A statement that could be true, which might then be tested.

Example: Sam has a hypothesis that "large dogs are better at catching tennis balls than small dogs". We can test that hypothesis by having hundreds of different sized dogs try to catch tennis balls.

Sometimes the hypothesis won't be tested, it is simply a good explanation (which could be wrong). Conjecture is a better word for this.

Example: you notice the temperature drops just as the sun rises. Your hypothesis is that the sun warms the air high above you, which rises up and then cooler air comes from the sides.

Note: when someone says "I have a theory" they should say "I have a hypothesis", because in mathematics a theory is actually well proven.

## Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing is a tool for making statistical inferences about the population data. It is an analysis tool that tests assumptions and determines how likely something is within a given standard of accuracy. Hypothesis testing provides a way to verify whether the results of an experiment are valid.

A null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis are set up before performing the hypothesis testing. This helps to arrive at a conclusion regarding the sample obtained from the population. In this article, we will learn more about hypothesis testing, its types, steps to perform the testing, and associated examples.

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## What is Hypothesis Testing in Statistics?

Hypothesis testing uses sample data from the population to draw useful conclusions regarding the population probability distribution . It tests an assumption made about the data using different types of hypothesis testing methodologies. The hypothesis testing results in either rejecting or not rejecting the null hypothesis.

## Hypothesis Testing Definition

Hypothesis testing can be defined as a statistical tool that is used to identify if the results of an experiment are meaningful or not. It involves setting up a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis. These two hypotheses will always be mutually exclusive. This means that if the null hypothesis is true then the alternative hypothesis is false and vice versa. An example of hypothesis testing is setting up a test to check if a new medicine works on a disease in a more efficient manner.

## Null Hypothesis

The null hypothesis is a concise mathematical statement that is used to indicate that there is no difference between two possibilities. In other words, there is no difference between certain characteristics of data. This hypothesis assumes that the outcomes of an experiment are based on chance alone. It is denoted as \(H_{0}\). Hypothesis testing is used to conclude if the null hypothesis can be rejected or not. Suppose an experiment is conducted to check if girls are shorter than boys at the age of 5. The null hypothesis will say that they are the same height.

## Alternative Hypothesis

The alternative hypothesis is an alternative to the null hypothesis. It is used to show that the observations of an experiment are due to some real effect. It indicates that there is a statistical significance between two possible outcomes and can be denoted as \(H_{1}\) or \(H_{a}\). For the above-mentioned example, the alternative hypothesis would be that girls are shorter than boys at the age of 5.

## Hypothesis Testing P Value

In hypothesis testing, the p value is used to indicate whether the results obtained after conducting a test are statistically significant or not. It also indicates the probability of making an error in rejecting or not rejecting the null hypothesis.This value is always a number between 0 and 1. The p value is compared to an alpha level, \(\alpha\) or significance level. The alpha level can be defined as the acceptable risk of incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis. The alpha level is usually chosen between 1% to 5%.

## Hypothesis Testing Critical region

All sets of values that lead to rejecting the null hypothesis lie in the critical region. Furthermore, the value that separates the critical region from the non-critical region is known as the critical value.

## Hypothesis Testing Formula

Depending upon the type of data available and the size, different types of hypothesis testing are used to determine whether the null hypothesis can be rejected or not. The hypothesis testing formula for some important test statistics are given below:

- z = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}}\). \(\overline{x}\) is the sample mean, \(\mu\) is the population mean, \(\sigma\) is the population standard deviation and n is the size of the sample.
- t = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{s}{\sqrt{n}}}\). s is the sample standard deviation.
- \(\chi ^{2} = \sum \frac{(O_{i}-E_{i})^{2}}{E_{i}}\). \(O_{i}\) is the observed value and \(E_{i}\) is the expected value.

We will learn more about these test statistics in the upcoming section.

## Types of Hypothesis Testing

Selecting the correct test for performing hypothesis testing can be confusing. These tests are used to determine a test statistic on the basis of which the null hypothesis can either be rejected or not rejected. Some of the important tests used for hypothesis testing are given below.

## Hypothesis Testing Z Test

A z test is a way of hypothesis testing that is used for a large sample size (n ≥ 30). It is used to determine whether there is a difference between the population mean and the sample mean when the population standard deviation is known. It can also be used to compare the mean of two samples. It is used to compute the z test statistic. The formulas are given as follows:

- One sample: z = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}}\).
- Two samples: z = \(\frac{(\overline{x_{1}}-\overline{x_{2}})-(\mu_{1}-\mu_{2})}{\sqrt{\frac{\sigma_{1}^{2}}{n_{1}}+\frac{\sigma_{2}^{2}}{n_{2}}}}\).

## Hypothesis Testing t Test

The t test is another method of hypothesis testing that is used for a small sample size (n < 30). It is also used to compare the sample mean and population mean. However, the population standard deviation is not known. Instead, the sample standard deviation is known. The mean of two samples can also be compared using the t test.

- One sample: t = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{s}{\sqrt{n}}}\).
- Two samples: t = \(\frac{(\overline{x_{1}}-\overline{x_{2}})-(\mu_{1}-\mu_{2})}{\sqrt{\frac{s_{1}^{2}}{n_{1}}+\frac{s_{2}^{2}}{n_{2}}}}\).

## Hypothesis Testing Chi Square

The Chi square test is a hypothesis testing method that is used to check whether the variables in a population are independent or not. It is used when the test statistic is chi-squared distributed.

## One Tailed Hypothesis Testing

One tailed hypothesis testing is done when the rejection region is only in one direction. It can also be known as directional hypothesis testing because the effects can be tested in one direction only. This type of testing is further classified into the right tailed test and left tailed test.

Right Tailed Hypothesis Testing

The right tail test is also known as the upper tail test. This test is used to check whether the population parameter is greater than some value. The null and alternative hypotheses for this test are given as follows:

\(H_{0}\): The population parameter is ≤ some value

\(H_{1}\): The population parameter is > some value.

If the test statistic has a greater value than the critical value then the null hypothesis is rejected

Left Tailed Hypothesis Testing

The left tail test is also known as the lower tail test. It is used to check whether the population parameter is less than some value. The hypotheses for this hypothesis testing can be written as follows:

\(H_{0}\): The population parameter is ≥ some value

\(H_{1}\): The population parameter is < some value.

The null hypothesis is rejected if the test statistic has a value lesser than the critical value.

## Two Tailed Hypothesis Testing

In this hypothesis testing method, the critical region lies on both sides of the sampling distribution. It is also known as a non - directional hypothesis testing method. The two-tailed test is used when it needs to be determined if the population parameter is assumed to be different than some value. The hypotheses can be set up as follows:

\(H_{0}\): the population parameter = some value

\(H_{1}\): the population parameter ≠ some value

The null hypothesis is rejected if the test statistic has a value that is not equal to the critical value.

## Hypothesis Testing Steps

Hypothesis testing can be easily performed in five simple steps. The most important step is to correctly set up the hypotheses and identify the right method for hypothesis testing. The basic steps to perform hypothesis testing are as follows:

- Step 1: Set up the null hypothesis by correctly identifying whether it is the left-tailed, right-tailed, or two-tailed hypothesis testing.
- Step 2: Set up the alternative hypothesis.
- Step 3: Choose the correct significance level, \(\alpha\), and find the critical value.
- Step 4: Calculate the correct test statistic (z, t or \(\chi\)) and p-value.
- Step 5: Compare the test statistic with the critical value or compare the p-value with \(\alpha\) to arrive at a conclusion. In other words, decide if the null hypothesis is to be rejected or not.

## Hypothesis Testing Example

The best way to solve a problem on hypothesis testing is by applying the 5 steps mentioned in the previous section. Suppose a researcher claims that the mean average weight of men is greater than 100kgs with a standard deviation of 15kgs. 30 men are chosen with an average weight of 112.5 Kgs. Using hypothesis testing, check if there is enough evidence to support the researcher's claim. The confidence interval is given as 95%.

Step 1: This is an example of a right-tailed test. Set up the null hypothesis as \(H_{0}\): \(\mu\) = 100.

Step 2: The alternative hypothesis is given by \(H_{1}\): \(\mu\) > 100.

Step 3: As this is a one-tailed test, \(\alpha\) = 100% - 95% = 5%. This can be used to determine the critical value.

1 - \(\alpha\) = 1 - 0.05 = 0.95

0.95 gives the required area under the curve. Now using a normal distribution table, the area 0.95 is at z = 1.645. A similar process can be followed for a t-test. The only additional requirement is to calculate the degrees of freedom given by n - 1.

Step 4: Calculate the z test statistic. This is because the sample size is 30. Furthermore, the sample and population means are known along with the standard deviation.

z = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}}\).

\(\mu\) = 100, \(\overline{x}\) = 112.5, n = 30, \(\sigma\) = 15

z = \(\frac{112.5-100}{\frac{15}{\sqrt{30}}}\) = 4.56

Step 5: Conclusion. As 4.56 > 1.645 thus, the null hypothesis can be rejected.

## Hypothesis Testing and Confidence Intervals

Confidence intervals form an important part of hypothesis testing. This is because the alpha level can be determined from a given confidence interval. Suppose a confidence interval is given as 95%. Subtract the confidence interval from 100%. This gives 100 - 95 = 5% or 0.05. This is the alpha value of a one-tailed hypothesis testing. To obtain the alpha value for a two-tailed hypothesis testing, divide this value by 2. This gives 0.05 / 2 = 0.025.

Related Articles:

- Probability and Statistics
- Data Handling

Important Notes on Hypothesis Testing

- Hypothesis testing is a technique that is used to verify whether the results of an experiment are statistically significant.
- It involves the setting up of a null hypothesis and an alternate hypothesis.
- There are three types of tests that can be conducted under hypothesis testing - z test, t test, and chi square test.
- Hypothesis testing can be classified as right tail, left tail, and two tail tests.

