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500+ Words Essay on Wildlife Conservation

Going by the importance of climate change and associated topics are garnering importance worldwide, an essay on Wildlife Conservation for students in English is an expected topic in the English exams. To prepare well in advance Vedantu has brought this essay for you. It is written by experts having expertise in English. Enough data and content are brought to you so that you can recall maximum points in the exam. This will ensure you achieve amazing marks in the English examination.

Let’s Being with the Essay on Wildlife Conservation for Students in English

Like forests, wildlife consisting of animals, birds, insects, etc. living in the forest is a national resource, which not only helps in maintaining the ecological balance but is also beneficial for various economic activities that generate revenue from tourism. The rich flora and fauna also play a major role in maintaining the ecological balance of a region. There was a time when human needs were minimal and there was bare interference in the wildlife. There is no denying the fact that due to urbanization, pollution, and human interventions wildlife is rapidly disappearing from the planet.

Today the biodiversity of the world is threatened due to the extinction of species. There are thirty-five hotspots around the world, which supports 43% of birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians as endemic. The IUCN has compiled a list of species and has classified the different species under extinct, critically endangered, less endangered, vulnerable, near threatened, and least concerned. This list is called the Red Data Book. According to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), the number of birds, animals, marine and freshwater creatures has dropped by almost one-third of its earlier population.

Causes for Decline or Threat to Wildlife

One of the major reasons for the constant decline of wildlife is human’s ever-increasing demands and greed that have led to deforestation and habitat destruction. For development and urbanization, man has chopped down trees to build dams, highways, and towns and this has forced the animals to retreat further and further into the receding forests.

Rapid industrialization and urbanization due to the fast growth in population in recent decades have taken a heavy toll on wildlife. Global warming and extensive environmental pollution have largely threatened wildlife as they lead to habitat destruction and rising temperature.

There is a huge demand for animal fur, skin, meat, bone, etc. across the globe that has led to a decrease in the wildlife population. Poachers kill the animals for the illegal trading of their body parts. For example, elephants are massively poached for ivory, rhinoceros are poached in Assam for their horns. The desire to keep animals in captivity or their desire to consume certain animals as exotic food has resulted in the disappearance of many animal species such as tigers and deer.

Forest fires, food shortage, increase in the number of predators, extreme weather conditions and other extraneous reasons have led to the extinction and endangerment of many species. For instance, the recent forest fires in the Amazon (Brazil), Uttarakhand (India), Australia, etc. lead to the death of many animals every year. 

Many types of animals, birds, and fauna are needed to retain the ecological balance. They are considered necessary for scientific research and experiments that will benefit mankind.

Steps to Conserve Wildlife

The protection and conservation of wildlife is the need of the hour. Some conservation efforts which are widely implemented are given below:


First and most importantly, humans need to have control over their needs. We need to prevent man from felling trees unnecessarily. Trees should be replanted if they are felled.

Pollution is one of the major causes that have led to the destruction of the habitat of animal species. Pollution of the environment like air pollution, water pollution, and soil pollution hurts the entire ecosystem. It has become of utmost importance to control environmental pollution.

More campaigns must be launched to raise awareness in humans on the need to keep our environment clean. A man should be responsible to maintain a healthy and balanced ecosystem so they should be cordial with the environment. More organizations like PETA should be set up to create awareness among people for the protection of wildlife.


The man should consciously put a check on the rapid growth of the population. The slow growth of population will decrease the rate of urbanization and that will have a major impact on the preservation of wildlife.

Wildlife Sanctuaries:

Wildlife sanctuaries should be made to ensure the protection of the areas of ecological significance. Under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 various provisions for protecting habitats of wildlife are made by constructing national parks and sanctuaries. These parks and sanctuaries ensure the protection and maintenance of endangered species.

Ban of Illegal Activities:

Illegal activities like hunting, poaching, and killing animals, birds, etc. for collections and illegal trade of hides, skins, nails, teeth, horns, feathers, etc. should be strictly prohibited and severe punishments and fines should be imposed on people who do these kinds of activities.

Community initiatives

Communities come together to take various conservation initiatives such as the establishment of community forests, raising their voice against illegal activities, creating awareness among the masses, raising voice for the rights of the animals, conserving animals of cultural significance, and many more. For example, members of the Bishnoi community of Rajasthan are very vocal against poaching activities in the region.    

Many countries have taken the initiative to help animals by proclaiming various birds and animals either as national animals or as protected species. In India, the government has launched a program of Joint Forest Management to protect the wildlife and their habitat. Under this program, responsibilities have been assigned to the village communities to protect and manage nearby forests and the wildlife in them.  Animal species have the right to live just like humans. Therefore, we should take every step to conserve them and ensure their survival and betterment.

Wildlife is an integral part of our planet. Wildlife plays a significant role in the ecology and the food chain. Disturbing their numbers or in extreme cases, extinction can have wide-ranging effects on ecology and humankind. Valuing and conserving forests and wildlife enhance the relation between man and nature. We want our future generation to be able to hear the lions roar and peacocks dancing with their extravagant feathers and not just see them in picture books. We must take steps today or else it will be too late and we should always remember 

“Earth provides enough to satisfy every man's needs, but not every man's greed.”

-Mahatma Gandhi


FAQs on Essay on Wildlife Conservation

1. How is Wildlife Important for Humankind?

Wildlife comprises animals, birds, insects, and aquatic life forms. They provide us with a number of products, such as milk, meat, hides, and wools. Insects like bees provide us, honey. They help in the pollination of flowers and have an important role to play as decomposers in the ecosystem. The birds act as decomposers by feeding on insects. Birds like vultures are known as scavengers and cleansers of the environment by feeding on dead livestock. Thus, wildlife helps in maintaining ecological balance.

2. Why Should we Conserve Biodiversity?

We should conserve biodiversity because it is very significant for all living organisms and for the environment. We must conserve biodiversity to save it from becoming extinct.

3. Why are Animals Poached?

The animals are hunted and poached for collection and illegal trade of skins, fur, horns, skins, and feathers.

4. Write Two Steps that the Government has Taken to Conserve Wildlife.

The two steps that the government has taken to conserve wildlife are:

In order to conserve wildlife, the government has established national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves.

Many awareness programs are launched by the government to create awareness of protecting wildlife.

5. What is the importance of essays on Wildlife Conservation for students in English?

Essay on Wildlife Conservation is a topic given to students because it serves many purposes and holds a lot of importance in the present times. Before starting the essay, students will do adequate research to get enough data about the topic. In the process, they will learn a lot about wildlife conservation. While writing this essay they will learn to empathize with the plight of the animals. Also, they will become better at expressing themselves in written words by writing an essay on this topic as it is a very sensitive topic. This essay will not just help them in fetching excellent marks but it will also sensitize them about the current happenings.

6. What message does an essay on Wildlife Conservation for students in English carry?

Essay on Wildlife Conservation for students in English carries a very significant message that emphasizes the importance of the conservation efforts taken and that are needed. The essay talks about the efforts which have already been taken and are under implementation and it also talks about what needs to be done in the future. It also talks about why we need to conserve wildlife and what significance it holds. Overall the central message of the essay is to conserve and protect the wildlife as much as we can.  

7. What important points should be covered while writing an essay on Wildlife Conservation for students in English?

As such there are no rigid pointers that you need to cover while writing an essay on Wildlife Conservation, but you may use the following pointers for reference:

Definition of wildlife conservation

Explain the reasons for conserving the wildlife with valid points

Efforts that are taken by international agencies. This should also include various treaties and protocols signed 

Mention the efforts that are taken by the Indian government. Talk about various laws and legislations present.

Mention various provisions on the local level

Talk about various popular civil movements such as efforts undertaken by the Bishnoi Community

What can you do as students to conserve wildlife? Give suggestions and examples.

8. What steps taken by the government should be mentioned in the essay on Wildlife Conservation?

The Indian government has undertaken various measures to conserve wildlife in the country. You can mention some of these in the essay on Wildlife Conservation:

Wildlife Conservation Act, 1972

Schedules involved and protections provided to the animals

Conservation efforts for particular animals like tigers, elephants, etc.

Formation of various protected areas such as National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Biosphere reserves, etc.

Awards and accolades received by India on various international forums

Various international treaties and agreements were signed by India. 

Mention names of international grouping dedicated to conservation efforts whose India is a part of

You may refer to Vedantu’s forum to get more information about steps to conserve wildlife. 

9. In how many words should one write an essay on Wildlife Conservation?

Word count for writing an essay on Wildlife Conservation for students in English can vary depending on which standard the student is studying in. it can range from 300 words to 800 words. Accordingly, the level of writing and richness of the content should vary. You can refer to Vedantu’s guide on essays for further understanding the demand of any given topic. If the essay is being written by a student studying in class 10 then the essay should be data and opinion-driven. It should reflect the ideas and thoughts of the student that are substantiated with authentic data and valid reasons.

Essay on Wildlife in India | Zoology

essay on wildlife of india

Here is a compilation of essays on ‘Wildlife in India’ for class 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Wildlife in India’ especially written for school and college students.

Essay on Wildlife in India

Essay Contents:

  • Essay on the Wildlife Act

1. Essay on the Introduction to Wildlife:


Wildlife comprises all living organisms (plants, animals, microorganisms) in their natural habitats which are neither cultivated/domesticated nor tamed. But in its strictest sense, it includes uncultivated mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fishes, etc., which are generally hunted.

Wildlife includes “Animals like mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fishes and their young’s and also eggs of birds and reptiles” (Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972). It also includes habitat like land, water or vegetation which is the natural home of any wild animal.

India has a rich heritage of wildlife. In India wildlife has a long history and tradition of conservation. The conservation ethic was observed in Ashrams of our sages which were the seats of learning in the country’s ancient past.

The Vedas include hymns in praise of animals and the Indian Mythology is full of references to several animal-like Gods such as the monkey-headed Hanuman, elephant-headed Ganesh, boar-headed Varahavatar, lion-headed Narasinghavatar, turtle-like Koormavtar, fish-like Matsyavatar, snake-like Shesh Nag, etc. We also learn about snake worship (Nag pooja), eagle worship (Garud pooja), cow-worship (Gau pooja), and vehicle of Lord Shiva (Bull Nandi), vehicle of Saraswati (Swan), vehicle of Lord Ganesh (rat), etc.

