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21 Action Research Examples (In Education)

action research examples and definition, explained below

Action research is an example of qualitative research . It refers to a wide range of evaluative or investigative methods designed to analyze professional practices and take action for improvement.

Commonly used in education, those practices could be related to instructional methods, classroom practices, or school organizational matters.

The creation of action research is attributed to Kurt Lewin , a German-American psychologist also considered to be the father of social psychology.

Gillis and Jackson (2002) offer a very concise definition of action research: “systematic collection and analysis of data for the purpose of taking action and making change” (p.264).

The methods of action research in education include:

  • conducting in-class observations
  • taking field notes
  • surveying or interviewing teachers, administrators, or parents
  • using audio and video recordings.

The goal is to identify problematic issues, test possible solutions, or simply carry-out continuous improvement.

There are several steps in action research : identify a problem, design a plan to resolve, implement the plan, evaluate effectiveness, reflect on results, make necessary adjustment and repeat the process.

Action Research Examples

  • Digital literacy assessment and training: The school’s IT department conducts a survey on students’ digital literacy skills. Based on the results, a tailored training program is designed for different age groups.
  • Library resources utilization study: The school librarian tracks the frequency and type of books checked out by students. The data is then used to curate a more relevant collection and organize reading programs.
  • Extracurricular activities and student well-being: A team of teachers and counselors assess the impact of extracurricular activities on student mental health through surveys and interviews. Adjustments are made based on findings.
  • Parent-teacher communication channels: The school evaluates the effectiveness of current communication tools (e.g., newsletters, apps) between teachers and parents. Feedback is used to implement a more streamlined system.
  • Homework load evaluation: Teachers across grade levels assess the amount and effectiveness of homework given. Adjustments are made to ensure a balance between academic rigor and student well-being.
  • Classroom environment and learning: A group of teachers collaborates to study the impact of classroom layouts and decorations on student engagement and comprehension. Changes are made based on the findings.
  • Student feedback on curriculum content: High school students are surveyed about the relevance and applicability of their current curriculum. The feedback is then used to make necessary curriculum adjustments.
  • Teacher mentoring and support: New teachers are paired with experienced mentors. Both parties provide feedback on the effectiveness of the mentoring program, leading to continuous improvements.
  • Assessment of school transportation: The school board evaluates the efficiency and safety of school buses through surveys with students and parents. Necessary changes are implemented based on the results.
  • Cultural sensitivity training: After conducting a survey on students’ cultural backgrounds and experiences, the school organizes workshops for teachers to promote a more inclusive classroom environment.
  • Environmental initiatives and student involvement: The school’s eco-club assesses the school’s carbon footprint and waste management. They then collaborate with the administration to implement greener practices and raise environmental awareness.
  • Working with parents through research: A school’s admin staff conduct focus group sessions with parents to identify top concerns.Those concerns will then be addressed and another session conducted at the end of the school year.
  • Peer teaching observations and improvements: Kindergarten teachers observe other teachers handling class transition techniques to share best practices.
  • PTA surveys and resultant action: The PTA of a district conducts a survey of members regarding their satisfaction with remote learning classes.The results will be presented to the school board for further action.
  • Recording and reflecting: A school administrator takes video recordings of playground behavior and then plays them for the teachers. The teachers work together to formulate a list of 10 playground safety guidelines.
  • Pre/post testing of interventions: A school board conducts a district wide evaluation of a STEM program by conducting a pre/post-test of students’ skills in computer programming.
  • Focus groups of practitioners : The professional development needs of teachers are determined from structured focus group sessions with teachers and admin.
  • School lunch research and intervention: A nutrition expert is hired to evaluate and improve the quality of school lunches.
  • School nurse systematic checklist and improvements: The school nurse implements a bathroom cleaning checklist to monitor cleanliness after the results of a recent teacher survey revealed several issues.
  • Wearable technologies for pedagogical improvements; Students wear accelerometers attached to their hips to gain a baseline measure of physical activity.The results will identify if any issues exist.
  • School counselor reflective practice : The school counselor conducts a student survey on antisocial behavior and then plans a series of workshops for both teachers and parents.