## Examples on Hypothesis Testing

- Example 1: The average weight of a dumbbell in a gym is 90lbs. However, a physical trainer believes that the average weight might be higher. A random sample of 5 dumbbells with an average weight of 110lbs and a standard deviation of 18lbs. Using hypothesis testing check if the physical trainer's claim can be supported for a 95% confidence level. Solution: As the sample size is lesser than 30, the t-test is used. \(H_{0}\): \(\mu\) = 90, \(H_{1}\): \(\mu\) > 90 \(\overline{x}\) = 110, \(\mu\) = 90, n = 5, s = 18. \(\alpha\) = 0.05 Using the t-distribution table, the critical value is 2.132 t = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{s}{\sqrt{n}}}\) t = 2.484 As 2.484 > 2.132, the null hypothesis is rejected. Answer: The average weight of the dumbbells may be greater than 90lbs
- Example 2: The average score on a test is 80 with a standard deviation of 10. With a new teaching curriculum introduced it is believed that this score will change. On random testing, the score of 38 students, the mean was found to be 88. With a 0.05 significance level, is there any evidence to support this claim? Solution: This is an example of two-tail hypothesis testing. The z test will be used. \(H_{0}\): \(\mu\) = 80, \(H_{1}\): \(\mu\) ≠ 80 \(\overline{x}\) = 88, \(\mu\) = 80, n = 36, \(\sigma\) = 10. \(\alpha\) = 0.05 / 2 = 0.025 The critical value using the normal distribution table is 1.96 z = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}}\) z = \(\frac{88-80}{\frac{10}{\sqrt{36}}}\) = 4.8 As 4.8 > 1.96, the null hypothesis is rejected. Answer: There is a difference in the scores after the new curriculum was introduced.
- Example 3: The average score of a class is 90. However, a teacher believes that the average score might be lower. The scores of 6 students were randomly measured. The mean was 82 with a standard deviation of 18. With a 0.05 significance level use hypothesis testing to check if this claim is true. Solution: The t test will be used. \(H_{0}\): \(\mu\) = 90, \(H_{1}\): \(\mu\) < 90 \(\overline{x}\) = 110, \(\mu\) = 90, n = 6, s = 18 The critical value from the t table is -2.015 t = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{s}{\sqrt{n}}}\) t = \(\frac{82-90}{\frac{18}{\sqrt{6}}}\) t = -1.088 As -1.088 > -2.015, we fail to reject the null hypothesis. Answer: There is not enough evidence to support the claim.

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## FAQs on Hypothesis Testing

What is hypothesis testing.

Hypothesis testing in statistics is a tool that is used to make inferences about the population data. It is also used to check if the results of an experiment are valid.

## What is the z Test in Hypothesis Testing?

The z test in hypothesis testing is used to find the z test statistic for normally distributed data . The z test is used when the standard deviation of the population is known and the sample size is greater than or equal to 30.

## What is the t Test in Hypothesis Testing?

The t test in hypothesis testing is used when the data follows a student t distribution . It is used when the sample size is less than 30 and standard deviation of the population is not known.

## What is the formula for z test in Hypothesis Testing?

The formula for a one sample z test in hypothesis testing is z = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}}\) and for two samples is z = \(\frac{(\overline{x_{1}}-\overline{x_{2}})-(\mu_{1}-\mu_{2})}{\sqrt{\frac{\sigma_{1}^{2}}{n_{1}}+\frac{\sigma_{2}^{2}}{n_{2}}}}\).

## What is the p Value in Hypothesis Testing?

The p value helps to determine if the test results are statistically significant or not. In hypothesis testing, the null hypothesis can either be rejected or not rejected based on the comparison between the p value and the alpha level.

## What is One Tail Hypothesis Testing?

When the rejection region is only on one side of the distribution curve then it is known as one tail hypothesis testing. The right tail test and the left tail test are two types of directional hypothesis testing.

## What is the Alpha Level in Two Tail Hypothesis Testing?

To get the alpha level in a two tail hypothesis testing divide \(\alpha\) by 2. This is done as there are two rejection regions in the curve.

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## Hypothesis Testing

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A hypothesis test is a statistical inference method used to test the significance of a proposed (hypothesized) relation between population statistics (parameters) and their corresponding sample estimators . In other words, hypothesis tests are used to determine if there is enough evidence in a sample to prove a hypothesis true for the entire population.

The test considers two hypotheses: the null hypothesis , which is a statement meant to be tested, usually something like "there is no effect" with the intention of proving this false, and the alternate hypothesis , which is the statement meant to stand after the test is performed. The two hypotheses must be mutually exclusive ; moreover, in most applications, the two are complementary (one being the negation of the other). The test works by comparing the \(p\)-value to the level of significance (a chosen target). If the \(p\)-value is less than or equal to the level of significance, then the null hypothesis is rejected.

When analyzing data, only samples of a certain size might be manageable as efficient computations. In some situations the error terms follow a continuous or infinite distribution, hence the use of samples to suggest accuracy of the chosen test statistics. The method of hypothesis testing gives an advantage over guessing what distribution or which parameters the data follows.

## Definitions and Methodology

Hypothesis test and confidence intervals.

In statistical inference, properties (parameters) of a population are analyzed by sampling data sets. Given assumptions on the distribution, i.e. a statistical model of the data, certain hypotheses can be deduced from the known behavior of the model. These hypotheses must be tested against sampled data from the population.

The null hypothesis \((\)denoted \(H_0)\) is a statement that is assumed to be true. If the null hypothesis is rejected, then there is enough evidence (statistical significance) to accept the alternate hypothesis \((\)denoted \(H_1).\) Before doing any test for significance, both hypotheses must be clearly stated and non-conflictive, i.e. mutually exclusive, statements. Rejecting the null hypothesis, given that it is true, is called a type I error and it is denoted \(\alpha\), which is also its probability of occurrence. Failing to reject the null hypothesis, given that it is false, is called a type II error and it is denoted \(\beta\), which is also its probability of occurrence. Also, \(\alpha\) is known as the significance level , and \(1-\beta\) is known as the power of the test. \(H_0\) \(\textbf{is true}\)\(\hspace{15mm}\) \(H_0\) \(\textbf{is false}\) \(\textbf{Reject}\) \(H_0\)\(\hspace{10mm}\) Type I error Correct Decision \(\textbf{Reject}\) \(H_1\) Correct Decision Type II error The test statistic is the standardized value following the sampled data under the assumption that the null hypothesis is true, and a chosen particular test. These tests depend on the statistic to be studied and the assumed distribution it follows, e.g. the population mean following a normal distribution. The \(p\)-value is the probability of observing an extreme test statistic in the direction of the alternate hypothesis, given that the null hypothesis is true. The critical value is the value of the assumed distribution of the test statistic such that the probability of making a type I error is small.

Methodologies: Given an estimator \(\hat \theta\) of a population statistic \(\theta\), following a probability distribution \(P(T)\), computed from a sample \(\mathcal{S},\) and given a significance level \(\alpha\) and test statistic \(t^*,\) define \(H_0\) and \(H_1;\) compute the test statistic \(t^*.\) \(p\)-value Approach (most prevalent): Find the \(p\)-value using \(t^*\) (right-tailed). If the \(p\)-value is at most \(\alpha,\) reject \(H_0\). Otherwise, reject \(H_1\). Critical Value Approach: Find the critical value solving the equation \(P(T\geq t_\alpha)=\alpha\) (right-tailed). If \(t^*>t_\alpha\), reject \(H_0\). Otherwise, reject \(H_1\). Note: Failing to reject \(H_0\) only means inability to accept \(H_1\), and it does not mean to accept \(H_0\).

Assume a normally distributed population has recorded cholesterol levels with various statistics computed. From a sample of 100 subjects in the population, the sample mean was 214.12 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter), with a sample standard deviation of 45.71 mg/dL. Perform a hypothesis test, with significance level 0.05, to test if there is enough evidence to conclude that the population mean is larger than 200 mg/dL. Hypothesis Test We will perform a hypothesis test using the \(p\)-value approach with significance level \(\alpha=0.05:\) Define \(H_0\): \(\mu=200\). Define \(H_1\): \(\mu>200\). Since our values are normally distributed, the test statistic is \(z^*=\frac{\bar X - \mu_0}{\frac{s}{\sqrt{n}}}=\frac{214.12 - 200}{\frac{45.71}{\sqrt{100}}}\approx 3.09\). Using a standard normal distribution, we find that our \(p\)-value is approximately \(0.001\). Since the \(p\)-value is at most \(\alpha=0.05,\) we reject \(H_0\). Therefore, we can conclude that the test shows sufficient evidence to support the claim that \(\mu\) is larger than \(200\) mg/dL.

If the sample size was smaller, the normal and \(t\)-distributions behave differently. Also, the question itself must be managed by a double-tail test instead.

Assume a population's cholesterol levels are recorded and various statistics are computed. From a sample of 25 subjects, the sample mean was 214.12 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter), with a sample standard deviation of 45.71 mg/dL. Perform a hypothesis test, with significance level 0.05, to test if there is enough evidence to conclude that the population mean is not equal to 200 mg/dL. Hypothesis Test We will perform a hypothesis test using the \(p\)-value approach with significance level \(\alpha=0.05\) and the \(t\)-distribution with 24 degrees of freedom: Define \(H_0\): \(\mu=200\). Define \(H_1\): \(\mu\neq 200\). Using the \(t\)-distribution, the test statistic is \(t^*=\frac{\bar X - \mu_0}{\frac{s}{\sqrt{n}}}=\frac{214.12 - 200}{\frac{45.71}{\sqrt{25}}}\approx 1.54\). Using a \(t\)-distribution with 24 degrees of freedom, we find that our \(p\)-value is approximately \(2(0.068)=0.136\). We have multiplied by two since this is a two-tailed argument, i.e. the mean can be smaller than or larger than. Since the \(p\)-value is larger than \(\alpha=0.05,\) we fail to reject \(H_0\). Therefore, the test does not show sufficient evidence to support the claim that \(\mu\) is not equal to \(200\) mg/dL.

The complement of the rejection on a two-tailed hypothesis test (with significance level \(\alpha\)) for a population parameter \(\theta\) is equivalent to finding a confidence interval \((\)with confidence level \(1-\alpha)\) for the population parameter \(\theta\). If the assumption on the parameter \(\theta\) falls inside the confidence interval, then the test has failed to reject the null hypothesis \((\)with \(p\)-value greater than \(\alpha).\) Otherwise, if \(\theta\) does not fall in the confidence interval, then the null hypothesis is rejected in favor of the alternate \((\)with \(p\)-value at most \(\alpha).\)

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A hypothesis is a proposition that is consistent with known data, but has been neither verified nor shown to be false.

In statistics, a hypothesis (sometimes called a statistical hypothesis) refers to a statement on which hypothesis testing will be based. Particularly important statistical hypotheses include the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis .

In symbolic logic , a hypothesis is the first part of an implication (with the second part being known as the predicate ).

In general mathematical usage, "hypothesis" is roughly synonymous with " conjecture ."

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Weisstein, Eric W. "Hypothesis." From MathWorld --A Wolfram Web Resource. https://mathworld.wolfram.com/Hypothesis.html

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## Explanation of Hypothesis

Contradiction, simple hypothesis, complex hypothesis, null hypothesis, alternative hypothesis, empirical hypothesis, statistical hypothesis, special example of hypothesis, solution part (a), solution part (b), hypothesis|definition & meaning.

A hypothesis is a claim or statement that makes sense in the context of some information or data at hand but hasn’t been established as true or false through experimentation or proof.

In mathematics, any statement or equation that describes some relationship between certain variables can be termed as hypothesis if it is consistent with some initial supporting data or information, however, its yet to be proven true or false by some definite and trustworthy experiment or mathematical law.