King Pandu in Mahabharata was cursed by the hind deer for shooting her stag in mating. Rama was helped by Hanuman against Ravana, the flying deer hunted by Kalidas to the safety of rishi’s ashram, eight celestial points of compass being supposed to be guarded by Indira’s elephant, lion is one of the many incarnations of God Vishnu, the mongoose noticed in the Mahabharata as a teacher of wisdom of King Yudhishthira, the deer is always associated with God Brahma and the constant companion of Lord Mahadeva, the wild boar is referred to as the “Boar of Heaven”. About thirty different mammals are mentioned by name in the Samhitas (four principal Vedas).

The first recorded game laws were promulgated by Kautilya in his Arthashastra in the third century B.C. He proclaimed severe punishment for killing, entrapping animals in protected areas (sanctuaries). The Great Ashoka enacted laws for the protection of animals in his kingdom in third century B.C. Even in Christianity, Francis of Assisi loved and spoke to protect wild animals.

The condition of our wildlife deteriorated in the Moghul rule and later in British rule when slaughter of animals became the fashion of the day. Babar and Temur killed thousands of rhinoceroses in Kashmir and Northern India. Colonel Pollock, military engineer of British East India Company in Assam, shot a rhinoceros or buffalo almost daily for breakfast. Former Kings and Nawabs of various states of India were also very fond of hunting tigers.

Some wild animals are so characteristic that they become symbols of their home countries. Thus, tiger is associated with India, white bear with Russia, Giant Panda with China, Kangaroo with Australia, Kiwi with New Zealand and Springbok with South Africa.

ADVERTISEMENTS: (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); 2. Essay on the Importance of Wildlife :

Wildlife is important for the human beings, animals and plants. These are so closely interlinked that disturbance in one produces imbalance in the others.

1. Ecological Balance:

Wildlife maintains balance of nature through regulation of population of different species by self-regulation and feedback, passage of food and energy through series of different populations (food chain/food web), circulation of inorganic nutrients between abiotic and biotic environments, and prevention of leaching and runoff by plants. Terrestrial and aquatic animals play their role in the maintenance of balance of nature. Thus, it preserves the environment as a self-sustaining system. It balances populations and maintains food-chain and natural cycles.

2. Gene Bank:

Wildlife serves as a gene bank for breeding improved varieties in agriculture, animal husbandry and fishery. Plant breeders have been able to produce high-yielding and disease- and stress-resistant varieties from wild relatives of crop plants which possess useful genes for the purpose of breeding. Scientists have been constantly examining the wild relatives of crop plants for the presence of useful genes that can be introduced to breeding programmes. Hence, gene bank maintenance is essential. Some old rice varieties from Kerala saved rice cultivation when brown plant hopper (Nila-parvata lugens) attacked all modern rice varieties.

The production of high-yielding, disease-resistant crops, livestock and fish cannot continue without the wild relatives of the cultivated varieties. This is because of pests and pathogens evolve new strains; climate change; soils vary; and consumers’ demands change with time. Man is aware that the rich diversity of organisms today is the product of natural evolution occurring through 3.5 billion years. A species once lost cannot be retrieved. Therefore, it would be unethical to be responsible for the destruction of a species.

3. Plant Propagation:

Insects and birds, etc., are useful in pollinating certain plants which is very essential in plant propagation. Cross pollination increases the diversity of genetic recombination and viability of the plant vegetation.

4. Cleaning of Environment:

Cleaning of environment and keeping it in hygienic state is carried by scavengers like vultures, eagles, jackals, hyaenas, etc. Microorganisms feed upon dead animals, convert them into different nutrients and, thus, release energy back to the soil making it fertile.

5. Soil Erosion:

Soil erosion is prevented by plant cover, litter, mixing of litter by movement of wild animals. Microorganisms convert litter into spongy humus.

6. Scientific Importance:

Scientific studies of many of wildlife species are of direct value to humans. These studies and researches in anatomy, physiology, ecology, evolutionary aspects, etc., are of direct value in saving human life. Sea urchins have helped greatly in the understanding of human embryology. A desert toad has helped in early determination of pregnancy. Rhesus monkeys have contributed a lot to the present knowledge of human blood groups.

Antlers of deer are useful in determining the degree of radioactive contamination of natural environment. Armadillos contributed to the development of vaccine for leprosy. We do not know when some obscure wild animal species may be put to prominence by providing a clue to human health and survival. When any drug of any disease is invented, research of its effects and side effects are carried on wild animals before applying on human body.

Rh factor in human blood was found due to Rhesus monkey. Chimpanzee helped us in conducting serological protein tests. Studies on animal behaviour helped the psychiatrist to read the human mind. Some wild flora and fauna have medicinal values. Muskpod of musk deer and rhinoceros’ horn are of great medicinal value. Fat of tiger or hornbill is used for curing rheumatism. Snake venom is used for preparing antivenom for snake bite.

7. Economic Importance:

Wildlife forms an important natural resource. Various useful products are obtained from plants such as timber, firewood, paper, gum, resins, tannins, several drugs, essential oils, spices, lac, silk, honey, hair, feathers, guano (the faecal matter of sea-fishes used as manure or the manure made from fish), leather, musk, ivory, etc., are obtained from wildlife. Besides these, benefits such as tendu leaf, cork, rudraksha, etc., are also obtained from wildlife.

Tribals living in forests also get food (tubers, roots, leaves and fruits of plants and meat from animals), medicines and other commercial products. The commercial value of wildlife is best seen in the world’s marine fisheries with an annual output of about 100 million tons of sea food worth billions of rupees. Freshwater fish and other aquatic creatures also provide large amount of food for people. Fish are as big as any other modern industry in respect of employment and income.

An entire industry for fur trade is supported by fur-bearing animals. Trade in live and dead animals, though illegal and banned throughout the world, supports thousands of people and also earns foreign exchange. For example, an Indian rhinoceros may fetch equivalent of Rs.1, 25,000 in the world market. Similarly, the ivory of elephants, the horns of rhinoceros, the glands of musk deer, the antlers of deer, etc., all provide high prices. Wildlife of a country may even attract people from abroad and earn foreign exchange. Wildlife tourism can be made a big source of income.

Thus, it is important to develop more biological reserves, parks, safaris and zoos for tourism from economical point of view. The tourist industry of Kenya (East Africa), based on its wildlife, ranks third after coffee and sisal.

8. Potential Importance:

Just as all present-day cultivated/domesticated plants and animals are derived from wildlife; new foods, beverages such as tea, coffee, cocoa, etc., drugs and other useful products may be obtained from wildlife.

9. Game Importance:

Wildlife has its importance in game also. In several European and American countries, millions of people hunt or fish for recreation, spending billions of dollars on these sports.

10. Aesthetic Importance:

There is a great aestheic value of wildlife throughout the world because of sheer beauty, tranquillity and appeal to the humans. A world without colourful and melodious birds, graceful beasts and deep forests would be a poorer place for humans to live. Without wild animals, a countryside would be static and monotonous. People feel pleasure, satisfaction and happiness in the presence of wildlife. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru said, “Life would become very dull and colourless if we did not have these magnificent animals and birds to look at and to play with.” Smt. Indira Gandhi also said, “A threat to any species of plant and animal life is a threat to man himself.”

11. Ethical Importance:

Generally civilised people think that they have no right to destroy wildlife (plants and animals), rather they feel an obligation for the conservation of nature and protection of wildlife. In fact, all religions preach respect and reverence for life and consider it wrong and unethical to take the life of an animal.

3. Essay on the Conservation, Preservation, Protection and Categories of Wild Animals:

1. Conservation :

“Conservation means the maintenance of a reasonable number of members of every species from the largest mammals to the smallest invertebrates in their own habitat without destroying that habitat” -Noel Simon.

According to Indian Forest Record (1965), conservation means, planned management and wide use of natural resources, so as to prevent over-exploitation, destruction or neglect, i.e., wildlife conservation.

2. Preservation :

Preservation is the protection of a species without regard to the consequences. Preservation is to save and maintain the wild animals against injury or destruction as well as keeping them safe and undisturbed from private or public use.

3. Protection :

Guarding the wild species against danger or injury is protection. Partial protection of certain species is to enforce closing of hunting, fishing, etc., and restricted shooting. Total protection is achieved by forming sanctuaries or by legally prohibiting the killing or minimising of a particular species in any place.

4. Extinction of a Species :

Extinction of a species is a part of a natural process. Extinction is “biological reality” because no species has as yet existed for more than a few million years without evolving into something different or dying out completely. But with the gradual emergence of human beings being a major evolutionary force, people have been increasingly exploiting the wildlife.

As many as 500 million kinds of plants, animals, and microorganisms have made this planet as their home since life began over 3.5 billion years ago. Today, there are more than 30 million species alive. The rate of decline has been rapid in the last one hundred years. It is estimated that about 25,000 plant species and 1000 vertebrate species and subspecies are threatened with extinction. Several invertebrates are also invariably vulnerable. At least about 10% of the living species are supposed to be in danger.

5. Extinct Species :

Extinct species are those which were found in the past but became disappeared and not found now. They are no longer known to exist in wild, though it may survive in cultivation. According to CITES, a species is said to be extinct, if it is not definitely known in the wild during the past 50 years.

Extinction results ecological hazards, imbalances in ecosystem and food chain/food-web, ultimately affecting present and future generations of human beings. For example, extinction of cheetah, two-horned rhinoceros, mountain quail, Pin-headed duck from India and Dodo bird from Mauritius, etc.

Causes of Extinction:

Causes of extinction are as follows:

(i) Hunting:

Hunting is large-scale destruction of wildlife for food, safety and pleasure. It was started with the use of fire as a means of hunting. Man-made forest fires have caused the extinction of several species in the past. Hunting as a sport and needless killing of wild animals is dangerous. Disappearance of dodo (Didus ineptus) of Mauritius and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) from India are recent calamities. A number of orchids and medicinal plants have also disappeared.

(ii) Destruction of Habitats:

Destruction of habitats of wildlife is also a threat to them. It has been destroyed due to establishment of new human settlements, croplands, grazing grounds, quarry in mining sites, etc. Deforestation caused by jhuming, cutting of trees for timber and overgrazing, conversion of forest into agricultural land, building of roads and rails, construction of dams/reservoirs, etc. Damage to the forest and grasslands are caused by acid rain. Hence, the most serious depletion of wildlife comes from habitat destruction.