Detailed Examples

1. cooperation and leadership.

A science teacher has noticed that her 9 th grade students do not cooperate with each other when doing group projects. There is a lot of arguing and battles over whose ideas will be followed.

So, she decides to implement a simple action research project on the matter. First, she conducts a structured observation of the students’ behavior during meetings. She also has the students respond to a short questionnaire regarding their notions of leadership.

She then designs a two-week course on group dynamics and leadership styles. The course involves learning about leadership concepts and practices . In another element of the short course, students randomly select a leadership style and then engage in a role-play with other students.

At the end of the two weeks, she has the students work on a group project and conducts the same structured observation as before. She also gives the students a slightly different questionnaire on leadership as it relates to the group.

She plans to analyze the results and present the findings at a teachers’ meeting at the end of the term.

2. Professional Development Needs

Two high-school teachers have been selected to participate in a 1-year project in a third-world country. The project goal is to improve the classroom effectiveness of local teachers. 

The two teachers arrive in the country and begin to plan their action research. First, they decide to conduct a survey of teachers in the nearby communities of the school they are assigned to.

The survey will assess their professional development needs by directly asking the teachers and administrators. After collecting the surveys, they analyze the results by grouping the teachers based on subject matter.

They discover that history and social science teachers would like professional development on integrating smartboards into classroom instruction. Math teachers would like to attend workshops on project-based learning, while chemistry teachers feel that they need equipment more than training.

The two teachers then get started on finding the necessary training experts for the workshops and applying for equipment grants for the science teachers.

3. Playground Accidents

The school nurse has noticed a lot of students coming in after having mild accidents on the playground. She’s not sure if this is just her perception or if there really is an unusual increase this year.  So, she starts pulling data from the records over the last two years. She chooses the months carefully and only selects data from the first three months of each school year.

She creates a chart to make the data more easily understood. Sure enough, there seems to have been a dramatic increase in accidents this year compared to the same period of time from the previous two years.

She shows the data to the principal and teachers at the next meeting. They all agree that a field observation of the playground is needed.

Those observations reveal that the kids are not having accidents on the playground equipment as originally suspected. It turns out that the kids are tripping on the new sod that was installed over the summer.

They examine the sod and observe small gaps between the slabs. Each gap is approximately 1.5 inches wide and nearly two inches deep. The kids are tripping on this gap as they run.

They then discuss possible solutions.

4. Differentiated Learning

Trying to use the same content, methods, and processes for all students is a recipe for failure. This is why modifying each lesson to be flexible is highly recommended. Differentiated learning allows the teacher to adjust their teaching strategy based on all the different personalities and learning styles they see in their classroom.

Of course, differentiated learning should undergo the same rigorous assessment that all teaching techniques go through. So, a third-grade social science teacher asks his students to take a simple quiz on the industrial revolution. Then, he applies differentiated learning to the lesson.

By creating several different learning stations in his classroom, he gives his students a chance to learn about the industrial revolution in a way that captures their interests. The different stations contain: short videos, fact cards, PowerPoints, mini-chapters, and role-plays.

At the end of the lesson, students get to choose how they demonstrate their knowledge. They can take a test, construct a PPT, give an oral presentation, or conduct a simulated TV interview with different characters.

During this last phase of the lesson, the teacher is able to assess if they demonstrate the necessary knowledge and have achieved the defined learning outcomes. This analysis will allow him to make further adjustments to future lessons.

5. Healthy Habits Program

While looking at obesity rates of students, the school board of a large city is shocked by the dramatic increase in the weight of their students over the last five years. After consulting with three companies that specialize in student physical health, they offer the companies an opportunity to prove their value.

So, the board randomly assigns each company to a group of schools. Starting in the next academic year, each company will implement their healthy habits program in 5 middle schools.