Following example illustrates one such hypothesis to shed some light on this very fundamental concept which is often used in different areas of mathematics.

Figure 1: Example of Hypothesis

Here we have considered an example of a young startup company that manufactures state of the art batteries. The hypothesis or the claim of the company is that their batteries have a mean life of more than 1000 hours. Now its very easy to understand that they can prove their claim on some testing experiment in their lab.

However, the statement can only be proven if and only if at least one batch of their production batteries have actually been deployed in the real world for more than 1000 hours . After 1000 hours, data needs to be collected and it needs to be seen what is the probability of this statement being true .

The following paragraphs further explain this concept.

As explained with the help of an example earlier, a hypothesis in mathematics is an untested claim that is backed up by all the known data or some other discoveries or some weak experiments.

In any mathematical discovery, we first start by assuming something or some relationship . This supposed statement is called a supposition. A supposition, however, becomes a hypothesis when it is supported by all available data and a large number of contradictory findings.

The hypothesis is an important part of the scientific method that is widely known today for making new discoveries. The field of mathematics inherited this process. Following figure shows this cycle as a graphic:

Figure 2: Role of Hypothesis in the Scientific Method

The above figure shows a simplified version of the scientific method. It shows that whenever a supposition is supported by some data, its termed as hypothesis. Once a hypothesis is proven by some well known and widely acceptable experiment or proof, its becomes a law. If the hypothesis is rejected by some contradictory results then the supposition is changed and the cycle continues.

Lets try to understand the scientific method and the hypothesis concept with the help of an example. Lets say that a teacher wanted to analyze the relationship between the students performance in a certain subject, lets call it A, based on whether or not they studied a minor course, lets call it B.

Now the teacher puts forth a supposition that the students taking the course B prior to course A must perform better in the latter due to the obvious linkages in the key concepts. Due to this linkage, this supposition can be termed as a hypothesis.

However to test the hypothesis, the teacher has to collect data from all of his/her students such that he/she knows which students have taken course B and which ones haven’t. Then at the end of the semester, the performance of the students must be measured and compared with their course B enrollments.

If the students that took course B prior to course A perform better, then the hypothesis concludes successful . Otherwise, the supposition may need revision.

The following figure explains this problem graphically.

Figure 3: Teacher and Course Example of Hypothesis

## Important Terms Related to Hypothesis

To further elaborate the concept of hypothesis, we first need to understand a few key terms that are widely used in this area such as conjecture, contradiction and some special types of hypothesis (simple, complex, null, alternative, empirical, statistical). These terms are briefly explained below:

A conjecture is a term used to describe a mathematical assertion that has notbeenproved. While testing may occasionally turn up millions of examples in favour of a conjecture, most experts in the area will typically only accept a proof . In mathematics, this term is synonymous to the term hypothesis.

In mathematics, a contradiction occurs if the results of an experiment or proof are against some hypothesis. In other words, a contradiction discredits a hypothesis.

A simple hypothesis is such a type of hypothesis that claims there is a correlation between two variables. The first is known as a dependent variable while the second is known as an independent variable.

A complex hypothesis is such a type of hypothesis that claims there is a correlation between more than two variables. Both the dependent and independent variables in this hypothesis may be more than one in numbers.

A null hypothesis, usually denoted by H0, is such a type of hypothesis that claims there is no statistical relationship and significance between two sets of observed data and measured occurrences for each set of defined, single observable variables. In short the variables are independent.

An alternative hypothesis, usually denoted by H1 or Ha, is such a type of hypothesis where the variables may be statistically influenced by some unknown factors or variables. In short the variables are dependent on some unknown phenomena .

An Empirical hypothesis is such a type of hypothesis that is built on top of some empirical data or experiment or formulation.

A statistical hypothesis is such a type of hypothesis that is built on top of some statistical data or experiment or formulation. It may be logical or illogical in nature.

According to the Riemann hypothesis, only negative even integers and complex numbers with real part 1/2 have zeros in the Riemann zeta function . It is regarded by many as the most significant open issue in pure mathematics.

Figure 4: Riemann Hypothesis

The Riemann hypothesis is the most well-known mathematical conjecture, and it has been the subject of innumerable proof efforts.

## Numerical Examples

Identify the conclusions and hypothesis in the following given statements. Also state if the conclusion supports the hypothesis or not.

Part (a): If 30x = 30, then x = 1

Part (b): if 10x + 2 = 50, then x = 24

Hypothesis: 30x = 30

Conclusion: x = 10

Supports Hypothesis: Yes

Hypothesis: 10x + 2 = 50

Conclusion: x = 24

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## Hour Hand Definition < Glossary Index > Identity Definition

Professor: Erika L.C. King Email: [email protected] Office: Lansing 304 Phone: (315)781-3355

The majority of statements in mathematics can be written in the form: "If A, then B." For example: "If a function is differentiable, then it is continuous". In this example, the "A" part is "a function is differentiable" and the "B" part is "a function is continuous." The "A" part of the statement is called the "hypothesis", and the "B" part of the statement is called the "conclusion". Thus the hypothesis is what we must assume in order to be positive that the conclusion will hold.

Whenever you are asked to state a theorem, be sure to include the hypothesis. In order to know when you may apply the theorem, you need to know what constraints you have. So in the example above, if we know that a function is differentiable, we may assume that it is continuous. However, if we do not know that a function is differentiable, continuity may not hold. Some theorems have MANY hypotheses, some of which are written in sentences before the ultimate "if, then" statement. For example, there might be a sentence that says: "Assume n is even." which is then followed by an if,then statement. Include all hypotheses and assumptions when asked to state theorems and definitions!

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Hypothesis is a testable statement that explains what is happening or observed. It proposes the relation between the various participating variables. Hypothesis is also called Theory, Thesis, Guess, Assumption, or Suggestion. Hypothesis creates a structure that guides the search for knowledge.

In this article, we will learn what is hypothesis, its characteristics, types, and examples. We will also learn how hypothesis helps in scientific research.

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## What is Hypothesis?

Hypothesis meaning, characteristics of hypothesis, sources of hypothesis, types of hypothesis, simple hypothesis, complex hypothesis, directional hypothesis, non-directional hypothesis, null hypothesis (h0), alternative hypothesis (h1 or ha), statistical hypothesis, research hypothesis, associative hypothesis, causal hypothesis, hypothesis examples, simple hypothesis example, complex hypothesis example, directional hypothesis example, non-directional hypothesis example, alternative hypothesis (ha), functions of hypothesis, how hypothesis help in scientific research.

A hypothesis is a suggested idea or plan that has little proof, meant to lead to more study. It’s mainly a smart guess or suggested answer to a problem that can be checked through study and trial. In science work, we make guesses called hypotheses to try and figure out what will happen in tests or watching. These are not sure things but rather ideas that can be proved or disproved based on real-life proofs. A good theory is clear and can be tested and found wrong if the proof doesn’t support it.

A hypothesis is a proposed statement that is testable and is given for something that happens or observed.

- It is made using what we already know and have seen, and it’s the basis for scientific research.
- A clear guess tells us what we think will happen in an experiment or study.
- It’s a testable clue that can be proven true or wrong with real-life facts and checking it out carefully.
- It usually looks like a “if-then” rule, showing the expected cause and effect relationship between what’s being studied.

Here are some key characteristics of a hypothesis:

- Testable: An idea (hypothesis) should be made so it can be tested and proven true through doing experiments or watching. It should show a clear connection between things.
- Specific: It needs to be easy and on target, talking about a certain part or connection between things in a study.
- Falsifiable: A good guess should be able to show it’s wrong. This means there must be a chance for proof or seeing something that goes against the guess.
- Logical and Rational: It should be based on things we know now or have seen, giving a reasonable reason that fits with what we already know.
- Predictive: A guess often tells what to expect from an experiment or observation. It gives a guide for what someone might see if the guess is right.
- Concise: It should be short and clear, showing the suggested link or explanation simply without extra confusion.
- Grounded in Research: A guess is usually made from before studies, ideas or watching things. It comes from a deep understanding of what is already known in that area.
- Flexible: A guess helps in the research but it needs to change or fix when new information comes up.
- Relevant: It should be related to the question or problem being studied, helping to direct what the research is about.
- Empirical: Hypotheses come from observations and can be tested using methods based on real-world experiences.

Hypotheses can come from different places based on what you’re studying and the kind of research. Here are some common sources from which hypotheses may originate:

- Existing Theories: Often, guesses come from well-known science ideas. These ideas may show connections between things or occurrences that scientists can look into more.
- Observation and Experience: Watching something happen or having personal experiences can lead to guesses. We notice odd things or repeat events in everyday life and experiments. This can make us think of guesses called hypotheses.
- Previous Research: Using old studies or discoveries can help come up with new ideas. Scientists might try to expand or question current findings, making guesses that further study old results.
- Literature Review: Looking at books and research in a subject can help make guesses. Noticing missing parts or mismatches in previous studies might make researchers think up guesses to deal with these spots.
- Problem Statement or Research Question: Often, ideas come from questions or problems in the study. Making clear what needs to be looked into can help create ideas that tackle certain parts of the issue.
- Analogies or Comparisons: Making comparisons between similar things or finding connections from related areas can lead to theories. Understanding from other fields could create new guesses in a different situation.
- Hunches and Speculation: Sometimes, scientists might get a gut feeling or make guesses that help create ideas to test. Though these may not have proof at first, they can be a beginning for looking deeper.
- Technology and Innovations: New technology or tools might make guesses by letting us look at things that were hard to study before.
- Personal Interest and Curiosity: People’s curiosity and personal interests in a topic can help create guesses. Scientists could make guesses based on their own likes or love for a subject.

Here are some common types of hypotheses:

- Non-directional Hypothesis

Simple Hypothesis guesses a connection between two things. It says that there is a connection or difference between variables, but it doesn’t tell us which way the relationship goes.

Complex Hypothesis tells us what will happen when more than two things are connected. It looks at how different things interact and may be linked together.

Directional Hypothesis says how one thing is related to another. For example, it guesses that one thing will help or hurt another thing.

Non-Directional Hypothesis are the one that don’t say how the relationship between things will be. They just say that there is a connection, without telling which way it goes.

Null hypothesis is a statement that says there’s no connection or difference between different things. It implies that any seen impacts are because of luck or random changes in the information.

Alternative Hypothesis is different from the null hypothesis and shows that there’s a big connection or gap between variables. Scientists want to say no to the null hypothesis and choose the alternative one.

Statistical Hypotheis are used in math testing and include making ideas about what groups or bits of them look like. You aim to get information or test certain things using these top-level, common words only.

Research Hypothesis comes from the research question and tells what link is expected between things or factors. It leads the study and chooses where to look more closely.

Associative Hypotheis guesses that there is a link or connection between things without really saying it caused them. It means that when one thing changes, it is connected to another thing changing.

