs provided women with a sense of responsibility and opened up numerous opportunities.

The desire for women to improve their opportunities in society led to many of them seeking the extension of the franchise. Additionally, the introduction of compulsory education at the primary level ensured that both men and women had a foundational level of understanding. By 1914, 349 secondary or grammar schools had been opened specifically for women. Women-only colleges, such as Girton College established in 1869, further contributed to the education of women. As a result, they were no longer perceived as being too unintelligent to participate in voting.

Moreover, women’s involvement in Politics also contributed to the shifting attitudes towards them. The inclusion of women in local authority elections was a significant development. In 1869, women were granted the right to vote in Local council elections. Additionally, women were permitted to join the schools boards in 1870, and later in 1894, they were able to run as candidates in the Local elections. These advancements highlighted the potential for success that women could achieve if given opportunities. However, women remained frustrated that they were not trusted with participating in National elections.

Despite changes in attitudes towards women in British society impacting their voting rights, it wasn’t the sole reason for women receiving the right to vote by 1918. Women initiated suffrage movements and actively campaigned for their rights. The first movement, led by Millicent Fawcett, was known as the Suffragists. These campaigners aimed to demonstrate their worthiness for the vote through peaceful tactics, including regular meetings, distributing pamphlets, and lobbying supportive Members of Parliament to introduce bills on their behalf.

By 1919, the Suffragists had gained an impressive following of 50,000 supporters. Their dignified and well-organized demeanor left a lasting impression on countless individuals. Historian Martin Pugh suggests that even Lloyd George, one of the MPs, was influenced by the Suffragists. The peaceful approach they used to persuade others greatly strengthened their support. Moreover, shortly before World War I began, the Suffragists were in talks with the Government about their rights to vote.

Despite facing opposition from different groups, including Queen Victoria and working-class men, suffrage advocates persisted in their fight for the vote. This frustration led to the establishment of the Suffragettes, who campaigned from 1909 to 1914 under the motto “Deeds not Words.” They advocated for more forceful methods like smashing windows, pepper bombing, and setting fire to pillar boxes. Their ultimate objective was to achieve recognition and voting rights across Britain.

The death of Emily Davison, one of the dedicated followers, led to the Hunger campaign, resulting in force feeding in prisons as the members refused to eat while imprisoned. As a result, the Temporary Discharge Act in 1912, also known as the “Cat and Mouse Act,” was enacted. Consequently, the Suffragettes gained considerable publicity and sympathy for women’s suffrage, as women were either dying or experiencing immense pain due to their beliefs. This also exerted pressure on politicians to appease women.

Despite aiming to secure voting rights for women, the Suffragette movement faced backlash from men due to their violent methods and questionable actions. This negative response created a perception that they did not deserve suffrage. Historian Martin Pugh explains that unintentionally, the Suffragettes hindered progress by alienating Members of Parliament (MPs). In 1912, 222 MPs opposed them after an attack, serving as evidence of this impact. However, both the Suffragists and Suffragettes played important roles in making women’s suffrage a significant political issue and raising awareness for their cause.

Although they did not gain the right to vote, both the Suffragists and Suffragettes had a profound impact on shaping the concept of the “new women.” Their activism provided women with a unique platform for self-expression that would have otherwise been inaccessible. Moreover, their efforts during World War I gave rise to what is known as the “Reward Theory.” Both groups demonstrated their patriotism by temporarily suspending their campaigns and wholeheartedly supporting the war, which led them to redirect their previously concentrated efforts towards contributing to wartime initiatives.

In 1915, the Suffragettes held a pro war rally where 30,000 women passionately demanded “The Women’s Right to Serve”. Simultaneously, the “White Feather” campaign was initiated. These actions highlighted women’s unwavering commitment to support their country during the war. Women courageously took on perilous occupations previously reserved for men, such as munitions work (with 819,000 women being employed in this field). Unfortunately, these jobs had severe health risks, as demonstrated by the tragic explosion at the Silvertown factory in East London, which claimed hundreds of lives.

