Transforming education systems: Why, what, and how

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Rebecca winthrop and rebecca winthrop director - center for universal education , senior fellow - global economy and development @rebeccawinthrop the hon. minister david sengeh the hon. minister david sengeh minister of education and chief innovation officer - government of sierra leone, chief innovation officer - directorate of science, technology and innovation in sierra leone @dsengeh.

June 23, 2022

Today, the topic of education system transformation is front of mind for many leaders. Ministers of education around the world are seeking to build back better as they emerge from COVID-19-school closures to a new normal of living with a pandemic. The U.N. secretary general is convening the Transforming Education Summit (TES) at this year’s general assembly meeting (United Nations, n.d.). Students around the world continue to demand transformation on climate and not finding voice to do this through their schools are regularly leaving class to test out their civic action skills.      

It is with this moment in mind that we have developed this shared vision of education system transformation. Collectively we offer insights on transformation from the perspective of a global think tank and a national government: the Center for Universal Education (CUE) at Brookings brings years of global research on education change and transformation, and the Ministry of Education of Sierra Leone brings on-the-ground lessons from designing and implementing system-wide educational rebuilding.   

This brief is for any education leader or stakeholder who is interested in charting a transformation journey in their country or education jurisdiction such as a state or district. It is also for civil society organizations, funders, researchers, and anyone interested in the topic of national development through education. In it, we answer the following three questions and argue for a participatory approach to transformation:  

  • Why is education system transformation urgent now? We argue that the world is at an inflection point. Climate change, the changing nature of work, increasing conflict and authoritarianism together with the urgency of COVID recovery has made the transformation agenda more critical than ever. 
  • What is education system transformation? We argue that education system transformation must entail a fresh review of the goals of your system – are they meeting the moment that we are in, are they tackling inequality and building resilience for a changing world, are they fully context aware, are they owned broadly across society – and then fundamentally positioning all components of your education system to coherently contribute to this shared purpose.  
  • How can education system transformation advance in your country or jurisdiction? We argue that three steps are crucial: Purpose (developing a broadly shared vision and purpose), Pedagogy (redesigning the pedagogical core), and Position (positioning and aligning all components of the system to support the pedagogical core and purpose). Deep engagement of educators, families, communities, students, ministry staff, and partners is essential across each of these “3 P” steps.    

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Our aim is not to provide “the answer” — we are also on a journey and continually learning about what it takes to transform systems — but to help others interested in pursuing system transformation benefit from our collective reflections to date. The goal is to complement and put in perspective — not replace — detailed guidance from other actors on education sector on system strengthening, reform, and redesign. In essence, we want to broaden the conversation and debate.

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What the Future of Education Looks Like from Here

  • Posted December 11, 2020
  • By Emily Boudreau

After a year that involved a global pandemic, school closures, nationwide remote instruction, protests for racial justice, and an election, the role of education has never been more critical or more uncertain. When the dust settles from this year, what will education look like — and what should it aspire to?

To mark the end of its centennial year, HGSE convened a faculty-led discussion to explore those questions. The Future of Education panel, moderated by Dean Bridget Long and hosted by HGSE’s Askwith Forums , focused on hopes for education going forward, as well as HGSE’s role. “The story of HGSE is the story of pivotal decisions, meeting challenges, and tremendous growth,” Long said. “We have a long history of empowering our students and partners to be innovators in a constantly changing world. And that is needed now more than ever.”

Joining Long were Associate Professor Karen Brennan , Senior Lecturer Jennifer Cheatham , Assistant Professor Anthony Jack, and Professors Adriana Umaña-Taylor and Martin West , as they looked forward to what the future could hold for schools, educators, and communities:

… After the pandemic subsides

The pandemic heightened existing gaps and disparities and exposed a need to rethink how systems leaders design schools, instruction, and who they put at the center of that design. “As a leader, in the years before the pandemic hit, I realized the balance of our work as practitioners was off,” Cheatham said. “If we had been spending time knowing our children and our staff and designing schools for them, we might not be feeling the pain in the way we are. I think we’re learning something about what the real work of school is about.” In the coming years, the panelists hope that a widespread push to recognize the identity and health of the whole-child in K–12 and higher education will help educators design support systems that can reduce inequity on multiple levels.