Causal Hypothesis are different from other ideas because they say that one thing causes another. This means there’s a cause and effect relationship between variables involved in the situation. They say that when one thing changes, it directly makes another thing change.

Following are the examples of hypotheses based on their types:

- Studying more can help you do better on tests.
- Getting more sun makes people have higher amounts of vitamin D.
- How rich you are, how easy it is to get education and healthcare greatly affects the number of years people live.
- A new medicine’s success relies on the amount used, how old a person is who takes it and their genes.
- Drinking more sweet drinks is linked to a higher body weight score.
- Too much stress makes people less productive at work.
- Drinking caffeine can affect how well you sleep.
- People often like different kinds of music based on their gender.
- The average test scores of Group A and Group B are not much different.
- There is no connection between using a certain fertilizer and how much it helps crops grow.
- Patients on Diet A have much different cholesterol levels than those following Diet B.
- Exposure to a certain type of light can change how plants grow compared to normal sunlight.
- The average smarts score of kids in a certain school area is 100.
- The usual time it takes to finish a job using Method A is the same as with Method B.
- Having more kids go to early learning classes helps them do better in school when they get older.
- Using specific ways of talking affects how much customers get involved in marketing activities.
- Regular exercise helps to lower the chances of heart disease.
- Going to school more can help people make more money.
- Playing violent video games makes teens more likely to act aggressively.
- Less clean air directly impacts breathing health in city populations.

Hypotheses have many important jobs in the process of scientific research. Here are the key functions of hypotheses:

- Guiding Research: Hypotheses give a clear and exact way for research. They act like guides, showing the predicted connections or results that scientists want to study.
- Formulating Research Questions: Research questions often create guesses. They assist in changing big questions into particular, checkable things. They guide what the study should be focused on.
- Setting Clear Objectives: Hypotheses set the goals of a study by saying what connections between variables should be found. They set the targets that scientists try to reach with their studies.
- Testing Predictions: Theories guess what will happen in experiments or observations. By doing tests in a planned way, scientists can check if what they see matches the guesses made by their ideas.
- Providing Structure: Theories give structure to the study process by arranging thoughts and ideas. They aid scientists in thinking about connections between things and plan experiments to match.
- Focusing Investigations: Hypotheses help scientists focus on certain parts of their study question by clearly saying what they expect links or results to be. This focus makes the study work better.
- Facilitating Communication: Theories help scientists talk to each other effectively. Clearly made guesses help scientists to tell others what they plan, how they will do it and the results expected. This explains things well with colleagues in a wide range of audiences.
- Generating Testable Statements: A good guess can be checked, which means it can be looked at carefully or tested by doing experiments. This feature makes sure that guesses add to the real information used in science knowledge.
- Promoting Objectivity: Guesses give a clear reason for study that helps guide the process while reducing personal bias. They motivate scientists to use facts and data as proofs or disprovals for their proposed answers.
- Driving Scientific Progress: Making, trying out and adjusting ideas is a cycle. Even if a guess is proven right or wrong, the information learned helps to grow knowledge in one specific area.

Researchers use hypotheses to put down their thoughts directing how the experiment would take place. Following are the steps that are involved in the scientific method:

- Initiating Investigations: Hypotheses are the beginning of science research. They come from watching, knowing what’s already known or asking questions. This makes scientists make certain explanations that need to be checked with tests.
- Formulating Research Questions: Ideas usually come from bigger questions in study. They help scientists make these questions more exact and testable, guiding the study’s main point.
- Setting Clear Objectives: Hypotheses set the goals of a study by stating what we think will happen between different things. They set the goals that scientists want to reach by doing their studies.
- Designing Experiments and Studies: Assumptions help plan experiments and watchful studies. They assist scientists in knowing what factors to measure, the techniques they will use and gather data for a proposed reason.
- Testing Predictions: Ideas guess what will happen in experiments or observations. By checking these guesses carefully, scientists can see if the seen results match up with what was predicted in each hypothesis.
- Analysis and Interpretation of Data: Hypotheses give us a way to study and make sense of information. Researchers look at what they found and see if it matches the guesses made in their theories. They decide if the proof backs up or disagrees with these suggested reasons why things are happening as expected.
- Encouraging Objectivity: Hypotheses help make things fair by making sure scientists use facts and information to either agree or disagree with their suggested reasons. They lessen personal preferences by needing proof from experience.
- Iterative Process: People either agree or disagree with guesses, but they still help the ongoing process of science. Findings from testing ideas make us ask new questions, improve those ideas and do more tests. It keeps going on in the work of science to keep learning things.

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## Summary – Hypothesis

A hypothesis is a testable statement serving as an initial explanation for phenomena, based on observations, theories, or existing knowledge. It acts as a guiding light for scientific research, proposing potential relationships between variables that can be empirically tested through experiments and observations.

The hypothesis must be specific, testable, falsifiable, and grounded in prior research or observation, laying out a predictive, if-then scenario that details a cause-and-effect relationship. It originates from various sources including existing theories, observations, previous research, and even personal curiosity, leading to different types, such as simple, complex, directional, non-directional, null, and alternative hypotheses, each serving distinct roles in research methodology .

The hypothesis not only guides the research process by shaping objectives and designing experiments but also facilitates objective analysis and interpretation of data , ultimately driving scientific progress through a cycle of testing, validation, and refinement.

## Hypothesis – FAQs

What is a hypothesis.

A guess is a possible explanation or forecast that can be checked by doing research and experiments.

## What are Components of a Hypothesis?

The components of a Hypothesis are Independent Variable, Dependent Variable, Relationship between Variables, Directionality etc.

## What makes a Good Hypothesis?

Testability, Falsifiability, Clarity and Precision, Relevance are some parameters that makes a Good Hypothesis

## Can a Hypothesis be Proven True?

You cannot prove conclusively that most hypotheses are true because it’s generally impossible to examine all possible cases for exceptions that would disprove them.

## How are Hypotheses Tested?

Hypothesis testing is used to assess the plausibility of a hypothesis by using sample data

## Can Hypotheses change during Research?

Yes, you can change or improve your ideas based on new information discovered during the research process.

## What is the Role of a Hypothesis in Scientific Research?

Hypotheses are used to support scientific research and bring about advancements in knowledge.

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## Definition of a Hypothesis

What it is and how it's used in sociology

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A hypothesis is a prediction of what will be found at the outcome of a research project and is typically focused on the relationship between two different variables studied in the research. It is usually based on both theoretical expectations about how things work and already existing scientific evidence.

Within social science, a hypothesis can take two forms. It can predict that there is no relationship between two variables, in which case it is a null hypothesis . Or, it can predict the existence of a relationship between variables, which is known as an alternative hypothesis.

In either case, the variable that is thought to either affect or not affect the outcome is known as the independent variable, and the variable that is thought to either be affected or not is the dependent variable.

Researchers seek to determine whether or not their hypothesis, or hypotheses if they have more than one, will prove true. Sometimes they do, and sometimes they do not. Either way, the research is considered successful if one can conclude whether or not a hypothesis is true.

## Null Hypothesis

A researcher has a null hypothesis when she or he believes, based on theory and existing scientific evidence, that there will not be a relationship between two variables. For example, when examining what factors influence a person's highest level of education within the U.S., a researcher might expect that place of birth, number of siblings, and religion would not have an impact on the level of education. This would mean the researcher has stated three null hypotheses.

## Alternative Hypothesis

Taking the same example, a researcher might expect that the economic class and educational attainment of one's parents, and the race of the person in question are likely to have an effect on one's educational attainment. Existing evidence and social theories that recognize the connections between wealth and cultural resources , and how race affects access to rights and resources in the U.S. , would suggest that both economic class and educational attainment of the one's parents would have a positive effect on educational attainment. In this case, economic class and educational attainment of one's parents are independent variables, and one's educational attainment is the dependent variable—it is hypothesized to be dependent on the other two.

Conversely, an informed researcher would expect that being a race other than white in the U.S. is likely to have a negative impact on a person's educational attainment. This would be characterized as a negative relationship, wherein being a person of color has a negative effect on one's educational attainment. In reality, this hypothesis proves true, with the exception of Asian Americans , who go to college at a higher rate than whites do. However, Blacks and Hispanics and Latinos are far less likely than whites and Asian Americans to go to college.

## Formulating a Hypothesis

Formulating a hypothesis can take place at the very beginning of a research project , or after a bit of research has already been done. Sometimes a researcher knows right from the start which variables she is interested in studying, and she may already have a hunch about their relationships. Other times, a researcher may have an interest in a particular topic, trend, or phenomenon, but he may not know enough about it to identify variables or formulate a hypothesis.

Whenever a hypothesis is formulated, the most important thing is to be precise about what one's variables are, what the nature of the relationship between them might be, and how one can go about conducting a study of them.

Updated by Nicki Lisa Cole, Ph.D

- Null Hypothesis Examples
- What It Means When a Variable Is Spurious
- Examples of Independent and Dependent Variables
- Difference Between Independent and Dependent Variables
- The Difference Between Control Group and Experimental Group
- Lambda and Gamma as Defined in Sociology
- What Is a Hypothesis? (Science)
- Understanding Path Analysis
- Visualizing Social Stratification in the U.S.
- What Are the Elements of a Good Hypothesis?
- Deductive Versus Inductive Reasoning
- Example of a Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test
- What Level of Alpha Determines Statistical Significance?
- What 'Fail to Reject' Means in a Hypothesis Test
- How Intervening Variables Work in Sociology
- Null Hypothesis Definition and Examples

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## AP®︎/College Statistics

Course: ap®︎/college statistics > unit 10.

- Idea behind hypothesis testing

## Examples of null and alternative hypotheses

- Writing null and alternative hypotheses
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## How to Write a Great Hypothesis

Hypothesis Definition, Format, Examples, and Tips

Verywell / Alex Dos Diaz

- The Scientific Method

## Hypothesis Format

Falsifiability of a hypothesis.

- Operationalization

## Hypothesis Types

Hypotheses examples.

- Collecting Data

A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. It is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in a study. It is a preliminary answer to your question that helps guide the research process.

Consider a study designed to examine the relationship between sleep deprivation and test performance. The hypothesis might be: "This study is designed to assess the hypothesis that sleep-deprived people will perform worse on a test than individuals who are not sleep-deprived."

## At a Glance

A hypothesis is crucial to scientific research because it offers a clear direction for what the researchers are looking to find. This allows them to design experiments to test their predictions and add to our scientific knowledge about the world. This article explores how a hypothesis is used in psychology research, how to write a good hypothesis, and the different types of hypotheses you might use.