The work provided women with a level of freedom as they earned their own wages. This enabled them to have more fulfilling jobs and, most importantly, fueled their determination to secure the right to vote, as they had no desire to return to their previous pre-war lifestyle. According to historian Arthur Marwick, men who worked alongside women witnessed their capability for hard work and developed a newfound respect for them. Moreover, newspaper headlines began highlighting women as “heroines,” and posters titled “The Nation Thanks the Women” proliferated throughout Britain.

This meant that legislation could now be passed as politicians were able to portray women as “heroines” rather than succumbing to violence. However, there is a strong argument that the existence of the “Reward Theory” is nonexistent. Paula Bartley, another historian, sarcastically views the right to vote as a “Strange Reward” since it was not granted to women involved in war work. The vote was only given to women aged thirty or above, who had contributed little to the war effort. Martin Pugh also suggests that the “votes for women” movement was already gaining momentum even before the war.

In comparison to New Zealand, Australia, or Canada, Britain did not want to appear undemocratic. According to Bartley, pre-war suffrage campaigns were highly visible. Unlike France, where women did assist in the war but did not attain the right to vote, there was no suffrage movement like the Suffragists or Suffragettes. As a result, French women had to wait until 1945 to gain the vote since there was no campaign pressuring politicians. Pugh argues that attributing women’s war effort as the primary reason for gaining the vote would be too simplistic.

Prime Minister Asquith acknowledged that women’s role in the war and their perceived worthiness of suffrage were significant factors in the passage of legislation by 1918. However, it is important to note that the change in attitudes towards women before the war was not the only factor. In conclusion, there was a noticeable shift in societal opinions about women prior to the war, but other factors also played a role in granting them voting rights by 1918. For example, women’s improved education and their demonstrated abilities in new white-collar jobs and local politics contributed to their increased perception as deserving of voting rights.

On the other hand, the Suffrage movements put the issue of votes for women on the political map. The Suffragists gained support, including that of many MPs, through their dignified methods of protest. The Suffragettes gained a mass amount of support from the hunger strikes and gained a lot of sympathy and publicity for the cause. Also, as argued by historian Marwick’s Reward Theory, women received the vote in 1918 as a ‘thank-you’ for their work in WW1. Overall, changing attitudes towards women prior to WW1 was one reason for women receiving the vote but it is also evident that the suffrage movements and WW1 had a role to play.

Cite this page


You can get a custom paper by one of our expert writers

  • Alexander The Great
  • Watergate scandal
  • Mesopotamia
  • Black Death
  • French and Indian War
  • Quality Assurance
  • Historiography
  • Victorian Era

Check more samples on your topics

History of american higher education.

Higher Education

History of American Higher Education: The Extra curriculum Importance from the Administrative Perspective “Most of those concerned with the problems of higher education have not focused as specifically on how students are managed, Thus, when pressed for answers, both the professional and non-professional sectors say better teaching is the answer without realizing that much of what

The Development of an Employee Satisfaction Model for Higher Education

Purpose: The majority of research on higher education emphasizes students as customers and their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with their programs. However, the satisfaction of teachers and their work is often overlooked. Hence, this study aims to analyze how employee dissatisfaction with different investment items helps identify improvement priorities. Design/methodology/approach: To achieve this, the study utilized academic

Technology and Learning in Higher Education

Determining the ultimate goals and objectives of higher education is a difficult task to accomplish considering its broad compass and the cornucopia of categories that are necessary to compartmentalize it. For instance, the quintessence, the significance, and the aims of higher education differ under various settings or circumstances. This thought may be represented by the

Development That Involves the Movement From one State to a Higher

People are constantly changing and developing ever since conception to the day they pass away. Some changes can be more for people depending on the choices and incidents that occurs in a person’s life. The majority of changes that people go through are passed by common biological and psychological heritage by all people. One of

Transforming Higher Education in Kenya

Higher education opportunities have experienced substantial growth in the past decade. This is evident from the increasing number of colleges and universities offering a diverse array of degrees and certificates. Concurrently, enrollment rates at these institutions have risen, prompting colleges to establish campuses outside urban areas in order to meet demand. Consequently, individuals of various