… For the global community

As much as the pandemic isolated individuals, on the global scale, people have looked to connect with each other to find solutions and share ideas as they faced a common challenge. This year may have brought everyone together and allowed for exchange of ideas, policies, practices, and assessments across boundaries.

… For technological advancements

As educators and leaders create, design, and imagine the future, technology should be used in service of that vision rather than dictating it. As technology becomes a major part of how we communicate and share ideas, educators need to think critically about how to deploy technology strategically. “My stance on technology is that it should always be used in the service of our human purpose and interest,” said Brennan. “We’ve talked about racial equity, building relationships. Our values and purposes and goals need to lead the way, not the tech.”

… For teachers

Human connections and interactions are at the heart of education. At this time, it’s become abundantly clear that the role of the teacher in the school community is irreplaceable. “I think the next few years hinge on how much we’re willing to invest in educators and all of these additional supports in the school which essentially make learning possible,” Umaña-Taylor said, “these are the individuals who are making the future minds of the nation possible.”

Cutting-edge research and new knowledge must become part of the public discussion in order to meaningfully shape the policies and practices that influence the future of education. “I fundamentally believe that we as academics and scholars must be part of the conversation and not limit ourselves to just articles behind paywalls or policy paragraphs at the end of a paper,” Jack said. “We have to engage the larger public.”

… In 25 years

“We shouldn’t underestimate the possibility that the future might look a lot like the present,” West said. “As I think about the potential sources of change in education, and in American education in particular, I tend to think about longer-term trends as the key driver.” Changing student demographics, access to higher education, structural inequality, and the focus of school leaders are all longer-term trends that, according to panelists, will influence the future of education. 

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The “new normal” in education

  • Viewpoints/ Controversies
  • Published: 24 November 2020
  • Volume 51 , pages 3–14, ( 2021 )

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Effects rippling from the Covid 19 emergency include changes in the personal, social, and economic spheres. Are there continuities as well? Based on a literature review (primarily of UNESCO and OECD publications and their critics), the following question is posed: How can one resist the slide into passive technologization and seize the possibility of achieving a responsive, ethical, humane, and international-transformational approach to education? Technologization, while an ongoing and evidently ever-intensifying tendency, is not without its critics, especially those associated with the humanistic tradition in education. This is more apparent now that curriculum is being conceived as a complicated conversation. In a complex and unequal world, the well-being of students requires diverse and even conflicting visions of the world, its problems, and the forms of knowledge we study to address them.

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From the past, we might find our way to a future unforeclosed by the present (Pinar 2019 , p. 12)

Texts regarding this pandemic’s consequences are appearing at an accelerating pace, with constant coverage by news outlets, as well as philosophical, historical, and sociological reflections by public intellectuals worldwide. Ripples from the current emergency have spread into the personal, social, and economic spheres. But are there continuities as well? Is the pandemic creating a “new normal” in education or simply accenting what has already become normal—an accelerating tendency toward technologization? This tendency presents an important challenge for education, requiring a critical vision of post-Covid-19 curriculum. One must pose an additional question: How can one resist the slide into passive technologization and seize the possibility of achieving a responsive, ethical, humane, and international-transformational approach to education?

The ongoing present

Unpredicted except through science fiction, movie scripts, and novels, the Covid-19 pandemic has changed everyday life, caused wide-scale illness and death, and provoked preventive measures like social distancing, confinement, and school closures. It has struck disproportionately at those who provide essential services and those unable to work remotely; in an already precarious marketplace, unemployment is having terrible consequences. The pandemic is now the chief sign of both globalization and deglobalization, as nations close borders and airports sit empty. There are no departures, no delays. Everything has changed, and no one was prepared. The pandemic has disrupted the flow of time and unraveled what was normal. It is the emergence of an event (think of Badiou 2009 ) that restarts time, creates radical ruptures and imbalances, and brings about a contingency that becomes a new necessity (Žižek 2020 ). Such events question the ongoing present.