## The Hypothesis in the Scientific Method

In the scientific method , whether it involves research in psychology, biology, or some other area, a hypothesis represents what the researchers think will happen in an experiment. The scientific method involves the following steps:

- Forming a question
- Performing background research
- Creating a hypothesis
- Designing an experiment
- Collecting data
- Analyzing the results
- Drawing conclusions
- Communicating the results

The hypothesis is a prediction, but it involves more than a guess. Most of the time, the hypothesis begins with a question which is then explored through background research. At this point, researchers then begin to develop a testable hypothesis.

Unless you are creating an exploratory study, your hypothesis should always explain what you expect to happen.

In a study exploring the effects of a particular drug, the hypothesis might be that researchers expect the drug to have some type of effect on the symptoms of a specific illness. In psychology, the hypothesis might focus on how a certain aspect of the environment might influence a particular behavior.

Remember, a hypothesis does not have to be correct. While the hypothesis predicts what the researchers expect to see, the goal of the research is to determine whether this guess is right or wrong. When conducting an experiment, researchers might explore numerous factors to determine which ones might contribute to the ultimate outcome.

In many cases, researchers may find that the results of an experiment do not support the original hypothesis. When writing up these results, the researchers might suggest other options that should be explored in future studies.

In many cases, researchers might draw a hypothesis from a specific theory or build on previous research. For example, prior research has shown that stress can impact the immune system. So a researcher might hypothesize: "People with high-stress levels will be more likely to contract a common cold after being exposed to the virus than people who have low-stress levels."

In other instances, researchers might look at commonly held beliefs or folk wisdom. "Birds of a feather flock together" is one example of folk adage that a psychologist might try to investigate. The researcher might pose a specific hypothesis that "People tend to select romantic partners who are similar to them in interests and educational level."

## Elements of a Good Hypothesis

So how do you write a good hypothesis? When trying to come up with a hypothesis for your research or experiments, ask yourself the following questions:

- Is your hypothesis based on your research on a topic?
- Can your hypothesis be tested?
- Does your hypothesis include independent and dependent variables?

Before you come up with a specific hypothesis, spend some time doing background research. Once you have completed a literature review, start thinking about potential questions you still have. Pay attention to the discussion section in the journal articles you read . Many authors will suggest questions that still need to be explored.

## How to Formulate a Good Hypothesis

To form a hypothesis, you should take these steps:

- Collect as many observations about a topic or problem as you can.
- Evaluate these observations and look for possible causes of the problem.
- Create a list of possible explanations that you might want to explore.
- After you have developed some possible hypotheses, think of ways that you could confirm or disprove each hypothesis through experimentation. This is known as falsifiability.

In the scientific method , falsifiability is an important part of any valid hypothesis. In order to test a claim scientifically, it must be possible that the claim could be proven false.

Students sometimes confuse the idea of falsifiability with the idea that it means that something is false, which is not the case. What falsifiability means is that if something was false, then it is possible to demonstrate that it is false.

One of the hallmarks of pseudoscience is that it makes claims that cannot be refuted or proven false.

## The Importance of Operational Definitions

A variable is a factor or element that can be changed and manipulated in ways that are observable and measurable. However, the researcher must also define how the variable will be manipulated and measured in the study.

Operational definitions are specific definitions for all relevant factors in a study. This process helps make vague or ambiguous concepts detailed and measurable.

For example, a researcher might operationally define the variable " test anxiety " as the results of a self-report measure of anxiety experienced during an exam. A "study habits" variable might be defined by the amount of studying that actually occurs as measured by time.

These precise descriptions are important because many things can be measured in various ways. Clearly defining these variables and how they are measured helps ensure that other researchers can replicate your results.

## Replicability

One of the basic principles of any type of scientific research is that the results must be replicable.

Replication means repeating an experiment in the same way to produce the same results. By clearly detailing the specifics of how the variables were measured and manipulated, other researchers can better understand the results and repeat the study if needed.

Some variables are more difficult than others to define. For example, how would you operationally define a variable such as aggression ? For obvious ethical reasons, researchers cannot create a situation in which a person behaves aggressively toward others.

To measure this variable, the researcher must devise a measurement that assesses aggressive behavior without harming others. The researcher might utilize a simulated task to measure aggressiveness in this situation.

## Hypothesis Checklist

- Does your hypothesis focus on something that you can actually test?
- Does your hypothesis include both an independent and dependent variable?
- Can you manipulate the variables?
- Can your hypothesis be tested without violating ethical standards?

The hypothesis you use will depend on what you are investigating and hoping to find. Some of the main types of hypotheses that you might use include:

- Simple hypothesis : This type of hypothesis suggests there is a relationship between one independent variable and one dependent variable.
- Complex hypothesis : This type suggests a relationship between three or more variables, such as two independent and dependent variables.
- Null hypothesis : This hypothesis suggests no relationship exists between two or more variables.
- Alternative hypothesis : This hypothesis states the opposite of the null hypothesis.
- Statistical hypothesis : This hypothesis uses statistical analysis to evaluate a representative population sample and then generalizes the findings to the larger group.
- Logical hypothesis : This hypothesis assumes a relationship between variables without collecting data or evidence.

A hypothesis often follows a basic format of "If {this happens} then {this will happen}." One way to structure your hypothesis is to describe what will happen to the dependent variable if you change the independent variable .

The basic format might be: "If {these changes are made to a certain independent variable}, then we will observe {a change in a specific dependent variable}."

## A few examples of simple hypotheses:

- "Students who eat breakfast will perform better on a math exam than students who do not eat breakfast."
- "Students who experience test anxiety before an English exam will get lower scores than students who do not experience test anxiety."
- "Motorists who talk on the phone while driving will be more likely to make errors on a driving course than those who do not talk on the phone."
- "Children who receive a new reading intervention will have higher reading scores than students who do not receive the intervention."

## Examples of a complex hypothesis include:

- "People with high-sugar diets and sedentary activity levels are more likely to develop depression."
- "Younger people who are regularly exposed to green, outdoor areas have better subjective well-being than older adults who have limited exposure to green spaces."

## Examples of a null hypothesis include:

- "There is no difference in anxiety levels between people who take St. John's wort supplements and those who do not."
- "There is no difference in scores on a memory recall task between children and adults."
- "There is no difference in aggression levels between children who play first-person shooter games and those who do not."

## Examples of an alternative hypothesis:

- "People who take St. John's wort supplements will have less anxiety than those who do not."
- "Adults will perform better on a memory task than children."
- "Children who play first-person shooter games will show higher levels of aggression than children who do not."

## Collecting Data on Your Hypothesis

Once a researcher has formed a testable hypothesis, the next step is to select a research design and start collecting data. The research method depends largely on exactly what they are studying. There are two basic types of research methods: descriptive research and experimental research.

## Descriptive Research Methods

Descriptive research such as case studies , naturalistic observations , and surveys are often used when conducting an experiment is difficult or impossible. These methods are best used to describe different aspects of a behavior or psychological phenomenon.

Once a researcher has collected data using descriptive methods, a correlational study can examine how the variables are related. This research method might be used to investigate a hypothesis that is difficult to test experimentally.

## Experimental Research Methods

Experimental methods are used to demonstrate causal relationships between variables. In an experiment, the researcher systematically manipulates a variable of interest (known as the independent variable) and measures the effect on another variable (known as the dependent variable).

Unlike correlational studies, which can only be used to determine if there is a relationship between two variables, experimental methods can be used to determine the actual nature of the relationship—whether changes in one variable actually cause another to change.

The hypothesis is a critical part of any scientific exploration. It represents what researchers expect to find in a study or experiment. In situations where the hypothesis is unsupported by the research, the research still has value. Such research helps us better understand how different aspects of the natural world relate to one another. It also helps us develop new hypotheses that can then be tested in the future.

Thompson WH, Skau S. On the scope of scientific hypotheses . R Soc Open Sci . 2023;10(8):230607. doi:10.1098/rsos.230607

Taran S, Adhikari NKJ, Fan E. Falsifiability in medicine: what clinicians can learn from Karl Popper [published correction appears in Intensive Care Med. 2021 Jun 17;:]. Intensive Care Med . 2021;47(9):1054-1056. doi:10.1007/s00134-021-06432-z

Eyler AA. Research Methods for Public Health . 1st ed. Springer Publishing Company; 2020. doi:10.1891/9780826182067.0004

Nosek BA, Errington TM. What is replication ? PLoS Biol . 2020;18(3):e3000691. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.3000691

Aggarwal R, Ranganathan P. Study designs: Part 2 - Descriptive studies . Perspect Clin Res . 2019;10(1):34-36. doi:10.4103/picr.PICR_154_18

Nevid J. Psychology: Concepts and Applications. Wadworth, 2013.

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

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## Hypothesis Testing | A Step-by-Step Guide with Easy Examples

Published on November 8, 2019 by Rebecca Bevans . Revised on June 22, 2023.

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics . It is most often used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses, that arise from theories.

There are 5 main steps in hypothesis testing:

- State your research hypothesis as a null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis (H o ) and (H a or H 1 ).
- Collect data in a way designed to test the hypothesis.
- Perform an appropriate statistical test .
- Decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis.
- Present the findings in your results and discussion section.

Though the specific details might vary, the procedure you will use when testing a hypothesis will always follow some version of these steps.

## Table of contents

Step 1: state your null and alternate hypothesis, step 2: collect data, step 3: perform a statistical test, step 4: decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis, step 5: present your findings, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about hypothesis testing.

After developing your initial research hypothesis (the prediction that you want to investigate), it is important to restate it as a null (H o ) and alternate (H a ) hypothesis so that you can test it mathematically.

The alternate hypothesis is usually your initial hypothesis that predicts a relationship between variables. The null hypothesis is a prediction of no relationship between the variables you are interested in.

- H 0 : Men are, on average, not taller than women. H a : Men are, on average, taller than women.

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For a statistical test to be valid , it is important to perform sampling and collect data in a way that is designed to test your hypothesis. If your data are not representative, then you cannot make statistical inferences about the population you are interested in.

There are a variety of statistical tests available, but they are all based on the comparison of within-group variance (how spread out the data is within a category) versus between-group variance (how different the categories are from one another).

If the between-group variance is large enough that there is little or no overlap between groups, then your statistical test will reflect that by showing a low p -value . This means it is unlikely that the differences between these groups came about by chance.

Alternatively, if there is high within-group variance and low between-group variance, then your statistical test will reflect that with a high p -value. This means it is likely that any difference you measure between groups is due to chance.

Your choice of statistical test will be based on the type of variables and the level of measurement of your collected data .

- an estimate of the difference in average height between the two groups.
- a p -value showing how likely you are to see this difference if the null hypothesis of no difference is true.

Based on the outcome of your statistical test, you will have to decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis.

In most cases you will use the p -value generated by your statistical test to guide your decision. And in most cases, your predetermined level of significance for rejecting the null hypothesis will be 0.05 – that is, when there is a less than 5% chance that you would see these results if the null hypothesis were true.

