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Begin your literature review as soon as possible. Ideally, you already started doing some research while refining and adjusting your topic idea.

What is a literature review?

A literature review provides an overview of the scholarly literature (e.g. books, articles, dissertations, proceedings) relevant to an area of research or theory. The review typically includes a summary of the major questions in an area and critical evaluations of previous work. Literature reviews are also helpful for their comprehensive bibliographies.

Literature reviews typically include these components:

  • An overview of the subject
  • Organization of relevant publications into subtopics, theoretical areas, or key debates
  • An analysis and discussion of how various works relate to one another the the relevant questions
  • A discussion of unresolved questions or future directions
  • Some will also include discussions of key data collection and analysis methodologies

For more detail see this webpage by the UC Santa Cruz Library . The following resources are great places to start when compiling a comprehensive bibliography.

  • Annual Reviews Online This is a great place to start your research. The literature reviews include extensive bibliographies that can lead you to related articles/books. This database covers the social sciences, sciences, and biomedicine.
  • Oxford Bibliographies Online. Anthropology This link opens in a new window Guide to scholarly literature in the field of Anthropology. Subdivided into articles by established scholars covering major categories of research with corresponding bibliographies of recommended resources.

Also consult reference works, encyclopedias, and handbooks to help identify relevant terminology.

Create a Search Strategy

  • Try different keywords and search terms using different databases and catalogs. Every database is different so some keywords and search terms work well for one database but not for another.
  • Keep a record of which search terms worked and in which databases. This can keep you from repeating your steps.
  • Include synonyms and plural/singular forms of keywords. Separate synonyms by OR . Separate the synonyms from the rest of the words by using parentheses.
  • Use truncation symbols (or wildcard symbols) to include variations of your search terms (e.g. scien$ will search for sciences, scientific, scientifically, etc.).
  • Most databases have a help section that defines truncation symbols and offers other tips.
  • Combining different concepts/search terms with AND
  • Use the limit functions of the database. These are often located on the left side of the results page, or look in the database's Help menu to discover the limit functions it offers. Possibilities include limiting by date, language, type of publication, etc.
  • Then, pay close attention to terminology used and the cited references (a.k.a. bibliography, end notes, footnotes) to find similar publications. However, this can bias your project by focusing on only one side of an issue so use caution with this method.
  • Ask for help. Ask a librarian for search tips. Also, use the help screens in the databases for instructions and tips.

Search Databases and Catalogs

The library catalog and these databases are good places to start for most anthropology projects:

  • JSTOR - Access to a wide variety of journal articles in the humanities, social sciences, and area studies.
  • Anthropology Plus - Covers journal articles, edited books, and essays in anthropology, archeology, and related interdisciplinary research.
  • Scopus or Web of Science - Two interdisciplinary databases that cover science, technology, medicine, social sciences, and arts and humanities.

For more options, such as area studies databases and other specialized resources or indexes, browse the Anthropology Research Guide or Databases @ Emory .

Ethnographies can be tricky to find since they are not classified in a consistent way. See this page for advice on identifying and finding ethnographies. Emory also has a few specialized tools that can help you find find books and films.

Contact the Anthropology Librarian for an appointment or see if the Anthropology Research Guide has what you need.

  • One Perfect Source? Your topic seemed so great! So why can't you find any information on it? If you're looking for an all-in-one source that addresses your topic perfectly, you might need a different approach.
  • Know Your Sources: A Guide to Understanding Sources Confused about the different kinds of sources and how to choose? This infographic breaks it down for you.
  • Evaluating Information - Applying the CRAAP Test A detailed list of questions to help you decide if the information you're finding is reliable.
  • The Craft of Research by Booth includes helpful information on evaluating sources. See section 5.4 or p.76 in the 2016 edition.

Check peer review status: If the journal itself or the database you searched does not tell you if a journal is peer-reviewed (refereed), Ulrich's Periodicals Directory can help. Search for the journal title (NOT the article title). If the journal is peer-reviewed it will have the "referee" icon next to it.

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Anthropology Research Guide

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  • Literature Reviews

What is a Lit Review?

How to write a lit review.

  • Video Introduction to Lit Reviews

Main Objectives

Examples of lit reviews, additional resources.

What is a literature review?

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  • Either a complete piece of writing unto itself or a section of a larger piece of writing like a book or article
  • A thorough and critical look at the information and perspectives that other experts and scholars have written about a specific topic
  • A way to give historical perspective on an issue and show how other researchers have addressed a problem
  • An analysis of sources based on your own perspective on the topic
  • Based on the most pertinent and significant research conducted in the field, both new and old

Red X

  • A descriptive list or collection of summaries of other research without synthesis or analysis
  • An annotated bibliography
  • A literary review (a brief, critical discussion about the merits and weaknesses of a literary work such as a play, novel or a book of poems)
  • Exhaustive; the objective is not to list as many relevant books, articles, reports as possible
  • To convey to your reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic
  • To explain what the strengths and weaknesses of that knowledge and those ideas might be
  • To learn how others have defined and measured key concepts    
  • To keep the writer/reader up to date with current developments and historical trends in a particular field or discipline
  • To establish context for the argument explored in the rest of a paper
  • To provide evidence that may be used to support your own findings
  • To demonstrate your understanding and your ability to critically evaluate research in the field
  • To suggest previously unused or underused methodologies, designs, and quantitative and qualitative strategies
  • To identify gaps in previous studies and flawed methodologies and/or theoretical approaches in order to avoid replication of mistakes
  • To help the researcher avoid repetition of earlier research
  • To suggest unexplored populations
  • To determine whether past studies agree or disagree and identify strengths and weaknesses on both sides of a controversy in the literature


  • Choose a topic that is interesting to you; this makes the research and writing process more enjoyable and rewarding.
  • For a literature review, you'll also want to make sure that the topic you choose is one that other researchers have explored before so that you'll be able to find plenty of relevant sources to review.

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  • Your research doesn't need to be exhaustive. Pay careful attention to bibliographies. Focus on the most frequently cited literature about your topic and literature from the best known scholars in your field. Ask yourself: "Does this source make a significant contribution to the understanding of my topic?"
  • Reading other literature reviews from your field may help you get ideas for themes to look for in your research. You can usually find some of these through the library databases by adding literature review as a keyword in your search.
  • Start with the most recent publications and work backwards. This way, you ensure you have the most current information, and it becomes easier to identify the most seminal earlier sources by reviewing the material that current researchers are citing.