6. Endemic Species :

Endemic species is that which is found in a particular natural habitat beyond which it is unknown. The plant and animal species confined to a given region and having originated there are called endemic species. India has a large number of endemic species like Ficus religiosa, Butea monosperma, etc.

4. Essay on the IUCN Red List Categories :

The World Conservation Union (WCU), formerly known as International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), has recognised eight Red List Categories of species.

These are as follows:

1. Extinct (Ex)- A taxon is Extinct where there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died.

2. Extinct in the Wild (EW)- A taxon is Extinct in the Wild when exhaustive surveys, in known and/or expected habitats, have failed to record an individual.

3. Critically Endangered (CE)- A taxon is Critically Endangered when it is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in wild in the immediate future.

4. Endangered (E)- A taxon is Endangered when it is not critically Endangered, but is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future.

5. Vulnerable (V)- A taxon is Vulnerable when it is not Critically Endangered or Endangered, but is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild in the medium-term future.

6. Lower Risk (LR)- A taxon is Lower Risk when it has been evaluated and does not satisfy the criteria for Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable.

7. Data Deficient (DD)- A taxon is Data Deficient when there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction.

8. Not Evaluated (NE)- A taxon is Not Evaluated when it has not yet been assessed against the above criteria.

The IUCN Red List is a catalogue of those taxa which are facing the risk of extinction.

The species which are threatened with extinction are included in Vulnerable, Endangered or Critically Endangered categories :

Rare Species (R):

Taxa with small world population that are not at present “Endangered” or “Vulnerable” but are at risk.

In practice, ‘Endangered’ and ‘Vulnerable’ categories may include, temporarily, taxa whose populations are beginning to recover as a result of remedial action, but whose recovery is insufficient to justify that transfer to another category. These taxa are usually localised within restricted geographical areas or habitats or are thinly scattered over a more extensive range.

Indeterminate (I):

Taxa known to be ‘Endangered’, ‘Vulnerable’ or ‘Rare’, but where there is not enough information to say which of the three categories is appropriate.

The IUCN Red List System was initiated in 1963, and since then evaluation of the conservation status of species and subspecies is continuing on a global scale.

The 2000 IUCN Red List contains assessments of more than 18,000 species, of which 11,000 are threatened.

Status of Threatened Species:

According to 2000 IUCN Red List, there are 11,046 species listed as threatened, i.e., Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable. Of these 5,485 are animals and 5,611 are plants. 1,939 species are listed as Critically Endangered, of which 925 are animals and 1,014 are plants.

5. Essay on the Protected Indian Wildlife :

There is a great deal of protected Indian wildlife. Tables 51.1, 51.2 and 51.3 provide a list of some common Indian mammals, birds and reptiles which are threatened or endangered with extinction. They have been declared as protected species so that their hunting (capturing, poisoning, injuring, killing, etc.) is illegal under the provisions of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

Indian Threatened Mammals:

There are nearly 372 species of mammals found in India including various species listed in threatened categories (IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals Table 51.1).

This database provides information on the distribution of mammalian species in various protected areas of India:

IUCN Red List of Some Indian Threatened Mammals

Indian Threatened Reptiles:

There are 447 species of reptiles found in India including a number of species listed in threatened categories (Table 51.2). This database provides information on the distribution of reptiles in Indian protected areas. Large number of information related to species distribution on various protected areas has been linked with various protected areas including tiger reserves.

IUCN Red List of Some Indian Threatened Reptiles

Indian Threatened Birds:

According to IUCN, there are 1,228 species of birds found in India including 65 species listed in various threatened categories (Table 51.3). This database provides information on the distribution of birds in various protected areas of India.

Large number of information related to species distribution on various protected areas have been collected and documented in the form of check lists are given below:

IUCN Red List of Threatened Indian Birds

6. Essay on the Sanctuary and National Park :

Sanctuaries and national parks are the final refuge of wildlife and constitute an insurance against the total disappearance of species.

Sanctuary :

“It is an area where killing and capturing of any species of birds or animals is prohibited except under orders of competent authority and whole boundaries and characters should be sacrosanct (free from outrage) as for as possible” .

The IBWL (Indian Board for Wildlife) has further clarified the position by stating that while the management of sanctuaries does not involve suspension or restriction of normal forest operations, it is desirable to set aside a completely sacrosanct area within a sanctuary to be known as ‘Abhayaranya’. It is also indicated that sanctuaries should be made accessible to the public. In these “Ashrams” of wildlife, destruction of the wild animals is prohibited by law. These areas will be from nurseries of wild animals to replenish areas with depleted stock from time to time.

According to Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, Section 18, “The State Government may by notification declare any area to be a sanctuary if it considers that such area is of adequate ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological, natural or zoological significance, for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife, or its environment.”

No person is allowed to move freely inside the sanctuary without the permission of the authority. Inside the sanctuaries, carrying of weapons without permission, setting fire or candle any fire or leave any fire burning, use of explosives and chemicals are strictly prohibited. The competent authority can take proper steps from management point of view for the security of wild animals and may regulate, control or prohibit grazing or movement of cattle or fishing in the interest of wild animals.

National Park :

“A national park is a relatively extensive area- (1) in which one or more ecosystems have not been physically altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific, educational and recreational interest, or where the natural scenery is of great beauty; (2) or eliminate exploitation or occupation of entire area in the briefest possible time and to effectively complete respect for the ecologic, geomorphologic or aesthetic features which lead to its establishment; (3) where visitors are allowed and special condition for inspirational, educational, cultural and recreational purposes” (IUCN).

“An area dedicated by statute for all time to conserve scenery, natural and historical objects of national significance and wildlife, and where provision is made for the enjoyment of the same by the public” (IBWL).

According to Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, Section 35, “Whenever it appears to the State Government that an area, whether within a sanctuary or not, is by the reason or its ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological or zoological association or importance, needed to be constituted as national park for the purpose of propagating or developing wildlife therein or its environment it may, by notification, declare its intention to constitute such area as National Park.”

From the definition, the difference between sanctuary and national park shows that sanctuary should be natural or of zoological significance, whereas a national park should be of zoological association or importance.

Indian Sanctuaries :

There are 493 existing wildlife sanctuaries in India, covering an area of 117,291.03 sq. km., which is 3.57% of the geographical area of the country. Another 217 sanctuaries are proposed in the Protected Area Network Report covering an area of 16,669.44 sq. km. Maximum number of sanctuaries exist in size class less than 10 sq. km., and there are only 2 sanctuaries, having more than 5,000 sq. km. The network of sanctuaries will go up 709 after full implementation of the above report (Table 51.8 and Figure 51.4).

Statewise Break-Up of Wildlife Sanctuaries

National Parks :

There are 89 existing National Parks in India covering an area of 37,526.90 sq. km., which is about 1.14% of the geographical area of the country (National Wildlife Database, 2003). In addition to the above, 74 National Parks covering an area of 16,630.08 sq. km., are proposed in the Protected Area Network Report. The network of parks will go up to 164 after full implementation of the above report. Maximum number of parks exist in size about 100-500 sq. km., and there are 7 parks having more than 5,000 sq. km. (Table 51.9 and Figure 51.5).

Statewise Break-up of National Parks of India

7. Essay on Some National Parks of India:

1. Corbett National Park (Project Tiger) :

Total area: 520.80 sq. km.

Year of establishment: 1936

Location: Himalayan foothills in Nainital and Garhwal districts, Uttaranchal.

Climate: Annual temperature varies between 4°C and 46°C.

This is the first National Park of this subcontinent whose first name was Hailey National Park in the name of the then U.P. Governor, Mr. Malcom Hailey. After independence, it was named as Ram Ganga National Park in the name of Ram Ganga River. Further, to honour Jim Corbett (famous hunter and naturalist) its name was changed as Corbett National Park in 1956. In 1973, National Park was declared as Tiger Reserve to give special protection to the tigers of this part.

Fauna: Mammals: Herbivores:

Elephant, Sambhar, Nilgai, Goral, Cheetal, Para, Barking deer, Wild boar, etc.


Tiger, Panther, Wild dog, Jackal, Red fox, Black bear, Sloth bear, Common otter, Indian civet, Palm civet, Mongoose, Long-eared hedgehog, Shrew, etc. Bats, Hare, Northern Palm Squirrel and Porcupine are also common.

Peacock, Jungle fowl, Partridges, Water birds like Ducks, Falcons, Coots, Dab chicks, Naktas, Kingfishers, besides some carnivorous birds like Hawks, Vultures, etc. Many migratory birds also visit the Ram Ganga River during winter.

Crocodile (Mugger) and Gharial, Common monitor lizard, some lesser lizards and soft shelled tortoises. Python, Cobra, Viper, Water-snake, Boa, Cat-snake and Wolf-snake, etc.

Tiger is our national animal and found in diverse habitats and in different parts of the country. Tiger is a top carnivore of the complex food chain in our forest ecosystems. From several years, over-exploitation of the forest areas, merciless hunting, unscientific management, etc., reduced the habitat of tiger that leads to a rapid decline in its population.

Thus, tiger conservation in India is very necessary to save this endangered species. IBWL set up a task force for studying the tiger population and its status. On recommendations of this task force, Project Tiger was initiated in 1973 with eleven Tiger Reserves located in ten different states.

2. Betla National Park (Tiger Reserve) :

Total area: 1026 sq. km.

Climate: Summer maximum temperature 48°C and winter temperature 3°C.

It is located in the western part of Chotanagpur plateau in Jharkhand state. Tiger reserve was declared on 4th June 1974 and in 1986 it was declared as National Park. Tiger reserve comprises most of the forests of Daltonganj South Forest Division. These forests were very rich in wildlife such as Tigers, Leopards, Bear, Wolf, Jungle cat, Wild dog, Mongoose, Small civet, Palm civet, Jackal and Hyaena. In 1934, tiger population was 32 (one tiger per 9.3 sq. km.) and when it was declared as Tiger Reserve its population density was one tiger per 33 sq. km. Main river in this area is Koel which has its three tributaries, Auranga, Burha and Pandra.

Main rocks of this reserve are laterite, quartzite, gneiss, gondwana and amphibolites, etc.

3. Kanha National Park (Project Tiger) :

Total area: 940 sq. km.