The pandemic has reshuffled our needs, which are now based on a new order. Whether of short or medium duration, will it end in a return to the “normal” or move us into an unknown future? Žižek contends that “there is no return to normal, the new ‘normal’ will have to be constructed on the ruins of our old lives, or we will find ourselves in a new barbarism whose signs are already clearly discernible” (Žižek 2020 , p. 3).

Despite public health measures, Gil ( 2020 ) observes that the pandemic has so far generated no physical or spiritual upheaval and no universal awareness of the need to change how we live. Techno-capitalism continues to work, though perhaps not as before. Online sales increase and professionals work from home, thereby creating new digital subjectivities and economies. We will not escape the pull of self-preservation, self-regeneration, and the metamorphosis of capitalism, which will continue its permanent revolution (Wells 2020 ). In adapting subjectivities to the recent demands of digital capitalism, the pandemic can catapult us into an even more thoroughly digitalized space, a trend that artificial intelligence will accelerate. These new subjectivities will exhibit increased capacities for voluntary obedience and programmable functioning abilities, leading to a “new normal” benefiting those who are savvy in software-structured social relationships.

The Covid-19 pandemic has submerged us all in the tsunami-like economies of the Cloud. There is an intensification of the allegro rhythm of adaptation to the Internet of Things (Davies, Beauchamp, Davies, and Price 2019 ). For Latour ( 2020 ), the pandemic has become internalized as an ongoing state of emergency preparing us for the next crisis—climate change—for which we will see just how (un)prepared we are. Along with inequality, climate is one of the most pressing issues of our time (OECD 2019a , 2019b ) and therefore its representation in the curriculum is of public, not just private, interest.

Education both reflects what is now and anticipates what is next, recoding private and public responses to crises. Žižek ( 2020 , p. 117) suggests in this regard that “values and beliefs should not be simply ignored: they play an important role and should be treated as a specific mode of assemblage”. As such, education is (post)human and has its (over)determination by beliefs and values, themselves encoded in technology.

Will the pandemic detoxify our addiction to technology, or will it cement that addiction? Pinar ( 2019 , pp. 14–15) suggests that “this idea—that technological advance can overcome cultural, economic, educational crises—has faded into the background. It is our assumption. Our faith prompts the purchase of new technology and assures we can cure climate change”. While waiting for technology to rescue us, we might also remember to look at ourselves. In this way, the pandemic could be a starting point for a more sustainable environment. An intelligent response to climate change, reactivating the humanistic tradition in education, would reaffirm the right to such an education as a global common good (UNESCO 2015a , p. 10):

This approach emphasizes the inclusion of people who are often subject to discrimination – women and girls, indigenous people, persons with disabilities, migrants, the elderly and people living in countries affected by conflict. It requires an open and flexible approach to learning that is both lifelong and life-wide: an approach that provides the opportunity for all to realize their potential for a sustainable future and a life of dignity”.

Pinar ( 2004 , 2009 , 2019 ) concevies of curriculum as a complicated conversation. Central to that complicated conversation is climate change, which drives the need for education for sustainable development and the grooming of new global citizens with sustainable lifestyles and exemplary environmental custodianship (Marope 2017 ).

The new normal

The pandemic ushers in a “new” normal, in which digitization enforces ways of working and learning. It forces education further into technologization, a development already well underway, fueled by commercialism and the reigning market ideology. Daniel ( 2020 , p. 1) notes that “many institutions had plans to make greater use of technology in teaching, but the outbreak of Covid-19 has meant that changes intended to occur over months or years had to be implemented in a few days”.

Is this “new normal” really new or is it a reiteration of the old?

Digital technologies are the visible face of the immediate changes taking place in society—the commercial society—and schools. The immediate solution to the closure of schools is distance learning, with platforms proliferating and knowledge demoted to information to be exchanged (Koopman 2019 ), like a product, a phenomenon predicted decades ago by Lyotard ( 1984 , pp. 4-5):

Knowledge is and will be produced in order to be sold, it is and will be consumed in order to be valued in a new production: in both cases, the goal is exchange. Knowledge ceases to be an end in itself, it loses its use-value.