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The organization of your lit review should be determined based on what you'd like to highlight from your research. Here are a few suggestions:

  • Chronology : Discuss literature in chronological order of its writing/publication to demonstrate a change in trends over time or to detail a history of controversy in the field or of developments in the understanding of your topic.  
  • Theme: Group your sources by subject or theme to show the variety of angles from which your topic has been studied. This works well if, for example, your goal is to identify an angle or subtopic that has so far been overlooked by researchers.  
  • Methodology: Grouping your sources by methodology (for example, dividing the literature into qualitative vs. quantitative studies or grouping sources according to the populations studied) is useful for illustrating an overlooked population, an unused or underused methodology, or a flawed experimental technique.

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  • Be selective. Highlight only the most important and relevant points from a source in your review.
  • Use quotes sparingly. Short quotes can help to emphasize a point, but thorough analysis of language from each source is generally unnecessary in a literature review.
  • Synthesize your sources. Your goal is not to make a list of summaries of each source but to show how the sources relate to one another and to your own work.
  • Make sure that your own voice and perspective remains front and center. Don't rely too heavily on summary or paraphrasing. For each source, draw a conclusion about how it relates to your own work or to the other literature on your topic.
  • Be objective. When you identify a disagreement in the literature, be sure to represent both sides. Don't exclude a source simply on the basis that it does not support your own research hypothesis.
  • At the end of your lit review, make suggestions for future research. What subjects, populations, methodologies, or theoretical lenses warrant further exploration? What common flaws or biases did you identify that could be corrected in future studies?

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  • Double check that you've correctly cited each of the sources you've used in the citation style requested by your professor (APA, MLA, etc.) and that your lit review is formatted according to the guidelines for that style.

Your literature review should:

  • Be focused on and organized around your topic.
  • Synthesize your research into a summary of what is and is not known about your topic.
  • Identify any gaps or areas of controversy in the literature related to your topic.
  • Suggest questions that require further research.
  • Have your voice and perspective at the forefront rather than merely summarizing others' work.
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  • Literature Review Tutorials and Samples - Wilson Library at University of La Verne
  • Literature Reviews: Introduction - University Library at Georgia State
  • Literature Reviews - The Writing Center at UNC Chapel Hill
  • Writing a Literature Review - Boston College Libraries
  • Write a Literature Review - University Library at UC Santa Cruz
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What is a literature review?

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literature review definition anthropology

What are Literature Reviews?

Literature reviews examine scholarly literature surrounding a subject-area, topic, or historical event. Literature reviews typically synthesize popular academic arguments, spanning multiple viewpoints. They often explore common trends, themes, and arguments, examining how perceptions of an event have changed over time. However, literature reviews are more than historiographies. Literature reviews should evaluate sources, determining common argumentative flaws. They should also identify knowledge-gaps in the field. You should not make a new argument in your literature review. However, you should evaluate the legitimacy of current sources and arguments. 

An example literature review, from the University of West Florida, is attached below:

How Should I Write My Literature Review? 

  • Literature reviews on your subject likely already exist. Before writing your literature review, you should examine pre-existing ones. This process will quickly familiarize you with prominent themes, arguments, and sources in your field.
  • Once you are familiar with influential arguments and sources, you should begin organizing your literature review. Literature reviews are organized by ideas, not sources. You should align your sources to popular arguments, evaluating the similarities and differences between these arguments. Ideally, you should examine how the scholarly conversation has changed over time. What aspects of the conversation have become more important? What arguments have fallen out of favor? Why has this happened? 
  • The introduction should briefly introduce common themes, and foreshadow your organizational strategy.
  • The "body" of your literature review should analyze sources and arguments.
  • Finally, the conclusion should identify gaps in the scholarly conversation, and summarize your findings. Where is further research needed?
  • Like a research paper, your literature review should include a bibliography. 

For more information on literature reviews, including more tips on writing them, visit the link below:

Literature Review: Conducting & Writing  by the  University of West Florida Library

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What is A Literature Review?

Definition :

A Literature Review surveys scholarly source materials that are relevant to a person's research thesis/problem and/or a particular issue or theory. It also provides a critical analysis that summarizes and synthesizes the source materials while also demonstrating how a person's research pertains to or fits within the larger discipline of study.

Literature Reviews vary from discipline to discipline as well as across assignments, but generally a good literature review is designed to help you answer 2 questions:

  • What do we know about this particular issue, theory or subject?
  • What do we not know about this particular issue, theory or subject?

Good literature reviews also :

  • Evaluate the context of scholarly material for its contribution to the understanding of the research thesis being studied.
  • Explain the relationships between each of the works under deliberation.
  • Identify gaps in previous research.
  • Define new ways to interpret research within a discipline.
  • Address conflicts found in contradictory research previously conducted.
  • Identify the need for additional research.

For Your Literature Review Include:

1. Introduction to the topic. State the topic, purpose, and significance. Provide a brief overview outlining the central points covered.

2. Relevance and Importance of studying this topic. What direction will the review take? Specific Aspects?

3. Literature Review. Organize your review of the research literature:  Methods, Chronological, different approaches or perspectives, etc... Remember you want to find the seminal or major works on your topic Avoid discussinh each article separately. Explore relationships and aim to compare/contrast more than one article in most paragraphs.

4. Any "Lessons Learned" that can be drawn from the literature review.

5. Future Directions. State any areas for further research, i.e. gaps, omissions, inconsistencies, hitherto unexplored aspects. 

 What types of literature are considered in a literature review

Peer-Reviewed articles are usually considered the most credible sources and the most common format of literature for a review.

In addition, when doing your research, consider those articles written by scholars who have written extensively on the specific topic or related areas. 

And more ......

A literature review DOES:

  • discuss the work of others
  • describe, in a narrative fashion, the major developments that relate to your research question
  • evaluate other researchers' methods and findings
  • identify any gaps in their research
  • indicate how your research is going to be different in some way

A literature review DOES NOT:

  • simply list all the resources that you consult in developing your research (that would be a Works Cited or Works Consulted page)
  • simply list resources with a few factual, non-evaluative notes about what is in each work (that would be an Annotated Bibliography)
  • try to discuss every bit of research that has ever been done relating to your topic (that would be far too big of a task)

Still confused?  See this guide  from the University of North Carolina for a more detailed explanation of lit reviews.