It is located in Sylvan Maikal Hills in Mandla and Balaghat districts on the Satpura ranges in Madhya Pradesh. Its name Kanha was given from the old Kanha village. Forest is rich in sal trees, bamboos, etc. Important wild animals are Tiger, Panther, Cheetal, Sambhar, Nilgai, Gaur (Indian bison), Langur (Presbytis entellus), Barasingha (Swamp deer) Cervus duvauceli branderi, Barking deer, Blackbuck, Wild pig, Wild dog, Jackal, etc. Swamp deer named “Branderi” was saved from extinction.

4. Sunderbans National Park (Tiger Reserve) :

Total area : 2585 sq. km.

It is located in West Bengal. The mangrove forests occurring at the mouth of Ganga and Brahmaputra river system (river divides itself into hundreds of streams which join Bay of Bengal) is known as Sunderbans. Mangrove vegetation or “Mangals” have high degree tolerance for saline environment. They possess breathing-root, (pneumatophores), stilt-roots for support, salt excretory glands, vivipary, etc.

The mangrove fauna is supreme. Tiger, birds (Storks, Herons, Domestic ducks, etc.), reptiles (Olive Ridley Turtle and Estuarine Crocodile-both are endangered species), Fishes (Mud-skippers and Semi-terrestrial gobies both are independent of water) and crustaceans (Land crabs and Fibber crabs are most famous). Spotted deer, Pigs, Monitor lizards and Monkeys also inhabit the forest.

5. Gir National Park (Gir Lion Project) :

Total area : 258.71 sq. km.

It is situated in Saurashtra peninsula of Junagarh district of Gujarat. It was declared as sanctuary in 1965 and the project was started in 1972. The fauna of this park is Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica), Panther, Striped hyaena, Sambhar, Nilgai, Cheetal, Four-horned antelope, Chinkara, Wild boar and Crocodiles. Its habitat mainly includes dry teak forests and open scrub jungle.

Lion stands as top carnivore in the food chain of the ecosystem. It is found only in Gir Forest in the whole Asian Continent and, hence, called Asiatic lion. Even in this forest, due to merciless hunting, conversion of forest into agricultural land, uncontrolled cattle grazing and spreading infectious diseases, etc., reduced its habitat and subsequently declined population to the endangered state.

6. Bandipur National Park (Tiger Reserve) :

Total area : 874.20 sq. km.

It is located in Mysore district (80 km from Mysore city) of Karnataka. Project Tiger Plan Scheme was initiated in 1973-74 in Bandipur National Park. Rivers of this area are Kabim, Nagu and Moyar. The reserve includes southern tropical moist deciduous and dry deciduous forests. Here teak trees are abundant and other trees are rosewood, sandalwood, laurel, yellow teak, kydia and bamboos.

The fauna of this reserve is Cheetal, Muntjac, Sambhar, Chausingha, Gaur, Wild boar, Elephant, Moue deer, Black-naped, Hare, Sloth bear, Langur, Bonnet macaque, Giant squirrel, Flying squirrel, Tiger, Leopard, Wild dog, Jungle cat, Small Indian civet, Toddy cat, Striped-neck and common mongoose, Crocodiles, Snakes and Monitor lizards. Avian fauna is Pied hornbill, Green pigeon, Woodpeckers, Drongoes, Bee-eaters, Kingfishers, Peafowl, Jungle fowl, Partridge and Quails.

7. Bannerghatta National Park :

Total area : 104.27 sq. km.

It is situated in Karnataka, just 22 km from Bangalore. It was created in 1974 to protect local fauna and flora. Area is covered by dry thorny scrub and dry deciduous scrub jungle. Lions and Tigers are found roaming free in an enclosed area of 15 ha. Visitors can move inside the Safari in a closed minibus of the park. Safari also have Gaur, Cheetal, Sambhar, Barking deer, poisonous and non-poisonous snakes, rare varieties of tortoises and lizards.

8. Kaziranga National Park :

Total area : 849.79 sq. km.

It is located in Sibsagar district of Assam. It is about 217 km from Guwahati. Its fauna is Great Indian One-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), Wild buffalo, Tiger, Leopard, Elephant, Gaur, Gat, Mongoose, Otter, Civet cat, Wild boar, Swamp deer, Hog deer, Sambhar, Langur, Python, Pelican, Partridge, Floricans, Hoolock and a number of migratory birds during winter. Painted storks, Adjutant stork, Sarus, Cranes, Darter, Brahminy duck and Bar-headed goose are also kept here in the small island surrounded by water and some shore land.

9. Keibul Lamjao National Park :

Total area : 40 sq. km.

It is situated at the south-eastern corner of Loghtak Lake in Manipur State. It was named earlier as Sanctuary in 1968 but in 1977 it was declared as a National Park. Its fauna is Brow- antlered deer or Thamin (Cervus eldi eldi) locally called “Sangai” (also called Dancing Deer), Hog deer, Wild goat, Water birds, etc.

10. Dachigam National Park (Project Hangul) :

Total area : 141.00 sq. km.

It is situated in Jammu and Kashmir State. Hangul Project was taken up by IUCN/WWF in 1970. It was declared as National Park in 1981. Its main animal is Hangul (Kashmir Stag) (Cervus eiaphus hunglu), which is a large deer roaming singly or in herds of 2 to 18. It is also found in north of Chamba (Himachal Pradesh). Habitat of Dachigam includes scrubs and savannah forests. Along Hangul are also found Black bear, Brown bear, Leopard and Snow leopard, Musk deer, Serow and Pheasants, etc.

Famous National Parks of World :

The first national park in the world, the Yellowstone National Park, was founded in 1872 in U.S.A. Since then, about 2,000 parks have been established all over the world. These offer protection to thousands of endangered species in their natural habitats. Some parks have been created for specific and very rare endangered species to be saved from extinction.

Table 51.10 provides a list of some of such famous parks of the world:

Famous National Parks of World

8. Essay on the Biosphere Reserves :

The concept of Biosphere Reserves was evolved under UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme in 1971 with the following objectives:

1. To conserve, for present and future human use, the diversity and integrity of biotic communities of plants and animals within natural ecosystems, and to safeguard the genetic diversity of species on which their continuing evolution depends.

2. To provide areas for ecological and environmental research including, particularly baseline studies both within and adjacent to these reserves, such research to be consistent with objective (1) above.

3. To provide facilities for education and training.

4. To promote international cooperation.

The concept of Biosphere Reserves is of immense value to conserve the gene-pool resources of flora and fauna in the country and to serve as bench-marks for future studies. This requires a detailed survey and classification of natural ecosystems for proper identification of their biological diversity and pristine (ancient) attributes (consider as belonging).

The areas identified should be large enough to be viable. In view of the virtual disappearance of many genuinely natural ecosystems in the country, those that remain in such natural or near natural condition need to be identified with utmost urgency. The recent Silent Valley controversy highlights the urgency of the problem.

In a biosphere reserve, multiple land use is permitted by designating various zones. There is the Core Zone (where no human activity is permitted), the Buffer Zone (where limited human activity is allowed) and the Manipulation Zone (where a large number of human activities would go on). In a biosphere reserve, wild population as well as traditional lifestyles of tribals and varied domesticated plant and animal genetic resources is protected.

Biosphere Reserves are multipurpose protected areas which are meant for preserving genetic diversities in representative ecosystems by protecting wild populations, traditional lifestyle of tribals and domesticated plant/animal genetic resources. There are some 243 biosphere reserves in 65 countries of the world. In India 14 potential sites were identified in 1979 by Core Advisory Group but only 13 biosphere reserves have been set up by now.

Each biosphere reserve has a:

(a) Core Zone: No human activity is allowed.

(b) Buffer Zone: Limited human activity is permitted.

(c) Manipulation Zone: Human activity is allowed but ecology is not permitted to be disturbed.

(d) Restoration Zone: Degraded areas for restoration to near natural form.

India has identified 14 areas to be declared as Biosphere Reserves. Of these the first biosphere reserve, Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve having an area of 5520 sq. km., was established in 1986. The second biosphere reserve was established in 1988, Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve. In this very year (1988) third biosphere reserve, Nokrek Biosphere Reserves was set up.

Till 2001 following biosphere reserves were established as shown in Table 51.12 and Figure 51.6:

Biosphere Reserves in India

9. Essay on the Zoological Gardens and Museums :

Several zoological gardens and museums were also established to conserve the species in their wild state, to provide scientific, educational and recreational opportunities and to earn revenue.

The zoological gardens are somewhat different from sanctuaries and wildlife national parks as the animals are kept in cages in zoological gardens for show. The animals, thus, do not get natural habitat in zoological gardens.

Some important zoological gardens and museums of India are shown in Table 51.13 and Figure 51.7.

Some Indian Zoological Gardens and Museums

1. Natural History Museum, Mumbai, has excellent collection of animals, particularly fishes and birds.

2. Tarapore Varsova Aquarium, Mumbai, attached to sea and has beautiful collection of marine fishes and crustaceans.

3. Indian Museum, Kolkata, is the biggest museum in India.

4. Zoological Garden, Kolkata, is famous for talking parrots. It has good species collection.

5. Zoological Garden, Delhi, Lucknow, Kanpur, have some rare species of animals.

6. Geological Museum, ISI, Kolkata, are famous for complete skeleton of Indian Dinosaurs.

7. Zoological Garden, Hyderabad, has a rich collection of lions, tigers, monkeys and crocodiles.

10. Essay on the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) :

A separate Directorate of Wildlife Environmental Education and Research was established at the Forest Research Institute and Colleges, Dehradun, in the Fifth Plan. A post-graduate diploma course in Wildlife Management, of one academic year’s duration, for people with forestry qualifications has been started by the Directorate since 1977.

The Directorate has also sponsored fellowship grants for conducting research on wildlife topics in the universities. Research in field oriented management techniques is also being conducted at the Directorate. Proposals for strengthening the research base and organising short-term orientation course for decision makers, administrators and professional groups are being considered for the Sixth Plan.

To train people and expand the activities in wildlife, Government of India has established a Wildlife Institute of India (WII) at Dehradun. This institute is engaged in management and extension of wildlife. It runs several courses at post-graduate level along with diploma and other short-term courses in specialised fields. As a result of training by this institute a number of trained persons are now engaged in conservation and extension of wildlife in India.

11. Essay on the Wildlife Act :

Wild animals are the integral part of the ecosystem performing a vital role in maintaining food chain and food web. Thus, their existence and survival on the earth planet is so important and essential for the natural balance and also for the existence of human life.

