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Article ii, united states constitution.

  • 1 Section 1
  • 2 Section 2
  • 3 Section 3
  • 4 Section 4
  • 5 External links

Article II of the United States Constitution details the executive branch of government.

It has four sections and has been amended twice, once by each of the following amendments:

  • Amendment XII (1804)
  • Amendment XXV (1967)

Note: The following text is a transcription of the Constitution in its original form. Sections that are linked have since been amended or superseded.

External links

  • Transcript of the United States Constitution
  • United States Constitution

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visual representation of article 2 of the constitution

Contact: ✉️ [email protected] ☎️ (803) 302-3545

Article 2 of the constitution.

Whereas Article 1 sets out the guidelines of the legislative branch, Article 2 deals with the executive branch .

But what is Article 2 of the Constitution ?

Article 2 introduces the executive branch , which comprises  the President, Vice-President, and other executive officers .

Read on to find out how Article 2 deals with the many different roles needed to lead the United States .

Click here or scroll down for a summary of Article 2 of the United States Constitution.

Article 2, Section 1

  • The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows
  • Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.
  • The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.
  • The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.
  • No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.
  • In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the VicePresident, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.
  • The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.
  • Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:—“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

Article 2, Section 2

  • The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.
  • He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.
  • The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Article 2, Section 3

Article 2, section 4.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Article 2 of the Constitution

The United States Constitution is the oldest active constitution globally, written in 1787 and ratified in 1788. Widely considered one of the most successful and effective national constitutions ever written, it comprises seven sections known as articles and 27 amendments .

Article 2 of the Constitution sets the guidelines and rules for the federal government ‘s executive branch , the branch responsible for directly administering the country.

There are 4 sections in Article 2 containing different clauses addressing various issues relating to the president, vice president, and other executive and federal officials.

Article 2 , Section 1

Article 2 , Section 1, Clause 1 specifies that a president will serve as head of the federal government ‘s executive branch , serving a 4-year term. Similarly, the vice-president will serve the federal government ‘s executive branch as vice president .

While there are no limitations on how many terms the president can serve in Article 2 , the 22nd Amendment of the US Constitution limits the president to two 4-year terms .

Article 2 , Section 1, Clause 2 appoints electors from each State who will be directly responsible for selecting the United States president and vice president .

The number of electors from each state is equal to the number of representatives and senators apportioned to each state under the United States Constitution .

There is a stipulation that no elector can at the time be serving as a senator, representative, or other position created by the federal government .

Article 2 , Section 1, Clause 3 establishes the electors ‘ guidelines for selecting the President and vice president of the United States . Electors are directed to meet in their respective states and vote for two individuals, with at least one of the two being a resident of another state.

How are the President and Vice President chosen?

The votes will be delivered to the Senate President, who will count them in the Senate and House of Representative’s presence. The individual with the greatest amount will become President as long as the amount of votes received by them is at least a majority of the electors ‘ total amount.

The individual with the 2nd highest total will be the Vice President .

If more than one individual gets a majority of votes of the total number of electors, this will result  in a tie. In that case, the House of Representatives will vote to determine the President.

If no individual gets a majority, then the House of Representatives will vote between the individuals with the five highest vote totals.

Each state delegation gets one vote from their representative district. If the vote is won, it goes to the House of Representatives. Finally, if there is a tie for the 2nd highest vote total to determine the Vice President , the Senate will determine the winner in a vote .

As might be expected, giving the role of the presidency to the highest vote total and the role of the vice presidency to the 2nd highest vote total created massive problems.

Fellow rivals and competitors for the presidency did not work well together in the same administration and respective offices in the United States  early years.

As a result, the 12th Amendment of the United States Constitution was enacted in 1804, which altered the process in many ways, most notably separating the two assigned votes for the electors into two separate ballots, one for the President and one for the Vice President .

This eliminated the problem of two rival factions serving as President and Vice President .

Article 2 , Section 1, Clause 4 gives Congress the authority to determine when an election is held and when the electors cast their votes for President.

These dates are uniform in every State of the US.

Article 2 , Section 1, Clause 5 sets the qualifications for an individual to serve as President of the United States , namely that the individual is a natural-born citizen of the United States , over 35 years old, and a resident in the United States for at least 14 years.

They also need to win a general election .

Article 2 , Section 1, Clause 6 specifies that the vice president will take over the president’s roles, responsibilities, and duties if the president is removed or can no longer serve.

The line of succession determines this.

Suppose the president and vice president are removed or can no longer serve in their roles. In that case, Congress has the authority to appoint a qualified individual to the vacancy of an acting president who will finish the term.

The 25th Amendment of the United States Constitution provides additional guidelines and procedures to clarify this clause’s ambiguous nature.

Article 2 , Section 1, Clause 7 states that the President will receive a salary that will not be altered during their service term. They cannot accept any additional money on top of their compensation from the federal government or any state government .

Article 2 , Section 1, Clause 8 requires the President-Elect to take an oath of office before assuming the presidency.