Preliminary data is collected at each school at the beginning of the school year. Each and every student is weighed, their resting heart rate, blood pressure and cholesterol are also measured.

After analyzing the data, it is found that the schools assigned to each of the three companies are relatively similar on all of these measures.

At the end of the year, data for students at each school will be collected again. A simple comparison of pre- and post-program measurements will be conducted. The company with the best outcomes will be selected to implement their program city-wide.

Action research is a great way to collect data on a specific issue, implement a change, and then evaluate the effects of that change. It is perhaps the most practical of all types of primary research .

Most likely, the results will be mixed. Some aspects of the change were effective, while other elements were not. That’s okay. This just means that additional modifications to the change plan need to be made, which is usually quite easy to do.

There are many methods that can be utilized, such as surveys, field observations , and program evaluations.

The beauty of action research is based in its utility and flexibility. Just about anyone in a school setting is capable of conducting action research and the information can be incredibly useful.

Aronson, E., & Patnoe, S. (1997). The jigsaw classroom: Building cooperation in the classroom (2nd ed.). New York: Addison Wesley Longman.

Gillis, A., & Jackson, W. (2002). Research Methods for Nurses: Methods and Interpretation . Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company.

Lewin, K. (1946). Action research and minority problems. Journal of SocialIssues, 2 (4), 34-46.

Macdonald, C. (2012). Understanding participatory action research: A qualitative research methodology option. Canadian Journal of Action Research, 13 , 34-50. https://doi.org/10.33524/cjar.v13i2.37 Mertler, C. A. (2008). Action Research: Teachers as Researchers in the Classroom . London: Sage.


Dave Cornell (PhD)

Dr. Cornell has worked in education for more than 20 years. His work has involved designing teacher certification for Trinity College in London and in-service training for state governments in the United States. He has trained kindergarten teachers in 8 countries and helped businessmen and women open baby centers and kindergartens in 3 countries.

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Chris Drew (PhD)

This article was peer-reviewed and edited by Chris Drew (PhD). The review process on Helpful Professor involves having a PhD level expert fact check, edit, and contribute to articles. Reviewers ensure all content reflects expert academic consensus and is backed up with reference to academic studies. Dr. Drew has published over 20 academic articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education and holds a PhD in Education from ACU.

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Where can I capture this article in a better user-friendly format, since I would like to provide it to my students in a Qualitative Methods course at the University of Prince Edward Island? It is a good article, however, it is visually disjointed in its current format. Thanks, Dr. Frank T. Lavandier

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  • What Is Action Research? | Definition & Examples

What Is Action Research? | Definition & Examples

Published on January 27, 2023 by Tegan George . Revised on January 12, 2024.

Action research Cycle

Table of contents

Types of action research, action research models, examples of action research, action research vs. traditional research, advantages and disadvantages of action research, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about action research.

There are 2 common types of action research: participatory action research and practical action research.

  • Participatory action research emphasizes that participants should be members of the community being studied, empowering those directly affected by outcomes of said research. In this method, participants are effectively co-researchers, with their lived experiences considered formative to the research process.
  • Practical action research focuses more on how research is conducted and is designed to address and solve specific issues.

Both types of action research are more focused on increasing the capacity and ability of future practitioners than contributing to a theoretical body of knowledge.

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Action research is often reflected in 3 action research models: operational (sometimes called technical), collaboration, and critical reflection.

  • Operational (or technical) action research is usually visualized like a spiral following a series of steps, such as “planning → acting → observing → reflecting.”
  • Collaboration action research is more community-based, focused on building a network of similar individuals (e.g., college professors in a given geographic area) and compiling learnings from iterated feedback cycles.
  • Critical reflection action research serves to contextualize systemic processes that are already ongoing (e.g., working retroactively to analyze existing school systems by questioning why certain practices were put into place and developed the way they did).

Action research is often used in fields like education because of its iterative and flexible style.