India is an under developing country facing many problems like tremendous growth in human population, poverty, unemployment, illiteracy and unawareness towards wildlife and nature. As a result, there is lot of pressure on forest and wild animals. Encroachment of forest land converting it into agricultural field, illicit felling of trees, illegal hunting and poaching, smuggling and merciless killings of wild animals have resulted in dwindling population of wild animals and shrinkage of their habitats.

Several species have been brought to the endangered/threatened category, many are on the verge of extinction surpassing the stage of critical limit, and extinction of many important species has taken place. Therefore, the forest personnel as well as people should have holistic view and approach in forest activity whether it is tree and/or wild animal.

In the year 1800, for the first time in India, the exploitation of wildlife was started on scientific basis. In 1806, first Forest Conservator was appointed at Madras Presidency. In 1847, an eminent botanist was appointed as Forest Conservator at Bombay. In 1855, the administrative structure of Forest Department was framed. In 1864, Sir Brandis became the first Forest Inspector General. In 1887, first systematic law in India was enacted by the British called “Wild Birds’ Protection Act of 1887”.

But due to wanton killing of wild animals and birds, a comprehensive legislation was passed, i.e., “Wild Birds and Animals (Protection) Act, 1912”. Again in 1935, the Act was amended calling it “Wild Birds and Animals (Protection) Act, 1935”. All these laws were aimed at not hunting the game animals and trade in products derived from wild animals. Much attention was not taken in conserving and propagating the wild animals throughout the country.

Before independence, the protection of wildlife was the responsibility of native rulers and local forest officers under the Indian Forest Act, 1927. There was rapid depletion in the population of wild animals. British rulers realised the importance of conservation of wildlife and enforced various laws like Rhino Protection Act, Elephant Protection Act, Arms Act, etc., from time to time to save them.

During Second World War the wild animals were mercilessly hunted by the soldiers and army officers wherever they halted. Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS), a private agency, established in 1883 took the first step in formulating a comprehensive Act for Bombay in 1951 called Bombay Wild Animals and Wild Birds Protection Act, 1951. After independence, in 1952 an advisory board calling Central Board for Wildlife was set up, which was renamed as Indian Board for Wildlife (IBWL).

Later Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 was formulated to conserve and propagate the wild animals with the salient provisions of creating sanctuaries and national parks as well as penalties against illegal hunting, poaching and trading, etc. The Act provides legal protection to the wildlife and to the endangered species of fauna listed in different Schedules.

This Act has been amended in 1982, 1986, 1991 and 1993. Amendment in 1991 has imposed total ban on hunting, constituted Central Zoo Authority, recognition of zoos, emphasising protection of plants, etc., amendment of certain sections, omission of words such as Special Game, Big Game and Small Game from the Schedules, addition of one more Schedule VI enlisting certain plants.

Need of Wildlife Management/Conservation :

In ancient years, the wildlife in India were found sufficient; but due to enormous growth in human population, deforestation started for converting forest land into agricultural purposes and subsequently the habitat of wildlife started shrinking and their population depleted and still depleting. The period of Second World War was the most devastating period for wildlife as the wild animals were killed mercilessly wherever the militaries got shelter.

Following are the main reasons causing depletion in wildlife population:

(i) Conversion of forests into agricultural fields.

(ii) In ancient time, hunting was done rudely (wantonly), recklessly, mercilessly and unscientifically.

(iii) Creation of forest roads as well as allowing there the hunters with their vehicles.

(iv) Use of firearms in hunting and hunting were not done selflessly.

(v) Increase in livestock, grazing by them in forest areas resulting in loss of food and shelter of wild animals as well as infection of diseases.

(vi) Establishment of industries in forest areas, quarrying of mines, etc.

(vii) Pollution of environment, rivers, water reservoirs and ocean by insecticides, polluted gases and water from industries as byproducts.

(viii) Use of insecticides on the large scale in agricultural fields.

(ix) Misuse of licensed firearms.

(x) Lighting of fire by the local people inside the forest.

These factors not only depleted the number of wildlife but some became extinct, some are threatened and some are on the verge of extinction. Their number has come to such a stage that the benefit derived from them is negligible.

Problems of Wildlife Management in India :

Mitra (1980) pointed out that the management of wildlife in India is beset with several problems. The shrinkage and degradation of forest and non-forest wildlife habitats as well as serious decline in the status of wild animals; conservation efforts started gathering momentum in the country in the early 1970s. The National Wildlife Action Plan was drawn up against this background.

It is a document setting out an agenda of countrywide activities in the field of wildlife conservation, which was released by the late Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in November, 1983.

The Action Plan covers a period of 5 years and contains ten sections, each representing a major area of activity in the field of wildlife which are as follows:

1. Establishment of Representative Network of Protected Areas (PA = Sanctuary and National Park);

2. Management of Protected Areas and Habitat Restoration;

3. Wildlife Protection in Multiple-use Areas;

4. Rehabilitation of Endangered and Threatened Species;

5. Captive Breeding Programmes;

6. Wildlife Education and Interpretation;

7. Research and Monitoring;

8. Domestic Legislation and International Conventions;

9. National Conservation Strategy;

10. Collaboration with Voluntary Bodies.

The National Wildlife Action Plan has provided a vital framework for conservation and management of India’s diverse wildlife resources and a yardstick by which progress can be measured.

Methods of Wildlife Conservation :

In wildlife conservation, the objective is that the wildlife is to be conserved in such a way that it may remain in the nature in peak status.

The most commonly adopted methods for the conservation of wildlife, in brief, are as follows:

1. Habitat Management:

Habitat management includes ecological study of the habits and habitats of wildlife species, protection, preservation and improvement of habitats, census and statistical data regarding species to be conserved, etc.

2. Establishment of National Parks, Wildlife Reserves, and Wildlife Sanctuaries:

The establishment of national parks, wildlife reserves and wildlife sanctuaries and zoological gardens serves many purposes such as:

(i) To conserve the species in their wild state;

(ii) To provide scientific, educational and recreational opportunities; and

(iii) To earn revenue from tourists by attracting them.

3. Breeding in Captivity:

Tree species, such as ginko and metasequoia, have survived only in captivity. Tiger, White Tiger and Indian Lion today live in National Parks. Gorilla is protected in the National Park of Alberta. The European Bison, saved at the eleventh hour, survives in the National Park of Biolowieska in Poland. Similarly Pere David’s Deer, Whooping Crane, Hawaiian Goose, Parma Wallaby and Arabian Gazzelle, once threatened with extinction, are considered to be already ‘on the way back’ as a result of captive breeding.

4. Reintroduction of Species:

Several animal species which were almost extinct, such as Arabian Oryx, Vicuna of High Andes, Russian Antelope or Saiga, Trumpeter Swan, Black Buck, Flamingos, etc., were allowed to reproduce and flourish in suitable places similar to the original ones. Later these were reintroduced in several parks and sanctuaries and areas of their original natural habitats.

5. Mass Education:

For any conservation programme, there is a great need of education to the people to achieve their participation.

To achieve this objective, the methods adopted are as follows:

(i) Celebration of wildlife week every year;

(ii) Publicity through media and film shows;

(iii) Holding essay competitions, lectures, seminars, conducted tours, etc.;

(iv) Setting up nature clubs in educational institutions;

(v) Publication of wildlife books and journals, etc.;

(vi) Establishment of Natural History Museum, etc.

6. Promulgation of Laws:

All the countries have promulgated laws for the protection and conservation of wildlife. In India, Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, a comprehensive Central Government Legislation, was enacted in 1972. Killing, capturing and hunting of wildlife without prior permission from competent authority, and poaching have become punishable under Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. In 1976, 42nd amendment in the Indian Constitution, protection of wildlife has been included in Concurrent List. Further amendment in law is required for severe and deterrent punishment to poachers.

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Wildlife Conservation Essay

500+ words essay on wildlife conservation.

After the evolution of humans, we have changed the land cover of the planet Earth. Wildlife means species of animals living in their natural habitats and not domesticated by humans. Wildlife is found in almost all grasslands, plains, rainforests, ecosystems, deserts, etc. It maintains stability in our environment and is involved in natural processes both directly and indirectly. So, living organisms found in the forest region are also considered wildlife. Every living organism plays a crucial role in the food chain: producer, consumer, or decomposer. All these roles are connected and depend on each other for survival.

Some of the primary reasons that lead to wildlife destruction are the increase in demand for meat leads to hunting, deforestation leads to scarcity of food and space, and natural disasters like floods and earthquakes cause wildlife destruction.

In India, we have a diversity of wildlife. It is a hub of a variety of animals. The ecosystem of India ranges from the Northern Himalayas to the evergreen rainforest of the south, the Western Ghats of the west, to the marshy mangroves of the east. The national animal of India, the Tiger, is found in various parts. Various national parks and sanctuaries have been set up to save tigers.

Wildlife helps in maintaining the ecological balance. Before, the count of wild animals was much greater, but the development of farming, developmental activities and hunting has led to a decrease in the number of wild animals. But, now, due to human interference, wildlife is getting affected and we are now becoming increasingly concerned about their safety and conservation. Unfortunately, many animals are already extinct due to these reasons, and a few of them are on the verge of extinction. So, it is crucial to safeguard these rare wildlife species. This essay on Wildlife Conservation will look at its significance and tackle the situation.


Deforestation means cutting down trees from forests at a large scale for human activities. It is an unavoidable environmental concern as it leads to soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, disturbance in the water cycle and damage to natural habitats. It is also a significant contributor to global warming and climate change.

Approximately forests cover 31% of the Earth’s total land surface. Between 2000 and 2012, over 568 million acres of forest have been claimed by deforestation. In 2018, approximately 9 million acres of virgin tropical forest were cut down. 20% of the world’s oxygen supply comes from the Amazon rainforest. Due to deforestation, every minute, approximately 1.32 acres are lost.

Due to road construction, pollution, and agricultural development, our wildlife is disturbed. Due to illegal hunting, some wild animals are on the verge of extinction.

We should be serious about wildlife conservation because much of wildlife is being rapidly wiped off the earth. The World Wildlife Fund is a global organisation that works towards wildlife protection. National agencies are also involved in wildlife conservation.

Importance of Wildlife Conservation

For our ecosystem, wildlife is an essential aspect. Below, we have listed a few reasons to conserve wildlife:

For medicinal values – Wild plants cover one-third of the pharmaceutical needs. Forests provide great scope for experiments and research for medical science and technology. It also offers excellent scope for the large-scale manufacture of therapeutic medicines.