In some cases, researchers choose a more conservative level of significance, such as 0.01 (1%). This minimizes the risk of incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis ( Type I error ).

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The results of hypothesis testing will be presented in the results and discussion sections of your research paper , dissertation or thesis .

In the results section you should give a brief summary of the data and a summary of the results of your statistical test (for example, the estimated difference between group means and associated p -value). In the discussion , you can discuss whether your initial hypothesis was supported by your results or not.

In the formal language of hypothesis testing, we talk about rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis. You will probably be asked to do this in your statistics assignments.

However, when presenting research results in academic papers we rarely talk this way. Instead, we go back to our alternate hypothesis (in this case, the hypothesis that men are on average taller than women) and state whether the result of our test did or did not support the alternate hypothesis.

If your null hypothesis was rejected, this result is interpreted as “supported the alternate hypothesis.”

These are superficial differences; you can see that they mean the same thing.

You might notice that we don’t say that we reject or fail to reject the alternate hypothesis . This is because hypothesis testing is not designed to prove or disprove anything. It is only designed to test whether a pattern we measure could have arisen spuriously, or by chance.

If we reject the null hypothesis based on our research (i.e., we find that it is unlikely that the pattern arose by chance), then we can say our test lends support to our hypothesis . But if the pattern does not pass our decision rule, meaning that it could have arisen by chance, then we say the test is inconsistent with our hypothesis .

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

- Normal distribution
- Descriptive statistics
- Measures of central tendency
- Correlation coefficient

Methodology

- Cluster sampling
- Stratified sampling
- Types of interviews
- Cohort study
- Thematic analysis

Research bias

- Implicit bias
- Cognitive bias
- Survivorship bias
- Availability heuristic
- Nonresponse bias
- Regression to the mean

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess — it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).

Null and alternative hypotheses are used in statistical hypothesis testing . The null hypothesis of a test always predicts no effect or no relationship between variables, while the alternative hypothesis states your research prediction of an effect or relationship.

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## Definition of hypothesis

Did you know.

The Difference Between Hypothesis and Theory

A hypothesis is an assumption, an idea that is proposed for the sake of argument so that it can be tested to see if it might be true.

In the scientific method, the hypothesis is constructed before any applicable research has been done, apart from a basic background review. You ask a question, read up on what has been studied before, and then form a hypothesis.

A hypothesis is usually tentative; it's an assumption or suggestion made strictly for the objective of being tested.

A theory , in contrast, is a principle that has been formed as an attempt to explain things that have already been substantiated by data. It is used in the names of a number of principles accepted in the scientific community, such as the Big Bang Theory . Because of the rigors of experimentation and control, it is understood to be more likely to be true than a hypothesis is.

In non-scientific use, however, hypothesis and theory are often used interchangeably to mean simply an idea, speculation, or hunch, with theory being the more common choice.

Since this casual use does away with the distinctions upheld by the scientific community, hypothesis and theory are prone to being wrongly interpreted even when they are encountered in scientific contexts—or at least, contexts that allude to scientific study without making the critical distinction that scientists employ when weighing hypotheses and theories.

The most common occurrence is when theory is interpreted—and sometimes even gleefully seized upon—to mean something having less truth value than other scientific principles. (The word law applies to principles so firmly established that they are almost never questioned, such as the law of gravity.)

This mistake is one of projection: since we use theory in general to mean something lightly speculated, then it's implied that scientists must be talking about the same level of uncertainty when they use theory to refer to their well-tested and reasoned principles.

The distinction has come to the forefront particularly on occasions when the content of science curricula in schools has been challenged—notably, when a school board in Georgia put stickers on textbooks stating that evolution was "a theory, not a fact, regarding the origin of living things." As Kenneth R. Miller, a cell biologist at Brown University, has said , a theory "doesn’t mean a hunch or a guess. A theory is a system of explanations that ties together a whole bunch of facts. It not only explains those facts, but predicts what you ought to find from other observations and experiments.”

While theories are never completely infallible, they form the basis of scientific reasoning because, as Miller said "to the best of our ability, we’ve tested them, and they’ve held up."

- proposition
- supposition

hypothesis , theory , law mean a formula derived by inference from scientific data that explains a principle operating in nature.

hypothesis implies insufficient evidence to provide more than a tentative explanation.

theory implies a greater range of evidence and greater likelihood of truth.

law implies a statement of order and relation in nature that has been found to be invariable under the same conditions.

## Examples of hypothesis in a Sentence

These examples are programmatically compiled from various online sources to illustrate current usage of the word 'hypothesis.' Any opinions expressed in the examples do not represent those of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback about these examples.

## Word History

Greek, from hypotithenai to put under, suppose, from hypo- + tithenai to put — more at do

1641, in the meaning defined at sense 1a

## Phrases Containing hypothesis

- counter - hypothesis
- nebular hypothesis
- null hypothesis
- planetesimal hypothesis
- Whorfian hypothesis

## Articles Related to hypothesis

This is the Difference Between a...

## This is the Difference Between a Hypothesis and a Theory

In scientific reasoning, they're two completely different things

## Dictionary Entries Near hypothesis

hypothermia

hypothesize

## Cite this Entry

“Hypothesis.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hypothesis. Accessed 23 Jul. 2024.

## Kids Definition

Kids definition of hypothesis, medical definition, medical definition of hypothesis, more from merriam-webster on hypothesis.

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## Terminology: Difference between Lemma, Theorem, Definition, Hypothesis, Postulate and a Proposition [duplicate]

Based on observation after reading few books and papers, I think that

Lemma : Lemma contains some information that is commonly used to support a theorem. So, a Lemma introduces a Theorem and comes before that Theorem. The information contained in the Lemma is generally used in the proof of the Theorem.

Q1: What is a Proposition ?

Q2: What is the difference between Proposition and Theorem ? A Proposition can also be proved, in the same way as a Theorem is proven.

Hypothesis : A hypothesis is like a statement for a guess, and we need to prove that analytically or experimentally.

Q3: What is the difference between Theorem and Hypothesis , for example Null hypothesis in statistics? In general, if a Theorem is always proven to be true then it no longer becomes a Hypothesis? Am I correct?

Q4: What is the difference between Postulate and Theorem ?

Q5 : What is the difference between a proposition and a definition ?

Looking for easy to remember answers. Thank you for help.

- terminology

- 1 $\begingroup$ A definition is just a 'naming' of an object and not like a theorem at all... a proposition is a theorem... usually an 'easy theorem' setting out some basic facts. $\endgroup$ – JP McCarthy Commented Apr 22, 2015 at 17:38

I'm not the authority on this, but this is how I interpret all of these words in math literature:

Definition - This is an assignment of language and syntax to some property of a set, function, or other object. A definition is not something you prove, it is something someone assigns. Often you will want to prove that something satisfies a definition. Example: We call a mapping $f:X\to Y$ injective if whenever $f(x) = f(y)$ then $x=y$.

Proposition - This is a property that one can derive easily or directly from a given definition of an object. Example: the identity element in a group is unique.

Lemma - This is a property that one can derive or prove which is usually technical in nature and is not of primary importance to the overall body of knowledge one is trying to develop. Usually lemmas are there as precursors to larger results that one wants to obtain, or introduce a new technique or tool that one can use over and over again. Example: In a Hausdorff space, compact subsets can be separated by disjoint open subsets.

Theorem - This is a property of major importance that one can derive which usually has far-sweeping consequences for the area of math one is studying. Theorems don't necessarily need the support of propositions or lemmas, but they often do require other smaller results to support their evidence. Example: Every manifold has a simply connected covering space.

Corollary - This is usually a result that is a direct consequence of a major theorem. Often times a theorem lends itself to other smaller results or special cases which can be shown by simpler methods once a theorem is proven. Example: A consequence to the Hopf-Rinow theorem is that compact manifolds are geodesically complete.

Conjecture - This is an educated prediction that one makes based on their experience. The difference between a conjecture and a lemma/theorem/corollary is that it is usually an open research problem that either has no answer, or some partial answer. Conjectures are usually only considered important if they are authored by someone well-known in their respective area of mathematics. Once it is proven or disproven, it ceases to be a conjecture and either becomes a fact (backed by a theorem) or there is some interesting counterexample to demonstrate how it is wrong. Example: The Poincar$\acute{\text{e}}$ conjecture was a famous statement that remained an open research problem in topology for roughly a century. The claim was that every simply connected, compact 3-manifold was homeomorphic to the 3-sphere $\mathbb{S}^3$. This statement however is no longer a conjecture since it was famously proven by Grigori Perelman in 2003.

Postulate - I would appreciate community input on this, but I haven't seen this word used in any of the texts/papers I read. I would assume that this is synonymous with proposition.

- 5 $\begingroup$ I know Postulate is a synonym of axiom. Very used word in italian, but more in physics than mathematics. See wikipedia en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axiom $\endgroup$ – user3621272 Commented Apr 23, 2015 at 9:24
- $\begingroup$ @Mnifldz and user3621272: Thank you very much for the answers; it is easy to understand and clear. $\endgroup$ – SKM Commented Apr 23, 2015 at 17:01

## Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged terminology definition .

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- Scientific Methods

## What is Hypothesis?

We have heard of many hypotheses which have led to great inventions in science. Assumptions that are made on the basis of some evidence are known as hypotheses. In this article, let us learn in detail about the hypothesis and the type of hypothesis with examples.

A hypothesis is an assumption that is made based on some evidence. This is the initial point of any investigation that translates the research questions into predictions. It includes components like variables, population and the relation between the variables. A research hypothesis is a hypothesis that is used to test the relationship between two or more variables.

## Characteristics of Hypothesis

Following are the characteristics of the hypothesis:

- The hypothesis should be clear and precise to consider it to be reliable.
- If the hypothesis is a relational hypothesis, then it should be stating the relationship between variables.
- The hypothesis must be specific and should have scope for conducting more tests.
- The way of explanation of the hypothesis must be very simple and it should also be understood that the simplicity of the hypothesis is not related to its significance.

## Sources of Hypothesis

Following are the sources of hypothesis:

- The resemblance between the phenomenon.
- Observations from past studies, present-day experiences and from the competitors.
- Scientific theories.
- General patterns that influence the thinking process of people.

## Types of Hypothesis

There are six forms of hypothesis and they are:

- Simple hypothesis
- Complex hypothesis
- Directional hypothesis
- Non-directional hypothesis
- Null hypothesis
- Associative and casual hypothesis

## Simple Hypothesis

It shows a relationship between one dependent variable and a single independent variable. For example – If you eat more vegetables, you will lose weight faster. Here, eating more vegetables is an independent variable, while losing weight is the dependent variable.

## Complex Hypothesis

It shows the relationship between two or more dependent variables and two or more independent variables. Eating more vegetables and fruits leads to weight loss, glowing skin, and reduces the risk of many diseases such as heart disease.