The pledge is:

“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States , and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States .”

Article 2 , Section 2

Role and power of the president.

Article 2 , Section 2, Clause 1 establishes the President as the United States armed forces leader, specifically naming him Commander in Chief.

A senior Cabinet of officials is also created in this clause, and the President’s pardon power is given. This pardon power may not be used in impeachment cases. The exclusion of authority to grant a pardon in impeachment cases is due to added complications in the balance of power.

Constitutional Powers of the President

Article 2, Section 2, Clause 2 gives the President executive power to sign treaties on behalf of the United States with counsel from the Senate and at least two-thirds support.

Along with counsel and advice from the Senate, the President is given authority to appoint judges, ambassadors, and other public officials.

The Senate also has the right to let the President appoint officials without their consent or advice if the Senate considers them minor appointments. Minor appointments do not need an election .

Article 2 , Section 2, Clause 3 gives the President power to fill vacancies that arise when the Senate is in recess. This can be done without Senate approval.

These appointments expire at the end of Congress’s following session.

Article 2 , Section 3

Specific roles of the president.

Article 2 , Section 3 of the constitution specifies several other specific roles, responsibilities, and rights that the President has.

The President:

  • is required to keep Congress informed about governmental affairs through regular State of the Union addresses
  • can call either or both houses of Congress to a special session
  • is responsible for receiving foreign ambassadors that come to the United States
  • can make sure that all laws are executed faithfully while they are in the office
  • can commission US officers if necessary

Article 2 , Section 4

Section 4 of Article 2 allows for the removal from the Office of the President, Vice President , and any civil officer of the United States if they are impeached and then convicted of treason , bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

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However, impeachment is a complicated process and has not yet been effective in removing officers from office .

Watch the following video for a summary of Article 2:

Graphic showing a summary of article 2 of the constitution:.

Article 2 of the Constitution outlines the executive branch of the US Government. It gives particular attention to the president and his/her powers and responsibilities.

As it can be difficult to understand, we have explained the text of the 2nd article in simple words – summarizing the main points.

We hope that you find it useful. Feel free to share this graphic!

Article 2 Quiz

If you would like to download a PDF with our quiz, then please go to:

Download the quiz PDF

Alternatively, you can take our online quiz here:

Article 2 of the Constitution Quiz

img-11

Edward Savey

3 responses.

It’s been a while since I last read our Constitution, and the recent circumstances and events, as well as those occurring now, have compelled me to do so. I’m amazed by the egregious nature of the acts and the absence of acts that would if properly discharged, be beneficial to the United States but which, as currently be the case, are a glaring detriment to them. This is my country. I was born here, and will most likely die here, and I’m unable to see any excuse to silently tolerate what’s happening.

Thanks to whoever made this material available for me to study. It’s a great help.

I need to know if Puerto Rico violates the Second Article of the US constitution by not allowing or making it very difficult for Puerto Rican to enter or exit the island with Fire Arms. And almost impossible to travel or transport a Fire Arm in a plane when traveling from State to State or any of the US territories. Something must be done to remove all restrictions to transporting a fire Arm to Puerto Rico. If the US citizen has any Concealed Weapon permit from any State, he/she should not be restricted from transporting the weapon on entrance to Puerto Rico with it.

It is not “Article 2”, it is “Article II”. The use of the Arabic “2” is a sop to the ignorant who don’t know Roman numerals. I prefer teaching those that need it what Roman numerals are rather than misquoting the actual Constitution

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Article 5 of the Constitution Summary

Article 4 of the constitution, article 6 of the constitution summary, article 3 of the constitution, please enter your email address to be updated of new content:.

© 2023 US Constitution All rights reserved

Legislative Branch

National Archives Logo

Understanding Federalism

Each of the five activities in this lesson introduces a different aspect of federalism. Introducing Federalism explores everyday situations that demonstrate the influence of federalism. The Historic Roots of Federalism shows students how the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution are grounded in federalism. Federalism in the Constitution explores federalism as described in Article I of the Constitution. Federalism in History uses historic legislation to illustrate how the relationship between the Federal government and the states has changed over time. Federalism in Everyday Life uses everyday experience to show the overlap among the different levels of government. The activities can be completed separately over the course of several classes.

Students will learn about federalism and its role in civic life by completing one or more of the activities.

Guiding Question

What is federalism, and how does this constitutional principle influence government and civic life in the United States?

6 Worksheets

Answer Keys

Recommended Grade Levels

Civics; U.S. Government

Time Required

Each activity requires approximately 30 minutes to complete. Activity 5 has two optional parts which can be done in class or as homework assignments.

Learning Activities

Activity 1: Introducing Federalism

  • What is the definition of federalism? A system of government divided among local, state, and national responsibilities.
  • Why is federalism an important civic concept to understand? People encounter and interact with different levels of government—local, state, and Federal—every day.
  • Distribute Worksheet 1. Instruct each student to use the definitions for each term to fill out the remaining two columns. The column for "Visual Representation" should be completed with an illustration showing the level of government and what it presides over. (E.g., a representation of the Federal government presiding over the states.) Check the students' work using the Worksheet 1 Answer Key.
  • Distribute Worksheet 2. Instruct each student to answer the questions, write the explanation called for, and fill out the diagram following the directions on the worksheet. Check the students' work using the Worksheet 2 Answer Key.