Keeps our environment healthy – It helps in balancing temperatures globally. It also helps in fighting against the greenhouse effect and controlling the rising sea levels.

Helps in maintaining ecological balance – The interdependence of plants and animals is essential in this aspect.

Economic importance – From forests, we can obtain raw materials which help in the country’s economic growth and contribute to a better standard of living.

How can we conserve wildlife?

Wildlife can be conserved by a strict observance of the following points:

  • We can protect our wildlife by building more national parks and wildlife sanctuaries to protect animals in natural habitats.
  • Species that are vulnerable and endangered should be kept in zoos or sanctuaries and bred for population increase.
  • Deforestation should be prohibited strictly. Forests are home to a variety of wild animals.
  • We should ban hunting animals.

Conclusion of Wildlife Conservation Essay

If all the animals are safe, people can live a very social and happy life. They are an integral part of our life. Some people harm animals because of their personal needs. We should all stop this and save them from getting beaten up or tortured because these innocent beings can’t speak up as we do.

From our BYJU’S website, students can also access CBSE Essays related to different topics. It will help students to get good marks in their exams.

Frequently asked Questions on Wildlife conservation Essay

How does wildlife imbalance affect the human species.

All species on Earth are inter-related to one another and the sustenance of all these species is necessary. Humans are dependent on other species and also on the eco-system for various needs.

How to write a 500+ words essay within the stipulated time?

Students must practise writing essays on a regular basis to gain the necessary speed and momentum to write 500+ words essay.

Which topics are to be asked in the Board exam essay question (most probable)?

The topics for essay can be asked from a wide list as this is a generic question. However topics of national importance and issues regarding equality, etc can be given more importance.

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Study Today

Largest Compilation of Structured Essays and Exams

Essay on India’s Wildlife Heritage

March 10, 2018 by Study Mentor Leave a Comment

Wildlife basically has many definitions to it. The most basic definition includes all the flora and fauna in the wild regions of a country.

That is all living habitats living in deep jungles and in the wild forests can be simply classified under the term ’wildlife’.

If we were to seek a scientific explanation to the term, the meaning slightly gets altered.

In scientific terms, wildlife refers to the animals in particular, that are moving around freely and without any restriction in the wild jungles that have hardly any impositions created by human interference.

Wildlife classification region-wise

To study the wildlife of India and understand it from a different perspective, we need to divide the wildlife according to their habitat regions and then study them in detail.

So, the wildlife of India can be majorly found in these 3 regions namely:

  • The Himalayan belt
  • Tropical rain forest belt and
  • The big sized peninsular region.

Let us now study the heritage of wildlife in India by going in detail into the three sub regions.

The Himalayan belt can be further classified into the eastern Himalayan region and the Western Himalayan region. The features and land structure of both the regions vary from each other.

The land composition is entirely different on both the sides. Let us first understand the geographical topology of these regions. Both are covered by thick forest cover.

But the eastern Himalayas have the features of rain forests, whereas the western Himalayas have the geographical compositions of temperate forests.

The eastern Himalayas are also unique, in that they have huge extending lands covered mostly by thick forest grass.

The grasslands make it difficult for many species to survive. The eastern region of the Himalayas is unique, in that, the majority of the region is placed at a very high altitude.

So, the rain forests receive more rainfall and less snowfall through the year. Because of the variation in specific climatic conditions here, the animals also make a shift of region between the summers and winter months.

The commonly found animals on the eastern region are goats, pandas, badgers and porcupines. The species of goats and pandas found in the Himalayan belts are different from that of other regions.

The wildlife also depends on the availability of vegetation for animals to survive on them. So, in the eastern part, which is mostly characterized by high altitudes, we see the presence of pines and oaks.

The eastern parts of the Himalayas have plenty of bamboos that can actually survive the thick cover of snow. These regions are so thickly covered by snow that the vegetation that grows here, mainly aims to conserve water.

Vegetation sustains here even in the absence of water, since most of the time the land is under snow cover. Some of the common animals found in this part of the region are asses, sheep, yaks and goats.

Both assess and goats are of the wild species and not the ones found in non-mountainous regions. They have specific characteristics of adaptation to the hilly regions, hence survival on these terrains and life in general is tough for them.

Among the other animals that could be found slouching amidst the thick grass cover are khair, sissoo. These are peculiar names drawn from the hilly trenches of the region.

Among the wilderness, the common types of animals found in other forest regions of the country are also found. Elephants, cheetahs, tigers, panthers and bears also consider the Himalayan belt their homes.

The one-horned rhinoceros is a rare animal not found anywhere else in the country. It is also considered to be an endangered species due to its dwindling population and can be found in the foothills of Himalayas.

The region in the northern part of India, the regions of West Bengal and down to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands show similarity in the type of topology they share.

They are covered by a thick cover of evergreen forests. Most of the tress found here are exceptionally tall. The huge heights of trees help form canopies at small distances.

This facilitates the growth of both vegetation and provides the perfect home for animals to dwell. Two types of wildlife can be seen here.

One that rest on tree branches and in turn make the tree their homes. The other one, the land animals that make the forest land their home. This thick evergreen forest cover also produces rich agricultural produce.

Elephants find a perfect breeding place in thick evergreen forests like these. Not just elephants, in general, the region are usually inhabited by a variety of land animals because the conditions are so suitable for their dwelling, breeding and finding food.

Some of the common types of wildlife found here are Pigs, Hornbill, Megapode, Eagles, Wild cats and Snakes. The specialty of snakes found  in the islands of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands is unique and they are legless creatures.

The section of Nicobar Islands that has very less human population and is inhabited by tribal is a totally different kind of place.

The uniqueness of this place lies in its vegetation and contributes to a majority share in the biodiversity rate of the country. Padauk and Gurjai are common species of trees found here.

Next we come to the region of West Bengal. This region needs no mention and is world famous for the Sunderbans. The name itself is got from the fact that the region is thickly inhabited by the sundari trees.

The animals found here are pigs, Deers, lizards, monkeys etc. A special type of ants usually climbs the branches of trees, they are known as waver ants.

They make their homes on top of the tree branches. The Bengal white tiger, the famous tigers of the Sunderbans are world famous and well known for their majesty.

They hide inside small spaces and the attack on human beings is something to be very careful about. Monkeys of different species can be found hanging from trees here, but the rhesus monkey is especially famous in this part of the country.

The uniqueness and specific diversity of wildlife can be traced in these two classifications of the country. The major chunk of the classification where majority of wildlife reside is yet to be discussed about.

The foothills of the Himalayas till Kanyakumari come under the peninsular region. This mostly consists of flat lands. The Malabar Coast though shows peculiarity and is thus removed from the list.

This big chunk of classification contains the Aravalli ranges and the Rajasthan portions in it.

Majority of the forest regions in this part of the classification come under the deciduous forest cover. Trees are mostly deciduous in nature.

We know that the Rajasthan parts of the country are most covered by desert areas. So, the areas found in the desert areas are undoubtedly dry and the vegetation that grows here must undoubtedly support very less usage of water.

So, water conservation plants such as succulents and cacti are found here. The vegetation found here can be termed as dry savanna vegetation including thorn and scrub forests.

Black bucks, cats, snakes, lizards and asses are specialties of the region and they are spread through the biggest chunk of the classification. Tigers and rhinoceros could also be spotted in these regions.

The major factors that affect the living conditions of wildlife are the land that supports their dwelling capabilities, apart from the vegetation that provides them their feed.

There could be many more species of animals in these forests, particularly lions and common tigers.

The topology of the land along the climatic conditions, together with specific vegetation norms help wild animals survive in the thick canopies of forest covers.

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Wildlife Conservation Essay for Students and Children

500+ words essay on wildlife conservation.

Wildlife, like trees, is also a domestic asset that not only helps to maintain the ecological balance but also benefits from financial, recreational and aesthetic points of perspective. There was a time when the number of wild animals was quite large when human interference was minimum and there was no issue with their safety or conservation. But, with the development of farming , settlement, industrial and other development activities, and primarily due to man’s greed, the number of wild animals gradually decreased and decreased. As a consequence, several animal species have become extinct and several are on the brink of being so. The Wildlife Conservation Essay is an insight into the requirements of conserving wildlife globally.

Wildlife Conservation Essay


Deforestation is also a major cause of wildlife loss. Mass murders of wild animals are taking place all over the globe for their meat, bones, fur, teeth, hair, skin, etc. The need for conservation of wildlife has now become a necessity.

Population growth, agricultural and livestock development, urban and road building, and pollution are among the many pressures on wildlife’s natural habitat. In addition to illegal hunting, the decrease of habitat and its degradation has endangered the biodiversity of the widespread areas.

Wildlife preservation does not imply blanket protection for all species of fauna and flora; rather, it means adequate, judicious control over the multiplication of crops and animals that communicate to provide a suitable atmosphere for the man whose very life is at risk today.

In the past, due to the irrational use of the earth’s natural and biotic resources, most wildlife was demolished after recovery. It is our immediate responsibility to safeguard the ecosystem’s natural splendor and to develop a system of coexistence with every living creature on earth.

While the world’s nations must be very specific in terms of wildlife conservation, the amount of wildlife is diminishing day by day. The World Wild Life Fund is a global organization that does a praiseworthy job of encouraging wildlife protection. National agencies are also involved in wildlife conservation.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Steps Towards Wildlife Conservation

  • To study and retrieve all wildlife data, in particular, the amount and development of wildlife.
  • Habitat protection through forest protection.
  • Delimiting their natural habitat regions.
  • Protecting animals against pollution and natural hazards.
  • Full limitation on wildlife hunting and capture.
  • To impose constraints on the export and importation of wildlife products and to impose serious penalties on those engaged in such activity.
  • Developing game sanctuaries for particular wildlife or world life in particular.
  • Special arrangements should be made to safeguard those very restricted species.
  • To create a general understanding of wildlife protection at domestic and international level.
  • The adoption by trained personnel of a wildlife management system.

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Essay on Endangered Species in India

Students are often asked to write an essay on Endangered Species in India in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

100 Words Essay on Endangered Species in India


Endangered species are those facing the risk of extinction. India, with its diverse ecosystems, is home to many such species.