Digital technologies and economic rationality based on performance are significant determinants of the commercialization of learning. Moving from physical face-to-face presence to virtual contact (synchronous and asynchronous), the learning space becomes disembodied, virtual not actual, impacting both student learning and the organization of schools, which are no longer buildings but websites. Such change is not only coterminous with the pandemic, as the Education 2030 Agenda (UNESCO 2015b ) testified; preceding that was the Delors Report (Delors 1996 ), which recoded education as lifelong learning that included learning to know, learning to do, learning to be, and learning to live together.

Transnational organizations have specified competences for the 21st century and, in the process, have defined disciplinary and interdisciplinary knowledge that encourages global citizenship, through “the supra curriculum at the global, regional, or international comparative level” (Marope 2017 , p. 10). According to UNESCO ( 2017 ):

While the world may be increasingly interconnected, human rights violations, inequality and poverty still threaten peace and sustainability. Global Citizenship Education (GCED) is UNESCO’s response to these challenges. It works by empowering learners of all ages to understand that these are global, not local issues and to become active promoters of more peaceful, tolerant, inclusive, secure and sustainable societies.

These transnational initiatives have not only acknowledged traditional school subjects but have also shifted the curriculum toward timely topics dedicated to understanding the emergencies of the day (Spiller 2017 ). However, for the OECD ( 2019a ), the “new normal” accentuates two ideas: competence-based education, which includes the knowledges identified in the Delors Report , and a new learning framework structured by digital technologies. The Covid-19 pandemic does not change this logic. Indeed, the interdisciplinary skills framework, content and standardized testing associated with the Programme for International Student Assessment of the OECD has become the most powerful tool for prescribing the curriculum. Educationally, “the universal homogenous ‘state’ exists already. Globalization of standardized testing—the most prominent instance of threatening to restructure schools into technological sites of political socialization, conditioning children for compliance to a universal homogeneous state of mind” (Pinar 2019 , p. 2).

In addition to cognitive and practical skills, this “homogenous state of mind” rests on so-called social and emotional skills in the service of learning to live together, affirming global citizenship, and presumably returning agency to students and teachers (OECD 2019a ). According to Marope ( 2017 , p. 22), “this calls for higher flexibility in curriculum development, and for the need to leave space for curricula interpretation, contextualization, and creativity at the micro level of teachers and classrooms”. Heterogeneity is thus enlisted in the service of both economic homogeneity and disciplinary knowledge. Disciplinary knowledge is presented as universal and endowed with social, moral, and cognitive authority. Operational and effective knowledge becomes central, due to the influence of financial lobbies, thereby ensuring that the logic of the market is brought into the practices of schools. As Pestre ( 2013 , p. 21) observed, “the nature of this knowledge is new: what matters is that it makes hic et nunc the action, its effect and not its understanding”. Its functionality follows (presumably) data and evidence-based management.

A new language is thus imposed on education and the curriculum. Such enforced installation of performative language and Big Data lead to effective and profitable operations in a vast market concerned with competence in operational skills (Lyotard 1984 ). This “new normal” curriculum is said to be more horizontal and less hierarchical and radically polycentric with problem-solving produced through social networks, NGOs, transnational organizations, and think tanks (Pestre 2013 ; Williamson 2013 , 2017 ). Untouched by the pandemic, the “new (old) normal” remains based on disciplinary knowledge and enmeshed in the discourse of standards and accountability in education.

Such enforced commercialism reflects and reinforces economic globalization. Pinar ( 2011 , p. 30) worries that “the globalization of instrumental rationality in education threatens the very existence of education itself”. In his theory, commercialism and the technical instrumentality by which homogenization advances erase education as an embodied experience and the curriculum as a humanistic project. It is a time in which the humanities are devalued as well, as acknowledged by Pinar ( 2019 , p. 19): “In the United States [and in the world] not only does economics replace education—STEM replace the liberal arts as central to the curriculum—there are even politicians who attack the liberal arts as subversive and irrelevant…it can be more precisely characterized as reckless rhetoric of a know-nothing populism”. Replacing in-person dialogical encounters and the educational cultivation of the person (via Bildung and currere ), digital technologies are creating uniformity of learning spaces, in spite of their individualistic tendencies. Of course, education occurs outside schools—and on occasion in schools—but this causal displacement of the centrality of the school implies a devaluation of academic knowledge in the name of diversification of learning spaces.