Activity 2: The Historic Roots of Federalism

  • Federalism has not had one set definition throughout history, because the idea of the appropriate balance of authority among the local, state, and Federal governments has changed over time.
  • Federalism is not specifically defined in the Constitution, but its meaning is suggested in how the national government is described.
  • How is the role of the states different in the two preambles? Under the Articles of Confederation the states were partners in the union and had power over the action of the Federal government. The relationship of the states to the Federal government was not mentioned in the Preamble of the Constitution.
  • Does the difference in the role of the states suggest a change in the meaning of federalism? Federalism under the Articles of Confederation meant that all states had to agree to each action of the Federal government in order for the Federal government to act. The role of the states and their relationship is not spelled out in the Preamble of the Constitution.

Activity 3: Federalism in the Constitution

  • Discuss the concept of enumerated powers (powers granted to the Federal government), denied powers, and reserved power in the Constitution.
  • Distribute Worksheet 4. Instruct the students to read the excerpt from the Constitution, and label each power as either E for enumerated power, D for denied power, or R for reserved power. Check the students' work using the Worksheet 4 Answer Key.
  • Conduct a class discussion on the following question to check the students' understanding: (A suggested answer is italicized following the question.)
  • Which clause of Article I, Section 8 do you think has the greatest influence on the discussion of Federalism? The answers can vary, but the most solid case might be made for Article I, Section 8 "To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof."
  • The Tenth Amendment does not list any specific powers. What does that mean? The Tenth Amendment broadly says that all powers not given to the national government are reserved for the states and the people. This leaves the meaning of reserved powers open to interpretation.
  • In what ways might the Tenth Amendment influence the interpretation of the Enumerated Powers? The Tenth Amendment suggests that the states have undefined powers reserved to them. Determining the extent of the authority reserved to the states by this amendment has been a long-running debate in U.S. history.

Activity 4: Federalism in History

  • Introduce the students to the idea that the balance of authority between the Federal government and the states has shifted at different times in American history.
  • Explain how legislation can grant new authority or responsibility to Federal, state, or local government.
  • Distribute Worksheets 5. This worksheet presents two famous acts of legislation that changed the balance of authority between the Federal government and the states during the 20th century. Each example invites an assessment of the balance of authority over a topic. Check the students' work using the Worksheet 5 Answer Key.

Activity 5: Federalism in Everyday Life

  • Remind the students of how Worksheet 2 illustrated the overlap among the levels of government. Explain that, as a consequence, we often see examples in everyday life that demonstrate the overlapping authority of different levels of government.
  • Distribute Worksheet 6 to the students. Completing this worksheet will illustrate how federalism is encountered every day, and how the responsibilities of the three levels of government are interconnected.

Optional Activity

  • The optional activity printed on page two of Worksheet 6 invites the students to identify how they experience the constitutional concept of federalism in everyday life.
  • Ask the students to present their experience of federalism to the class by making a PowerPoint, poster, or video.

Additional Resources

Did you like this lesson? Educators who used this lesson also viewed:

  • Teaching Six Big Ideas in the Constitution - Students engage in a study of the U.S. Constitution and the significance of six big ideas contained in it: limited government; republicanism; checks and balances; federalism; separation of powers; and popular sovereignty.

Return to Lesson Plans

If you have problems viewing this page, please contact [email protected] .

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Article II of the US Constitution. Executive Department

The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows.

  • Creation of the Presidency
  • Hamilton and Madison.
  • The Myers Case.
  • The Curtiss-Wright Case.
  • The Youngstown Case.
  • The Zivotofsky Case.
  • The Practice in the Presidential Office.
  • Executive Power: Separation-of-Powers Judicial Protection

Clause 2. Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

Clause 3. The Electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed: and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.

Clause 4. The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

  • State Discretion in Choosing Electors
  • Constitutional Status of Electors
  • Electors as Free Agents

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been Fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

  • Qualifications

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

  • Presidential Succession

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

  • Compensation And Emoluments

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:—“I do solemly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

  • Oath Of Office

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Office, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

  • The Limited View.
  • The Prize Cases.
  • Impact of the Prize Cases on World Wars I and II.
  • Presidential War Agencies.
  • Constitutional Status of Presidential Agencies.
  • Evacuation of the West Coast Japanese.
  • Presidential Government of Labor Regulations.
  • Sanctions Implementing Presidential Directives.
  • The Postwar Period.
  • The Historic Use of Force Abroad.
  • The Theory of Presidential Power.
  • The Power of Congress to Control the President’s Discretion.
  • The Commander-in-Chief a Civilian Officer.
  • Martial Law in Hawaii.
  • Articles of War: The Nazi Saboteurs.
  • Articles of War: World War II Crimes.
  • Articles of War: Response to the Attacks of September 11, 2001.
  • Martial Law and Domestic Disorder.
  • The Cabinet
  • The Legal Nature of a Pardon
  • Offenses Against the United States: Contempt of Court.
  • Effects of a Pardon: Ex parte Garland.
  • Limits to the Efficacy of a Pardon.
  • Congress and Amnesty