## Directional Hypothesis

It shows how a researcher is intellectual and committed to a particular outcome. The relationship between the variables can also predict its nature. For example- children aged four years eating proper food over a five-year period are having higher IQ levels than children not having a proper meal. This shows the effect and direction of the effect.

## Non-directional Hypothesis

It is used when there is no theory involved. It is a statement that a relationship exists between two variables, without predicting the exact nature (direction) of the relationship.

## Null Hypothesis

It provides a statement which is contrary to the hypothesis. It’s a negative statement, and there is no relationship between independent and dependent variables. The symbol is denoted by “H O ”.

## Associative and Causal Hypothesis

Associative hypothesis occurs when there is a change in one variable resulting in a change in the other variable. Whereas, the causal hypothesis proposes a cause and effect interaction between two or more variables.

## Examples of Hypothesis

Following are the examples of hypotheses based on their types:

- Consumption of sugary drinks every day leads to obesity is an example of a simple hypothesis.
- All lilies have the same number of petals is an example of a null hypothesis.
- If a person gets 7 hours of sleep, then he will feel less fatigue than if he sleeps less. It is an example of a directional hypothesis.

## Functions of Hypothesis

Following are the functions performed by the hypothesis:

- Hypothesis helps in making an observation and experiments possible.
- It becomes the start point for the investigation.
- Hypothesis helps in verifying the observations.
- It helps in directing the inquiries in the right direction.

## How will Hypothesis help in the Scientific Method?

Researchers use hypotheses to put down their thoughts directing how the experiment would take place. Following are the steps that are involved in the scientific method:

- Formation of question
- Doing background research
- Creation of hypothesis
- Designing an experiment
- Collection of data
- Result analysis
- Summarizing the experiment
- Communicating the results

## Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs

What is hypothesis.

A hypothesis is an assumption made based on some evidence.

## Give an example of simple hypothesis?

What are the types of hypothesis.

Types of hypothesis are:

- Associative and Casual hypothesis

## State true or false: Hypothesis is the initial point of any investigation that translates the research questions into a prediction.

Define complex hypothesis..

A complex hypothesis shows the relationship between two or more dependent variables and two or more independent variables.

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## Mathematics > Combinatorics

Title: twin-star hypothesis and cycle-free $d$-partitions of $k_{2d}$ ]{twin-star hypothesis and cycle-free $d$-partitions of $k_{2d}$.

Abstract: In this paper we study an equivalence relation defined on the set of cycle-free $d$-partitions of the complete graph $K_{2d}$. We discuss a conjecture which states that this equivalence relation has only one equivalence class, and show that the conjecture is equivalent with the so called twin-star hypothesis. We check the conjecture in the case $d=4$ and disuses how this relates to the determinant-like map $det^{S^2}$.

Comments: | Comments are welcome |

Subjects: | Combinatorics (math.CO) |

classes: | Primary 05C70, Secondary 05E18 |

Cite as: | [math.CO] |

(or [math.CO] for this version) | |

Focus to learn more arXiv-issued DOI via DataCite |

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## A New Formula for Pi Is Here. And It’s Pushing Scientific Boundaries.

This breakthrough method optimizes complex computations like never before.

- While building a simpler model for particle interactions, scientists made a sleek new pi.
- Representations of pi help scientists use values close to real life without storing a million digits.
- The making of the new pi involved using a series, which is a structured set of terms that either converge to one expression or diverge.

Because quantum mechanics looks at the tiniest particles, one at a time, even simple questions can have complex answers that require massive computing power. Rendering high-tech video games and movies like Avatar can take days or more, and that’s still not at the level of reality. In this new paper , published in the peer-reviewed journal Physical Review Letters , physicists Arnab Priya Saha and Aninda Sinha describe their new version of a quantum model that reduces complexity but maintains accuracy.

This is called optimization. Think of the way early internet video buffered in chunks of similar colors, or how classic animators painted static bodies with individual moving parts on top. Heck, think of how people cut the corners of squared-off walking paths until they make a dirt-path shortcut . We’re surrounded by optimization and optimizing behaviors.

As detailed in their paper, Saha and Sinha combined two existing ideas from math and science: the Feynman diagram of particle scattering and the Euler beta function for scattering in string theory. What results is a series—something represented in math by the Greek letter Σ surrounded by parameters.

Series can end up generalizing into overall equations or expressions, but they don’t have to. And while some series diverge—meaning that the terms continue to alternate away from each other—others converge on one approximate, concrete result. That’s where pi comes in. The digits of pi extend into infinity, and pi is itself an irrational number, meaning it can’t be truly represented by an integer fraction (the one we often learn in school, 22/7, is not very accurate by 2024 standards).

But it can be represented pretty quickly and well by a series. That’s because a series can continue to build out values well into the tiniest digits. If a mathematician compiles a series’ terms, they can use the resulting abstraction to do math that isn’t possible with an approximation of pi that’s cut off at 10 digits by a standard desk calculator. A sophisticated approximation enables the kind of nanoscopic particle work that inspired these scientists in the first place.

“In the early 1970s,” Sinha said in a statement from the Indian Institute of Science, “ scientists briefly examined this line of research, but quickly abandoned it since it was too complicated.”

But math analysis like this has come a long way since the 1970s. Today, Sinha and Saha are able to analyze an existing model and remodel it with altered terms. They’re able to build a sequence and see that it converges on the value of pi within far fewer terms than expected, making it easier for scientists to run the series and then use that for further work.

All of that requires decades of foundational work in the field and large bodies of work showing that certain mathematical moves work where other ones don’t. It’s a comment on the ongoing and collaborative nature of math theory , even when what results is a working model that might help scientists. Our ability to meaningfully approximate has grown in tandem with our ability to solve complex problems outright.

“Doing this kind of work, although it may not see an immediate application in daily life, gives the pure pleasure of doing theory for the sake of doing it,” Sinha said in the statement.

Caroline Delbert is a writer, avid reader, and contributing editor at Pop Mech. She's also an enthusiast of just about everything. Her favorite topics include nuclear energy, cosmology, math of everyday things, and the philosophy of it all.

## .css-cuqpxl:before{padding-right:0.3125rem;content:'//';display:inline;} Math .css-xtujxj:before{padding-left:0.3125rem;content:'//';display:inline;}

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## An integrated approach for groundwater potential zoning in shallow fracture zone aquifers

This study presents an integrated approach for the identification of groundwater occurrences in shallow fracture zone SFZ aquifers using remote-sensing, geological, and geophysical data. The Central Eastern Desert of Egypt was selected as a test site ...

## Calculating flow into coastal lakes from water level measurements

Some coastal lakes in New South Wales have narrow channels to the ocean. Runoff from the catchment elevates water levels within the lake because of the constricted nature of the entrance. Freshwater inflow affects many ecological processes in these ...

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## What we know about the Trump shooter

Jaclyn Diaz

Dave Mistich

Quil Lawrence

Police continue to block roads around the home of Thomas Matthew Crooks in Bethel Park, Pa., on Sunday, as the FBI continues its investigation into the attempted assassination of former President Donald Trump. Rebecca Droke/AFP via Getty Images hide caption

Less than a week out from the shocking assassination attempt on former President Donald Trump, authorities are still working to unravel who the gunman was and what may have driven him to act.

The FBI say Thomas Matthew Crooks, the man who shot at Trump at a Butler, Pa., political rally on Saturday, is believed to have acted alone. There is yet to be an established motive for Crooks’ actions, officials told media over the weekend.

Trump says that a bullet pierced the upper part of his right ear. One person, identified Sunday as Corey Comperatore, 50 , was killed in the attack. Two other people were also injured before Secret Service agents killed Crooks.

Investigators have said his father purchased the weapon used in the attack—an AR-style 556 rifle—and now officials are trying to determine how Crooks gained access to it.

A person familiar with the investigation who was not allowed to speak publicly said the gun was purchased about six months ago. The source also confirmed that at least one possibly workable, explosive device was found in the dead suspect's vehicle.

Robert Wells, assistant director of the FBI’s counterterrorism division, said Sunday that the bureau was investigating the incident as “an act of domestic terrorism.”

A picture is still emerging about the 20-year-old. Here’s what we know so far.

## Crooks is from a small community outside of Pittsburgh

The Crooks family home is in Bethel Park, Pa., according to the FBI, a working-to-middle class community south of Pittsburgh.

Investigators said the Crooks’ family is cooperating with the investigation. Attempts by NPR to contact family members have not been successful.

The community, which neighbors describe as a “quiet” one, sits about 53 miles from the shooting site and is home to about 33,000 people.

“People kind of keep to themselves. I mean, you say hi to your neighbors,” said Jim Zawojski, 70, a retiree living in Bethel Park. But, he added, people aren’t especially close-knit.

Zawojski said he once mistakenly received mail from the Crooks house, but never engaged with the family members directly, even as he returned the mail to their porch.

“I couldn’t even tell you what they look like,” he said.

“I’m sure they’re devastated," Zawojski continued. "I am just wondering if there were any signs of how [Crooks] was acting. Was he mentally disturbed?"

Law enforcement officers gather at the campaign rally site for former President Donald Trump on Saturday in Butler, Pa. Trump's campaign said in a statement that the former president was "fine" after the assassination attempt. Evan Vucci/AP/AP hide caption

## In school, he was considered a good student

The shooting has confounded those who crossed paths with Crooks.

The Bethel Park School District confirmed Sunday that Crooks was a 2022 graduate of Bethel Park High School. The district said it was cooperating with investigators and was limited in what other information it could release.

Crooks' name was included on a list of awardees as part of Bethel Park High School's Awards and Recognition Program in 2022, according to a local news report. He was listed as receiving a $500 National Math & Science Initiative Star Award.

"From background I've gotten from people that I know that have gone to school with him, he was your typical average kid — more on the quiet side, relatively intelligent," Allegheny County Councilor Dan Grzybek told WESA, Pittsburgh's NPR news station. Gryzbek represents the district that includes Bethel Park.

Thomas Matthew Crooks in an undated picture from his time at Bethel Park High School. He graduated in 2022. Bethel Park High School hide caption

Grzybek noted that Crooks was known as "a pretty decent student."

After high school, Crooks attended the Community College of Allegheny County, where he graduated two months ago with an associate's degree in engineering science, the school confirmed to NPR.

"Like all Americans, we are shocked and saddened by the horrific turn of events that took place in Butler, Pa., on Saturday. We are grateful that former President Trump is safe and recovering, and we extend our condolences to the family of Corey Comperatore on their loss, and offer our thoughts and prayers to all others who have been impacted by this tragedy," CCAC said in a statement. "As the investigation into this weekend’s events continues, CCAC will fully cooperate with members of law enforcement."