In society, education, and specifically in the curriculum, the pandemic has brought nothing new but rather has accelerated already existing trends that can be summarized as technologization. Those who can work “remotely” exercise their privilege, since they can exploit an increasingly digital society. They themselves are changed in the process, as their own subjectivities are digitalized, thus predisposing them to a “curriculum of things” (a term coined by Laist ( 2016 ) to describe an object-oriented pedagogical approach), which is organized not around knowledge but information (Koopman 2019 ; Couldry and Mejias 2019 ). This (old) “new normal” was advanced by the OECD, among other international organizations, thus precipitating what some see as “a dynamic and transformative articulation of collective expectations of the purpose, quality, and relevance of education and learning to holistic, inclusive, just, peaceful, and sustainable development, and to the well-being and fulfilment of current and future generations” (Marope 2017 , p. 13). Covid-19, illiberal democracy, economic nationalism, and inaction on climate change, all upend this promise.

Understanding the psychological and cultural complexity of the curriculum is crucial. Without appreciating the infinity of responses students have to what they study, one cannot engage in the complicated conversation that is the curriculum. There must be an affirmation of “not only the individualism of a person’s experience but [of what is] underlining the significance of a person’s response to a course of study that has been designed to ignore individuality in order to buttress nation, religion, ethnicity, family, and gender” (Grumet 2017 , p. 77). Rather than promoting neuroscience as the answer to the problems of curriculum and pedagogy, it is long-past time for rethinking curriculum development and addressing the canonical curriculum question: What knowledge is of most worth from a humanistic perspective that is structured by complicated conversation (UNESCO 2015a ; Pinar 2004 , 2019 )? It promotes respect for diversity and rejection of all forms of (cultural) hegemony, stereotypes, and biases (Pacheco 2009 , 2017 ).

Revisiting the curriculum in the Covid-19 era then expresses the fallacy of the “new normal” but also represents a particular opportunity to promote a different path forward.

Looking to the post-Covid-19 curriculum

Based on the notion of curriculum as a complicated conversation, as proposed by Pinar ( 2004 ), the post-Covid-19 curriculum can seize the possibility of achieving a responsive, ethical, humane education, one which requires a humanistic and internationally aware reconceptualization of curriculum.

While beliefs and values are anchored in social and individual practices (Pinar 2019 , p. 15), education extracts them for critique and reconsideration. For example, freedom and tolerance are not neutral but normative practices, however ideology-free policymakers imagine them to be.

That same sleight-of-hand—value neutrality in the service of a certain normativity—is evident in a digital concept of society as a relationship between humans and non-humans (or posthumans), a relationship not only mediated by but encapsulated within technology: machines interfacing with other machines. This is not merely a technological change, as if it were a quarantined domain severed from society. Technologization is a totalizing digitalization of human experience that includes the structures of society. It is less social than economic, with social bonds now recoded as financial transactions sutured by software. Now that subjectivity is digitalized, the human face has become an exclusively economic one that fabricates the fantasy of rational and free agents—always self-interested—operating in supposedly free markets. Oddly enough, there is no place for a vision of humanistic and internationally aware change. The technological dimension of curriculum is assumed to be the primary area of change, which has been deeply and totally imposed by global standards. The worldwide pandemic supports arguments for imposing forms of control (Žižek 2020 ), including the geolocation of infected people and the suspension—in a state of exception—of civil liberties.

By destroying democracy, the technology of control leads to totalitarianism and barbarism, ending tolerance, difference, and diversity. Remembrance and memory are needed so that historical fascisms (Eley 2020 ) are not repeated, albeit in new disguises (Adorno 2011 ). Technologized education enhances efficiency and ensures uniformity, while presuming objectivity to the detriment of human reflection and singularity. It imposes the running data of the Curriculum of Things and eschews intellectual endeavor, critical attitude, and self-reflexivity.