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Court of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

  • Negotiation, a Presidential Monopoly.
  • Origin of the Conception.
  • Treaties and the States.
  • Treaties and Congress.
  • Congressional Repeal of Treaties.
  • Treaties Versus Prior Acts of Congress.
  • When Is a Treaty Self-Executing.
  • Treaties and the Necessary and Proper Clause.
  • Constitutional Limitations on the Treaty Power
  • Termination of Treaties by Notice.
  • Determination Whether a Treaty Has Lapsed.
  • Status of a Treaty a Political Question.
  • Present Status of Indian Treaties.
  • Reciprocal Trade Agreements.
  • The Constitutionality of Trade Agreements.
  • The Lend-Lease Act.
  • International Organizations.
  • Arbitration Agreements.
  • Agreements Under the United Nations Charter.
  • Status of Forces Agreements.
  • The Litvinov Agreement.
  • The Hull-Lothian Agreement.
  • The Post-War Years.
  • The Domestic Obligation of Executive Agreements
  • State Laws Affecting Foreign Relations—Dormant Federal Power and Preemption
  • Presidential Diplomatic Agents.
  • Congressional Regulation of Conduct in Office.
  • The Loyalty Issue.
  • Financial Disclosure and Limitations.
  • Legislation Increasing Duties of an Officer.
  • Nomination.
  • Senate Approval.
  • When Senate Consent Is Complete.
  • The Humphrey Case.
  • The Wiener Case.
  • The Watergate Controversy.
  • The Removal Power Rationalized.
  • Inferior Officers.
  • Private Access to Government Information.
  • Prosecutorial and Grand Jury Access to Presidential Documents.
  • Congressional Access to Executive Branch Information.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

  • Judicial Appointments
  • Ad Interim Designations

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information on the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

  • Legislative Role Of The President
  • The Right of Reception: Scope of the Power
  • The Logan Act.
  • A Formal or a Formative Power.
  • The President’s Diplomatic Role.
  • Jefferson’s Real Position.
  • The Case of Cuba.
  • The Power of Nonrecognition.
  • Congressional Implementation of Presidential Policies
  • Recent Statements of the Doctrine.
  • Powers Derived From The “Take Care” Duty
  • Impoundment of Appropriated Funds
  • Administrative Decentralization Versus Jacksonian Centralism.
  • Congressional Power Versus Presidential Duty to the Law.
  • Myers Versus Morrison.
  • Power of the President to Guide Enforcement of the Penal Law.
  • The President as Law Interpreter
  • Military Power in Law Enforcement: The Posse Comitatus
  • Suspension of Habeas Corpus by the President
  • The Debs Case.
  • Present Status of the Debs Case.
  • The President’s Duty in Cases of Domestic Violence in the States
  • The President as Executor of the Law of Nations
  • Congress and the President versus Foreign Expropriation
  • The Doctrine of the Opinion of the Court
  • The Doctrine Considered
  • Power Denied by Congress
  • Unofficial Conduct
  • The President’s Subordinates
  • Commissioning Officers

The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

  • Judgment—Removal and Disqualification
  • Impeachable Offenses
  • The Chase Impeachment
  • Other Impeachments of Judges
  • The Johnson Impeachment
  • The Nixon Impeachment Proceedings
  • The Clinton Impeachment
  • Judicial Review of Impeachments

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Notebook Info

Unit 2 Notebook - Notebook grade

Grade calculation: Your points scored / 186 = Your grade

*Points are scored based on correct answers to the questions in this notebook. The questions and activities are designed to help students practice and show progress on their new skills.

Founding Documents

Directions: What is the United States Government based on? Read about the Declaration of Independence here . Find and record the date the document was created, who it was written by, and its purpose. Find a photo copy of the original document and paste in the box below.

Copy of the original Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independence

Written By:

Directions: What is the United States Government based on? Read about the Articles of Confederation here . Find and record the date the document was created, who it was written by, and its purpose. Find a photo copy of the original document and paste in the box below.

Copy of the original Articles of Confederation

Articles of Confederation

Date created:

Date ratified:

Distribution of power: (describe who was in charge, and what laws were based on in this form of government)

Directions: What is the United States Government based on? Read about the U.S. Constitution here . Find and record the date the document was created, who it was written by, and its purpose. Find a photo copy of the original document and paste in the box below.

Copy of the original U.S. Constitution

U.S. Constitution

Directions: What is the United States Government based on? Read about the Bill of Rights here . Find and record the date the document was created, who it was written by, and its purpose. Find a photo copy of the original document and paste in the box below.