Higher Education in United States of America

In the United States of America, nearly all high schoolers are exhorted to attend a college or university. Acquiring a post-secondary education is vital to a person’s success in the modern world of advanced technology and a competitive economy. However, for many young Americans, this is simply not feasible, and many bright-minded and ambitious teens

South Africa and Funding Free Higher Education

According to Amogelang Mbatha South Africa will introduce free tertiary schooling for undergraduates from homes where the annual income is $27,600 or less. There is no budget for it and the beneficiary will have to come up with ways to find cash, which leads to spending cuts and tax increases. This plan started in 2018,

Northern Native American Influence on American Higher Education

Higher education in non-Western cultures is faceted and rich with multiculturalism. The diversity of higher education around the world can be seen in the integration of American higher education, as we know it today. Northern Native Americans have a prolific non-Western culture of education and we have seen this modernized by Tribal Colleges – notably

A Statement of Intent to Pursue a Higher Degree in Economics

Future Goals

I Want To Be

My name is [student] and I have submitted an application for admission into the Masters of Arts in Economics program at the prestigious University of Manitoba. I currently hold a Bachelor of Science Degree in Economics (2018), from Central University (Ghana), one of the country's most prestigious educational institutions. I finished with a First Class

higher history suffragettes essay

Hi, my name is Amy 👋

In case you can't find a relevant example, our professional writers are ready to help you write a unique paper. Just talk to our smart assistant Amy and she'll connect you with the best match.




Essay: The Suffragists

Essay details and download:.

  • Subject area(s): History essays
  • Reading time: 4 minutes
  • Price: Free download
  • Published: 15 July 2022*
  • File format: Text
  • Words: 915 (approx)
  • Number of pages: 4 (approx)
  • Tags: Suffragette essays

Text preview of this essay:

This page of the essay has 915 words. Download the full version above.

Many years passed without significant change until the Reform Act of 1832 when Henry Hunt proposed a political franchise that recognised equality for men and women which gave them the opportunity to vote. He was defeated, however middle class men were granted access into the parliamentary system. (Simkin, 2015) Chartism was the response to the inequalities of the First Reform Act, their protests were intended on being peaceful but turned violent causing uproar in society. (Roberts, 2011) Women were becoming increasingly agitated by their inferior social status during the 1850’s as change was not forthcoming compared to men and as a result they rebelled against their gender roles and began forming committees and organised campaigns, such as ‘The Women’s Suffrage Committee’, formed by Barbara Bodichon in 1866. The committee put forward a petition for women’s suffrage and collected 1,500 signatures, it was presented to the House of Commons by John Stuart Mill in 1866, this was known as the First Reform Act requesting enfranchisement to all householders regardless of sex. The request was unsuccessful; however, in 1867 the Second Reform Act was granted, which gave enfranchisement to men, women were outraged and every year from 1870 put forward the vote to Parliament. (Parliament, n.d)

Women who formed committees called themselves ‘the Suffragists’ and were of working and middle class status, it was seldom that an upper class female would participate as they were content with their social standards and it would be disrespectful to step outside of their privileged status to be seen approving protest and social change. The Suffragists campaigned for the vote to be granted because their disenfranchisement status gave them very few rights and it reinforced the idea of ‘the angel in the house’ and subordination to men. They believed that protesting with moral force, dignity, respect and in a non-violent manner would achieve a favourable outcome. (British Library, n.d) The Suffragists campaigned for many years until 1903 when the Suffragettes formed. Through-out their time numerous groups formed, such as the National Union of Women’s Suffrage lead by Millicent Fawcett, although their proposal for the vote was not granted, by 1900 there was evidence to suggest that Parliament was in favour of women’s suffrage as some proposals had been passed, such as two Married Women’s Property Acts in 1870 and 1882. (British Broadcasting Co-operation, 2014).