After the information was collected, the students were asked where they thought ramps or other accessibility measures would be best utilized, and the suggestions were sent to school administrators. Example: Practical action research Science teachers at your city’s high school have been witnessing a year-over-year decline in standardized test scores in chemistry. In seeking the source of this issue, they studied how concepts are taught in depth, focusing on the methods, tools, and approaches used by each teacher.

Action research differs sharply from other types of research in that it seeks to produce actionable processes over the course of the research rather than contributing to existing knowledge or drawing conclusions from datasets. In this way, action research is formative , not summative , and is conducted in an ongoing, iterative way.

As such, action research is different in purpose, context, and significance and is a good fit for those seeking to implement systemic change.

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Action research comes with advantages and disadvantages.

  • Action research is highly adaptable , allowing researchers to mold their analysis to their individual needs and implement practical individual-level changes.
  • Action research provides an immediate and actionable path forward for solving entrenched issues, rather than suggesting complicated, longer-term solutions rooted in complex data.
  • Done correctly, action research can be very empowering , informing social change and allowing participants to effect that change in ways meaningful to their communities.


  • Due to their flexibility, action research studies are plagued by very limited generalizability  and are very difficult to replicate . They are often not considered theoretically rigorous due to the power the researcher holds in drawing conclusions.
  • Action research can be complicated to structure in an ethical manner . Participants may feel pressured to participate or to participate in a certain way.
  • Action research is at high risk for research biases such as selection bias , social desirability bias , or other types of cognitive biases .

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Normal distribution
  • Degrees of freedom
  • Null hypothesis
  • Discourse analysis
  • Control groups
  • Mixed methods research
  • Non-probability sampling
  • Quantitative research
  • Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Research bias

  • Rosenthal effect
  • Implicit bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Selection bias
  • Negativity bias
  • Status quo bias

Action research is conducted in order to solve a particular issue immediately, while case studies are often conducted over a longer period of time and focus more on observing and analyzing a particular ongoing phenomenon.

Action research is focused on solving a problem or informing individual and community-based knowledge in a way that impacts teaching, learning, and other related processes. It is less focused on contributing theoretical input, instead producing actionable input.

Action research is particularly popular with educators as a form of systematic inquiry because it prioritizes reflection and bridges the gap between theory and practice. Educators are able to simultaneously investigate an issue as they solve it, and the method is very iterative and flexible.

A cycle of inquiry is another name for action research . It is usually visualized in a spiral shape following a series of steps, such as “planning → acting → observing → reflecting.”

Sources in this article

We strongly encourage students to use sources in their work. You can cite our article (APA Style) or take a deep dive into the articles below.

George, T. (2024, January 12). What Is Action Research? | Definition & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved February 22, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/action-research/
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2017). Research methods in education (8th edition). Routledge.
Naughton, G. M. (2001).  Action research (1st edition). Routledge.

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Masters of Arts in Education Action Research Papers

Research papers from 2023 2023.

The Impact of Direct Integration of Social Emotional Lessons with Montessori Upper Elementary Children , Gina Awadallah

Mindfulness Practice/Mindful Breathing in the Classroom: The Effect on Unwanted Behaviors in the Classroom , Dana Banitt

The Effects of Authentic Writing on Third-Grade Student Motivation and Achievement , Caitlin Barrett

The Effects of Phonics Instruction on Reading Fluency in an Elementary Classroom , Jill Belrose

The Impact of Social-Emotional Learning Strategies on Performance Anxiety in the Fourth-Grade Music Classroom , Erika A. Bergson, Erin M. Lawler, and Jennifer L. Mickels

Montessori Parent Education: Supporting Early Childhood Independence through Social-Emotional Learning , Gloria Boesenberg

The Impact of a Technology-Based Intervention on Phonemic Awareness Skills In First Graders , Ashley M. Christenson

The Effect of Goal Setting and Reflection on Student Motivation in High School Classrooms , Jodi Clark and Stephanie Moses

How does blended learning affect student satisfaction and learning outcomes in a secondary science classroom? , Lisa Fuccello