For those who advocate the primacy of technology and the so-called “free market”, the pandemic represents opportunities not only for profit but also for confirmation of the pervasiveness of human error and proof of the efficiency of the non-human, i.e., the inhuman technology. What may possibly protect children from this inhumanity and their commodification, as human capital, is a humane or humanistic education that contradicts their commodification.

The decontextualized technical vocabulary in use in a market society produces an undifferentiated image in which people are blinded to nuance, distinction, and subtlety. For Pestre, concepts associated with efficiency convey the primacy of economic activity to the exclusion, for instance, of ethics, since those concepts devalue historic (if unrealized) commitments to equality and fraternity by instead emphasizing economic freedom and the autonomy of self-interested individuals. Constructing education as solely economic and technological constitutes a movement toward total efficiency through the installation of uniformity of behavior, devaluing diversity and human creativity.

Erased from the screen is any image of public education as a space of freedom, or as Macdonald ( 1995 , p. 38) holds, any image or concept of “the dignity and integrity of each human”. Instead, what we face is the post-human and the undisputed reign of instrumental reality, where the ends justify the means and human realization is reduced to the consumption of goods and experiences. As Pinar ( 2019 , p. 7) observes: “In the private sphere…. freedom is recast as a choice of consumer goods; in the public sphere, it converts to control and the demand that freedom flourish, so that whatever is profitable can be pursued”. Such “negative” freedom—freedom from constraint—ignores “positive” freedom, which requires us to contemplate—in ethical and spiritual terms—what that freedom is for. To contemplate what freedom is for requires “critical and comprehensive knowledge” (Pestre 2013 , p. 39) not only instrumental and technical knowledge. The humanities and the arts would reoccupy the center of such a curriculum and not be related to its margins (Westbury 2008 ), acknowledging that what is studied within schools is a complicated conversation among those present—including oneself, one’s ancestors, and those yet to be born (Pinar 2004 ).

In an era of unconstrained technologization, the challenge facing the curriculum is coding and STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics), with technology dislodging those subjects related to the human. This is not a classical curriculum (although it could be) but one focused on the emergencies of the moment–namely, climate change, the pandemic, mass migration, right-wing populism, and economic inequality. These timely topics, which in secondary school could be taught as short courses and at the elementary level as thematic units, would be informed by the traditional school subjects (yes, including STEM). Such a reorganization of the curriculum would allow students to see how academic knowledge enables them to understand what is happening to them and their parents in their own regions and globally. Such a cosmopolitan curriculum would prepare children to become citizens not only of their own nations but of the world. This citizenship would simultaneously be subjective and social, singular and universal (Marope 2020 ). Pinar ( 2019 , p. 5) reminds us that “the division between private and public was first blurred then erased by technology”:

No longer public, let alone sacred, morality becomes a matter of privately held values, sometimes monetized as commodities, statements of personal preference, often ornamental, sometimes self-servingly instrumental. Whatever their function, values were to be confined to the private sphere. The public sphere was no longer the civic square but rather, the marketplace, the site where one purchased whatever one valued.

New technological spaces are the universal center for (in)human values. The civic square is now Amazon, Alibaba, Twitter, WeChat, and other global online corporations. The facts of our human condition—a century-old phrase uncanny in its echoes today—can be studied in schools as an interdisciplinary complicated conversation about public issues that eclipse private ones (Pinar 2019 ), including social injustice, inequality, democracy, climate change, refugees, immigrants, and minority groups. Understood as a responsive, ethical, humane and transformational international educational approach, such a post-Covid-19 curriculum could be a “force for social equity, justice, cohesion, stability, and peace” (Marope 2017 , p. 32). “Unchosen” is certainly the adjective describing our obligations now, as we are surrounded by death and dying and threatened by privation or even starvation, as economies collapse and food-supply chains are broken. The pandemic may not mean deglobalization, but it surely accentuates it, as national borders are closed, international travel is suspended, and international trade is impacted by the accompanying economic crisis. On the other hand, economic globalization could return even stronger, as could the globalization of education systems. The “new normal” in education is the technological order—a passive technologization—and its expansion continues uncontested and even accelerated by the pandemic.