The suffragettes recognised the requirement for militant action and began chaining themselves to the Prime Ministers railings, this lead to Emmeline Pankhurst breaking away from the Suffragists and set up the Women’s Social and Political Union, their slogan being ‘Deeds Not Words’. The French Revolution and Chartism set an example for radical action being the only action to gain results. By 1909 the union had branches all over Britain and published a newspaper called ‘Votes for Women’ which sold 20,000 copies per week, emphasising the diverse support for the cause. (British Broadcasting Co-operation, 2014). In 1908 the Liberal government was elected into Parliament and Herbert Asquith was elected as Prime Minister, the Suffragettes were hopeful they would provide support, however Asquith was reactionary and an anti-Suffragist. More force was needed, windows were smashed and arson attacks were carried out, which lead to violent riots and in 1913 Emily Wilding threw herself under the Kings horse at Derby racecourse killing herself in protest of women’s emancipation. (Chevalier, n.d)

Victorian society was extremely patriarchal, this reserved privilege and power for men and gave them social mobility as male figures dominated parliament and local government authorities. This would suggest that the ideology of characteristics influencing gender related working roles could be viewed as persuasive and unethical and there is evidence to suggest through suffragette protests of gender inequality and the change that resulted in the 1900’s women had been marginalised in society because they had been perceived to be the weaker sex relating to their ‘natural’ characteristics and the minority in comparison to men. However, there was no evidence that they could not successfully complete manual labour. (Marsh, 2016)

In 1914 the First World War was declared and suffragette movement was suspended, highlighting that suffragette women were far from unreasonable. The war changed the industrial work force as men were recruited for the armed forces and over 600,000 women took on male-dominated roles, working in hazardous conditions with asbestos, making tyres, at coal mines and at munitions factories, wartime conditions gave women a variety of opportunities. (Brosnan, 2016) The introduction of the conscription Act in 1916 made roles available to women that were reserved for men as the need for workers became urgent, women were employed as railway guards, bus conductors and within the police. Women prevailed in male dominated work and showed resilience and strength both emotionally and physically, this made their argument for the vote more credible. Despite equal duties, women did not receive equal pay, this apparent lack of social equality was the cause of some of the earliest demands for equal pay. In 1918 the war ended and the Representation of the People Act was introduced, which gave men over the age of 21 and women over the age of 30 the vote. (London Metropolitan University, n.d) Despite women’s efforts during the war society still marginalised them and expected them to return to the domestic feminine idea, however women wanted more. Suffrage groups viewed the war as an inevitability for which they had to make sacrifices and Millicent Fawcett commented that the war revolutionised women’s position in society. (National Archives, n.d) Male politician and feminist, John Stuart Mill made his opinion clear on female emancipation.


...(download the rest of the essay above)

Discover more:

  • Suffragette essays

Recommended for you

  • The Ohio Women’s Rights Movement
  • Lucy Stone – suffragist and abolitionist
  • Emmeline Pankhurst

About this essay:

If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:

Essay Sauce, The Suffragists . Available from:<https://www.essaysauce.com/history-essays/the-suffragists/> [Accessed 23-02-24].

These History essays have been submitted to us by students in order to help you with your studies.

* This essay may have been previously published on Essay.uk.com at an earlier date.

Essay Categories:

  • Accounting essays
  • Architecture essays
  • Business essays
  • Computer science essays
  • Criminology essays
  • Economics essays
  • Education essays
  • Engineering essays
  • English language essays
  • Environmental studies essays
  • Essay examples
  • Finance essays
  • Geography essays
  • Health essays
  • History essays
  • Hospitality and tourism essays
  • Human rights essays
  • Information technology essays
  • International relations
  • Leadership essays
  • Linguistics essays
  • Literature essays
  • Management essays
  • Marketing essays
  • Mathematics essays
  • Media essays
  • Medicine essays
  • Military essays
  • Miscellaneous essays
  • Music Essays
  • Nursing essays
  • Philosophy essays
  • Photography and arts essays
  • Politics essays
  • Project management essays
  • Psychology essays
  • Religious studies and theology essays
  • Sample essays
  • Science essays
  • Social work essays
  • Sociology essays
  • Sports essays
  • Types of essay
  • Zoology essays

Privacy Overview

  • Past Papers
  • National Qualifications  >  Subjects  >  History  >  Higher  > Higher History

Higher History

Alternative certification model.

The alternative certification model is how National 5, Higher and Advanced Higher courses will be resulted this year, following the cancellation of the 2021 exams. It involves five different stages.

View the alternative certification model and see what will happen at each stage.