The Effectiveness of Grace and Courtesy Lessons in a Montessori Environment , Megan Green

The Impact of Uninterrupted Work Periods on a School Leader’s Self-Efficacy , Heather Harvey

Literacy Instruction and Student Writing in Middle School Social Studies , Nicole Hedman

"How does explicit phonemic awareness instruction in a 6th-grade classroom, influence students reading fluency and comprehension?" , Danette M. Hendrickson

The Effects of Repeated Reading Interventions on First-Grade Reading Fluency , Brooks Julia

Breaking Bread: Co-Creating Mindful Eating Practices in Lower Elementary , Katie Keller

The Impact of Geometry Montessori Education on Students’ Skills and Mindsets , Laura E. Ledesma Ortiz

Increasing Concentration Through Multistep Practical Life Works in a Montessori 2-6 Classroom , Gay Luise

The Impact of Dialogue Journals and Circles on Social and Self-Awareness in 6th Grade , Karli Mann

Impacts of Makerspaces and Design Thinking on Creativity in Third-Grade Students , Renae McGauvran

Improving Student Critical Thinking Skills Through Explicit Teaching Strategies , Danielle M. Miller

The Effects of Music and Movement on Learning Sight Words , Khou Moua

The Impact of Role-Play on the Self-Regulation of Preschoolers Following the COVID-19 Pandemic , Jennifer Myers

Impacts of Using the Reggio Emilia Approach to Technology on Social Skills in an Early Learning Classroom , Nancy L. Nakaoka

The Effects of Work Plans on Independence in a Primary Montessori Classroom , Cynthia Narine

The effectiveness of roleplaying in teaching preschoolers social skills , Qi Pan

How does reading fluency affect reading comprehension in the elementary classroom , Poracha Robinson

The Connection Between Social-Emotional Learning and Academic Success , Jayna Ruprecht

Effects of Character Education on Independent Conflict Resolution , Emily Stein

Identifying Activities and Skills that Occur in Circle Time: An Action Plan to Engage Students Social-Emotional learning (SEL) at a Head Start , Priscilla A. Thomas

The Influence of Social Stories on Early Learners , Kate Whiting

Research Papers from 2022 2022

The Effects of Formative Feedback and Assessment Tools on Writing Proficiency and Motivation in Elementary Classrooms , Amy Anderson and Beth Horihan

The Impact of Discourse on Math Learning in Upper Elementary , Dawn Anderson

Efficacy of Community Building in Adult Online Learning Environments , Meghan Jennifer Gwin Anson M.Ed.

The Relationship Between Teacher Use of Exclusionary Discipline and Using a Problem-Solving Approach to Conflict with Eighth Grade Students , Rachel Austin and Becki Zeidler

The Effects of Guided Reading in a Primary Montessori Classroom , Taylor Bates, Mary Brocklesby, and Katie McGarrigle

The Impact of the Establish-Maintain-Restore Method on Teacher-Student Relationships in the Secondary Classroom , Melissa Bauer

The Relationship Between Multisensory Learning and Phonemic Awareness and Letter Identification in Kindergarten , Justine J. Beyer

"What Are the Effects Of Parental Informational Nights/Parenting Classes on the Parent’s Understanding of the Montessori Method?" , Mackenzie Brown and Kayla Gamble

The Effects of Inquiry-Based Activities on Content Vocabulary Retention in 4th-Grade Science Students , Jillian Burns

The Effects of Outdoor Education and Mindfulness Practices on Attention Issues of Third Graders , Elizabeth Carlson

Mindfulness, The Effects on Student Trauma and Stress Management , kayla Clauson

Focusing on Grace and Courtesy in the Hopes of Achieving a More Peaceful Classroom Community , Marshetta Davis

Improving Assessment Outcomes in Algebra and Functions Through Concrete Materials and Direct Instruction , Sandra Deacon and Courtney Pillers

Examining the Impact of Student-Centered Teaching Practices on Ownership and Belonging in a Middle School Orchestra Classroom , Claire Dill

