Essay on Waste Management for Students and Teacher

500+ essay on waste management.

Essay on Waste Management -Waste management is essential in today’s society. Due to an increase in population, the generation of waste is getting doubled day by day. Moreover, the increase in waste is affecting the lives of many people.

Essay on Waste Management

For instance, people living in slums are very close to the waste disposal area. Therefore there are prone to various diseases. Hence, putting their lives in danger. In order to maintain a healthy life, proper hygiene and sanitation are necessary. Consequently, it is only possible with proper waste management .

The Meaning of Waste Management

Waste management is the managing of waste by disposal and recycling of it. Moreover, waste management needs proper techniques keeping in mind the environmental situations. For instance, there are various methods and techniques by which the waste is disposed of. Some of them are Landfills, Recycling , Composting, etc. Furthermore, these methods are much useful in disposing of the waste without causing any harm to the environment.

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Methods for Waste Management

Recycling – Above all the most important method is the recycling of waste. This method does not need any resources. Therefore this is much useful in the management of waste . Recycling is the reusing of things that are scrapped of. Moreover, recycling is further converting waste into useful resources.

essay on garbage management

Landfills – Landfills is the most common method for waste management. The garbage gets buried in large pits in the ground and then covered by the layer of mud. As a result, the garbage gets decomposed inside the pits over the years. In conclusion, in this method elimination of the odor and area taken by the waste takes place.

Composting – Composting is the converting of organic waste into fertilizers. This method increases the fertility of the soil. As a result, it is helpful in more growth in plants. Furthermore it the useful conversion of waste management that is benefiting the environment.

Advantages of Waste Management

There are various advantages of waste management. Some of them are below:

Decrease bad odor – Waste produces a lot of bad odor which is harmful to the environment. Moreover, Bad odor is responsible for various diseases in children. As a result, it hampers their growth. So waste management eliminates all these problems in an efficient way.

Reduces pollution – Waste is the major cause of environmental degradation. For instance, the waste from industries and households pollute our rivers. Therefore waste management is essential. So that the environment may not get polluted. Furthermore, it increases the hygiene of the city so that people may get a better environment to live in.

Reduces the production of waste -Recycling of the products helps in reducing waste. Furthermore, it generates new products which are again useful. Moreover, recycling reduces the use of new products. So the companies will decrease their production rate.

It generates employment – The waste management system needs workers. These workers can do various jobs from collecting to the disposing of waste. Therefore it creates opportunities for the people that do not have any job. Furthermore, this will help them in contributing to society.

Produces Energy – Many waste products can be further used to produce energy. For instance, some products can generate heat by burning. Furthermore, some organic products are useful in fertilizers. Therefore it can increase the fertility of the soil.

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Essay on Waste Management

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  • Updated on  
  • May 11, 2023

Essay on Waste Management

Every year, the amount of waste is doubling because of the increasing population around the world. The 3Rs, Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle should be followed to help in waste management. Waste management is the need of the hour and should be followed by individuals globally. This is also a common essay topic in the school curriculum and various academic and competitive exams like IELTS , TOEFL , SAT , UPSC , etc. In this blog, let us explore how to write an essay on Waste Management.

This Blog Includes:

Tips for writing an essay on waste management , what is the meaning of waste management, essay on waste management in 200 words, essay on waste management in 300 words .

To write an impactful and scoring essay, here are some tips on how to manage waste and write a good essay:

  • The initial step is to write an introduction or background information about the topic
  • You must use a formal style of writing and avoid using slang language.
  • To make an essay more impactful, write dates, quotations, and names to provide a better understanding
  • You can use jargon wherever it is necessary, as it sometimes makes an essay complicated
  • To make an essay more creative, you can also add information in bulleted points wherever possible
  • Always remember to add a conclusion where you need to summarise crucial points
  • Once you are done, read through the lines and check spelling and grammar mistakes before submission

Waste management is the management of waste by disposal and recycling of it. It requires proper techniques while keeping in mind the environmental situations. For example, there are various methods and techniques through which the waste is disposed of. Some of these are Landfills, Recycling, Composting, etc. These methods are useful in disposing of waste without causing any harm to the environment.

Sample Essays  on Waste Management

To help you write a perfect essay that would help you score well, here are some sample essays to give you an idea about the same.

One of the crucial aspects of today’s society is waste management. Due to a surge in population, the waste is generated in millions of tons day by day and affects the lives of a plethora of people across the globe. Mostly the affected people live in slums that are extremely close to the waste disposal areas; thus, they are highly prone to communicable and non-communicable diseases. These people are deprived of necessities to maintain a healthy life, including sanitation and proper hygiene. 

There are various methods and techniques for disposing of waste including Composting, Landfills, Recycling, and much more. These methods are helpful in disposing of waste without being harmful to the environment. Waste management is helpful in protecting the environment and creating safety of the surrounding environment for humans and animals. The major health issue faced by people across the world is environmental pollution and this issue can only be solved or prevented by proper waste management so that a small amount of waste is there in the environment. One of the prominent and successful waste management processes, recycling enables us not only in saving resources but also in preventing the accumulation of waste. Therefore it is very important to teach and execute waste management.

The basic mantra of waste management is” Refuse, Reuse, Reduce, Repurpose, and Recycle”. Waste management is basically the collection or accumulation of waste and its disposal. This process involves the proper management of waste including recycling waste generated and even generating useful renewable energy from it. One of the most recent initiatives taken by various countries at the local, national and international levels, waste management is a way of taking care of planet earth. This responsible act helps in providing a good and stable environment for the present and future generations. In India, most animals get choked and struggle till death because they consume waste on the streets.

So far many lives are lost, not only animals but also humans due to a lack of proper waste management. There are various methods and techniques for disposing of waste including Composting, Landfills, Recycling, and much more. These methods are helpful in disposing of waste without being harmful to the environment. Waste management is helpful in protecting the environment and creating safety of the surrounding environment for humans and animals. This process of waste management evolved due to industrialization as prior to these inventions simple burying was sufficient for disposing of waste.

One of the crucial things to control waste is creating awareness among people and this can only be achieved only when the governments and stakeholders in various countries take this health issue seriously. To communicate with various communities and reach each end of the country, the message can be communicated through media and related platforms. People also need to participate in waste management procedures by getting self-motivated and taking care of activities of daily living. These steps to create consciousness about waste management are crucial to guarantee the success and welfare of the people and most importantly our planet earth.

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What a Waste: An Updated Look into the Future of Solid Waste Management

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The Kiteezi landfill near Kampala was expanded as part of the Kampala Institutional Infrastructure Development Project, allowing for the storage and treatment of waste collected in the city. © Sarah Farhat/World Bank

“Waste not, want not.” This old saying rings so true today, as global leaders and local communities alike increasingly call for a fix for the so-called “throwaway culture.” But beyond individuals and households, waste also represents a broader challenge that affects human health and livelihoods, the environment, and prosperity.

And with over 90% of waste openly dumped or burned in low-income countries, it is the poor and most vulnerable who are disproportionately affected.

In recent years, landslides of waste dumps have buried homes and people under piles of waste. And it is the poorest who often live near waste dumps and power their city’s recycling system through waste picking, leaving them susceptible to serious health repercussions.

“Poorly managed waste is contaminating the world’s oceans, clogging drains and causing flooding, transmitting diseases, increasing respiratory problems from burning, harming animals that consume waste unknowingly, and affecting economic development, such as through tourism,” said Sameh Wahba, World Bank Director for Urban and Territorial Development, Disaster Risk Management and Resilience.

Greenhouse gasses from waste are also a key contributor to climate change.

“Solid waste management is everyone’s business. Ensuring effective and proper solid waste management is critical to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals,” said Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez, Senior Director of the World Bank’s Social, Urban, Rural and Resilience Global Practice.