Tips for Writing Your Literature Review

  • Signal Phrases for Summarizing, Paraphrasing, & Quotations
  • Do not over "quote." If you only quote from every single author you found, then you are not showing any original thinking or analysis. Use quotes judiciously. Use quotes to highlight a particular passage or thought that exemplifies the research, theory or topic you are researching.
  • Instead use paraphrasing to report, in your own words, what the author was reporting or theorizing.
  • Summarize findings, important sections or a whole article--this is different from paraphrasing since you are not re-stating the author words but identifying the main points of what you are reading in a concise matter for your readers.
  • When synthesizing your findings for the literature review (this is when you make comparisons, establish relationships between authors' works, point out weaknesses, strengths and gaps among the literature review), you still need to give credit to these sources.
  • Short paragraphs are easier to read than long paragraphs.
  • Subheadings and subsections can help to underscore the structure of your review.
  • Do more than just summarize the readings.  A lit review is not an annotated bibliography.
  • Resist the temptation to refer to *all* the readings you've evaluated.  To begin with, focus on readings you've identified as essential or representative

Literature Review vs. Annotated Bibliography

Literature reviews and annotated bibliographies may appear similar in nature, but in fact, they vary greatly in two very important areas: purpose and format.

Differences in Purpose :

Literature Review : A literature review works to do two main things. The first is to provide a case for continuing research into a particular subject or idea by giving an overview of source materials you have discovered on a subject or idea. The second is to demonstrate how your research will fit into the the larger discipline of study by noting discipline knowledge gaps and contextulizing questions for the betterment of the discipline. Literature reviews tend to have a stated or implied thesis as well.

Annotated Bibliography : An annotated bibliography is basically an aphabetically arranged list of references that consists of citations and a brief summary and critique of each of the source materials. The element of critiquing appears to give literature reviews and annotated bibliographies their apparent similarities but in truth this is where they greatly differ. An annotated bibliography normally critiques the quality of the source material  while literature reviews concentrate on the value of the source material in its ability to answer a particular question or support an argument.  

Differences in Format :

Literature Review : A literature review is a formally written prose document very similar to journal articles.  Many literature reviews are incorporated directly into scholarly source material as part of the formal research process. The literature review is typically a required component of dissertations and theses.

Annotated Bibliography : An annotated bibliography is a formal list of citations with annotations or short descriptions and critiques of particular source materials. Annotated bibliographies act as a precursor to a literature review as an organizational tool.

Literature Review Examples

To find literature reviews in databases like Academic Search Complete:

  • Type your search term in the first search box.
  • Type literature review in the second search box.

Some sample reviews:

  • Writing a Short Literature Review
  • Sample Literature Review
  • Another Sample Literature Review

Ways to Organize Your Literature Review

Chronologically by Events   If your review follows the chronological method, you could write about the materials according to when they were published. This approach should only be followed if a clear path of research building on previous research can be identified and that these trends follow a clear chronological order of development. For example, a literature review that focuses on continuing research about the emergence of German economic power after the fall of the Soviet Union. By Publication Date Order your sources by publication date if the order demonstrates an important trend. For instance, you could order a review of literature on environmental studies of brown fields if the progression revealed, for example, a change in the soil collection practices of the researchers who wrote and/or conducted the studies. Thematically (“conceptual categories”) Thematic reviews of literature are organized around a topic or issue, rather than the progression of time. However, progression of time may still be an important factor in a thematic review. For example, a review of the Internet’s impact on American presidential politics could focus on the development of online political satire. While the study focuses on one topic, the Internet’s impact on American presidential politics, it will still be organized chronologically reflecting technological developments in media. The only difference here between a "chronological" and a "thematic" approach is what is emphasized the most: the role of the Internet in presidential politics. Note however that more authentic thematic reviews tend to break away from chronological order. A review organized in this manner would shift between time periods within each section according to the point made. Methodologically A methodological approach focuses on the methods utilized by the researcher. For the Internet in American presidential politics project, one methodological approach would be to look at cultural differences between the portrayal of American presidents on American, British, and French websites. Or the review might focus on the fundraising impact of the Internet on a particular political party. A methodological scope will influence either the types of documents in the review or the way in which these documents are discussed.

(adapted from  "The Literature Review"  from Organizing Your Social Research Paper, University of Southern California )

Best Practices: Quoting, Paraphrasing, etc.


Quoting *: "(a) to speak or write (a passage) from another usually with credit acknowledgment. (b) to repeat a passage especially in substantiation or illustration."

Paraphrasing *: Paraphrase is the "restatement of a text, passage, or work giving the meaning in another form."

Summarizing *: It's the process of summarizing a text or paragraph to tis main points succinctly.

Synthesizing *: "1. (a) the composition or combination of parts or elements so as to form a whole."

 *Definitions from Merriam Webster Dictionary Online: <Accessed September 1st, 2011>

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Literature Review

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A literature review is an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers.

A good literature review is not simply a list describing or summarizing several articles. a good literature review shows signs of synthesis and understanding of the topic. it surveys, summarizes, and links together research (a.k.a., literature) in a given field., a good literature review:, 1. is organized around and related directly to the thesis or research question, 2. synthesizes results into a summary of what is and is not known, 3. identifies areas of controversy in the literature, 4. formulates questions that need further research.

  • Literature Reviews This handout will explain what literature reviews are and offer insights into the form and construction of literature reviews in the humanities, social sciences, and sciences. - From Writing Center at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  • Writing the Literature Review: Step-by-Step Tutorial (parts 1, 2, & 3) This three-part video on the Literature Review by David White of the University of Maryland, gives short simple instructions on the conduct and writing of a Literature Review
  • SAGE Research Methods This link opens in a new window *Find reference materials on conducting research. *Find information on how to design and conduct a research project. *Learn how to conduct a literature review. *Read case studies from researchers. *Find e-books in qualitative methods. *Find downloadable datasets to practice quantitative statistical and analytical methods. *View streaming video collection dedicated to methods. Tools include a project planner, methods map, which stats test to help determine which statistical method to apply, 2,000+ qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods case studies, 500+ datasets-indexed by method and data type, streaming video collections, and more. more... less... Includes diversified types of research materials such as reference works, journal articles, datasets, e-books, and videos by leading academics. It has the largest e-book collection in qualitative methods. The resources cover every aspect of research skills training to help researchers at all levels through the steps of the research process, from developing a research question, doing a literature review, planning a project, collecting and analyzing data, and writing up a report, dissertation or thesis.

The purpose of a Literature Review.

How to find Empirical Studies:

1. read the descriptions of the databases to decide which one to use., 2. click on the database link., 3. do an advanced search., 4. type in your keywords., use and between disparate terms and or between similar terms., for example:, line 1: "food desert", line 2: miami or "south florida" or overtown or ... *, notice i put the phrases in "quotes". this tells the database to look for the words side by side., use * for stems of words.  for example, grocer* will find grocery, groceries, grocer, etc., 5. click the box in the database for peer-reviewed. this will provide results that are reviewed by other scholars and evaluated whether the research is sound, reliable, and valid., 6. when you get your results, read through the abstract to look for hints of an empirical study., hints include:, a. specific research question, b. primary data, c. ability to replicate, d. conclusions, 7. if there isn't a link to the full-text, click find it @fiu to search for the full-text..