The Effects of Scientific Inquiry Methodologies on Student Understanding of Evolution , Rachel Downing

"Mindfulness Breathing in Support of Emotional Self-Regulation in a Montessori Upper Elementary Environment" , Emily Farris

Improving Student Concentration Through Caregiver Education , Arianna Fearing

The Effects of Goal Setting and Self-Reflection on Student Work Completion and Work Habits in a Montessori Upper Elementary Environment , Kari F. Frentzel

Impact of Student-Driven Mathematical Assessment on Learning Behaviors in Sixth Grade Students , Cheri R. Gardner

Integrating Montessori Curriculum with State Standards in a Public Montessori School , Brenda Green

A Prepared Environment At Home For One Adolescent: The Effect of Exercises of Practical Life on Self-Regulation of an Adolescent , Melissa Herrick Franzen

The Effects of Daily Explicit Phonics Instruction on Reading Fluency in First Grade , Allison M. Johnson

Goal Setting and Student Conferencing Action Research Study , Jamie Johnson

The Influence of Role-Play Scenarios and Mindful Reflection on a Small Group of Diverse Daycare Providers’ Responses to Classroom Situations , Charlene Kam

The Effects of ENVoY on the Middle School Social Studies Classroom Behaviors , Christine Karst

Creativity as a Gateway to Mental Health: A Burnout Recovery Journey , Sarah Keller

Gratitude and Work Conferences in the Upper Elementary Montessori Classroom , Karrie Kelly

Parents Opinions Matter: The Impact of Incentives on Parent/Child Workshops within the Raising a Reader Program , Samantha Kennedy

The Effect of Antiracist Children’s Literature on Developing Racial Awareness in Early Childhood , Brittany L.M. Ladd

The Influence of Yoga and Meditation on Intrinsic Motivation in Early Childhood Education , Nicole Laviolette

Mindfulness Breathing and Self-Regulation: The Effects of COVID-19 on Children , Savannah Lontz

The Impact of Peer-Mediated Support on Social Interactions in a Middle School Inclusive Setting , Adam (AJ) J. Naatz

Effects of Practical Life Activities and Normalization in the 3–6-year-old Classroom , Lori North

The Effects of Leading with Empathy on Faculty Morale in a Montessori Setting , Andrea O'Brian

Sealing the Cracks: An Examination of Using Special Education Accommodations in the General Education Classroom , Luke C. Olley

The Effects of Cognitively Engaging Exercise on Children’s Executive Functioning , Emily E. Osborn

The Impact of Explicit Phonemic Awareness Instruction in a Kindergarten Classroom , Jaclyn Partridge

The Impact of Altering Physical and Human Components in Middle School Mathematics Classes on Assessment Performance , Raina Quinnell

The Effect of a Culturally Diverse Art Curriculum on the Early Childhood Student’s Cultural Competency , Erin Reynolds

The Impact of Read Aloud Summarizing Practice for English High School Students at an Online School , Samantha Savoie

The Impact of Reflective Feedback Strategies on Learning Behaviors on Seventh-Grade Social Studies Students , James Seegebarth

The Impact of Implementing Virtual Science Notebooks on Student Science Achievement in a Primary Classroom , Emily Sherman

The Effect of Morning Meetings on Positive Relationships and Negative Behaviors in Kindergarten Students , Kennedy Stace

The Effect of Differentiation on Literacy Performance in Kindergarten , Madeline R. Stevens

Finding roots in the Montessori social studies curriculum , Kimberly Torres

Self-Efficacy and Critical Race Theory: The Emotions and Identity of a Montessori Teacher , Marisa Tuffiash

The Impact on School Progress of Building a Child's Self-efficacy at Home , Diana Wali Eddine

The Impact of Mindfulness Activities on Teacher Stress and Student Behavior in a Second Grade Classroom , Michelle Wegrzyn