Essential Information

Course specification ( 30/05/2023 ).

Explains the structure of the course, including its purpose and aims and information on the skills, knowledge and understanding that will be developed.

  • Higher History Course Specification May 2023
  • Higher History Course Specification (Gaelic Translation) January 2019

Past Papers and Marking Instructions

Access all past papers by subject/level

Additional question papers resources

Illustrates the standard, structure and requirements of the question papers candidates will sit (includes marking instructions).

  • Higher Scottish History Specimen Question Paper September 2023
  • Higher Scottish History Specimen Question Paper (Gaelic Medium) June 2019
  • Higher British, European and World History Specimen Question Paper September 2019
  • Higher British, European and World History Specimen Question Paper (Gaelic Medium) June 2019

There were no exams in 2021. The 2020-21 question paper resources are, for most subjects, modified papers which reflect the modifications put in place for session 2020-21

  • Higher British, European and World History question paper (319 KB)
  • Higher Scottish History question paper (309 KB)
  • Higher British, European and World History marking instructions (0.96 MB)
  • Higher Scottish History marking instructions (451 KB)

This section provides information on marking instructions and/or the coursework assessment task(s). It includes information that centres need to administer coursework and must be read in conjunction with the course specification.

  • Coursework assessment task for Higher History July 2019
  • Resource sheet for Higher History Assignment September 2018
  • Resource sheet for Higher History Assignment (Gaelic translation) July 2018
  • Guidance on conditions of assessment

Information on the production and submission of SQA-assessed coursework for National 5, Higher and Advanced Higher.

  • Coursework for External Assessment (261 KB)

Understanding Standards ( 12/12/2023 )

  • Examples of candidate evidence with commentaries

Course assessment overview

Webinar (recording): course assessment from session 2020-2021.

  • Download webinar
  • Webinar Q&A (168 KB)
  • Overview of Course Assessment Presentation with audio May 2018 (13 minutes)

Changes to understanding standards materials

  • Changes to published Understanding Standards materials for all subjects

Please note: Understanding Standards materials are regularly reviewed to ensure they remain up to date.

Additional Resources session 2020-22

Please note: Additional resources published during sessions 2020-2022 are currently under review. Further information can be found on the Understanding Standards Website .

Course reports ( 14/09/2023 )

Provides information on the performance of candidates - which is useful to teachers, lecturers and assessors in their preparation of candidates for future assessment.

Course Reports

  • 2023 Higher History Course Report  September 2023
  • 2022 Higher History Course Report  September 2022
  • 2019 Higher History Course Report  September 2019
  • 2018 Higher History Course Report  September 2018
  • 2017 Higher History Course Report  October 2017

Verification Reports

  • History Verification Key Messages Round 1 March 2017
  • History: Quality Assurance - external verification

Course support

Guidance on creating assessments for Higher (148 KB) August 2022

Ushare open learning resources

Where can you take this course?

Centre Finder


  • Share full article


Supported by

Shaken by Grisly Killings of Women, Activists in Africa Demand Change

The continent has the highest rate of gender-related killings of women in the world, according to the United Nations. Activists accuse officials of ignoring the issue and blaming the victims.

A hand holding a photograph of a smiling young woman in a pink headwrap and hoop earrings.

By Abdi Latif Dahir

Reporting from Murang’a and Nairobi, Kenya

A wave of gruesome killings of women across several African countries in recent weeks has prompted outrage and indignation, triggered a wave of protests and precipitated calls for governments to take decisive action against gender-based violence.

Kenyans were shocked when 31 women were killed in January after they were beaten, strangled or beheaded, activists and police said. In Somalia, a pregnant woman died this month after her husband allegedly set her on fire . In the West African nation of Cameroon, a powerful businessman was arrested in January on accusations, which he has denied, of brutalizing dozens of women .

The upsurge in killings is part of a broader pattern that got worse during economic hard times and pandemic lockdowns, human rights activists say. An estimated 20,000 gender-related killings of women were recorded in Africa in 2022, the highest rate in the world , according to the U.N. Experts believe the true figures are likely higher.