What a Waste 2.0

While this is a topic that people are aware of, waste generation is increasing at an alarming rate. Countries are rapidly developing without adequate systems in place to manage the changing waste composition of citizens.

According to the World Bank’s What a Waste 2.0 report,

An update to a previous edition, the 2018 report projects that

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How much trash is that?

Take plastic waste, which is choking our oceans and making up 90% of marine debris. The water volume of these bottles could fill up 2,400 Olympic stadiums, 4.8 million Olympic-size swimming pools, or 40 billion bathtubs. This is also the weight of 3.4 million adult blue whales or 1,376 Empire State Buildings combined.

And that’s just 12% of the total waste generated each year.

In addition to global trends, What a Waste 2.0 maps out the state of solid waste management in each region. For example, the  And although they only account for 16% of the world’s population,

Because waste generation is expected to rise with economic development and population growth, lower middle-income countries are likely to experience the greatest growth in waste production. The fastest growing regions are Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, where total waste generation is expected to triple than double by 2050, respectively, making up 35% of the world’s waste. The Middle East and North Africa region is also expected to double waste generation by 2050.

Upper-middle and high-income countries provide nearly universal waste collection, and more than one-third of waste in high-income countries is recovered through recycling and composting. Low-income countries collect about 48% of waste in cities, but only 26% in rural areas, and only 4% is recycled. Overall, 13.5% of global waste is recycled and 5.5% is composted.

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To view the full infographic, click  here . 

Toward sustainable solid waste management

“Environmentally sound waste management touches so many critical aspects of development,” said Silpa Kaza, World Bank Urban Development Specialist and lead author of the What a Waste 2.0 report. “Yet, solid waste management is often an overlooked issue when it comes to planning sustainable, healthy, and inclusive cities and communities. Governments must take urgent action to address waste management for their people and the planet.”

Moving toward sustainable waste management requires lasting efforts and a significant cost.

Is it worth the cost?

Yes. Research suggests that it does make economic sense to invest in sustainable waste management. Uncollected waste and poorly disposed waste have significant health and environmental impacts. The cost of addressing these impacts is many times higher than the cost of developing and operating simple, adequate waste management systems.

To help meet the demand for financing, the World Bank is working with countries, cities, and partners worldwide to create and finance effective solutions that can lead to gains in environmental, social, and human capital.

, such as the following initiatives and areas of engagement.

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Scavengers burning trash at the Tondo Garbage Dump in Manila, Philippines. © Adam Cohn/Flickr Creative Commons

In   Pakistan , a $5.5 million dollar project supported a composting facility in Lahore in market development and the sale of emission reduction credits under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Activities resulted in reductions of 150,000 tonnes of CO 2 -equivalent and expansion of daily compost production volume from 300 to 1,000 tonnes per day.

In Vietnam , investments in solid waste management are helping the city of Can Tho prevent clogging of drains, which could result in flooding. Similarly, in the Philippines , investments are helping Metro Manila reduce flood risk by minimizing solid waste ending up in waterways. By focusing on improved collection systems, community-based approaches, and providing incentives, the waste management investments are contributing to reducing marine litter, particularly in Manila Bay.

Leaving no one behind

But the reality for more than 15 million informal waste pickers in the world – typically women, children, the elderly, the unemployed, or migrants – remains one with unhealthy conditions, a lack of social security or health insurance, and persisting social stigma.

In the  West Bank , for example, World Bank loans have supported the construction of three landfill sites that serve over two million residents, enabled dump closure, developed sustainable livelihood programs for waste pickers, and linked payments to better service delivery through results-based financing.

A focus on data, planning, and integrated waste management

Understanding how much and where waste is generated – as well as the types of waste being generated – allows local governments to realistically allocate budget and land, assess relevant technologies, and consider strategic partners for service provision, such as the private sector or non-governmental organizations.

Solutions include:

  • Providing financing to countries most in need, especially the fastest growing countries, to develop state-of-the-art waste management systems. 
  • Supporting major waste producing countries to reduce consumption of plastics and marine litter through comprehensive waste reduction and recycling programs. 
  • Reducing food waste through consumer education, organics management, and coordinated food waste management programs.

No time to waste

If no action is taken, the world will be on a dangerous path to more waste and overwhelming pollution. Lives, livelihoods, and the environment would pay an even higher price than they are today.

Many solutions already exist to reverse that trend. What is needed is urgent action at all levels of society.

The time for action is now.

Click here to access the full dataset and download the report What a Waste 2.0: A Global Snapshot of Solid Waste Management to 2050 .

What a Waste 2.0 was funded by the government of Japan through the World Bank’s Tokyo Development Learning Center (TDLC).

  • The Bigger Picture: In-depth stories on ending poverty
  • Press release: Global Waste to Grow by 70 Percent by 2050 Unless Urgent Action is Taken: World Bank Report
  • Infographic: What a Waste 2.0
  • Video blog: Here’s what everyone should know about waste
  • Brief: Solid Waste Management
  • Slideshow: Five ways cities can curb plastic waste

English Compositions

Short Essay on Waste Management [100, 200, 400 Words] With PDF

Waste management is a matter of concern for our world in the current situation. Poor waste management eventually results in environmental pollution. Due to this extreme concern, many institutions use this context as an essay topic to evaluate their students’ overall comprehension skills. In this lesson, you will learn how to write an essay on waste management. So, let’s get started. 

Feature image of Short Essay on Waste Management

Short Essay on Waste Management in 100 Words

Waste management is one of the significant processes on Earth that leads to sustainable development and habitat. It happens through the reuse and recycling of waste products in our houses, factories, industries etc. At present, the world is facing a severe threat of pollution due to poor waste management.

It is the ultimate need of the hour that wastes must be reduced and reused properly. We on a daily basis produce tons of waste materials that are harmful both for us and the environment. Thus several measures are undertaken through which the wastes accumulated are hence segregated and utilised for better purposes.

Short Essay on Waste Management in 200 Words

Waste management is the call of duty for every 21st-century person on Earth. Wastes are the degradable remnants of our daily activities. It involves household chores, as well as factory dispositions. We are clearly aware of the volume of waste materials that are regularly generated and how carelessly they are disposed of.

Such attention to fewer actions of discarding wastes results in hazards to social and public health including plants and animals. But today waste management is a matter of concern with the increasing population on Earth. The urban expansions, the industrial growth, and the changes in our lifestyle and consumption are also a reason behind this. Waste management takes place through innovations in science and technology and is transformed into a new object of reuse and renovations.

Wastes produced on a daily basis are of several types. It can be solid such as household, laboratory, and industries’ wastes; liquid wastes such as chemicals, sewage, and pipes; and also gaseous wastes like smoke from chimneys of industries, tobacco smells, burning petroleum goods, vehicle emissions, forest fire, and others. Generally, wastes are classified also as biodegradable such as the waste products that come from plants and animals, and non-biodegradable like metals and plastics waste products that cannot be decomposed. All these are rectified through waste management procedures.

Short Essay on Waste Management in 400 Words

Our lives consist of changes and the occurrence of some inevitable situations. Waste production is one such circumstance that cannot be avoided, yet is often considered as the most hazardous effect on the living world and the atmosphere. Waste is something that creates no value and only depreciates our well-being. The basic reason behind the production of waste is the growing civilisation.

The ever-increasing population demands necessities and luxuries for daily use, which in turn generates a huge amount of waste materials. The household produces wastes, industries, factories, vehicles, and laboratories are chief sources of waste production. All these only ends up polluting the environment. The population along with developed lifestyle are again key reasons for waste generation on Earth. Thus urban areas produce a greater amount than rural places due to lesser modernisation of the surroundings and lifestyle.