What is an Empirical Study?

It is report of research based on actual observation or experiment., is there a specific research question, does the article include primary data, can the study be replicated, how are conclusions formed.

  • Types of Data Quantitative, Qualitative, Mixed Methods
  • Types of Research Definitions of 5 common types of research.
  • Types of Studies Definitions of different types of studies.

common mistakes to avoid: missing relevant info., lack of time management, not critically thinking, not using empirical studies, unrelated sources, excluding research.

  • Literature Review from USC LIbraries Detailed page on different kinds of literature reviews and what should/should not be included.

Some questions to think about as you develop your literature review:

  • Who are the significant research personalities in this area?
  • Is there consensus about the topic?
  • What aspects have generated significant debate on the topic?
  • What methods or problems were identified by others studying in the field and how might they impact your research?
  • What is the most productive methodology for your research based on the literature you have reviewed?
  • What is the current status of research in this area?
  • What sources of information or data were identified that might be useful to you?

When deciding what publications to include in a literature review, ask the following questions.

  • Credibility -- What are the author's credentials? Are the author's arguments supported by evidence [e.g. case studies, empirical evidence, statistics, recent scientific findings]?
  • Methodology  -- Were the techniques used to identify, gather, and analyze the data appropriate for the research problem? Was the sample size appropriate? Were the results effectively interpreted and reported?
  • Objectivity  -- Is the author's perspective even-handed or biased? Is contrary data considered or is certain pertinent information ignored to prove the author's point?
  • Persuasiveness  -- Which of the publications have most convincing or least convincing thesis?
  • Value  -- Does the work contribute to an understanding of the subject?
  • Need more help?

The links below include literature reviews.  

  • Accounting and the 'Insoluble' Problem of Health-Care Costs
  • Understanding the Concept of Wellness for the Future of the Tourism Industry: A Literature Review.
  • Promoting Malaysia Medical Tourism Through MyCREST Oriented Retrofitted Hospitals
  • Do the uninsured demand less care? Evidence from Maryland's hospitals
  • Income vs price subsidy: policy options to help the urban poor facing food price surge

What is a literature review?

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Social Anthropology Library Guide: How To Do A Literature Review

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The Literature Review Demo - a step-by-step guide to the tools and techniques

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The Literature Review

A literature review is:

1) A list of books and journal articles,

2) on a specific topic,

3) grouped by theme,

4) and evaluated with regard to your research. This evaluation would identify connections, contradictions and gaps in the literature you have found.

The purpose of a literature review, therefore, is:

1) To get a feel for the agreed academic opinion on the subject (the connections).

2) To discover the disagreements on the subject (the contradictions).

3) To find opportunities, (the gaps), for developing and expressing your own opinions.

The classic pattern of academic arguments is


An Idea (Thesis) is proposed, an opposing Idea (Antithesis) is proposed, and a revised Idea incorporating (Synthesis) the opposing Idea is arrived at. This revised idea sometimes sparks another opposing idea, another synthesis, and so on…

If you can show this pattern at work in your literature review, and, above all, if you can suggest a new synthesis of two opposing views, or demolish one of the opposing views, then you are almost certainly on the right track.

Steps in compiling a literature review are:

1) Select a specific topic (the more focussed, the better, or you’ll go on for ever).

2) Collect the most relevant (usually "peer reviewed") books and articles.

3) Read/skim them, using the abstract (a short summary attached to the article).

4) Group the articles into the sub-themes of your topic.

5) Identify within each sub-theme those points on which the articles agree, those points on which they disagree, and those points which they don’t cover at all.

1) Choosing your topic

Seek advice from a lecturer or tutor on this, if a topic is not already assigned. It is very common for students to bite off more than they can chew, simply because they have not realised the full breadth and complexity of an apparently simple topic. It is better to cover a tiny topic perfectly, than a huge topic superficially.

Look for a topic on which there is polarised opinion. It often helps to pick one in which a question is being asked, for example: Is a particular taxation policy beneficial or disadvantageous to a developing country?

When authors disagree, this provides an opportunity for you to enter the debate and argue for one side or another in your essay. Taking a hatchet to someone’s opinions (a) gives you something to write about, (b) is fun, (c) is the foundation of much modern scholarly writing.

2) Collect the most relevant (usually "peer reviewed") articles and books

The three tools for finding these books and articles are, in this order:

(a) the relevant section of a good subject encyclopedia, which usually describes the development of the discourse on that subject, gives you an overview of the territory, and ends with a bibliography of the key works on that field. 

(b) the library catalogue (PRIMO) and

(c) the library databases of electronic journal articles.

Before you search them, spend a minute thinking about the best terms to use. Make a list of alternative words that describe your subject, and also think about general terms and more specific terms. This is important because the journal databases are good for finding very specific terms in articles, but the library catalogue tends to use more general terms.

To access the library catalogue go to and click on "PRIMO" or use the search box in the PRIMO interface.

If you find a good book reference, click on the title and scroll down to the bottom of the reference and you will find the subject terms the library cataloguers have assigned to it. Click on that term to call up more books just like the one you have found.

A quick way to check the relevance of any books you find is to glance at the table of contents, the introduction and any descriptive blurbs on the back cover. The index at the back of the book not only helps you dive to very narrow topics in the book, but also gives you an indication of how much attention (i.e. how many pages) the book spends on that specific topic.

If you are satisfied with the book, look at the bibliography in the back – this can help identify other relevant sources. Following a chain of references in a bibliography like this, whether in a book or a journal article, is one of the most basic techniques of scholarship – find something that is relevant and look at the sources it used.

The library’s journal databases are particularly helpful for literature reviews. Journal articles are short and cover very specific topics, so they are more digestible than books and more likely to deal exactly with your topic. They are also quicker to publish than books and so are more likely to be up to date.

To find journal articles by subject go to the library home page at and select "Databases."

Many of these databases allow you to restrict your search to "Peer Reviewed" journals only – these are the most scholarly journals, for which each article has to be vetted by other academics before it is accepted.

Many of our databases are Full Text – so you can usually get the whole article on your desktop for downloading, e-mailing or printing – you don’t have to find it in print on the shelves.

While you can search the Research Portal, or individual journal databases, as simply as you search Google, you can also type in very precise searches by using And, Or, Not operators, Wildcards and Logical Brackets.