A spokesman for Robert Morris University confirmed that Crooks had planned to enroll at the small private institution outside of Pittsburgh beginning this fall, but had not yet attended classes at the university.

A person who encountered Crooks at CCAC but who wasn't authorized to speak publicly told NPR that Crooks was known as a brilliant student with a solid future ahead of him. This individual said Crooks was seen on campus and always dressed nicely. There were plans for Crooks to attend a four-year institution in the state after graduating CCAC, this person said.

Earlier this year, it was announced that CCAC was no longer offering new students to enroll in its engineering department, forcing current students to finish their programs and classes there by 2025, according to a local news report. This caused a lot of students stress, but as far as this person knew there were no behavioral issues with Crooks during his time at CCAC.

Since news of the shooting rippled through the community, the general feeling at CCAC is shock at the "senseless" tragedy, this individual said.

Samuel Strotman, a classmate of Crooks at CCAC, shared classes with him. But Strotman said he never saw Crooks in person at the school's campus. In the classes they did share over Zoom, Crooks was just a "dark screen" and said just a few words when the professor took roll call.

"I never thought I'd be in class with someone who tried to assassinate our former president," Strotman said.

## Small details are beginning to take shape

Bit by bit, more minor details about his life beyond school have started to come into focus.

Crooks had been working at Bethel Park Skilled Nursing and Rehabilitation Center as a dietary aide, Marcie Grimm, the center's administrator, said in a statement shared with NPR. It's unclear how long Crooks worked at the center.

Grimm expressed shock and sadness that the 20-year-old was named as the alleged shooter.

Crooks "performed his job without concern and his background check was clean," Grimm said in her statement. "We are fully cooperating with law enforcement officials at this time. Due to the ongoing investigation, we cannot comment further on any specifics. Our thoughts and prayers go out to Former President Trump and the victims impacted by this terrible tragedy. We condemn all acts of violence."

He appeared to also have an interest in guns, having joined a shooting club just a short drive away from Bethel Park. Robert S. Bootay III, legal counsel for Clairton Sportsmen's Club, said in a statement that Crooks was a member of the gun club.

“Obviously, the Club fully admonishes the senseless act of violence that occurred yesterday,” Bootay said in a statement while also offering condolences to the family of Corey Comperatore , who died in the attack, and prayers to those injured.

After Crooks was killed, multiple news outlets have reported, a photo emerged of a law enforcement officer standing above his body. In the image, which NPR has not independently verified, Crooks is seen wearing a gray T-shirt from Demolition Ranch, a YouTube channel that features videos about firearms, demolition and experiments with guns.

After the image emerged, Matt Carriker, the channel’s creator, posted a video in which he said he was “shocked and confused to find this out.”

“We don’t vet the people who buy our shirts, obviously, it would be impossible to. Just like Nike doesn’t vet who buys their shoes,” Carriker said in the video. “This channel is not about violence, this channel will never be and we never would condone that at all,” he continued. “I hate that.”

## A possible motive remains unclear

Investigators are working to put together what may have motivated Crooks to target Trump. They are looking into his actions in the days and weeks before the shooting.

The FBI has not yet identified an ideology associated with the shooter, according to Kevin Rojek, special agent in charge of the FBI’s Pittsburgh field office who is leading the investigation into the assassination attempt.

“We don’t have any kind of fidelity right now about the shooter’s action immediately prior to him engaging the former president,” he said.

Senior officials from the FBI and Secret Service have briefed U.S. lawmakers on the investigation, according to a person on the call.

The FBI has been reviewing the contents of Crooks’ electronic devices, including a laptop and two cell phones — his primary phone and a second that was found at his home.

Crooks had saved images of President Biden, Trump, Attorney General Merrick Garland, FBI Director Christopher Wray and Kate Middleton, the Princess of Wales. He had also searched for dates of Trump speaking events as well as the Democratic National Convention. He also searched “major depressive order.”

When investigators searched Crooks’ home, they found no artifacts that indicated a political ideology, which officials told lawmakers was unusual in a case like this. People who knew Crooks have told investigators that he didn’t often discuss politics.

Pennsylvania voter registration and Federal Election Commission data show Crooks was a registered Republican, but donated $15 through ActBlue, the Democratic-allied organization, in 2021.

A search on Pennsylvania's public court records database indicated Crooks had no criminal history.

Investigators have found no threatening language on his social media accounts, according to Wells of the FBI's counterterrorism division.

To the extent he used social media, it appears he left no major footprint.

At least one social media account associated with Crooks has been confirmed on the group-chatting app Discord.

"We have identified an account that appears to be linked to the suspect; it was rarely utilized and we have found no evidence that it was used to plan this incident, promote violence, or discuss his political views," a Discord spokesperson said in a statement to NPR. "Discord strongly condemns violence of any kind, including political violence, and we will continue to coordinate closely with law enforcement."

Ryan Lucas and Kahwit Tela contributed to this report.

## COMMENTS

Hypothesis. A statement that could be true, which might then be tested. Example: Sam has a hypothesis that "large dogs are better at catching tennis balls than small dogs". We can test that hypothesis by having hundreds of different sized dogs try to catch tennis balls. Sometimes the hypothesis won't be tested, it is simply a good explanation ...

Types of Hypothesis. The hypothesis can be broadly classified into different types. They are: Simple Hypothesis. A simple hypothesis is a hypothesis that there exists a relationship between two variables. One is called a dependent variable, and the other is called an independent variable. Complex Hypothesis.

Hypothesis testing is a technique that is used to verify whether the results of an experiment are statistically significant. It involves the setting up of a null hypothesis and an alternate hypothesis. There are three types of tests that can be conducted under hypothesis testing - z test, t test, and chi square test.

A hypothesis test is a statistical inference method used to test the significance of a proposed (hypothesized) relation between population statistics (parameters) and their corresponding sample estimators. In other words, hypothesis tests are used to determine if there is enough evidence in a sample to prove a hypothesis true for the entire population. The test considers two hypotheses: the ...

A hypothesis is a proposition that is consistent with known data, but has been neither verified nor shown to be false. In statistics, a hypothesis (sometimes called a statistical hypothesis) refers to a statement on which hypothesis testing will be based. Particularly important statistical hypotheses include the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis. In symbolic logic, a hypothesis is the ...

Definition. A hypothesis is a claim or statement that makes sense in the context of some information or data at hand but hasn't been established as true or false through experimentation or proof. In mathematics, any statement or equation that describes some relationship between certain variables can be termed as hypothesis if it is consistent ...

Significance tests give us a formal process for using sample data to evaluate the likelihood of some claim about a population value. Learn how to conduct significance tests and calculate p-values to see how likely a sample result is to occur by random chance. You'll also see how we use p-values to make conclusions about hypotheses.

A hypothesis is a statement or idea which gives an explanation to a series of observations. Sometimes, following observation, a hypothesis will clearly need to be refined or rejected. This happens if a single contradictory observation occurs. For example, suppose that a child is trying to understand the concept of a dog.

The null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) framework. The general situation is this: we want to find out about some aspect of the real world, and we do this by performing an experiment. From the data collected in the experiment, we want to make a deduction about reality, a process known as statistical inference .

Thus the hypothesis is what we must assume in order to be positive that the conclusion will hold. Whenever you are asked to state a theorem, be sure to include the hypothesis. In order to know when you may apply the theorem, you need to know what constraints you have. So in the example above, if we know that a function is differentiable, we may ...

Hypothesis is a testable statement that explains what is happening or observed. It proposes the relation between the various participating variables. Hypothesis is also called Theory, Thesis, Guess, Assumption, or Suggestion. Hypothesis creates a structure that guides the search for knowledge. In this article, we will learn what is hypothesis ...

$\begingroup$ One difficulty is that, for historical reasons, various results have a specific term attached (Parallel postulate, Zorn's lemma, Riemann hypothesis, Collatz conjecture, Axiom of determinacy). These do not always agree with the the usual usage of the words. Also, some theorems have unique names, for example Hilbert's Nullstellensatz.

A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for an observation. The definition depends on the subject. In science, a hypothesis is part of the scientific method. It is a prediction or explanation that is tested by an experiment. Observations and experiments may disprove a scientific hypothesis, but can never entirely prove one.

A hypothesis is a prediction of what will be found at the outcome of a research project and is typically focused on the relationship between two different variables studied in the research. It is usually based on both theoretical expectations about how things work and already existing scientific evidence. Within social science, a hypothesis can ...

The null hypothesis is what happens at baseline. It is the uninteresting hypothesis--the boring hypothesis. Usually, it is the hypothesis that assumes no difference. It is the opposite of your research hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis--that is, the research hypothesis--is the idea, phenomenon, observation that you want to prove.

hypothesis. In mathematics, a hypothesis is an unproven statement which is supported by all the available data and by many weaker results. An unproven mathematical statement is usually called a " conjecture ", and while experimentation can sometimes produce millions of examples to support a conjecture, usually nothing short of a proof can ...

A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. It is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in a study. It is a preliminary answer to your question that helps guide the research process. Consider a study designed to examine the relationship between sleep deprivation and test ...

There are 5 main steps in hypothesis testing: State your research hypothesis as a null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis (H o) and (H a or H 1 ). Collect data in a way designed to test the hypothesis. Perform an appropriate statistical test. Decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis. Present the findings in your results ...

hypothesis: [noun] an assumption or concession made for the sake of argument. an interpretation of a practical situation or condition taken as the ground for action.

The hypothesis of Andreas Cellarius, showing the planetary motions in eccentric and epicyclical orbits. A hypothesis (pl.: hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with ...

Hypothesis : A hypothesis is like a statement for a guess, ... I'm not the authority on this, but this is how I interpret all of these words in math literature: Definition - This is an assignment of language and syntax to some property of a set, function, or other object. A definition is not something you prove, it is something someone assigns.

Functions of Hypothesis. Following are the functions performed by the hypothesis: Hypothesis helps in making an observation and experiments possible. It becomes the start point for the investigation. Hypothesis helps in verifying the observations. It helps in directing the inquiries in the right direction.

Mathematical universe hypothesis. In physics and cosmology, the mathematical universe hypothesis ( MUH ), also known as the ultimate ensemble theory, is a speculative "theory of everything" (TOE) proposed by cosmologist Max Tegmark. [1] [2] According to the hypothesis, the universe is a mathematical object in and of itself.

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But math analysis like this has come a long way since the 1970s. Today, Sinha and Saha are able to analyze an existing model and remodel it with altered terms. They're able to build a sequence ...

More specifically we show that both models characterize a flow with the same dominant components when the ratio of the horizontal length to the depth of the aquifer is small. Second, the new model accurately describes the velocity field. In particular, it is not based on the Dupuit hypothesis, which is often used in the context of shallow aquifers.

Less than a week out from the shocking assassination attempt on former President Donald Trump, authorities are still working to unravel who the gunman was and what may have driven him to act.. The ...