Waste is unarguably a disaster to humankind and so it needs immediate attention and a proper management system. Ill disposal of wastes results in more than half of the pollution in a heavily populated country like India. In India, corporations and municipal bodies are responsible for maintaining this cleanliness and preserving public health. Generally, wastes are broadly categorised as solids, liquids, and gases. But for a greater facility, it is chiefly divided into biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes.

Biodegradable wastes include kitchen wastes, sanitary wastes, green wastes, and wastes from shops. But the more harmful form, the non-biodegradable wastes contain plastics, papers, all packaging and containers, metals, glass, rubber that cannot be decomposed naturally. These wastes stay in nature and prolong the harm to not only terrestrial creatures but also aquatic beings.

Hence management of the filth is very important. The general disposal methods may often prove unsustainable and serious. Thus waste management is now the call of the day. It is not just a local phenomenon, but also the attention of the states countries and the globe. This management involves at the base the segregation of the wastes and likewise disposing of it.

The principal method involved here is the method of ‘’ reuse, reduce, and recycle’’. Generally, the domestic wastes can be utilised as vermicompost and fertilizers for plants. But for the non-biodegradable wastes, the process involves a higher system. The waste dealers collect them and deposit them into factories that crush the wastes into pulps and recycles them into different, helpful materials. At present, the globe has engaged in not only recycling but also refusing to use materials that create a huge amount of wastes. Thus waste management is the solution of modern society and way to development.

In this session above, I have tried to discuss all possible aspects of the topic within a recommended word limit. Hopefully, after going through this lesson, you have understood the overall approach to write these essays. If you have any doubt regarding the session, post them in the comment section below. To read more such essays on important topics, keep browsing our website.

To get the latest updates on our upcoming sessions, kindly join our Telegram channel. Thank you. All the best for your exam. 

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  • Waste Management

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An Introduction

Waste Management or disposal includes processing and disposing of Waste starting right from its point of inception to complete disposal. Waste can be solid or liquid and sometimes even gas. It can be domestic, industrial, biomedical, municipal or radioactive Waste. Each different type of Waste has a specific disposal method and they can be classified as:

Landfill: A huge dumping ground for garbage usually located away from a city. Every kind of solid waste is disposed of in a landfill.

Incineration: Waste from municipalities and solid residue from Wastewater treatment are disposed of by resorting to combustion which converts them to residue and gaseous products. It is not an eco-friendly method as combustion leads to the release of greenhouse gasses like carbon dioxide.

Recycle, Reduce, Re-use

The three R’s of Waste Management, i.e., Reduce reuse and Recycle should be followed at every place possible. These methods of Waste Management are mostly environment friendly and help avoid resorting to Waste Management measures like landfill and incineration that are harmful to humans as well as the environment.

There are numerous benefits of recycling. Recycling helps recover resources that can be used to make use of them in a different way. New products can be made by recycling general Waste. Solid Wastes like wood, glass, plastic, electronic devices, clothing and leather items can be Recycled. 

Wastes that are organic in nature can be Recycled and reused, often as manure or fertilizer for agriculture by the method of decomposition. Food scraps, plant products (such as cow dung) and carcasses, paper products are the most reusable for making manure.

Some Waste items that contain plastic such as polythene bags, bottles, pipes, etc. don't decompose easily and can pile up as a landfill for many years, sometimes ending up in the ocean and killing animals who choke on them accidentally. The use of such products that are harmful to everyone should be Reduced. Alternative options have been developed to Reduce the use of plastic such as jute bags instead of polythene bags, paper straws and packaging to be used in place of those made of plastic are a few to name. 

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FAQs on Waste Management

1. What are the Challenges Faced in Waste Management? 

One of the major challenges associated with waste management is solid waste management due to an increase in industrialization. The waste disposal is only rising and in cities with high population faces the wrath of this even more as with time there is deterioration in the natural environment and thus the health of the working class.

2. How can One Tackle this Problem of Waste Management?

The most effective way to resolve this problem is by reducing the production of waste itself; one can do that by composting the food and garden waste or by segregating and sending for recycling. The other important way is by addressing the public on the importance of waste management and its benefits to the environment.

3. What are the sources of Waste?

Waste accumulates in our everyday life from different sources. Households, industries and factories produce both solid and liquid Waste, hospitals and laboratories produce biomedical Wastes like syringes, gauge pads, etc., agricultural fields and farms produce agricultural Waste that includes dung, hay, etc., and even educational institutes like schools and colleges generate some amount of Waste which are called commercial Wastes.

4. What are the types of Waste?

There are mainly two types of Wastes:

Biodegradable Waste: These kinds of Waste are usually generated from the kitchen and are mostly organic in nature and can be decomposed to make manure that is generally used for composting in the garden.

Non-Biodegradable Waste: Wastes that do not decompose easily such as plastic and glass, accumulate in the environment and harm animal life.

5. Why is Waste Management important?

Waste created by different sources in the environment has the potential to harm humans and animals alike by spreading diseases when the Waste is not taken care of through disposal. Animals grazing in the field or unsuspecting water animals can get tangled and die of suffocation from non-biodegradable Waste products like plastic bottles and straws or polythene bags. Waste Management is important to Reduce the effect of Waste on the environment as well as for building livable and sustainable cities through recycling, reusing and reducing Waste materials.

To know more about Waste Management, hop on to Vedantu's website or app and get free study materials! Download now!

6. How can individuals help in Waste Management?

Individuals can take small steps in everyday life to help Reduce the amount of Waste generated through households by reusing materials wherever possible and buying environment-friendly products as well as those which are recyclable in the future. Waste Management also includes the separation of Wastes according to the type of Waste such as solid Waste or liquid Waste, and segregating and disposing of them safely.

7. What is the role of the government in Waste Management?

Starting from municipalities, the local body has the responsibility to process and dispose of Waste from every source and take sanitary measures for keeping a city clean for healthy living. 

Governments can set standards and regulate industrial Waste by encouraging research on Waste product reduction as well as safe elimination and they can also impose penalties or fines for not being able to meet standards for Waste generation and Management thus keeping the factories in check.

They can promote drives on the usefulness of recycling and reusing in rural areas which are the main sources of agricultural Waste. They should also encourage students to learn Waste Management for more sustainable and holistic growth of the future environment.

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Climate Action

How our trash impacts the environment.

  • How Our Trash Impacts…

February 28, 2019

By Austin Downs, Richard Acevedo and Kennedi Humble

Due to the mass amounts of unsustainable, human-generated waste entering our environment, the detrimental effects of pollution have continued to negatively impact numerous ecosystems around the world. Different types of waste, such as microplastics, are continuously polluting our oceans and landfills due to the lack of biodegradable and recyclable materials within these pollutants. A recent study found that out of the  400 million  metric tons of plastic waste produced annually, only  9%  is successfully recycled. (Find out  more about plastic pollution  and how you can help  reduce your own waste .) In 2017, for instance, the Environmental Protection Agency calculated the United States’s total generation of solid waste to be around  267.8 million tons , ultimately representing a  5.7 million  waste increase since 2015. All together, unsustainable waste has negatively impacted the environment through its contribution to worsening the climate crisis, wildlife population, and our very own public health. 

Climate Change

The way our society disposes of waste is not only extremely troubling, but has become increasingly irresponsible as well. Our government leaders have failed to implement sustainable foundations into action to allow our environment to successfully mitigate and adapt to climate change. For example, when looking at the relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and landfills, researchers found that  20%  of the total human-driven methane emissions have been produced from waste landfills, and  91% of these landfill methane emissions  have been caused by open-trash incineration. Considering that approximately  65%  of the United State’s waste is being discarded in this manner, the crucial lack of sustainable government regulations and involvement on the waste disposal process continues to contribute large-scale risks to both our atmosphere and the people that live near these burning sites.