Copy of the original Bill of Rights

Bill of Rights

Timeline of Founding Documents

Directions : Use google search to find the dates each document was ratified. Drag the documents to their correct location on the timeline.

End of American Revolution (Treaty of Paris)

Drag & Drop onto Your Page:

Declaration and Revolution

Directions: How did the American Revolution begin? Read about the cause and start of the American revolution on this website . Find the correct information and fill it into the organizer below.

Type here...

Type Here...

Reasons for Revolution

People Involved

Describe (date, people present, what was done)

Second Continental Congress

Describe (date, people present, what it historical marks as a key event, philosophy that helped shape)

American Revolution - Worst Breakup Ever

Directions: What angered the Americans, and influenced their decision for a revolution? Take a close look at each of these 6 primary sources. For each source, fill out the chart information below.

Declaration - Grievances against a Tyrant

Directions: What angered the Americans, and influenced their decision for a revolution? Read this excerpt on revolution philosophies . Then, take a look at 6 original grievances in the DOI. Use them to fill in the chart below.

The Articles of Confederation

Directions : After declaring independence from Great Britain, America’s first government was established by the Articles of Confederation. After analyzing the Articles and its weaknesses , select what you think are its 3 biggest weaknesses. Explain why you think the authors included them or their reasoning and then why you think it proved to be a major weakness.

Why it was a Weakness

Reason for Inclusion

Economic Disorganization

Wanted to avoid unfair taxes and regulations (stamp act, tea act)

  • Congress couldn’t regulate trade
  • No common currency
  • No power to tax

Couldn’t compete with foreign trade, couldn’t fund the government

Lack of Central Leadership

Wanted to avoid unfair courts and wars

(French and Indian War, Kangaroo Courts, Monarchy as a whole)

  • No consistent court system
  • No president

Couldn’t deal with external/internal threats quickly. No military. Had to get all states to agree, no time.

Legislative inefficiencies

Wanted to avoid certain states getting more power than others.

(Taxation without representation)

  • Each state had one vote
  • difficulty passing laws
  • impractical amendment process

Took forever to write and pass a law, nothing got done.

The Philadelphia Convention

Directions : The Constitutional Convention of 1787 took place in Philadelphia and originally was held to revise the Articles of Confederation. It was quickly decided, however, that a totally new government was needed. After reading about the Convention and its delegates , complete the graphic organizer below on key delegates and plans of the Convention.

GEORGE WASHINGTON

President of the Convention

His contributions included…

Moderated the convention

JAMES MADISON

Father of the Constitution

Wrote the majority of the Constitution

ALEXANDER HAMILTON

The Federalist

Pushed the idea of a federal government..

Virginia Plan

Each state’s votes in the Congress should be based on their population.

More people = more votes

New Jersey Plan

Each state should have equal votes in the Congress, regardless of population.

Each state = 1 vote

Important Compromises

Great Compromise - Bicameral Congress. The House’s members will be based on the Virginia Plan; The Senate will be based on the New Jersey Plan.

3/5ths Compromise - Slaves will count as 3/5ths a person will tallying population of states.

Founding Fathers

Directions : There are many people who helped play a role in the founding of the U.S. Government. Think about the men that were present at the drafting of the Constitution . Spend some time with one of your choice from this list ( here ). Gather information on their personal life and political contributions.

Image of the Founding Father

Dates of Life:

Home City/Area:

  • three major
  • accomplishments
  • or interesting facts

His role in the Constitutional Convention was…

First Last Name

Directions : One way the U.S. celebrates, and commemorates the Founding Fathers is by using their portraits on the currency. Research the different types of currency each Founding Father appears on, and provide images for each type.

Directions : Think about the currency amounts that each Founding Father appears on. For example, Washington is on a 1 dollar bill, while Benjamin Franklin is on the 100 dollar bill. Why do you think those Founding Fathers were assigned those currency amounts? Please explain in the space below.

In your words….

Directions : Below is a copy of the Preamble to the Constitution of the United States. Read each line carefully, and try your best to paraphrase the line in your own words. What do these phrases mean to you?

My Explanation

Describe here...

Article 1 of the Constitution

Directions : Analyze Article 1 (also here ) of America’s Constitution . Match each explanation to the correct section of Article 1 by dragging and dropping it into the correct place. Then, provide your own brief explanation of what Article 1 is all about.

America’s legislative powers are held by a bicameral (two chamber) Congress.

Members of the House of Representatives are elected every 2 years, must be 25, a citizen for 7 years, and are apportioned based on state population.

Each state gets 2 Senators regardless of population. They must be 30-years-old and a citizen for 9 years. The Vice President is president of the Senate.

Federal elections are conducted by the individual states and Congress must meet at least once a year.

The Senate and House each sets its own rules, disciplines its own members, and can expel a member with a a two-thirds vote.

The “speech or debate” clause protects members from criminal or civil liability in the performance of their legislative responsibilities.

All tax bills come from the House of Representatives and laws must pass through both houses then be presented to the President to become law.