An example of such a search would be:

Information Technology AND Brain Drain AND (Employ* OR Jobs OR Labo?r) NOT United States

The AND operator narrows a search – all listed elements must be mentioned in each article: in this example we want articles that cover both Information Technology AND the Brain Drain.

The OR operator expands a search – any of the listed elements must be mentioned in each article: in this example we wanted Information Technology Brain Drain articles that discussed either Employment or Jobs or Labour. The OR operator is useful for dealing with alternative terms which different authors might use when writing on a similar topic.

The Brackets tie the options to the required material. In this example they make sure that any articles we get on labour or employment are concerned with Information Technology and the Brain Drain. If we didn’t have brackets here the search would just bring up every reference to labour in the database, whether relevant to Information Technology or not.

The Wildcards, * and ?, expand a search: The * deals with related words. In this example Employ* means that we get all words starting with "Employ…" – such as Employment, Employee, Employees, Employers…

The ? fills in a missing letter, and is used for covering alternative spellings in British and American English, both Labour and Labor in this example.

NOT weeds out anything you’ve got too much of. Many of our databases are American products, for example, and you can often be flooded with reports on the American situation unless you weed it out.

3) Read/Skim the articles, using their abstracts

Most of the articles will have an abstract. This is a short paragraph at the head of the article that lists the main facts and arguments in each article. By reading these you will quickly get the gist of what each article is about and where it fits into the pattern you are building up in your literature survey.

How many books and articles should you have? It’s wise to check this with your lecturer or tutor. In general, though, your aim is not to cover every single book or article, but every major opinion or theme on the topic. Many of the books or articles will add very little that is new.

Therefore a short list of really scholarly, relevant, comprehensive articles is often more effective than a list of hundreds of superficial or tangential articles.

What you are ideally looking for are the "seminal" articles (seed articles) on which most of the other authors are basing their work.

4) Group the Articles into the themes and sub-themes of your topic

Obviously, it helps to have a structure in mind already, but the articles you find will often help to suggest a structure or cause you to redesign your existing one.

Herewith a hard-learned tip:

There are tides and seasons in academic publishing – a topic is often hot for a few months, then dies, then is revived to be attacked from a different angle, then dies, then is revived again to be discussed from a third angle… remember, Thesis, Antithesis and Synthesis?

This has two implications for studying the results on a database search:

Just because there is nothing much in the recent articles does not mean that it was not hot a few months or years ago, so scroll back in time down the list, or jump right to the earliest reference and scroll up through time to look for a hot spot.

The tides of article titles often tell a story that can help you shape your literature review.

For example, in a list of journal articles on Information Technology and Employment you might find that:

The earliest articles are all about how hard it is to find skilled IT workers.

Later you get articles about UK and US firms desperately recruiting school-leavers and training them in IT skills on the job.

A year later you get articles about how countries like India and South Africa are doing the same thing.

And not long after that you get articles about India and South Africa having a huge, skilled IT workforce, working far more cheaply than the US and UK workforce, and lots of UK and US projects being outsourced to them.

Then you get complaints about unemployment in the IT sector in the UK and USA.

Then you get stories about how employers in the UK and USA have become very choosy about whom they employ, insisting on really good academic training, loads of experience and very-specialised skills.

Then you get the latest stories which are all about how new IT entrants, without that experience, start packing their bags to gain experience elsewhere…

See? Story!

Many database lists of academic articles tell this sort of story when they are looked at in date order. Either they reflect swings in world events or they are reflecting swings in academic debate and opinion. Seeing such a story in the literature is a great help in structuring any literature review.

In particular, look out for the major triggers of such changes: When did the first swing to a new track happen, and what event or article provoked it?

When you find an article that has provoked a major swing, or started a whole new debate, then you are looking at the "Seminal" (Seed) article that I mentioned earlier. This sort of article is often the best sort of article to identify in a literature review – many of the other articles will just build on, comment on, or attack its basic arguments.

Using a Citation Database

If you find a seed article, or any other really good article or book, Google Scholar is extremely good at finding other books or articles which have cited that article, either because they support it or because they disagree with it. Just search for the title on Google Scholar and a link comes up under the record showing "Cited by"

Another way of doing a citation search is to download Harzing's Publish or Perish software from . This does a lovely job of tracing citations on Google Scholar. It allows you to search by SUBJECT and t hen arrange the results by most highly cited.

6) Identify within each sub-theme those points on which the articles agree, those points on which they disagree, and those points which they don’t cover at all.

The abstracts can help with this, of course. The main trick is coming up with, or spotting, the sub themes and that is simply a matter of brain work. But if it is done well, and you have taken the trouble to find good sources, then you will find, quite magically, that you have constructed the skeleton and a good bit of the flesh and blood of your essay or research project.

In fact, a good literature review can result in an essay that virtually writes itself.

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Literature Reviews in Social Sciences

Literature reviews in the social sciences take a slightly different approach than in the humanities (literature, philosophy, history, etc.) or the sciences (biology, physics, etc.).  This guide focuses ONLY on the social sciences (anthropology, criminology, political science, sociology, etc.).

'literature'  - commonly people use this word for creative written works like novels; but in academics the word 'literature' is also used to mean any collection or body of written work, including research articles and books.

'review' - commonly people use the word review for evaluations, like a movie review; but in academics the word is used broadly to mean a paper or section of a paper that summarizes and synthesizes literature to give an overview of theory and research on a topic.

Putting it together:

In the social sciences, a literature review is a paper or section of a paper that summarizes and synthesizes. To summarize is to describe the main arguments and conclusions. To synthesize is to compare, contrast, highlight relevant points, relate to ongoing trends or problems, and generally to draw out an argument or position based on the literature being reviewed.

A literature review is not a book review! Book reviews are articles that review a single book title. A literature sums up and analyzes a set of books or articles on a theme.

Literature reviews can be a section of a longer paper or book, or they can stand alone. Social scientists generally include a short review of relevant literature in their research papers to demonstrate how their own research fits into ongoing debates. Longer stand-alone review papers are published to give a picture of the current state of research.  The Annual Reviews publication series are classic examples of stand-alone reviews.

  • Annual Reviews This link opens in a new window Critical reviews of primary research literature in the sciences and social sciences. EMU access does not include the most recent 5 years.
  • example of lit review articles

Guides on writing literature reviews:

  • Literature Reviews - UNC Writing Center
  • The Literature Review - USC Libraries
  • Literature Reviews: An Overview - NCSU libraries

Social Science Review Articles

Review articles are generally a kind of secondary source.  That is, they are not presenting empirical findings from a single research project.  They are, however, original , in the sense that the author is using skill, knowledge and creativity to compile and write something new about the material (books, articles) under review.