“The problem is the normalization of gender-based violence and the rhetoric that, yes, women are disposable,” said Njeri wa Migwi, the co-founder of Usikimye — Swahili for “Don’t be silent” — a Kenyan nonprofit working with victims of gender-based violence.

The feminist scholar Diana Russell popularized the term femicide — the killing of women or girls because of their gender — to create a category that distinguishes it from other homicides. According to a report by the United Nations , the killings are often carried out by male partners or close family members and are preceded by physical, emotional and sexual abuse.

Critics say that many African leaders, as well as police, ignore or downplay the problem, or even blame victims .

On a recent afternoon, Ms. Migwi, the nonprofit co-founder, was leading a training session for girls and women when she was suddenly called to a nearby home in Kayole, a low-income, high-crime neighborhood east of Nairobi.

Inside the dimly lit house, Jacinta Ayuma, a day laborer and mother of two, lay lifeless, bloody bruises visible on her face, neck and left arm. The police said she was killed by her partner. He fled, and they have yet to arrest him. An autopsy showed she died from blunt force trauma that resulted in multiple organ injuries.

Wails of anguish rang in the air as several officers carried the body into a police van using a thin duvet. Three neighbors said they had heard someone screaming for help throughout the night, until about 6 a.m. But they said they did not intervene or call the police because the sounds of beatings and distress were commonplace, and they considered it a private matter.

Ms. Migwi, back in her office nearby, said she had seen too many similar cases. “I am mourning,” she said, her head in her hands. “There’s a helplessness that comes with all of this.”

To coincide with Valentine’s Day, women’s rights campaigners in Kenya organized a vigil they called “Dark Valentine” in the capital to commemorate the women who have been killed. At least 500 women have been victims of femicide in Kenya between 2016 and 2023, according to a recent report by the Africa Data Hub , a group of data organizations working with journalists in several African countries that analyzed cases reported in Kenyan news media.

About 300 people donning black T-shirts waved red roses, lit red candles and observed a minute of silence.

“Why should we have to keep reminding people that women need to be alive,” said Zaha Indimuli, a co-organizer of the event.

Among the women whose name was read at the vigil was Grace Wangari Thuiya, a 24-year-old beautician who was killed in Nairobi in January.

Two days before her death, Ms. Thuiya visited her mother in Murang’a County, about 35 miles northeast of Nairobi. During the visit, her mother, Susan Wairimu Thuiya, said they had spoken about a 20-year-old college student who was dismembered just days before and what seemed like an epidemic of violence against women.

Ms. Thuiya cautioned her daughter, whom she described as ambitious and jovial, to be careful in her dating choices.

“Fear was gripping my heart that day,” Ms. Thuiya said of their last encounter.

Two days later, the police called Ms. Thuiya to inform her that her daughter had died after her boyfriend assaulted and repeatedly stabbed her. Ms. Thuiya said her daughter had never revealed that she was seeing someone. The police said they arrested a man in the apartment where Grace Thuiya was killed.

“This is all a bad dream that I want to wake up from,” Ms. Thuiya said.

Ms. Thuiya’s killing, among others , sparked large-scale protests across Kenya in late January. In recent years, anti-femicide protests had broken out in Kenya over the killing of female Olympic athletes , and also in other African nations, including South Africa , Nigeria and Uganda.

Activists say the demonstrations were among the largest nonpolitical protests in Kenya’s history: At least 10,000 women and men crowded the streets of Nairobi alone, with thousands more joining in other cities.

At a time of rising anti-gay sentiments, the protests were also intended to highlight the violence facing nonbinary , queer and transgender women, said Marylize Biubwa, a Kenyan queer activist.

The movement has generated a backlash, especially online, from men who argue that a woman’s clothing or choices justified abuse. Such comments are disseminated with hashtags like #StopKillingMen and by social media influencers like Andrew Kibe, a men’s rights champion and former radio presenter whose YouTube account was shut down last year for violating the company’s terms of service.

“Shut up,” he said in a recent video, referring to those outraged over the killings of women. “You have no right to have an opinion.”

Activists say they don’t see enough outrage from political, ethnic or religious leaders.