What Evidence of Change Emerges When Students with Behavioral and Learning Challenges are Placed in an Early Childhood Montessori Environment in Rural China? , Jiao J. Zhang

Research Papers from 2021 2021

"Developing Creative Thinking with Intentional Teaching Practices in Academic Subjects for Early Childhood Classrooms" , Rebecca Appleby

I See You, I Feel Me: Journaling for Confidence, Value, and Collective Efficacy Among Partner Teachers , Laura L. Asher

Sustaining Teacher Resilience for Montessori Education , Rebecca Britt

The Impact of Self-Set Educational Goals on Increasing Academic Performance in a Middle School Environment , Erin Brown and Alexandra Luthe

The Effects of Student Constructed Formative Assessment in the Elementary Classroom , Jessica Burgwald

The Impact of Creative Movement Presentations on Dance Participation and Student Attitudes Towards Dance in a Montessori Early Childhood Classroom , Laura Cefalu

Effects of classroom talk lessons on student perceptions of collaborative group work in a remote, synchronous Montessori elementary learning environment , Amy Chionis

The Impact of Extended Recess with Loose Parts Play on Montessori Primary Student Self-Regulation and On-Task Behaviour , Rossana Cogorno Maldonado

The Effects of Professional Development on Collective Teacher Efficacy , Rachel Cordova

The Effect of Using Literacy Assessment and Standards Based Teaching for Students with Cognitive Disabilities in Secondary Education , Annie Elias

The Impact of Creative Movement Presentations on Dance Participation and Student Attitudes Towards Dance in a Montessori Early Childhood Classroom , Ruth Flowers

The Effect of Control-Based Group Games on Self-Controlled Behavior in a Primary Montessori Classroom , Sophia Foreman

Spanish Vocabulary Acquisition and Implementation: The Effect in a Mixed-aged Montessori Primary Classroom , Nadhira Hathotuwegama

The Effects of Daily Read Alouds on Comprehension Acquisition in a Montessori Setting , Gina Hoffman

The Effects of Reciprocal Teaching on Reading Comprehension in the Virtual Middle School English Classroom , Sydney Jones

Supporting Self-Efficacy Toward Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Skills in Secondary Students , Amy Kienberger and Clara Raineri

Proximity and Preparation: The Keys to Engagement in Secondary Montessori Literature Seminars , Metta M. King

The Effects of Peer Collaboration on Students’ Writing Skills and Their Attitude Towards Writing in a Hybrid Montessori Classroom of Second and Third Grade Students. , Preetha Kingsview

The Effects of Simulation with Cooperative Learning Strategies in a College Sonography Lab , Christopher W. Kopp

The Effects of Structured Student Interactions on Musical Ability in a High School Orchestra Setting , Kate E. Kowalkoski

Fostering Emotion Regulation in Lower Elementary Children through Practical Life Exercises , Doris En-Chia Lin

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Sample Action Research Proposal

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An action proposal.

Related Papers

Andrew Johnson

This chapter excerpt describes the salient elements and basic process of action research.

action research sample paper

Abstract Recent action research books are reviewed. I give attention to books on appreciative inquiry, action science, systems approaches and action learning. Community, health, education and organizational applications are included. Major action research journals are noted.

Margie Comrie

Action Research

In this, the third in a series of two-yearly reviews (see also Dick, 2004, and Dick, 2006), I identify some of the action research literature that has appeared in books and edited collections over approximately the past two years. After an overview of the general action research literature I gather together other relevant literature under the following headings: action learning; community-based participatory research; youth work; educational action research; appreciative inquiry; and action science. I conclude the review with a very brief look at action research journals and special issues, other literature of interest, and an attempt to divine present and emergent trends.

Beata Jałocha


Action research is a type of research related to one’s professional practice. In the field of education, it can be defined as the process of studying a school, classroom, or teaching-learning situation with the purpose of understanding and improving the quality of actions or instruction. In this sense, it is the ultimate form of teacher reflection. Described in this chapter expert are the basic elements and the steps of action research.