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Ecosystems vary widely from location to location. However, one of the most dire consequences of our global waste problem manifests itself in relation to our marine life and waterways. In other words, human-generated waste affects mass amounts of aquatic beings that are dependent on the ocean for their livelihood. Numerous marine species consume mass amounts of plastic or solid waste due to their inability to distinguish between food and waste and are continuing to have traces of pollutants within their body. Researchers have found  microplastics  in 100% of turtles, 59% of whales, 36% in seals, and even 90% in seabirds they examined. Not to mention, waste pollution is often deadly, resulting in over  100,000  marine mammals to be killed annually. When it comes to biodiversity, our waste problem is severely plaguing the health of the world’s species.

Public Health

Human health is at risk through our lack of environmental awareness and action. If our society continues to produce large amounts of trash without proper disposal, it will be the downfall of humanity, wildlife and ecosystem well-being. We cannot prevent or promote longevity if humankind does not adapt sustainable behaviors toward our Earth. If emissions from waste disposal continue to increase, climate will not only be negatively impacted, but human health as well. Through environmental contamination, one can develop  diseases , such as asthma, birth defects, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and more. These issues will continue to increase if environmental action is not established in the near future.

Austin Downs is the coordinator for the Great Global Cleanup. 

Richard Acevedo is a Fall 2019 intern.

Kennedi Humble is a Fall 2023 intern

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Garbage Management in Nepal essay 300+ words

Essay on garbage management.

Garbage management in Nepal essay

Essay on Garbage Management in Nepal

Garbage management in Nepal poses a significant challenge as the country grapples with increasing urbanization and population growth. The issue is particularly prominent in major cities like Kathmandu, where improper waste disposal has become a pressing environmental concern.

One of the primary challenges in garbage management is the lack of a well-structured waste collection system. Many areas, especially in rural and peri-urban regions, lack organized waste collection services, leading to indiscriminate dumping and burning of garbage. This not only pollutes the air but also adversely affects soil and water quality.

Moreover, the inadequate infrastructure for waste disposal exacerbates the problem. Landfills are often poorly managed, lacking proper lining and leachate collection systems, which can result in groundwater contamination. The limited number of recycling facilities further compounds the issue, as a substantial portion of the waste that could be recycled ends up in landfills.

The lack of awareness among the general populace also plays a crucial role in exacerbating the garbage management problem. Education campaigns on the importance of waste segregation, recycling, and responsible disposal are crucial to changing public behavior. Additionally, involving local communities in waste management initiatives can foster a sense of responsibility and ownership, leading to more sustainable practices.

To address these challenges, the Nepalese government needs to invest in robust waste management infrastructure and promote sustainable practices. Implementing efficient waste collection systems, establishing well-managed landfills, and increasing the number of recycling facilities are imperative steps. Moreover, strict regulations and penalties for illegal dumping should be enforced to deter irresponsible disposal practices.

International collaboration and support can also contribute to improving garbage management in Nepal. Knowledge exchange programs, technology transfer, and financial assistance from global organizations can help implement best practices and innovative solutions.

In conclusion, effective garbage management in Nepal requires a comprehensive approach that involves infrastructure development, public awareness campaigns, and collaborative efforts at the local and international levels. By addressing these aspects, Nepal can work towards a cleaner and healthier environment for its citizens.

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Why is garbage management a significant issue in Nepal?

Garbage management is a major concern in Nepal due to rapid urbanization, population growth, and insufficient waste management infrastructure. The lack of organized waste collection services, inadequate disposal facilities, and limited recycling options contribute to environmental pollution and health hazards.

What are the key challenges in garbage management in Nepal?

The primary challenges include the absence of a well-structured waste collection system, poorly managed landfills, and a scarcity of recycling facilities. Additionally, the lack of awareness among the public about responsible waste disposal practices further exacerbates the problem, leading to indiscriminate dumping and burning of garbage.

How can Nepal improve its garbage management situation?

Nepal can enhance its garbage management by investing in robust waste management infrastructure, implementing efficient waste collection systems, and establishing well-managed landfills with proper lining and leachate collection. Public awareness campaigns on waste segregation, recycling, and responsible disposal are essential, and involving local communities in waste management initiatives can foster a sense of responsibility. International collaboration and support for knowledge exchange and technology transfer can also contribute to sustainable solutions.

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Waste Management Essay

Introduction.

Suppose you bought chocolate due to your craving while walking on the road. Now, what will you do with the wrapper? Will you keep it with you till you find a waste bin, or will you just throw it away on the road? While the first option is the right way to dispose of it, we often see many of us simply tossing the wrapper on the road. But what happens when every one of us behaves the same way and our surroundings become a huge pile of garbage?

Today, people are careless about what they do with their waste, and there are no proper methods to dispose of them. In this waste management essay, we will discuss the importance of waste management and look at different ways to manage waste.

essay on garbage management

Importance of Waste Management

Waste management should become an essential part of our lives as it plays an integral role in environmental protection and maintaining our health. Each day, the population is increasing, and waste is produced without any limit. Not aware of its dangerous effects, we either dump all the waste in a place where there are no proper disposal methods or burn them away, which releases harmful pollutants into the air. All the waste from homes, industries and factories must be properly managed; otherwise, it could lead to various environmental problems and health issues. This is why we need effective ways to collect, segregate, transport and dispose of waste materials, which we will be discussing in this solid waste management essay.

Methods for Waste Management

There are several methods for waste management, which vary depending on the type of waste that we handle. Waste can be classified into solid, liquid and gas, and they get generated from our homes, hospitals, factories or nuclear power plants. As each type of waste has a different method of disposal, landfills are suitable for solid waste management. A landfill is a deep garbage pit that is usually located away from the city where solid wastes are dumped, which decomposes over the years. Incineration is another popular method for waste management, but it is not the most effective as the combustion process often releases greenhouse gases that pollute the environment.

The waste management essay also highlights other efficient ways to dispose of waste. While the recycling of waste is considered to be productive by changing waste materials into useful things, reusing and reducing waste are also found to be cost-effective. Unlike landfills and incineration, recycling does not harm the environment in any way. As organic wastes can be recycled or reused, we must reduce the use of plastics, thus avoiding plastic pollution . Plastics contribute to the major portion of waste as they are not degradable. We must also practise composting as it is the ideal method for managing food waste and plant products. Through composting, organic waste gets converted into fertiliser, which nourishes the soil and thus supports the growth of plants and trees. In this manner, we must do whatever we can to dispose of waste and save the environment.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What are the advantages of waste management.

Through proper waste management, we can reduce pollution in the environment as well as ensure the safety and well-being of human beings and all other living beings. There will also be a reduction in the generation of waste as people resort to recycling and reusing.

What are the challenges to waste management?

The key challenge to waste management is the lack of proper amenities or measures to segregate waste. With different types of waste from different sources, it is difficult to separate them. Moreover, the waste never gets reduced as industries continue to dump waste everywhere, and the people and environment face its consequences.

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Essay on Waste Management for Children and Students

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Table of Contents

Waste management means management of all the activities of handling waste from collecting waste to transporting it to its final destination for disposal. Waste management is essential for the healthy functioning of human and environment. We are generating waste on a faster pace than the disposal of waste is carried out. Many kinds of wastes are generated such as solid, gaseous and liquid. All forms of wastes created go through different processes of waste management. Efficient waste management will lead us to safe and healthy environment.

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Long and Short Essay on Waste Management in English

Here are essays on Waste Management of varying lengths to help you with the topic in your exam. You can select any Waste management essay as per your need:

Waste Management Essay 1 (200 words)

Waste management is the overall process of collection, transportation, treatment and discarding of waste products, sewage and garbage. It also includes other legal, monitoring, recycling and regulating activities.

There are many forms of waste such as solid, gas or liquid and each has different process of disposal and management. Waste management manages different types of waste created by industries, household, commercial activities or natural waste. Large segment of waste management deals with municipal solid waste i.e. the waste created by industries, housing and commercial establishments.