In Kenya, President William Ruto has come under criticism for not personally addressing femicide. A spokesman with his office did not respond to requests for comment. But following the protests, his government vowed to expedite investigations and introduced a toll-free number for the public to report perpetrators.

Still, in Kenya and across Africa, campaigners say more investigators need to be hired, judges need to decide cases more quickly and legislatures should pass laws to punish perpetrators more severely.

Data collection and research on femicide needs to be funded, said Patricia Andago, a researcher at the data firm Odipo Dev.

For now, the killings continue to leave a trail of devastation.

On a recent afternoon, Ms. Thuiya, whose 24-year-old daughter was killed in January, sat cuddling her two granddaughters, 5-year-old Keisha and 22-month-old Milan. She said that Keisha believed her mother ascended “to the sky” and asked if she could get a ladder to follow her.

“It was very painful,” Ms. Thuiya said about hearing her granddaughter’s questions. “I just want justice for my daughter. And I want that justice now.”

Abdi Latif Dahir is the East Africa correspondent for The Times, based in Nairobi, Kenya. He covers a broad range of issues including geopolitics, business, society and arts. More about Abdi Latif Dahir


  1. Essay on Women Suffrage Movement Free Essay Example

    higher history suffragettes essay

  2. Suffragettes Paper Essay Example

    higher history suffragettes essay

  3. Women's rights and suffrage essay for history200

    higher history suffragettes essay

  4. 2 11A2 suffragettes

    higher history suffragettes essay

  5. Womens suffrage extended essay examples

    higher history suffragettes essay

  6. 😍 Womens suffrage essay. Women Suffrage Essays: Examples, Topics

    higher history suffragettes essay


  1. Higher History: Womens Suffrage Essay Flashcards

    laurenjeads Unit 4 exam practice root words Madhyamaka Philosophy and Prajnaparamita Greeting - Introducing whereas the suffragists actions and work with the mps persuaded them and garnered respect instead of hate vThe suffragist campaign was the most important factor in securing the vote for women in 1918.

  2. Women's Suffrage campaigns

    Higher Why women won greater political equality by 1928 Women's Suffrage campaigns Changing social and political attitudes, suffrage campaigns and World War One all contributed to women...

  3. PPTX Higher History Britain: Women's' Suffrage

    The Suffragettes even changed the name of their newspaper from . The Suffragette . to . Britannica. and they focussed on patriotism rather than feminism for the duration of the war. Suffragettes also started the 'white feather' campaign to encourage recruitment, using them as symbols of cowardice on men who were not in uniform . War Work ...

  4. PDF It was the militant suffragette campaign, more than any other factor

    Historian Midge MacKenzie argues that the Suffragettes "revitalised the question of votes for women" showing that some historians believe that the WSPU gained public interest in the cause and raised the profile for women's suffrage.

  5. Extended essay

    Project 1 Project 2 Project 3 Sources Contact Using the Sources section to support your extended essay Over 50 archive sources on this site will help those of you who are thinking of producing an Extended Essay on the theme of the women's suffrage movement in Scotland.

  6. Higher History: Suffragists Essay Flashcards

    Higher History: Suffragists Essay Intro Click the card to flip 👆 In 1918, the representation of the people act awarded the vote to women over the age of 30 who also met the minimum property qualification. This enfranchised 8.4 million women.

  7. The Suffragette Movement

    The suffragette movement. Only just over a hundred years ago, men and women were not considered to be equal. This angered some women so much that they took matters into their own hands. By the ...

  8. PPTX Higher History Britain: Women's' Suffrage

    Higher HistoryBritain: Womens' Suffrage. ... Plan a 20 mark essay. Pass a 20 mark timed essay. Introduction. In 1918, the Representation of the People Act gave women in Britain the right to vote for the first time. ... The National Union of Womens' Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) was founded in 1897 under the leadership of Millicent Fawcett and ...

  9. Higher History women and the vote full essay

    101 9 History - The suffrage movement Details about the suffrage movement and the two groups involved. If it wasn't clear, the bottom card in the second picture carries on from the bottom card in the first picture. TO WHAT EXTENT WAS FACTOR X THE MAIN REASON SOME WOMEN GOT THE VOTE BY 1918?