Congress has the power to tax, spend the money raised by taxes, provide for the nation’s defense and general welfare and make all laws necessary and proper to do its duty.

Jailed people can require their jailer to justify their imprisonment to a court. Only Congress may suspend this during causes of rebellion or invasion.

States cannot create treaties, coin money, interfere with trade or keep an army during times of peace.

Article 2 of the Constitution

Directions : Analyze Article 2 (also here ) of America’s Constitution . Paste in a picture of the president (or your favorite president) and then complete the graphic organizer with the required information and note the specific Section of Article 2 each was found in.

Qualifications to be President

___________?____________

President of the United States

The President’s Powers

The President’s Duties

How can a president be removed from office?

Article 3 of the Constitution

Directions : Analyze Article 3 (also here ) of America’s Constitution . After learning about the Court System in America as described in the Constitution, complete the graphic organizer below.

The Supreme Court

Explain what the Constitution specifies about the Supreme Court here….

Judicial Power

Explain what the Constitution specifies about Judicial Power here….

Explain what the Constitution specifies about the Treason here….

Article 4 of the Constitution

Directions : Analyze Article 4 (also here ) of America’s Constitution . This article deals with statehood and American citizenship. After reading through each section, match the statements below to the correct Section they come from by dragging and dropping them.

Congress can admit new states into the Union.

States cannot discriminate against citizens of other states.

States must honor the laws and court orders of other states.

Each state must have a republican form of government.

Congress has the power to determine how states recognize laws from other states.

States must give citizens of other states the same rights as people from their state.

Criminals who flee from 1 state to another must be returned.

A state cannot create a new state within its borders,

Congress has the power to sell off or make laws in territories owned by the United States.

The United States must protect each state against invasion.

Bonus : How many Amendments to the Constitution have there been?

Article 5 of the Constitution

Directions : Analyze Article 5 (also here ) of America’s Constitution . After you read about the amendment process, complete the flowchart showing the ways an amendment is proposed and ratified.

2/3s in both House and Senate proposes idea

Ways to Propose an Amendment

⅔ of the states propose idea

Ways to Ratify an Amendment

3/ 4ths of the state legislatures must vote to ratify the change

3/ 4ths of state conventions must vote to ratify

Articles 6 & 7 of the Constitution

Directions : : The last two articles of America’s Constitution are Article 6 (also here ) and Article 7 (also here ). These deal with debts, supremacy, and ratification. Read about how the Constitution was ratified here to complete the graphic organizer below and sort the states in the order they ratified by dragging and dropping them onto the timeline in the correct order..

Drag & Drop by order of Ratification:

Ratification Timeline

What happens when a state law conflicts with federal law?

Research to find an example of the Supremacy Clause coming up in a conflict between state & federal law. Explain the basis of the case and resolution.

Pennsylvania

South Carolina

New Hampshire

Massachusetts

North Carolina

Rhode Island

Connecticut

Create a visual for the Supremacy Clause by pasting in picture(s) below for state vs. federal laws.

Federalists, Anti-Federalists, & Ratification

Directions : After the Constitution was completed, two groups developed: The Federalists who pushed for immediate ratification and the Anti-Federalists who were against it. After learning about each group , complete the chart below.

Explain the outcome of the debate here….

America’s Federal System

Directions : The Constitution set up a Federal system of government for America. This divided authority between the national government and state governments, with each retaining significant authority. After reviewing the Constitution, complete the Venn Diagram below with the powers of each.

Powers Granted to States

Powers of the National Government

Concurrent Powers

Maintain the military

Regulates trade

Coin money / borrow money

Regulate commerce

declare war

establishing post office

establish local governments

regulate commerce/business within the state

issue license (fishing, hunting, drivers, marriage license)

conduct elections

run schools

ratify amendments

protecting public health and safety

Enforce laws

collect taxes

establish courts

regulate banks build infrastructure

George Mason - Father of the Bill of Rights

Directions: Who came up with the idea? First, describe who George Mason was, where he came from, and during what years he lived. Find an image of the man. Then, describe his influence on the Bill of Rights. What specific document helped prep his ideas for him?

Who was George Mason?

Type your response here…

George Mason’s Influence

Photo of document that George Mason wrote that helped influence Bill of Rights

The Bill of Rights

Directions : Several states refused to ratify the Constitution until a Bill of Rights was added. After reading about the Constitution’s first 10 Amendments , explain each Amendment in your own words then find and paste a picture that you feel best represents it.

4th Amendment

3rd Amendment

2nd Amendment

1st Amendment

8th Amendment

7th Amendment

6th Amendment

5th Amendment

10th Amendment

9th Amendment

Apply, Analyze, and Synthesize

Directions: Read the following scenarios, and determine which amendment pertains to each scenario. Review the pertinent amendment, and answer the question accordingly. Be sure to answer each question with complete sentences, and include a reference to the pertinent amendment in your answer

1. Students at Farmington Junior High hate their new history teacher. They stage a demonstration outside the school to protest the amount of homework he gives and each student makes a personal speech expressing his/her feelings of hatred toward this teacher. Can they do this? Why/why not?