The general concepts of waste management are waste hierarchy, that includes three approaches that are reduce, reuse and recycle. Second is life cycle of product that includes designing, producing, distributing followed by the 3 R’s of waste hierarchy. The third concept is resource efficiency that focuses on efficient use of resources. And the fourth concept is polluter-pay principle where the polluter-party i.e. one who generates waste has to pay for the impact caused to the environment. However, waste management carried on in developing and developed countries, cities and villages varies.

Inefficient waste management has several negative effects on health of living beings, environment and economy for e.g. air pollution, soil contamination, spread of hazardous diseases, etc. Waste management is aimed to reduce the adverse effects of waste on environment, health and the beauty of nature.

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Waste Management Essay 2 (300 words)

Introduction

Solid waste management has become a major problem in many underdeveloped, developing and developed countries. The chief causes of increase in municipal solid waste are overpopulation, industrialization, economic growth and urbanization.

Waste management is a global issue but its consequences are more pronounced in developing countries. In India, solid waste management system has failed to keep pace with social and economic development in several regions. The inefficiency in management of municipal solid waste can adversely affect public health, environment and our economy.

Chief Factors Influencing Solid Municipal Waste in India

  • Over population

Over population is the obvious cause for major issues of our country. Increase in population results in increase in solid municipal waste. High population leads to increasing demand of basic resources which leads to waste generation.

  • Urbanization

Increasing population, declining employment opportunities in rural areas and migration from rural areas to enjoy the benefits of urban economic and social growth result in urbanization are some of the other reasons. Urbanization is the major cause for global warming. Industrialization in urban areas produces large amount of waste in the process of production of goods and disposal of goods after use causing waste. In many cities, overcrowding has overwhelmed the capacity of municipal authorities to manage waste.

  • Luxurious Life

The materialistic perception and the need of luxury products have increased immensely to lead a comfortable and luxurious life regardless of whether it is needed or not. This results in more waste generation.

As the technology advances, the demand for new technology raises e.g. mobiles, TV’s, play stations, refrigerators etc. As a result old gadgets and electronics become trash.

Government should initiate awareness campaigns and advertisements informing people about adverse effects of excess waste. New and advanced technology should be used for the disposal of waste. Maximum recycling reuse of the waste should be encouraged.

Waste Management Essay 3 (400 words)

The term waste management means the management from collection of waste to the final stage of disposal. The complete process includes collection, transport, disposal, recycling, monitoring, and regulating along with the legal aspects that enable waste management. It includes all types of waste right from the household waste, industrial waste, agricultural waste, sludge, health care waste and waste due to commercialization. The methods of waste management for different kinds of waste vary.

There are different concepts of waste management and some of the general concepts are as follows:

  • Waste Hierarchy

The hierarchical process of waste management includes reducing, reusing and recycling of waste. The most favorable in the waste hierarchy is to reduce i.e. to avoid the consumption and source reduction followed by reuse and recycle. Let’s have a look at all three approaches of waste hierarchy in detail below:

  • Reduce: The most preferred approach is not to create waste i.e. to avoid over consumption of goods and services, using eco-friendly products and saving energy. It also includes source reduction by reducing the inputs that go in the production process, production of durable goods, energy conservation and use of eco-friendly technology, hybrid transport, etc. It includes energy efficient production, packaging reduction and use of renewable energy sources.
  • Reuse: Reuse is another useful approach to reduce waste. This includes reusing packaging systems which can help in reducing disposable waste. Reuse also includes using second hand products.
  • Recycling: In this process, the used products are recycled into raw materials that can be used in the production of new products. Recycling of the products provides raw materials that are energy efficient, cost effective and less polluting. This also avoids the consumption of new raw materials.
  • Life Cycle of a Product

Life cycle of the product includes policy intervention, rethinking the need of product, redesigning to minimize waste and production of durable goods. The main purpose of the life-cycle of the product is to use the resources to the maximum to avoid unnecessary waste.

  • Resource Efficiency

Economic growth and development cannot be sustained with current patterns of production and consumption. We are overusing our natural resources to produce goods and services. Resource efficiency is the reduction of the negative impact on our environment from the production and consumption of goods. Reducing the use of energy associated in packaging and transport of goods by reusing the products. We are wasting our resources by wasting food, e-waste and wasting water.

  • Polluter Pays Principle

In polluter-pay principle, the polluter party i.e. waste generator pays for the impact caused to environment.

These are the most common factors of waste management. However, the waste management practices of underdeveloped, developing and developed countries are not uniform currently.

Waste Management Essay 4 (500 words)

Waste management is the complete process of handling, processing, transporting, storage, recycling and disposal of human, industrial and environmental waste. Waste management is a global phenomenon but its ramifications are more prominent in developing countries.

Solid waste management which is a very massive task is getting more complicated with rise in urbanization, overpopulation, commercialization, social and economic growth, etc. Institutional fragility, financial constrains and public attitude towards waste management has made the issue even worse.

There are several methods of waste management and some of the most common methods are as follows:

  • Landfills : Throwing away waste and garbage in landfills is the most common method of waste disposal. In this process, the odors and dangers of the garbage are eliminated. The garbage is then buried on the landfill sites. Landfills are also the cause of global warming which is why many countries are reconsidering the use of landfills.
  • Incineration : In this method, municipal solid wastes are buried to convert them into residue, heat, ash, steam and gases. It reduces the volume of solid waste by 30% of the real volume.
  • Recycling : It is the process in which discarded items are recycled for reuse. The waste materials are recycled to extract resources or convert into energies in the form of electricity, heat or fuel.
  • Composting : It is a bio-degradation process in which the organic waste i.e. remains of plants and kitchen waste are converted into nutrient rich food for plants. Composting is the method used for organic-farming that also improves the fertility of soil.
  • Anaerobic Digestion : It is also the process that decomposes organic materials through biological processes. It uses oxygen and bacteria-free environment for decomposing. Composting requires air to aid the growth of microbes.
  • Waste to Energy : In this process, non-recyclable waste is converted into energy sources such heat, fuel or electricity. This is the renewable source of energy as non-recyclable waste can be used to create energy again and again.
  • Waste Minimization : The simplest method of waste management is to create less waste. Waste reduction can be done by you and me by reducing the waste creation and recycling and reusing the old materials. Using eco-friendly products and reducing the use of plastic, paper, etc. is vital. Community participation has a direct impact on waste management system.
  • Gasification and Pyrolysis : These two methods are used to decompose organic waste materials by exposing it to low amount of oxygen and high temperature. No oxygen is used in the process of pyrolysis and very low amount of oxygen is used in process of gasification. Gasification is the most advantageous process as no air pollution is created to recover energy by burning process.

Environmental associations have established several methods in dealing with waste management. Strategies are designed by civic bodies keeping in mind the long term vision. The use of new advanced technologies for treating and disposing solid waste is also initiated. The concept of common waste treatment is being encouraged and promoted as it uses waste as resource as raw material or co-fuel in manufacturing processes.

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Waste Management Essay 5 (600 words)

Waste management or waste disposal, include all the activities required to manage waste from its collection to disposal. Other activities are collecting, transporting, handling, supervising, regulating and discarding of waste and other legal procedures. We cannot imagine our environment with the waste chunks all around us spreading diseases and damaging environment. Waste management practices performed efficiently and consistently can benefit immensely. There are various pros and cons of waste management.