Two Greek concepts, kronos and kairos , allow a discussion of contrasts between the quantitative and the qualitative in education. Echoing the ancient notion of kronos are the technologically structured curriculum values of quantity and performance, which are always assessed by a standardized accountability system enforcing an “ideology of achievement”. “While kronos refers to chronological or sequential time, kairos refers to time that might require waiting patiently for a long time or immediate and rapid action; which course of action one chooses will depend on the particular situation” (Lahtinen 2009 , p. 252).

For Macdonald ( 1995 , p. 51), “the central ideology of the schools is the ideology of achievement …[It] is a quantitative ideology, for even to attempt to assess quality must be quantified under this ideology, and the educational process is perceived as a technically monitored quality control process”.

Self-evaluation subjectively internalizes what is useful and in conformity with the techno-economy and its so-called standards, increasingly enforcing technical (software) forms. If recoded as the Internet of Things, this remains a curriculum in allegiance with “order and control” (Doll 2013 , p. 314) School knowledge is reduced to an instrument for economic success, employing compulsory collaboration to ensure group think and conformity. Intertwined with the Internet of Things, technological subjectivity becomes embedded in software, redesigned for effectiveness, i.e., or use-value (as Lyotard predicted).

The Curriculum of Things dominates the Internet, which is simultaneously an object and a thing (see Heidegger 1967 , 1971 , 1977 ), a powerful “technological tool for the process of knowledge building” (Means 2008 , p. 137). Online learning occupies the subjective zone between the “curriculum-as-planned” and the “curriculum-as-lived” (Pinar 2019 , p. 23). The world of the curriculum-as-lived fades, as the screen shifts and children are enmeshed in an ocularcentric system of accountability and instrumentality.

In contrast to kronos , the Greek concept of kairos implies lived time or even slow time (Koepnick 2014 ), time that is “self-reflective” (Macdonald 1995 , p. 103) and autobiographical (Pinar 2009 , 2004), thus inspiring “curriculum improvisation” (Aoki 2011 , p. 375), while emphasizing “the plurality of subjectivities” (Grumet 2017 , p. 80). Kairos emphasizes singularity and acknowledges particularities; it is skeptical of similarities. For Shew ( 2013 , p. 48), “ kairos is that which opens an originary experience—of the divine, perhaps, but also of life or being. Thought as such, kairos as a formative happening—an opportune moment, crisis, circumstance, event—imposes its own sense of measure on time”. So conceived, curriculum can become a complicated conversation that occurs not in chronological time but in its own time. Such dialogue is not neutral, apolitical, or timeless. It focuses on the present and is intrinsically subjective, even in public space, as Pinar ( 2019 , p. 12) writes: “its site is subjectivity as one attunes oneself to what one is experiencing, yes to its immediacy and specificity but also to its situatedness, relatedness, including to what lies beyond it and not only spatially but temporally”.

Kairos is, then, the uniqueness of time that converts curriculum into a complicated conversation, one that includes the subjective reconstruction of learning as a consciousness of everyday life, encouraging the inner activism of quietude and disquietude. Writing about eternity, as an orientation towards the future, Pinar ( 2019 , p. 2) argues that “the second side [the first is contemplation] of such consciousness is immersion in daily life, the activism of quietude – for example, ethical engagement with others”. We add disquietude now, following the work of the Portuguese poet Fernando Pessoa. Disquietude is a moment of eternity: “Sometimes I think I’ll never leave ‘Douradores’ Street. And having written this, it seems to me eternity. Neither pleasure, nor glory, nor power. Freedom, only freedom” (Pesssoa 1991 ).

The disquietude conversation is simultaneously individual and public. It establishes an international space both deglobalized and autonomous, a source of responsive, ethical, and humane encounter. No longer entranced by the distracting dynamic stasis of image-after-image on the screen, the student can face what is his or her emplacement in the physical and natural world, as well as the technological world. The student can become present as a person, here and now, simultaneously historical and timeless.