Reasons for Endangerment

Habitat destruction, climate change, and poaching are major threats to these animals. Rapid urbanization and deforestation have led to loss of habitats.

Endangered Species in India

India hosts many endangered species like the Bengal Tiger, Asiatic Lion, Indian Rhinoceros, and Great Indian Bustard. Their numbers are dwindling due to human activities.

Conservation Efforts

India has established protected areas and launched projects like Project Tiger to conserve these species. However, more efforts are needed for their survival.

250 Words Essay on Endangered Species in India

India, a country with diverse ecosystems, is home to a plethora of wildlife species. However, rapid urbanization, deforestation, and climate change have led to a significant rise in the number of endangered species in India.

Threats to Wildlife

The primary threats to wildlife in India include habitat loss due to deforestation and urbanization, poaching, and climate change. These factors have resulted in a dramatic decline in the population of many species, pushing them towards extinction.

Endangered Species

Species like the Bengal Tiger, Indian Rhinoceros, and Asiatic Lion are on the brink of extinction. The Great Indian Bustard, one of the world’s heaviest flying birds, is critically endangered with fewer than 150 individuals remaining. The Ganges River Dolphin, India’s national aquatic animal, is also in danger due to pollution and dam construction.

India has taken several steps to conserve its biodiversity. The Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, Project Tiger, and Project Elephant are notable initiatives. Moreover, the establishment of numerous national parks and wildlife sanctuaries has provided safe havens for these species.

While the efforts to conserve endangered species in India are commendable, much more needs to be done. It is crucial to balance development with conservation, ensuring that the rich biodiversity of India is preserved for future generations. The survival of these species is not just a matter of national pride, but also an ecological necessity.

500 Words Essay on Endangered Species in India

Endangered species are those at risk of extinction due to a rapid decrease in their population or a loss of their critical habitat. India, with its diverse ecosystems ranging from the Himalayas in the north to the evergreen rain-forests of the south, the desert sands of the west to the marshy mangroves of the east, is home to numerous species, many of which are endangered.

Causes of Endangerment

The primary causes of species endangerment in India are habitat destruction, climate change, overexploitation, disease, and pollution. Rapid industrialization and urbanization have led to deforestation and habitat fragmentation, pushing many species to the brink of extinction. Climate change, with its unpredictable weather patterns and rising temperatures, is altering habitats, thereby affecting species’ survival. Overexploitation, especially in the case of medicinal plants and animals, has also contributed to the decline in biodiversity.

Notable Endangered Species

The Bengal Tiger, Asiatic Lion, Indian Rhinoceros, Great Indian Bustard, and the Ganges River Dolphin are among the critically endangered species in India. Each of these species is a symbol of the rich biodiversity of India, and their potential loss would not only be a biological disaster but also a blow to the country’s natural heritage.

India has taken significant steps towards the conservation of its endangered species. The Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 provides for the protection of wild animals, birds, and plants. The Act also empowers the Central and State governments to declare any area a wildlife sanctuary, national park, or closed area. Additionally, India is a signatory to various international conventions aimed at biodiversity conservation, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, and the Ramsar Convention.

Project Tiger, Project Elephant, and the Crocodile Conservation Project are some of the successful conservation efforts undertaken by the Indian government. These projects have not only helped in conserving the respective species but have also brought attention to the plight of other endangered species.

The Way Forward

While the efforts taken so far have been commendable, a lot more needs to be done to ensure the survival of endangered species in India. Enhanced legal enforcement, habitat restoration, community engagement, and scientific research are crucial for effective conservation. In addition, the integration of biodiversity conservation into developmental policies is imperative for sustainable development.

It is also essential to raise public awareness about the importance of biodiversity and the consequences of species extinction. This can be achieved through education and outreach programs, which can foster a sense of responsibility towards the environment and motivate individuals to participate in conservation efforts.

The survival of endangered species is a shared responsibility. It is not just about preserving biodiversity for its own sake, but also about maintaining the health and balance of our ecosystems, which ultimately impact human survival. As we continue to strive for economic progress, it is crucial that we also prioritize the conservation of our natural heritage. The loss of any species is a loss for us all, and it is our duty to ensure that we do not let this happen.

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Wildlife Sanctuaries in India

Wildlife Sanctuaries in India

India has a unique and diverse range of vegetation and wildlife, with national parks and wildlife sanctuaries located all over the country. With over 96 national parks and 500 wildlife sanctuaries, India’s wildlife heritage is unmatched. Important sanctuaries include the Jim Corbett Tiger Reserve, Kanha National Park, Ranthambhor National Park, Gir National Park, and the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary. The Indian deserts are home to the Great Indian bustard, while the western Himalayas have birds like the Himalayan monal pheasant and white crested khalij pheasant. There are also parks and sanctuaries in South India, such as Madumalai in Tamil Nadu and Bandipur Tiger Reserve and Nagahole National Park in Karnataka. A wildlife tour in India is a fabulous experience, with a variety of safari packages on offer. The best season to visit sanctuaries is winter, when tourists can witness migrating birds, tigers, leopards, and other rare species. The Wildlife Conservation Society India, along with other NGO partners and tribal people, is working towards developing new models of wildlife conservation to protect India’s fauna and environment.

India is unique in the richness and diversity of its vegetation and wildlife. India’s national parks and wild life sanctuaries (including bird sanctuaries) from Ladakh in Himalayas to Southern tip of Tamil Nadu, are outstanding and the country continues to “WOW” the tourists with its rich bio-diversity and heritage. Wildlife sanctuaries in India attracts people from all over the world as the rarest of rare species are found here. With 96 national parks and over 500 wildlife sanctuaries, the range and diversity of India’s wildlife heritage is matchless.

Some of the important sanctuaries in India are The Jim Corbett Tiger Reserve – Uttaranchal, Kanha National Park and Bandhavgarh National Park in Madhya Pradesh, Ranthambhor National Park – Sawai Madhopur, Gir National Park – Sasangir (Gujarat) etc. Supporting a great variety of mammals and over 585 species of birds, India’s first national park, the Corbett was established in the foothills of Himalayas. Wildlife lovers will be excited to see magnificent Bird Sanctuary at Bharatpur, Rajasthan as it is the second habitat in the world that is visited by the Siberian Cranes in winter and it provides a vast breeding area for the native water birds.

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In the Indian deserts, the most discussed bird is the Great Indian bustard. In western Himalayas, one can see birds like Himalayan monal pheasant, western tragopan, koklass, white crested khalij pheasant, griffon vultures, lammergiers, choughs, ravens. In the Andaman and Nicobar region, about 250 species and sub species of birds are found, such as rare Narcondum horn bill, Nicobar pigeon and megapode. While the national park and sanctuaries of northern and central India are better known, there are quite a few parks and sanctuaries in South India, too.

For e. g. , Madumalai in Tamil Nadu and Bandipur Tiger Reserve and Nagahole National Park in Karnataka. A tour of Indian wildlife sanctuaries and national parks is a fabulous experience. Contrary to the African Safari, the vegetation and terrain in India is such that wild animals are often solitary or in small herds, elusive and shy. Ranges of Safari Packages are on offer, courtesy the tourism departments of states as well as tour and travel agencies. These Safari / Safari Packages are unique and unparalleled.

These Safaris facilitate seeing a tiger, a rhinoceros or a herd of wild elephants. India has unmatched variety of flora and fauna that makes it extensively different from the rest of the world. Tourists visiting for wildlife tour in India, will enjoy during any season, but to experience migrating birds, tiger, leopard, barasingha and other rare species, then winter is the best season to visit sanctuaries especially for those tourists coming for wildlife tour in India.

Due to water scarcity in the hot weather, animals come out in herd in search of water, therefore most of the sanctuaries are closed during summer season. Tourists can opt for jungle safari in an open jeep but the experience on elephants back is overwhelming. Wildlife Conservation Society(WCS) India in association with other NGO partners and tribal people, is making every possible effort to develop new models of wildlife conservation to preserve India’s most treasured fauna and to protect the environment.

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Manas Wildlife Sanctuary

The Manas National Park, located in the Eastern Himalayas, is a unique habitat comprised of grasslands and jungles. It is home to rare and endangered species such as tigers, elephants, golden langurs, and Bengal Floricans. The park gets its name from the Manas River, which is named after the goddess Manasa and serves as a

Conservation of Wildlife

India is renowned for its extensive array of wildlife, with habitats spanning the Himalayas, Cauvery basin, Kutch region, and Assam plains. The country serves as a home to countless remarkable and endangered animal species.The beauty and diversity of the Indian jungles is indescribable, and I aim to capture its vastness through pictures in this project.

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National Parks: Bandhavgarh Wildlife Sanctuary

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Kimmeridge Marine Reserve, Dorset Wildlife Trust

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essay on wildlife of india

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Essay on Wildlife in India

Wildlife in India Essay | Essay on Wildlife in India for Students and Children in English

Wildlife in India Essay: Wildlife constitutes animals, birds, insects, etc., living in the forests. The rich flora and fauna of India have been studied and mentioned in texts since the earliest times. Animal laws date to third century BC. Later, several zoologists recorded their distribution and abundance. Wildlife helps in the promotion of various economic activities that generate revenue from tourism. The fauna plays a crucial role maintaining the ecological balance of a region. With the baffling variety of forests in India, wildlife wealth is equally diverse and perplexing. There are about 76000 species of animals in India which comprise about 82% of known species of the world. India has a variety of birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians.

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Long and Short Essays on Wildlife in India for Kids and Students in English

Given below are two essays in English for students and children about the topic of ‘Wildlife in India’ in both long and short form. The first essay is a long essay on Wildlife in India of 400-500 words. This long essay about Wildlife in India is suitable for students of class 7, 8, 9 and 10, and also for competitive exam aspirants. The second essay is a short essay on Wildlife in India of 150-200 words. These are suitable for students and children in class 6 and below.

Long Essay on Wildlife in India 600 Words in English

Below we have given a long essay on Wildlife in India of 600 words is helpful for classes 7, 8, 9 and 10 and Competitive Exam Aspirants. This long essay on the topic is suitable for students of class 7 to class 10, and also for competitive exam aspirants.