Let’s have a look at some pros and cons of waste management:

Pros of Waste Management

  • Keeps the environment clean: The process of waste management helps keep the environment clean though we all as individuals need to participate in keeping our surroundings clean to achieve the goal. Waste management units work to collect the garbage and waste materials from public areas and transport to the landfill sites and other disposal units for its disposal. The odor and gases from the garbage are eliminated before disposal thus the whole process results in keeping the environment clean.
  • Conserves energy: The process of waste management includes recycling. Recycling of the products helps in reducing the production of new products and raw materials. Recycling also helps conserve energy as the process of recycling utilizes less energy.
  • Reduce air pollution: Waste management helps reduce pollution and global warming. It reduces the intensity of gases like carbon dioxide and methane emitted from waste.
  • Generate employment opportunities: Huge amount of manpower is needed in all the sections of waste management. From collection to the final stage of disposal there are several job opportunities in waste management sectors.
  • Sustainable use of resources: Minimum use of energy and resources is planned in the process of waste management. The waste management concept life-cycle of the product aims the efficient use of resources.
  • Health: Exposure to waste can effect human health and cause several diseases. Waste management activities include collecting the waste from the landfills around us and transporting to the areas where the waste can be disposed in a safe manner saving us from several health hazards.
  • Inter-generational Equity: Effective waste management practices will provide following generations strong economy and clean environment.

Cons of Waste Management

  • Finance: The amount of waste generated is in very large amounts and so the management of it and the overall process needs a lot of planning and implementing of the various tasks. Secondly, lot of manpower and new technologies are needed to manage the various kinds of waste materials. The complete waste management system and the process of reducing, recycling and reusing in an effective manner needs a lot of funding and investment.
  • Health of workers: The process of waste management includes waste of course that attracts many insects, pests, bacteria and microbes, etc that can cause harm to anyone’s health. The landfills are highly prone to bacterial and fungal growth that may cause various diseases making it an unsafe place for workers involved. Harmful gasses are released in the process of burning disposal that spread widely endangering human health. The sites may get contaminated due to inefficient waste management effecting human health.
  • Inefficient waste management: Waste management in developing countries experience fragile waste collection services and inefficiently managed dumpsites. The waste management practices are not uniform in underdeveloped, developing and developed countries. Waste management units are unable to keep pace with increasing amount of waste generation.

Irresponsible discarding of waste and not considering its negative impact on environment and others is wrong. We all are a part of nature and it’s our duty to prevent nature from the hazardous effects of waste. As managing waste is a massive process it begins by keeping your surroundings clean and the rest will be taken care of by waste management units.

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Essay on Garbage Management in Nepal | 600+ words |

essay on garbage management

Garbage or waste are all the unnecessary material or things which creates nuisance in the surrounding and also deteriorates the health of an individual. It may be in solid, semisolid or liquid form.

Table of Contents

Situation of Garbage in Nepal

Nepal is a country housing more than 2.5 crore people. In the hilly and mountain regions, population density is low, so garbage is produced in very less amount. And most of the waste produced in these areas are organic waste which can be managed easily at the local level. In a big city such as Kathmandu, garbage management and disposal is a big challenge. The population density is high due to which garbage is produced in large amount. The garbage is produced from households, offices, hospitals, industries, etc which is difficult to manage. Heaps of garbage can be seen lying on the roads.

In the suburbs also, waste management is not proper. People throw waste haphazardly on the roadside, fields, rivers. In most of the highways we find waste being thrown randomly. There is no availability of waste collection vehicle and proper dumping sites in most of the villages and cities of Nepal. Even if there is management of waste collection vehicle and dumping site in some cities, the garbage is not disposed of properly.

Methods of Garbage Management

3R – The ‘R’ signifies Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. We must reduce the garbage as much as possible. Items which can be used again after some refurbishment should be used or we can give it to others who need it. Garbage can be recycled properly and be used again. So we can control the production of new unwanted garbage to some extent by using the 3R principle.

Composting – Composting is a process of degrading the organic matter into manure by the help of microbes. Garbage which decays can be used as manure afterwards by composting. It is done by making a compost pit. Garbage is pulverised and left to decay for 3-4 months. After complete decomposition of the garbage it can be used as manure.

Landfill – In this process, the non-reusable garbage is disposed of in a deep dug land. After a layer of garbage is filled, it is covered with soil and another layer is added. This process is carried out until the land is completely filled. Then it is left for 20-30 years. No construction or infrastructure development work is done in this land.

Incineration – Incineration is the process of burning garbage in a chamber at a high temperature till it turns to ash. This converts a huge heap of garbage into ashes which is now easy to manage and dispose of. In this process, toxic gases are also produced so air filters should be used to purify the gases before releasing it into the surrounding area.

Advantages of Garbage Management

Health benefits – Garbage is the source of many vulnerable communicable diseases. Insects, flies, mosquitoes, etc are found in garbage which acts as a vector for diseases. So if the garbage is properly managed then risk from infection of disease will be less.

Removal of odour – Garbage releases foul smell in the surrounding. It degrades the ambiance of the surrounding. Thus management of garbage keeps the surrounding fresh and healthy.

Nepal is a country rich in natural beauty. The mountains, hills, rivers, forests, cultural heritage, etc are the jewels of the nation. Though the country is rich in nature and biodiversity, if it is not clean and healthy there is no importance of all those beautiful nature. So for a clean and healthy environment, garbage should be properly managed and disposed of.

What is Garbage?

Garbage are all the unnecessary material or things which creates nuisance in the surrounding and also deteriorates the health of an individual.

What are the methods of Garbage Management?

• Composting • Landfill • Incineration • Reduce, Reuse and Recycle

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essay on garbage management

Essay on Garbage Management in Nepal

Garbage management in nepal.

Garbage management is a crucial issue in Nepal, which is home to over 28 million people. With rapid urbanization and an increase in population, the amount of waste generated in the country has significantly increased, and proper garbage management has become a challenge.

The garbage management system in Nepal is inadequate, and waste is often disposed of in an unregulated and haphazard manner. In urban areas, waste is collected by local authorities and transported to landfills. However, these landfills are often overfilled and poorly managed, leading to environmental pollution and health hazards. In rural areas, garbage is typically dumped in open fields or burned, leading to air pollution and health problems. Furthermore, there is a lack of public awareness about the importance of garbage management, leading to improper disposal of waste and littering.

One of the main challenges in garbage management in Nepal is the lack of infrastructure and resources. There is a shortage of garbage collection vehicles, and the existing ones are often old and inefficient. In addition, there is a shortage of properly designed landfills and waste management facilities. The lack of resources also affects the capacity of local authorities to handle waste disposal. Another challenge is the lack of public awareness about the importance of proper garbage management. People are often unaware of the negative impacts of improper garbage disposal and do not take responsibility for their waste.

One solution to address the garbage management issue in Nepal is to improve the infrastructure and resources available to local authorities. This could involve investing in new garbage collection vehicles, constructing properly designed landfills and waste management facilities, and providing training for local authorities on proper garbage management practices. Another solution is to raise public awareness about the importance of proper garbage management. This could involve educating the public about the negative impacts of improper garbage disposal, providing information about waste reduction and recycling, and encouraging responsible waste disposal practices.

In addition, there is a need for the government to enact and enforce policies and regulations that promote proper garbage management practices. This could include imposing fines for littering and improper garbage disposal, promoting waste reduction and recycling, and providing incentives for businesses and individuals who adopt sustainable waste management practices.

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Management Recycling of the Waste Reflective Essay

Collection of data, management skills, inventory and storage management, social and ethical responsibility, potential business enterprises, recycling centers and cost factors, collectivism, plastic issue.

Over the past ten weeks, a recycling project took place. The requirement of this assignment was to collect and recycle different kinds of household items from the trash. Various options were given to select from and make a research report on it. In equal quantity plastic and metal was collected to complete the assignment.

After collecting all the recyclable items, it was required to find out their market value and to sell them. So, that one can differentiate that how much is the difference between the real product and the recyclable waste.

In the first week five plastic cups were collected, which were kept in the storage area. In the second week, six tin cans of a carbonated beverage were collected to recycle. In the third week, five plastic water bottles were collected.