  10. PDF Commentary on candidate evidence

    Higher History Question Paper 2022-23 Commentaries SQA | www.understandingstandards.org.uk 1 of 7 ... This is evidence of suffragette militancy alienating political supporters of the cause and compromising women's chance at getting the vote.' Evaluation point: 'Overall, while the Suffragettes were somewhat useful in ... across the essay ...

  11. Why did women get the vote?

    * Male political progress * Political advantage Loading... This page analyses the reasons that women finally gained the vote, as well as examining why they did not have the vote in the first place. You can download a podcast about this topic through Spotify, iTunes or Podomatic.

  12. Higher history Essay Women and the vote (suffragettes)

    However, there were many other factors such as suffragist campaign, changing attitudes to women in society, women in the war and examples of other countries. This essay will argue that the pre war actions of the suffragettes was the most important reason for women gaining the vote in 1918.

  13. Higher History Women

    Higher History Women Higher History Women 1700 Words 7 Pages Model Answer "Changing attitudes in Britain Society towards women was the major reason why some women received the vote in 1918". How accurate is this view? During the 1900s, many women were beginning to stand up for themselves and no longer wanted to be inferior to men.

  14. Higher History Women

    Topic: Women Plagiarism scanner Do the Check Writing help Ask for Help Read my essay Go to Read Higher History Women The model answer suggests that changes in attitudes towards women in British society played a crucial role in granting specific women the right to vote in 1918.

  15. The Suffragists

    Through-out their time numerous groups formed, such as the National Union of Women's Suffrage lead by Millicent Fawcett, although their proposal for the vote was not granted, by 1900 there was evidence to suggest that Parliament was in favour of women's suffrage as some proposals had been passed, such as two Married Women's Property Acts in 1870...

  16. higher history

    introduction 1 Click card to see definition 👆 - 1918, a year that would change society forever. Women aged 30 and over who met the property requirements were finally included in the franchise after over 50 years of campaigning for this right.

  17. Essay skills

    Essay paragraphs. A Higher History essay must have at least 3 paragraphs but 4 paragraphs is good practice. Overall there is a total of 16 marks available across the essay paragraphs. Try to use ...

  18. Higher History

    However, in 1918 the Representation of the People Act granted the right to vote to 8.5 million women over the age of 30. A variety of factors have led to votes for women including Changes in Society, The Suffragists, The Suffragettes and The Impact of WWI. This essay will argue that The Suffragists were the most significant factor in bringing ...

  19. Higher History

    2022 Higher History Course Report September 2022; 2019 Higher History Course Report September 2019; 2018 Higher History Course Report September 2018; 2017 Higher History Course Report October 2017; Verification Reports. History Verification Key Messages Round 1 March 2017; History: Quality Assurance - external verification

  20. Higher History Women Essay (Britain Issue 3) Flashcards

    Women's war work was important to Britain's eventual victory as more than 700,000 women were employed making munitions. A- This is important because a crucial part in Britain's fight to win the war and led to them gaining respect and even changing the minds of certain government leaders like Asquith, who had previously opposed the vote for women.

  21. Higher History essays

    Higher History essays - Writing Evaluation - Download as a PDF or view online for free. Submit Search. Upload. ... 2 mark Evaluation - one factor Overall the Suffragettes were the least important reason that women won the vote. This is because, unlike other factors, women's extreme campaigns actually damaged the campaign because the ...

  22. Shaken by Grisly Killings of Women, Activists in Africa Demand Change

    An estimated 20,000 gender-related killings of women were recorded in Africa in 2022, the highest rate in the world, according to the U.N. Experts believe the true figures are likely higher.

  23. Higher History: Essay 1 Votes for Women Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Introduction: Context, Introduction: Line of Argument, Introduction: Factors and more.

  24. History Higher Essay Votes for Women Flashcards

    1 / 16 Flashcards Learn Test Match Q-Chat Created by Maybruce Students also viewed History India Under Nehru 18 terms Christian_Rosthof Preview Basic New Testament Church History 124 Checkup #2 14 terms Simey7 Preview History fall final ch.2 sect. 2 10 terms Jaidy32 Preview History Of Dentistry Teacher 85 terms R_R1739 Preview