The trans-Himalayan region, encompassing Lahaul-Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh and Ladakh comprise the richest wild sheep and goat community in the world. Tigers are found in the forests of Eastern Himalayan foothills. Leopard is found in Northern parts of Asom, Lynn and Yak in Ladakh along with Brown, Black and Sloth Bear in the Himalayan Region. The Wild Buffalo is found in Asom, Bastar district of Madhya Pradesh, while the Great Indian Bison is found in the forests of Central India. Black Panther is found in widely distributed areas including deserts and jungles. Cats are found in the North-Western parts of the country. Several species of Wild Sheep and Goats too are found. Deer, Stag are common but have reduced in numbers considerably. Monkeys, Langurs, Chinkaras too are common as well as the Blue Bull, the Four-horned Antelope or the Chawsingha, Wild Dog, Fox, Jackal, Hyena, Mongoose, Shrews, Hedgehogs, Mole, Bats, Rodents and Squirrels. There is an abundance of reptiles like Cobra, Krait, Russel Vipers Dhamoa, a non-poisonous large snake, Rock Python, Marsh Crocodiles, Gharial, Lizards, Chameleon, Monitor Lizards, Turtles etc,

Elephant is the largest Indian mammal found in the forests of Asom, West Bengal, Central India, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Rhinoceros is India’s second largest mammal whose number has considerably decreased and is now confined to the forests of Asom and West Bengal under strict protection, in the famous Kaziranga and Manas Sanctuaries of Asom, and Jaldapara Sanctuary in West Bengal.

India can proudly boast of about 2000 species of birds in India which is thrice the amount of birds in all the countries of Europe put together. Aquatic birds like Storks, Herons, Ducks, Flamingoes, Egrets, Cormorants are found along with waders and shore birds like the Sea Gulls, Snipes, Iluses, Cranes and Lapwings. The Great Indian Bustard, Pea Fowl, Jungle Fowl, Quail and Partridges are the main ground birds along with Babblers, Barbits, Bulbuls, Mynas, Pigeons, Parakeets, Doves, Cuckoos, Rollers, Beaters, Fly catchers, Orioles, Warblers, Wagtails, Finch larks, Finches, Drongos and Hoops. Prey birds such as Owls, Eagles, Kites, Fallows and Kestrel too are found in large numbers. Peacock, is rightly the national bird of India symbolising the vast variety of our bird-wealth with its rich and magnificent plumage fossils of several animals have also been found in India. Titanosaurusindicus was the first dinosaur discovered in 1877 in the Narmada Valley by Richard Lydekker. Rajasaurus narmadensis, a carnivorous dinosaur was also known to inhabit this region. Whale fossils were found in the foothills of Himalayas, as the area used to be underwater (in the Tethys Sea). Unfortunately, our wildlife has been adversely affected by the fast dwindling forest wealth. Large number of species have got reduced, others are endangered and still others are on the verge of extinction. This has adversely contributed to the disturbance of the ecological balance. Moreover, poaching and illegal killing of animals for their fur, skin, teeth, hair etc has contributed in the reduction of wildlife population.

The first species to disappear during the Indus Valley Civilisation was wild cattle. This probably happened due to inter-breeding with domestic cattle. Species of birds, like pink-headed duck and Himalayan quail have become extinct. Along with Tigers, the numbers of Cheetahs too have dwindled who are now surviving under protection and breeding programmes in the Gir Sanctuary, Gujarat.

Wildlife in India Essay

Short Essay on Wildlife in India 200 Words in English

Below we have given a short essay on Wildlife in India is for Classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. This short essay on the topic is suitable for students of class 6 and below.

To put a check on this, Indian Board for Wildlife was made in 1952 with its main function as an advisory board advising the government on how to conserve and protect wildlife with the construction of National Parks, Sanctuaries, Zoological gardens etc. The Wildlife Conservation Act, 1972 is a strict law and gives a firm footing to National Parks and Sanctuaries. The endangered species of plants and animals have been classified under this act for protection. Project Tiger was launched in 1973 under which 21 Tiger Reserves have been created to check intensive land-use practices like mining, construction of roads and railway lines affecting the tiger habitat and corridors. The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has set-up a 10-member committee of experts in 2011. The committee will also appraise ongoing demand for diversion of habitat areas towards infrastructure projects in states. Wildlife reserves have started using advanced technology for better maintenance of facilities and also the inhabiting animals. Haryana wildlife department will make use of the camera trap method to get the exact number of animals in its sanctuaries. Kolhapur department has been equipped with wireless communication.

Along with the efforts of the government, people’s awareness and cooperation is needed in order to conserve and protect these invaluable natural resources of our country. Then only can the efforts of the government be given a concrete direction and the conservation goals can be achieved. On International Tiger Day, 29 July, Pench Tiger Reserve along with Rotary Club organised competitions in Nagpur. Such initiatives can go a long way in instilling responsibility towards wildlife among citizens. Wildlife is an integral part of our national heritage. We want our future generations to be able to ‘hear’ lions roar and not just ‘see’ them in picture books. For that we must take steps today. Otherwise, it will be too late!

Wildlife in India Essay Word Meanings for Simple Understanding

  • Zoologist – a specialist in Zoology
  • Baffling – to confuse, bewilder, or perplex
  • Perplexing – to cause to be puzzled or bewildered over what is not understood or certain
  • Sanctuary – any place of refuge
  • Magnificent – extraordinarily fine, superb
  • Plumage – the entire feathery covering of a bird
  • Dwindle – shrink, waste away
  • Poaching – the illegal practice of trespassing on another property to hunt or steal game
  • Without the landowner’s permission
  • Appraise – determine the worth of, assess

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Article on Wildlife of India

  Wildlife of India     

essay on wildlife of india

  India is home to a large variety of wildlife it is a biodiversity hotspot with various ecosystems ranging from the Himalayas in the north to the evergreen rainforest in the south the sand of the best to the mercy man groups of the East. India's forest contains about 500 species of mammals and more than 1300 species.

   India has about 2,714 endemic lichen species. In 2020, the First lichen Park in India was developed by the Uttarakhand Forest Department in Munsiyari of Pithoragarh District of the state.

    Wildlife basically has many definitions to it. The most basic definition includes all the flora and fauna in the wild regions of a country in scientific terms wildlife refers to the animals in particular that are moving around freely and without any restriction in the while Jungle that have hardly any imposition created by human interference.

    The Wildlife of India is so diverse and beautiful that it is hard to demarcate it into specific zones, but for the convenience of study, we can classify Indian wildlife into 3 sub-regions.

* Himalayan sub regions

* Tropical rainforest sub-region

* Indian peninsula sub regions

  The Himalayan region covers an area of over 5,30,000 sq km. About 16% of the total geographical area of the country. Himalayan sub-region is spread across 13 Indian states and union territories namely Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand Sikkim, West Bengal, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh This region contains various flora and fauna. Physio-graphically the Himalayas start from the foothill of the south (shivaliks) and extend up to the Tibetan plateau in the north. Three major geographical parts of the Himalayas are Greater Himalaya or Inner Himalaya (Himadri), Middle Himalaya (Himachal), and Outer Himalaya (Shivalik). 

   Some of the highest mountains on earth are found in this region. The Himalayas play a crucial role in supplying water to the continent. The Himalayas save our country from the cold and dry winds of Central Asia. It also prevents from the monsoon winds of the Indian Ocean from crossing over to Northern countries. Himalayan regions are home to many medicinal plants. The Himalayan subregion holds a record of sheltering 163 endangered species including the wild water buffalo, one-horned Rhino, and as many as 10,000 plant species of which 3,160 are endemic.

  Tropical rainforests are the most biologically diverse terrestrial ecosystems in the world. Tropical rainforest sub-regions are found in the Andaman and Nicobar Island, the Western Ghats, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland,    Tripura, and  West Bengal, which fringe the Arabian Sea the coastline of peninsular India and the greater Assam region in the North East.

   These areas receive heavy rainfall. The vegetation includes evergreen forests. The forest is a three-storeyed tall and magnetic tree top canopy. A thick, dense, and rich environment is capable of providing food and shelter to most animals and birds.  Andaman and Nicobar Islands coming under the equatorial belt are diverse and unique. Most parts of the Island are free from human settlements. It is one of the most species-rich forests in the world. The biodiversity is so high that it contributes to half of our country's biodiversity.

 In the tropical rainforest region the mangrove forest of Sundarban with the very special Sundari trees and tigers are world famous. This fertile delta is formed by rivers the Ganga and Brahmaputra. Sundarbans are home to the highest number of tigers.

  The Indian tropical rainforest provides shelter to elephants, gaur, and other large animals. The vegetation and animal of the forests show affinity height with the high altitude forest of Assam.

   Indian peninsular subregion includes the area from the base of the Himalayas to Kanya-kumari but excludes to the Malabar coast. This is the true home of Indian fauna. It consists of the hot deserts of Thar in Rajasthan, separated by the Aravalli ranges and the Indus valley as West and East Thar. They are connected by the salt flats of Little Rann of Kutch. The tropical deciduous Wood lands covering peninsular India extend to the drainage basin of the Ganga river system. The fauna found in this area is an Asiatic wild ass, blackbuck deserts cat, caracal, desert fox, snakes, lizards, and tortoise. In this region, animals have developed adaptations to face the scarcity of water and the severity of high temperatures.

  Wildlife of India plays an important role in balancing our environment system as well as providing stability to different process of nature. It maintains the food chain. If we hunt wild animals like carnivorous then there is an increase in the number of herbivorous animals It in turn affects our agricultural lands and destroyce the crops in this way it affect our food. So it is a predictor of each other to balance the ecological system.

     India runs various projects like project Elephant, project Hangul, the Indian crocodile conservation project, and many more. Dolphin is also of significance as they have been declared the national aquatic animal. Dolphin plays a crucial role in balancing the ecosystem of river and ocean. It eats mainly fish and squid.

      In order to protect wildlife of India government has launched legislation like the coastal regulation zone, wetland (conservation and management) Rules 2010 and the wildlife protection Act, 1972.

       The wildlife Protection Act 1972 was enacted by the Government of India for the protection of plants and animal species. Further federal protection were promulgated in 1980s.

   Wildlife, nature's gift to mankind, is continuously helping in maintaining the ecological balance of the earth. Our wildlife is our heritage. When we take care of our wildlife, we safeguard our heritage for future generations So, we can help us conserve wild iconic species by ensuring wildlife is valued by people and able to thrive in their natural habitat. Wildlife also perform its duty in reducing global warming on this earth.

     I feel like I am nothing without wildlife.

      They are the stars.

I feel awkward without them.

Wildlife is a part of this planet and we must save it.

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