There are several kinds of review articles.  Book Reviews are a special case, because sometimes they are written by experts but sometimes they are written by journalists or just fans of the book. Typically, a book review describes the main contents of the book, how it relates to existing ideas or works, and gives a judgment as to its value to various readers.  Some book reviews are just a paragraph, but the reviews in scholarly journals can be several pages.  In Esearch, you can limit search results to book reviews only, or screen book reviews out of the results, by clicking into the left-hand column under Content Type . 

Stand-alone Review Articles or Literature Reviews are common in the social sciences. The authors of these articles are experts, usually scholars. The review articles will address a current topic, lay out the main theories or ideas, recent developments in research, and suggest where further research is needed. Typical review articles are published in series such as:

In the health fields, Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses are articles that go a step further. Not only do they summarize and research on a topic, but they carefully analyze the research and may attempt to draw conclusions based on the compiled studies.  For more on these kinds of reviews, see:

  • What is a Systematic Review? (Curtin Univ) This guide distinguishes several different kinds of reviews, such as literature review, systematic review, scoping review, etc.
  • What is a systematic review? (Cochrane)
  • Systematic Reviews (EPPI centre)

Finding related articles

Whether for a literature review or a research paper, the analysis is much easier if it is based on a cluster of related articles and not a random assortment.  Finding articles that are related rarely happens just by doing a single search, but it is not hard. Here are some approaches:

  • Start with a textbook, reference book, dissertation or review article and collect the citations of the authors who are mentioned or cited as part of the debate.  Make sure to collect works from all points of view.
  • Use citation tracking to see how scholars mention each others' work, whether as examples, evidence or in order to debate.  See below for more on citation tracking.
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Literature Review Basics

Check out this tutorial to identify the basics of literature review writing from the University of Louisville.

Also see the University Library's Literature Review How To for more information about developing literature reviews.

How to Write a Literature Review

See scholarly articles in  OneSearch for How to Write a Literature Review.

Also see the University Library's  Literature Review How To  for more information about developing literature reviews.

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Writing a Literature Review

Synthetic analysis of the literature.

Lit Review 101  - Virginia Commonwealth University

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  • An annotated bibliography is a references page with special notes (annotations) for each citation. Generally the annotation describes the citations and how it relates to the assignment. 
  • Annotated Bibliography Samples Samples in MLA, APA, and Chicago Style.
  • Annotated Bibliography: Chicago From Eastern Nazarene College
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  • A literature review is a critical, analytical summary and synthesis of the current knowledge of a topic. As a researcher, you collect the available literature on a topic, and then select the literature that is most relevant for your purpose. Your written literature review summarizes and analyses the themes, topics, methods, and results of that literature in order to inform the reader about the history and current status of research on that topic.
  • The literature review informs the reader of the researcher's knowledge of the relevant research already conducted on the topic under discussion, and places the author's current study in context of previous studies.
  • As part of a senior project, the literature review points out the current issues and questions concerning a topic. By relating the your research to a knowledge gap in the existing literature, you should demonstrate how his or her proposed research will contribute to expanding knowledge in that field.
  • Short Literature Review Sample This literature review sample guides students from the thought process to a finished review.
  • Literature Review Matrix (Excel Doc) Excel file that can be edited to suit your needs.
  • Literature Review Matrix (PDF) Source: McLean, Lindsey. "Literature Review." CORA (Community of Online Research Assignments), 2015.
  • Sample Literature Reviews: Univ. of West Florida Literature review guide from the University of West Florida library guides.
  • Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL) Sample literature review in APA from Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL)

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The Anthropology Book Forum publishes a broad range of conversations focused on discussing and evaluating newly published work relevant to anthropological audiences, broadly conceived.

We publish online every Monday.

Check out our full list of books and films available for review

If you don’t see a title or film on our site that you would like to review, please get in touch .

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We work with over 100 publishers around the world to connect readers and authors.

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Indigenous Voices in Digital Spaces

By Cindy Tekobbe

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Unsettling Queer Anthropology Foundations, Reorientations, and Departures

Edited by Margot Weiss

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Where Did the Eastern Mayas Go?The Historical, Relational, and Contingent Interplay of Ch’orti’ Indigeneity

By Brent E. Metz

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The Anthropology Book Forum was awarded the 2022 GAD New Directions Award (Group Category) which calls attention to the myriad ways anthropologists are expanding anthropological perspectives in the twenty-first century.

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This summer we will begin merging the Anthropology Book Forum with the Anthropology Review Database, a previous journal that published over 3,000 reviews of books, software and films relevant to anthropological audiences.

We hope to be finished by early 2025.

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We are looking for reviewers to review books in languages other than English. If you have a book in mind, or are interested in providing a review in a  language other than English, please get in touch!

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Sex determination via the second cervical vertebra and odontoid process: a case report and a review of the literature.

literature review definition anthropology

1. Introduction

2. case presentation, 2.1. autopsy findings and anthropological examination, 2.1.1. sex estimation.

  • The medial surface of the ischiopubic branch forms a wide and flat ridge; ventral arc slight ridge; convex subpubic concavity; ischiopubic ramus ridge is broad and flat [ 13 , 14 ].
  • The large sciatic incision is narrow in phase 4 (specific to the male sex) [ 15 ].
  • Massive nuchal crest with marked bone projection (stage 5); voluminous male-specific mastoid process (stage 4); supraorbital edge thick, rounded (stage 4); glabella prominent, massive (stage 4) [ 16 ]. Figure 1 .

2.1.2. Age Estimation

  • Completely obliterated cranial sutures: 3rd degree of evolution [ 17 ]. Figure 2 .
  • Sternal extremity of ribs: porous recess, edge with sharp protrusions [ 18 ].
  • Ventral margin of pubic symphysis eroded with excavated surface [ 19 ]; symphyseal face with depression [ 20 ]; auricular surface with marginal lipping, macroporosity, absence of transverse organization with increased irregularity [ 21 ]. Figure 3 .

2.1.3. Stature Estimation

2.1.4. autopsy conclusions, 2.2. sex and height estimation from the second cervical vertebra, 3. discussion, 3.1. sex estimation based on the second cervical vertebra, 3.2. height estimation based on the second cervical vertebra, 4. conclusions, author contributions, institutional review board statement, informed consent statement, data availability statement, acknowledgments, conflicts of interest.