In the fourth week, four metal candle stands were collected. In the fifth week, seven plastic hair combs were collected. In the sixth week, four side panels of a window were collected which are made of aluminum metal.

In the seventh week, five plastic tin-tin toys were collected for this assignment. In the eight week, three frying pans were collected which are found almost in every house. In the ninth week, twelve plastic bowls were collected, which are found in every house. In the last week of this assignment, six metal strainers were collected.

After all the items were collected, it was necessary to keep an account of them. All of the items were arranged in sequenced manner and then the counting was done. All the items were of different sizes and types in the inventory.

Management of the storage area was necessary to complete this assignment. Otherwise, there was a possibility that the recyclable items might get mixed up and then it will become a problem to count them in the end. The most important priority was to keep the storage area clean.

Every week a new item in the inventory was being added therefore plastic and metal items were kept separately. Plastic items were kept on the floor whereas metal products were kept on the table in an organized manner. Since, keeping the storage are clean was also a part of the assignment therefore it used to be cleaned after every three days.

Social and ethical responsibility of every person in this world should be to keep it clean. Recycling should be one thing which everyone is aware off. People need to be aware of how much can change if they start recycling. It is a social responsibility of every human being to recycle plastic as much as possible since it is very harmful for this planet.

It’s hard to calculate the number of companies who use such products and recycle their plastic and metal waste and use it for functional things. There are restaurants, organizations which use recycled metal and plastic materials. For example, the SS plastic dining room is a restaurant which is made up of recycled plastic bottles (Tree hugger, 2010). This is one good way of minimizing the plastic from this world.

Recycling center of America is one of the biggest recycling centers of plastic in America. They recycle at a very large scale and have their factories set up in most of the states. If we talk about metal recycling centers then Metal Source America, Inc. is a very big firm which recycles metals at a very large scale. They have recycling centers established in most of the states. Recycling metal is very expensive.

Collectivism is the opposite of individualism. People who are individualist believe in doing things for themselves and not for the entire society.

Collectivism is something in which people work together and for the whole society rather than just for themselves. It varies in cultures; there are some cultures in which people believe in acting as collective society and fighting for the betterment of the people but at the same time there are some cultures in which people do not really care about the betterment of anyone else except for themselves (via-web, 2011).

Plastic is a very big issue of this entire world. Plastic bags are light in weight and they are easy to carry but there is one thing that everyone should know about them and that is they are very harmful to this world. Plastic is a non-biodegradable product, it takes about hundreds of years to decompose. Plastic bags if burned become the cause of poisoning the air with toxic. There is no proper solution for the plastic issue but it is a person’s duty to use plastic products as less as one can. If we cannot stop it then at least we can reduce the use of it (Ezine articles, 2011).

During the past ten weeks while completing this assignment, a thing was realized that how important is to recycle and keep the world clean. Since, all these items were picked from within the house therefore it somehow made the house looked cleaner. Every person in this world should realize his role in how to keep this world clean and not destroying the atmosphere by the trash they throw out on the roads. It is our social and ethical responsibility in keeping this planet clean and green.

From the beginning to the end what all was required to produce the recyclable items can be explained through the following lines: Firstly, recycling is not a one man job therefore many employees were hired those who could go around and collect different types of plastic and metal waste and bring them to the factory to be recycled. For all this employees, trash collecting trucks, heavy machineries and workers who knew how to use the machineries were needed.

Supply chain of recyclable items can be explained in three points. First of all, when the trash gets recycled they are to be moved from the factory to the warehouse of the factory. Second, from the warehouse of the factory it is send to the distributors of recycled products. Third, the distributors sell it to different factories or customers who have something to do with recycled metal or plastic.

If a person is collecting and supplying the recyclable items then the chain would be like the following: Since, collecting recyclable items is not a one man job therefore many employees were hired to collect the recyclable items. After the collection was done, these recyclable items were brought to the storage area where all of these items were to be stored. From the storage area these items were to be sold to different factories or customers who pay a price for it.

For collecting these recyclable items on a commercial scale a lot of workers are needed, who could go out on the streets and collect trash, then a lot of trash collecting trucks and drivers are needed those who would bring all the recyclable waste back to the warehouse. Once the recyclable waste is at the warehouse then the distribution process starts in which trucks are again needed so that the products can be supplied to factories those who would recycle these items.

All of the recyclable items will be stored in a warehouse because it will be a place where only recycling items will be getting collected and no other work will be able to interrupt this process.

Starting with one distribution is obviously needed but as soon as more factories ordering for the plastic and metal waste then yes, there will be need of at least two or three distribution centers so that the different distribution centers are easily able to distribute the plastic and metal waste to different factories easily and not getting mixed up. This will be a local operation because it is necessary to clean the society first. Focus will be to collect the recyclable items locally.

Since, the supply load will be generating a lot therefore it will become necessary for outsourcing the parts of supply chain to different providers. Recycling is also a business; therefore, gaining profit is the aim of every business. By outsourcing the parts of supply chain, the work will be distributed and more work will be done in less time.

Ezine articles. (2011). The Effect of Plastic Bags on Environment . Web.

Tree hugger. (2010). Floating Plastic Dining Room is Taking Orders . Web.

Via-web. (2011). XIII. Individualism versus collectivism . Web.

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1. IvyPanda . "Management Recycling of the Waste." May 22, 2018. https://ivypanda.com/essays/recycling/.

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IvyPanda . "Management Recycling of the Waste." May 22, 2018. https://ivypanda.com/essays/recycling/.

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How Kathmandu’s waste management emerged as a perennial problem

How Kathmandu’s waste management emerged as a perennial problem

Last month household garbage piled up in the streets of Kathmandu for a week.

While pedestrians suffered the stink momentarily while they walked past heaps of garbage in the Valley, Kaji Man Maharjan, owner of a grocery store at Teku, had to live with it.

“Every time, when the City fails to remove garbage it gets piled up just 50 metres from my shop and the stink comes directly to my shop,” said Maharjan. “Other people can close their windows to stop the odour, but shop owners waiting for customers can’t do that. Besides, business suffers.”

This time the garbage was finally cleared after the Kathmandu Metropolitan City reached an agreement with local residents at Sisdole, Nuwakot to let the garbage from the Capital be dumped there.

But 50-year-old Maharjan knows that the relief he has felt is a temporary one. Soon garbage will be piled nearby, he said, as he has faced this problem recurring every year.

Maharjan has always wondered why Kathmandu’s garbage problem has not been resolved for years.

He and others who run businesses are well aware that the situation gets worse during the monsoon.

“When it rains, the situation becomes more severe. Garbage is not collected,” said Bikesh Joshi, owner of Bhok Lago, an eatery at Pradarsani Marg. “It will be difficult to manage the organic waste from our restaurant.”

During the monsoon the transportation of garbage to Okharpauwa in Nuwakot gets disrupted because of the muddy road as lorries carrying garbage sink into the slushy ground.

A 300 meters road stretch between Kalfu Khola to Valley 1 of Sisdole landfill site is in dire need of repairs.

At Sisdole there are three landfill sites called Valley 1, Valley 2 and Valley 3.

“Because the road has been constructed on a pile of garbage, and when it rains the road gets swept away,” said Chandra Bahadur Balami, chair of ward 1 of Kakani Rural Municipality.

Every day the Kathmandu Valley generates around 1200 metric tonnes of solid waste , of which 50 percent comes from the Kathmandu Metropolitan City alone. The landfill site at Sisdole, around 27km southwest of Kathmandu is spread over 740 ropanis (37.65 hectares), formerly a gorge, is being used although it has already reached its capacity.

In 2005, the Kathmandu Metropolitan City started dumping garbage collected from the Valley at the Sisdole site with an agreement that the site would be used for three years, but 15 years later garbage continues to be dumped here. The site has become a stinking hill and the nearby settlements have complained of the hazards other than to human health: drop in quality of their agriculture produce and diseases in their livestock due to the leachate from the landfills.