Administrative Science Quarterly

Gerald Susman

Abstract This review of recent action research books covers the period from about mid-2004 to mid-2006, complementing an earlier review (Dick, 2004). After noting some important recent additions to the action research literature, I address the literature on several different applications of action research including education, community, participatory development, and organizations. There are briefer sections on other topics. Action research journals and special issues of other journals are also identified.

Kenneth Zeichner


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Today, Sora is becoming available to red teamers to assess critical areas for harms or risks. We are also granting access to a number of visual artists, designers, and filmmakers to gain feedback on how to advance the model to be most helpful for creative professionals.

We’re sharing our research progress early to start working with and getting feedback from people outside of OpenAI and to give the public a sense of what AI capabilities are on the horizon.

Sora is able to generate complex scenes with multiple characters, specific types of motion, and accurate details of the subject and background. The model understands not only what the user has asked for in the prompt, but also how those things exist in the physical world.

The model has a deep understanding of language, enabling it to accurately interpret prompts and generate compelling characters that express vibrant emotions. Sora can also create multiple shots within a single generated video that accurately persist characters and visual style.

The current model has weaknesses. It may struggle with accurately simulating the physics of a complex scene, and may not understand specific instances of cause and effect. For example, a person might take a bite out of a cookie, but afterward, the cookie may not have a bite mark.

The model may also confuse spatial details of a prompt, for example, mixing up left and right, and may struggle with precise descriptions of events that take place over time, like following a specific camera trajectory.

We’ll be taking several important safety steps ahead of making Sora available in OpenAI’s products. We are working with red teamers — domain experts in areas like misinformation, hateful content, and bias — who will be adversarially testing the model.

We’re also building tools to help detect misleading content such as a detection classifier that can tell when a video was generated by Sora. We plan to include C2PA metadata in the future if we deploy the model in an OpenAI product.

In addition to us developing new techniques to prepare for deployment, we’re leveraging the existing safety methods that we built for our products that use DALL·E 3, which are applicable to Sora as well.

For example, once in an OpenAI product, our text classifier will check and reject text input prompts that are in violation of our usage policies, like those that request extreme violence, sexual content, hateful imagery, celebrity likeness, or the IP of others. We’ve also developed robust image classifiers that are used to review the frames of every video generated to help ensure that it adheres to our usage policies, before it’s shown to the user.

We’ll be engaging policymakers, educators and artists around the world to understand their concerns and to identify positive use cases for this new technology. Despite extensive research and testing, we cannot predict all of the beneficial ways people will use our technology, nor all the ways people will abuse it. That’s why we believe that learning from real-world use is a critical component of creating and releasing increasingly safe AI systems over time.

Research techniques

Sora is a diffusion model, which generates a video by starting off with one that looks like static noise and gradually transforms it by removing the noise over many steps.

Sora is capable of generating entire videos all at once or extending generated videos to make them longer. By giving the model foresight of many frames at a time, we’ve solved a challenging problem of making sure a subject stays the same even when it goes out of view temporarily.

Similar to GPT models, Sora uses a transformer architecture, unlocking superior scaling performance.

We represent videos and images as collections of smaller units of data called patches, each of which is akin to a token in GPT. By unifying how we represent data, we can train diffusion transformers on a wider range of visual data than was possible before, spanning different durations, resolutions and aspect ratios.

Sora builds on past research in DALL·E and GPT models. It uses the recaptioning technique from DALL·E 3, which involves generating highly descriptive captions for the visual training data. As a result, the model is able to follow the user’s text instructions in the generated video more faithfully.

In addition to being able to generate a video solely from text instructions, the model is able to take an existing still image and generate a video from it, animating the image’s contents with accuracy and attention to small detail. The model can also take an existing video and extend it or fill in missing frames. Learn more in our technical report .

Sora serves as a foundation for models that can understand and simulate the real world, a capability we believe will be an important milestone for achieving AGI.

All videos on this page were generated directly by Sora without modification.


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