  • Čechová, M.; Dupej, J.; Brůžek, J.; Bejdová, Š.; Horák, M.; Velemínská, J. Sex estimation using external morphology of the frontal bone and frontal sinuses in a contemporary Czech population. Int. J. Legal Med. 2019 , 133 , 1285–1294. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
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Click here to enlarge figure

Maximum Sagittal Length (XSL)The sagittal length of the vertebra from the most anterior point on the body to the posterior edge of the spinous process.
Maximum Height of the Dens (XDH)The height from the most inferior edge of the anterior border of the body to the most superior point on the dens.
Dens Sagittal Diameter (DSD)The maximum sagittal (anteroposterior) diameter of the dens.
Dens Transverse Diameter (DTD)The diameter of the dens measured perpendicular to the sagittal diameter.
Length of Vertebral Foramen (LVF)The internal length of the vertebral foramen measured at the inferior edge of the foramen in the median plane.
Maximum Breadth Across the Superior Facets (SFB)The maximum breadth between the superior articular facets as measured from the most lateral edges of the superior facets.
Superior Facet Sagittal Diameter (SFS)The maximum sagittal diameter of the superior articular facet.
Superior Facet Transverse Diameter (SFT)The maximum transverse diameter of the superior articular facet measured perpendicular to the sagittal diameter.
Study FocusMethods PerformedCharacteristics of the Study
Wescott (2000) [ ]Quantitative method for sex determination using C2Digital sliding calipers to measure eight dimensions of C2 (as described in )100 males and 100 females from Hamann–Todd and Terry anatomical collections, ages 20–79; statistically significant differences between males and females, accuracy: 81.7–83.4%
Marlow and Pastor (2011) [ ]Testing Wescott’s method on a different sampleAdded an extra measurement (width of vertebral foramen); discriminant function analysis153 individuals from Spitalfields’ anatomical collections;
most significant discriminatory values: the maximum sagittal length and the maximum amplitude between the upper articular faces of the axis;
a range of valid categorization percentages between 70.91% and 78.9%., discriminant function analysis accuracy rate of 83.3%
Bethard and Seet (2013) [ ]Evaluating Wescott’s method in a contemporary American sampleApplied Wescott’s methodContemporary American population sample; accuracy: up to 86.7%
Gama et al. (2015) [ ]Accuracy of using C2 measurements for sex determinationMeasured 13 dimensions following Wescott’s method190 individuals from Coimbra Identified Skeletal Collection and 47 from ISC-XXI;
the predictive model showed a high level of accuracy, ranging from 86.7% to 89.7%
Rozendaal et al. (2020) [ ]Developing and validating sex estimation functions based on cervical vertebraeMaximum body height, vertebral foramen anterior–posterior and transverse diameter1020 vertebrae from 295 adults of European ancestry (Athens and Luis Lopes skeletal collections); accuracy: 80.3–84.5%
Torimitsu et al. (2016) [ ]Assessing accuracy of sex determination using C2 in a Japanese populationNine measurements obtained from post-mortem CT images244 deceased individuals; significant measures: DMFS, LMA; accuracy: 83.5–83.1%
Xu et al. (1995) [ ]Importance of C2 morphology in surgical interventionAnalyzed 18 linear and 4 angular parameters50 s cervical vertebrae from individuals aged 21–68; significant sex differences in morphological measurements
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Stan, E.; Muresan, C.-O.; Dumache, R.; Ciocan, V.; Ungureanu, S.; Daescu, E.; Enache, A. Sex Determination via the Second Cervical Vertebra and Odontoid Process: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature. Diagnostics 2024 , 14 , 1446.

Stan E, Muresan C-O, Dumache R, Ciocan V, Ungureanu S, Daescu E, Enache A. Sex Determination via the Second Cervical Vertebra and Odontoid Process: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature. Diagnostics . 2024; 14(13):1446.

Stan, Emanuela, Camelia-Oana Muresan, Raluca Dumache, Veronica Ciocan, Stefania Ungureanu, Ecaterina Daescu, and Alexandra Enache. 2024. "Sex Determination via the Second Cervical Vertebra and Odontoid Process: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature" Diagnostics 14, no. 13: 1446.

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  • A-Z Publications

Annual Review of Anthropology

Volume 49, 2020, review article, anthropology and the anthropocene: criticisms, experiments, and collaborations.

  • Andrew S. Mathews 1
  • View Affiliations Hide Affiliations Affiliations: Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA; email: [email protected]
  • Vol. 49:67-82 (Volume publication date October 2020)
  • First published as a Review in Advance on May 29, 2020
  • Copyright © 2020 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved

The Anthropocene, a proposed name for a geological epoch marked by human impacts on global ecosystems, has inspired anthropologists to critique, to engage in theoretical and methodological experimentation, and to develop new forms of collaboration. Critics are concerned that the term Anthropocene overemphasizes human mastery or erases differential human responsibilities, including imperialism, capitalism, and racism, and new forms of technocratic governance. Others find the term helpful in drawing attention to disastrous environmental change, inspiring a reinvigorated attention to the ontological unruliness of the world, to multiple temporal scales, and to intertwined social and natural histories. New forms of noticing can be linked to systems analytics, including capitalist world systems, structural comparisons of patchy landscapes, infrastructures and ecological models, emerging sociotechnical assemblages, and spirits. Rather than a historical epoch defined by geologists, the Anthropocene is a problem that is pulling anthropologists into new forms of noticing and analysis, and into experiments and collaborations beyond anthropology.

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  • Article Type: Review Article

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Most cited most cited rss feed, ethnography in/of the world system: the emergence of multi-sited ethnography, the politics and poetics of infrastructure, migrant “illegality” and deportability in everyday life, poetics and performances as critical perspectives on language and social life, language and agency, refugees and exile: from "refugee studies" to the national order of things, parks and peoples: the social impact of protected areas, language ideology, think practically and look locally: language and gender as community-based practice, the local and the global: the anthropology of globalization and transnationalism.


  1. (PDF) ANTHROPOLOGY- AN OVERVIEW: Literature review

    literature review definition anthropology

  2. Anthropology-Definition Subfields revised

    literature review definition anthropology

  3. What is the best definition of anthropology?

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  4. Anthropology

    literature review definition anthropology

  5. Definition of Anthropology by Different Authors

    literature review definition anthropology

  6. What is Anthropology? Definition, Nature, Branches of Anthropology

    literature review definition anthropology


  1. What is Literature Review?

  2. Systematic Literature Review: An Introduction [Urdu/Hindi]

  3. Anthropology mid exam freshman course

  4. The Power of a Systematic Literature Review: Unearthing Hidden Insights

  5. Literature Review Definition,Importance,types,steps,issues in Urdu and Hindi

  6. What is Anthropology?


  1. When to do a Literature Review

    A literature review provides an overview of the scholarly literature (e.g. books, articles, dissertations, proceedings) relevant to an area of research or theory. The review typically includes a summary of the major questions in an area and critical evaluations of previous work. Literature reviews are also helpful for their comprehensive ...