Over 200 families with 1,200 family members who reside near the Sisdole dumping site have been categorised as highly affected households.

“All the villagers living nearby the area are living with respiratory diseases,” claimed Balami. “Besides wherever you go, in an eatery or homes up to three kilometeres from the landfill site, you are surrounded by flies.”

In September 2017, when Rabin Man Shrestha was the chief of its environment division, the Kathmandu Metropolitan City had given compensation to 300 families whose homes were up to 900 meters from the site, after they protested.

“During my tenure [of 15 years] there were over a dozen agreements with the local residents,” Shrestha told the Post. “The main problem is that garbage is being dumped at Sisdole beyond the area’s capacity.”

Last month too another agreement was reached between the local residents and the Kathmandu Metropolitan City to allow the Valley’s garbage to be collected and dumped at Sisdole.

As per the agreement, made in the presence of Mayor Bidya Sundar Shakya, the City agreed to provide a grant of Rs 18.7 million to hire 31 teachers for primary and secondary schools in wards 1, 2 and 3 of Kakani Rural Municipality and ward 1 of Dhunebesi Municipality. The City also assured of constructing a 15-bed hospital in the area, and until then it has agreed to provide for the free health check-up and treatment of people from landfill site area in government hospitals in the Capital. Another agreement was to form a technical team for the land acquisition process from private landowners in the landfill sites where garbage has been dumped for years.

For the local residents, the cost of the garbage from the Kathmandu Valley is high.

Dibesh Shrestha, administrative officer at Sisdole Health Post, said every day over 40 people come to the health post with complaints of headache, diarrhea, respiratory problems and skin diseases among others.

He said even those working at the health post have problems.

“My colleagues and I have to suffer the stink throughout the day. When I reach home my mouth becomes full of a dark cough. We can’t live without drinking hot water,” said Shrestha, who has been working at the health post for the past 11 years. “Doctors don’t want to work there because of the stink.”

Records at the health post show that in the past one year 15 people have died of cancer in three different villages near Sisdole – Kagati Gaun, Chhatre Deurali in Dhunibeshi Municipality and and Seudeni in Kakani Rural Municipality.

“Most of them were lung and throat cancer patients,” said Shrestha who is also a local resident.

In Kathmandu if the garbage collection is obstructed for a week, it gets littered by dogs, rag-pickers besides polluting the city and causing inconvenience for pedestrians.

Meanwhile, Mayor Shakya who was elected to head the local government in 2017 after a 15-year gap, has been saying that the Kathmandu Metropolitan City alone can’t solve the chronic problem of garbage in the Valley, as it is collected from other 17 municipalities.

“As this is a common problem, the federal government should step in to solve the problem together,” said Shakya when he was addressing the demands of local residents of Sisdole last month.

Every year the Kathmandu Metropolitan City allocates a large budget to manage solid waste. This year it has allocated Rs240 million for garbage management but the money is spent only for fuel of the lorries that transport garbage and the salaries of drivers and other staff, according to Hari Shrestha, chief of its environment division.

Experts, however, say that the whole approach to garbage disposal is wrong.

“Landfill sites can never be a solution to Kathmandu's solid waste,” said Sumitra Amatya, a waste management expert and town planner. “Landfill station is an outdated idea, which developed countries had practised some six decades ago. Now the view is waste should be segregated and recycled.”

Dumping garbage into a landfill site also means leachate production, and if that is mixed with the river, it threatens the aquatic ecosystem, according to her.

The Solid Waste Management Act 2011 indeed states that the local bodies should ensure the separation of solid waste into at least organic and inorganic waste at its source. However the city has never been able to implement this provision despite numerous attempts.

Last year the Kathmandu Metropolitan City started a solid waste segregation pilot project from Naradevi in ward 18 , with an awareness march, but that too didn’t work.

“But since people do not cooperate, we are not able to bring change in people’s attitude,” said Shrestha, the environment division chief.

According to him over 75 percent of the solid waste generated from Kathmandu Valley is biodegradable.

“Of the remaining 25 percent, 15 percent waste can be reused or recycled and there will be only 10 percent solid waste we need to manage,” argued Shrestha.

He said the City has already sent dustbins to over 80 percent of the households with a 75 percent discount on the cost price.

“We do regular miking asking people to segregate garbage and they know how. We have occasionally punished those who do not follow the rules, but during nights they throw the garbage onto the streets,” said Shrestha.

But for Amatya, what the City’s elected representatives are doing is not enough.

“Neither the local governments nor the federal one care about finding an effective solution to the garbage problem,” said Amatya. “ They are only concerned about building roads because they see hype in it.”

One solution, according to her, is that 80 percent of organic waste littering the streets of the Valley can be used if the government cooperates with pig farmers in the Valley.

“I wonder why the authorities are not adopting this method,” said Amatya.

According to last year’s data at the Departmentof Livestock Services, there are over 50,000 pigs being raised in the three districts of the Kathmandu Valley.

Using the estimate that one pig eats 10kg of leftovers, 50,000 pigs eat 500,000 kg of food waste, which is almost equivalent to the organic waste the Kathmandu Metropolitan City alone produces per day.

“People in the bureaucracy know this fact very well, but they do not bother to act, because they earn commissions from fuel and vehicle maintenance,” said Amatya.

She says only a ‘garbage recycle center,’ can only be a solution to solve the perennial garbage problem.

“Only 10 percent solid waste gets recycled in our case,” she said. “If the local government brings a new segregation plan, this can be a means to generate income for citizens.”

The Nepal government, including the Kathmandu Metropolitan City, had made such plans earlier to convert solid waste into compost manure and make money out of it, but the plans didn’t work.

In 2014 the Kathmandu Metropolitan City started a three-year Integrated Sustainable Solid Waste Management with an aim to produce 14KW of electricity with a joint investment of Rs 18.2 million of the City and the European Union .

Kathmandu Metropolitan City had announced plans to use the electricity to power the street lamps. But nothing came of the plan.

In 2016, the Investment Board Nepal had prepared to sign a project development agreement with two Nepali firms — Nepwaste and Clean Valley Company — to manage the Valley’s waste, but later it was cancelled.

Meanwhile, City officials and the federal government are planning on another landfill site at Banchare Danda, 1.9km west of Sisdole.

“Once the landfill site at Banchare Danda gets completed, the perennial problem of garbage will be sorted out,” said Shrestha, the environment division chief. “The landfill site is soon going to be open for garbage dumping.”

However, when the Post contacted Kumar Prasad Ghimire, deputy director general at the Urban Development Division under the Ministry of Urban Development, the work has been disrupted due to a dispute between the contractor and workers.

“We had planned to open Banchare Danda from June this year, but it’s unlikely given the circumstances,” said Ghimire. “But we will try our best to open it as soon as possible.”

He said the ministry has allocated Rs 800 million to construct the landfill sites in two different phases following a November 2018 Cabinet decision.

But for Valley denizens like Maharjan, the worry is more imminent.

“There is less than two months for the rainy season, and the road to Sisdole dumping site will get damaged and again the local residents will protest as it’s become a ritual,” said Maharjan. “In the streets of Kathmandu, garbage will get piled up and the City will do nothing to solve the problem permanently.”

Anup Ojha Anup Ojha was a reporter for The Kathmandu Post primarily covering social issues, crime, and human interest stories since 2011. Before moving to the social beat, Ojha covered arts and culture for the Post for four years.

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Ielts writing task 2 sample 273 - waste disposal problems are increasing specially in urban areas, ielts writing task 2/ ielts essay:, waste disposal problems are increasing especially in urban areas. suggest what government and individuals should do to help reduce the amount of rubbish production and disposal of it..

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