No, they can’t because hate speech is not allowed

2. I’ve been accused of stealing a civics textbook from the classroom and have been put in jail. I’ve been waiting for my trial for 10 years now. I was finally granted a trial for tomorrow. But I just found out that it will be a private trial with a jury that consists entirely of retired history teachers. Is this constitutional?

No, right to a speedy and public trial, jury of our peers

3. Students across the state of New Jersey are enraged because Governor Corzine signed a law extending school hours to 10 hours a day, 6 days a week, 12 months a year. To show their anger, they burned a picture of Governor Corzine. Is this legal? Why/why not?

Yes, it’s not in public and they are not publicizing their “aggression/hate/violence”

4. Students at Highland Park Middle School cannot get enough books to read at their local library because the demand for books is so great. Rioting and fighting over books has become such a problem that the National Guard has been sent to keep the peace. The soldiers in the National Guard need a place to stay, and they are demanding that your parents let them stay at your place. Do they have the right to do this?

Type here..

No, it is technically peace time.

5 . The state legislature of New Jersey passed a law that requires all students across the state to attend a Christian or Jewish church service once a week. If students neglect to attend this meeting, they will be suspended from school and will not graduate from high school. Is this law constitutional? Why/why not?

6. Police suspect students at Farmington Junior High of possessing illegal drugs and firearms. Police have been watching and have targeted a few nameless students. One night, they charged into the students’ homes and took their backpacks and personal belongings to search. The police did not have any warrants when they did this. Is this constitutional?

7. A student has been accused of stealing the door to Mr. Mladnick’s classroom. Apparently the student in question has very big pockets. When the student goes to court, does he have to answer all of the questions the judge or lawyers ask him? If he really did steal the door, does he have to admit to it when asked?

8. I was found guilty of stealing a French fry from another student’s plate in the cafeteria. The case was taken to court, and I was sentenced to death. Is this constitutional?

Click me

The 10-Minute Guide To The U.S. Constitution

THE 10-MINUTE GUIDE TO THE U.S. CONSTITUTION The Constitution is the supreme law of the United States. It is the framework for the organization of the United States government and for the relationship of the federal government with the states, citizens, and all people. The question today is, who understands what the Constitution is? Members of Congress are carrying around pocket-sized handbooks of the Constitution reminding them how our country was founded. These simple truths they should know by heart. FUN FACTS Wethe Yeople • The U.S. Constitution is 223 YEARS OLD. PREAMBLE: tWe Uniia nie demeste • Through many revisions, the original Constitution took 116 DAYS to write, from May 25, 1787 to September 17, 1787. Describes the purpose of the document and government. iten 1. he Hnyse, ARTICLES: Establish how the government is structured and how the Constitution can be changed. • The original, unamended U.S. Constitution is home to 4,543 WORDS, including the signatures. There are 7 articles. AMENDMENTS: OF THE Changes to the Constitution. There are 27 total. The first 10 are called the Bill of Rights. RESOLVTD AMENDMENT BREAKDOWN 1. Freedom of Speech, Press, Assembly, Religion and Petition 2. Right to Bear Arms 3. No Quartering of Soldiers 4. No Illegal Search and Seizure 5. Trial and Punishment, Compensation for Takings 6. Right to Speedy Trial, Confrontation of Witnesses 7. Trial by Jury in Civil Cases 8. No Cruel and Unusual Punishment 9. Rights of the People are not limited to those listed in the 14. Citizenship Rights 15. Race No Bar to Vote 16. Status of Income Tax Clarified 17. Senators Elected by Popular Vote 18. Liquor Abolished 19. Women's Suffrage 20. Presidential, Congressional Terms 21. Amendment 18 Repealed 22. Presidential Term Limits Constitution 23. Presidential Vote for District of Columbia 10. Powers Reserved to the States 11. Judicial Limits 24. Poll Taxes Barred 12. Choosing the President, Vice President 13. Slavery Abolished 25. Presidential Disability and Succession 26. Voting Age Set to 18 Years 27. Limiting Changes to Congressional Pay SEPARATION OF POWERS Three branches of government, executive, legislative and judicial, each with its own responsibilities, operating individually, but also working together for the good of the people. LEGISLATIVE EXECUTIVE THE PRESIDENT JUDICIAL THE SUPREME COURT • It is split into two parts: THE • The President ENFORCES THE LAWS. Before a law is passed he • This includes all the federal courts, all the way down to lower courts. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES AND THE SENATE. must agree to it. • The courts DECIDE WHAT THE • Every state has at least one • The Executive Branch also includes THE VICE PRESIDENT, THE LAW MEANS when there are REPRESENTATIVE. questions. SECRETARIES AND ALL THE • The Congress MAKES LAWS. DEPARTMENTS. • The people elect the members of CONGRESS ALL OF THE PARTS MUST WORK TOGETHER. NO PART HAS TOO MUCH POWER BECAUSE THE POWER IS SHARED. GOVERNING PRINCIPLES OUR CONGRESS, PRESIDENT AND COURTS SHOULD KNOW FEDERALISM POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY Power is shared between the federal The idea that government is created by the people and subject to their will through their government and the union of states. votes. CHECKS AND BALANCES INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS A way of keeping any branch of government from gaining too much power over the other branches. This maintains a balance between the three branches of government, with each branch having the authority to check the powers of the other two. The Government, Executive Branch, Senate, and Supreme Court are all in place to ensure the rights of individuals, as opposed to group rights, are kept. Individual rights stem from the rights outlined in the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. HOW DIFFERENT PARTIES VIEW THE CONSTITUTION Democrats advocate that the Constitution is not designed to be a set of specific principles and guidelines, but that it was designed to be a general principle, a basic skeleton on which contemporary vision would build upon. DEMOCRATS House Republicans will celebrate their first week back in power by reading the Constitution and Amendments on the House floor. House Republicans say the constitutional revival is rooted in substance, not just symbolism. REPUBLICANS Members of the Tea Party like to claim the Constitution as their sacred text. They demand that Americans return to their Constitutional roots. TEA PARTY Sources: archives.govI wsj.com I huffingtonpost.com I usconstitution.net topics.law.cornell.edu I newsweek.com mindflash.com Bill of Rights