  2. Literature Reviews

    For a literature review, you'll also want to make sure that the topic you choose is one that other researchers have explored before so that you'll be able to find plenty of relevant sources to review. Step 2: Research. Your research doesn't need to be exhaustive. Pay careful attention to bibliographies.

  3. Literature Reviews

    Before writing your literature review, you should examine pre-existing ones. This process will quickly familiarize you with prominent themes, arguments, and sources in your field. Once you are familiar with influential arguments and sources, you should begin organizing your literature review. Literature reviews are organized by ideas, not sources.

  4. (PDF) ANTHROPOLOGY- AN OVERVIEW: Literature review

    Anthropology is a branch of science that studies human behavior, biology, cultures, communities, and. linguistics in the present and past, including past human species. Cultural anthropology ...

  5. Literature Reviews

    Literature Review: A literature review is a formally written prose document very similar to journal articles. Many literature reviews are incorporated directly into scholarly source material as part of the formal research process. The literature review is typically a required component of dissertations and theses.

  6. Find Lit. Review Tips

    It surveys, summarizes, and links together research (a.k.a., literature) in a given field. A good literature review: 1. is organized around and related directly to the thesis or research question 2. synthesizes results into a summary of what is and is not known 3. identifies areas of controversy in the literature

  7. How To Do A Literature Review

    A literature review is: 1) A list of books and journal articles, 2) on a specific topic, 3) grouped by theme, 4) and evaluated with regard to your research. This evaluation would identify connections, contradictions and gaps in the literature you have found. The purpose of a literature review, therefore, is:

  8. Guide for Writing in Anthropology

    When writing in/for sociocultural, or cultural, anthropology, you will be asked to do a few things in each assignment: Critically question cultural norms (in both your own. culture and other cultures). Analyze ethnographic data (e.g., descriptions of. everyday activities and events, interviews, oral.

  9. Research Guides: Anthropology & Sociology: Literature Reviews

    A literature sums up and analyzes a set of books or articles on a theme. Literature reviews can be a section of a longer paper or book, or they can stand alone. Social scientists generally include a short review of relevant literature in their research papers to demonstrate how their own research fits into ongoing debates.

  10. Literature Review

    LibGuides: Anthropology 696A: Anthropological Research Design: Literature Review

  11. Literature Reviews

    Writing a Literature Review. Lit Review 101 - Virginia Commonwealth University. Visualizing "the literature" and "the review". Example. Sample Literature Theme Template.

  12. Reviewing the animal literature: how to describe and choose between

    Table 1. Suggested terminology for review types (further clarified below). Review type Definition Narrative review Non-systematic review contributing an idea or opinion to scientific discourse Mapping review Review aiming to provide a high level overview of the complete literature, partially using systematic methodology (i.e. systematised)

  13. Annotated Bib/Lit Review

    A literature review is a critical, analytical summary and synthesis of the current knowledge of a topic. As a researcher, you collect the available literature on a topic, and then select the literature that is most relevant for your purpose. Your written literature review summarizes and analyses the themes, topics, methods, and results of that ...

  14. PDF What is a Literature Review?

    unearth literature that is appropriate to your task in hand, a literature review is the process of critically evaluating and summarising that literature. The Purpose of the Literature Review: The Question and Context Conceptualising the Literature Review Think of a topic that interests you in clinical practice. Imagine this as a wide-rimmed,

  15. Annual Review of Anthropology

    AIMS AND SCOPE OF JOURNAL: The Annual Review of Anthropology covers significant developments in the subfields of anthropology, including archaeology, biological anthropology, linguistics and communicative practices, regional studies and international anthropology, and sociocultural anthropology. Published Since. 1972. Journal Status. Active. DOI:

  16. Research: Social Anthropology: Writing Literature Reviews & Annotated

    Succeeding with Your Literature Review: a Handbook for Students Written by an author with extensive experience of supervising and examining undergraduate, Masters and doctoral dissertations, this book covers the latest trends, such as: RSS feeds, wikis, grey literature, blogs and forms of open access publishing. The book also includes examples of common pitfalls, good practice, key terms and ...

  17. Literature and Reading

    Anthropology and/of literature or literary anthropology remains a puzzling subdiscipline. As a field of anthropological studies, it sits uncomfortably in comparison with what one might imagine as being sister fields, such as the anthropology of art. The latter, confidently defined and densely ethnographic in approach, highlights the surprising ...

  18. Literature Review

    Anthropology. This guided is intended to help you with your library research. You will find databases, journals, ebooks, reference books, and selected datasets to help with your anthropological research. This page is not currently available due to visibility settings.

  19. Literature and Reading

    This article examines anthropological approaches to fiction reading. It asks why the field of literary anthropology remains largely disinvested of ethnographic work on literary cultures and how that field might approach the study of literature and reading ethnographically. The issue of the creative agency of fiction readers is explored in the context of what it means to ask anthropological ...

  20. A Convegerence between Anthropology and Literature: How Reading

    Therefore, the definition of these two terms—anthropology and literature—needs to be updated from time to time to reflect ongoing developments and the advancements taking place in various fields.

  21. The Anthropology of Ethics and Morality

    Anthropologists have sustained a varied and active engagement with ethics throughout the field's history. In light of this long-standing engagement, what marks the distinctiveness of the current ethical turn? To think in Foucauldian terms, ethics/morality now looms large precisely because it has been problematized. Although there has been a recent outpouring of work on ethics, and a ...

  22. Anthropology Book Forum

    Addition of the Anthropology Review Database. This summer we will begin merging the Anthropology Book Forum with the Anthropology Review Database, a previous journal that published over 3,000 reviews of books, software and films relevant to anthropological audiences. We hope to be finished by early 2025.

  23. Diagnostics

    Determining an individual's sex is crucial in several fields, such as forensic anthropology, archaeology, and medicine. Accurate sex estimation, alongside the estimation of age at death, stature, and ancestry, is of paramount importance for creating a biological profile. This profile helps narrow the potential pool of missing persons and aids identification. Our research focuses on the ...

  24. Anthropology and the Anthropocene: Criticisms, Experiments, and

    The Anthropocene, a proposed name for a geological epoch marked by human impacts on global ecosystems, has inspired anthropologists to critique, to engage in theoretical and methodological experimentation, and to develop new forms of collaboration. Critics are concerned that the term Anthropocene overemphasizes human mastery or erases differential human responsibilities, including imperialism ...