visual representation of article 2 of the constitution

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The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected, as follows:

Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.

The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each state having one vote; A quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice President.

The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty five years, and been fourteen Years a resident within the United States.

In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation:--"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."

The President shall be commander in chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.

He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law: but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.

The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session.

He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the state of the union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States.

The President, Vice President and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

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Computer Science > Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition

Title: nerfcodec: neural feature compression meets neural radiance fields for memory-efficient scene representation.

Abstract: The emergence of Neural Radiance Fields (NeRF) has greatly impacted 3D scene modeling and novel-view synthesis. As a kind of visual media for 3D scene representation, compression with high rate-distortion performance is an eternal target. Motivated by advances in neural compression and neural field representation, we propose NeRFCodec, an end-to-end NeRF compression framework that integrates non-linear transform, quantization, and entropy coding for memory-efficient scene representation. Since training a non-linear transform directly on a large scale of NeRF feature planes is impractical, we discover that pre-trained neural 2D image codec can be utilized for compressing the features when adding content-specific parameters. Specifically, we reuse neural 2D image codec but modify its encoder and decoder heads, while keeping the other parts of the pre-trained decoder frozen. This allows us to train the full pipeline via supervision of rendering loss and entropy loss, yielding the rate-distortion balance by updating the content-specific parameters. At test time, the bitstreams containing latent code, feature decoder head, and other side information are transmitted for communication. Experimental results demonstrate our method outperforms existing NeRF compression methods, enabling high-quality novel view synthesis with a memory budget of 0.5 MB.

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Eugene McDermott Library

U.s. constitution.

  • Introduction
  • Bill of Rights
  • Amendments 11-27
  • Further Reading

Section. 1.

The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:—"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."

Section. 2.

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Section. 3.

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

Section. 4.

The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

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  • Last Updated: Jan 12, 2024 12:07 PM
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First Amendment Exhibit Historic Graphic

New exhibit

The first amendment, the united states constitution.

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

The Constitutional Convention

Section 1: congress.

All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section 2: The House of Representatives

The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct.The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers;and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Section 3: The Senate

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Section 4: Elections

The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Section 5: Powers and Duties of Congress

Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members,and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section 6: Rights and Disabilities of Members

The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States.They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

Section 7: Legislative Process

All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Section 8: Powers of Congress

The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises , to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

To establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards and other needful Buildings;-And

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Section 9: Powers Denied Congress

The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

Section 10: Powers Denied to the States

No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America.

He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:--"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

Article III

The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;--to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;--to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;--to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;-- to Controversies between two or more States;--between a State and Citizens of another State;--between Citizens of different States;--between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment; shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.

New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

Article VII

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

First Amendment

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Second Amendment

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Third Amendment

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Fourth Amendment

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Fifth Amendment

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Sixth Amendment

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

Seventh Amendment

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Eighth Amendment

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Ninth Amendment

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

10th Amendment

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

11th Amendment

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

12th Amendment

The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; -- the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; -- The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. -- The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

13th Amendment

Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

14th Amendment

All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States , or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

15th Amendment

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

16th Amendment

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

17th Amendment

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

18th Amendment

After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

19th Amendment

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

20th Amendment

The terms of the President and the Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.

21st Amendment

The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

22nd Amendment

No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.

23rd Amendment

The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

24th Amendment

The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay poll tax or other tax.

25th Amendment

In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.       Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

26th Amendment

The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

27th Amendment

No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

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COMMENTS

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    Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:- I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States. Section 2

  2. Overview of Article II, Executive Branch

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    Article IV. Section 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof. Section 2.

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  16. The Constitution of the United States: Original Image

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  18. U.S. Constitution

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