Slow down and linger should be our motto now. A slogan yes, but it also represents a political, as well as a psychological resistance to the acceleration of time (Berg and Seeber 2016 )—an acceleration that the pandemic has intensified. Covid-19 has moved curriculum online, forcing children physically apart from each other and from their teachers and especially from the in-person dialogical encounters that classrooms can provide. The public space disappears into the pre-designed screen space that software allows, and the machine now becomes the material basis for a curriculum of things, not persons. Like the virus, the pandemic curriculum becomes embedded in devices that technologize our children.

Although one hundred years old, the images created in Modern Times by Charlie Chaplin return, less humorous this time than emblematic of our intensifying subjection to technological necessity. It “would seem to leave us as cogs in the machine, ourselves like moving parts, we keep functioning efficiently, increasing productivity calculating the creative destruction of what is, the human now materialized (de)vices ensnaring us in convenience, connectivity, calculation” (Pinar 2019 , p. 9). Post-human, as many would say.

Technology supports standardized testing and enforces software-designed conformity and never-ending self-evaluation, while all the time erasing lived, embodied experience and intellectual independence. Ignoring the evidence, others are sure that technology can function differently: “Given the potential of information and communication technologies, the teacher should now be a guide who enables learners, from early childhood throughout their learning trajectories, to develop and advance through the constantly expanding maze of knowledge” (UNESCO 2015a , p. 51). Would that it were so.

The canonical question—What knowledge is of most worth?—is open-ended and contentious. In a technologized world, providing for the well-being of children is not obvious, as well-being is embedded in ancient, non-neoliberal visions of the world. “Education is everybody’s business”, Pinar ( 2019 , p. 2) points out, as it fosters “responsible citizenship and solidarity in a global world” (UNESCO 2015a , p. 66), resisting inequality and the exclusion, for example, of migrant groups, refugees, and even those who live below or on the edge of poverty.

In this fast-moving digital world, education needs to be inclusive but not conformist. As the United Nations ( 2015 ) declares, education should ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all. “The coming years will be a vital period to save the planet and to achieve sustainable, inclusive human development” (United Nations 2019 , p. 64). Is such sustainable, inclusive human development achievable through technologization? Can technology succeed where religion has failed?

Despite its contradictions and economic emphases, public education has one clear obligation—to create embodied encounters of learning through curriculum conceived as a complicated conversation. Such a conception acknowledges the worldliness of a cosmopolitan curriculum as it affirms the personification of the individual (Pinar 2011 ). As noted by Grumet ( 2017 , p. 89), “as a form of ethics, there is a responsibility to participate in conversation”. Certainly, it is necessary to ask over and over again the canonical curriculum question: What knowledge is of most worth?

If time, technology and teaching are moving images of eternity, curriculum and pedagogy are also, both ‘moving’ and ‘images’ but not an explicit, empirical, or exact representation of eternity…if reality is an endless series of ‘moving images’, the canonical curriculum question—What knowledge is of most worth?—cannot be settled for all time by declaring one set of subjects eternally important” (Pinar 2019 , p. 12).

In a complicated conversation, the curriculum is not a fixed image sliding into a passive technologization. As a “moving image”, the curriculum constitutes a politics of presence, an ongoing expression of subjectivity (Grumet 2017 ) that affirms the infinity of reality: “Shifting one’s attitude from ‘reducing’ complexity to ‘embracing’ what is always already present in relations and interactions may lead to thinking complexly, abiding happily with mystery” (Doll 2012 , p. 172). Describing the dialogical encounter characterizing conceived curriculum, as a complicated conversation, Pinar explains that this moment of dialogue “is not only place-sensitive (perhaps classroom centered) but also within oneself”, because “the educational significance of subject matter is that it enables the student to learn from actual embodied experience, an outcome that cannot always be engineered” (Pinar 2019 , pp. 12–13). Lived experience is not technological. So, “the curriculum of the future is not just a matter of defining content and official knowledge. It is about creating, sculpting, and finessing minds, mentalities, and identities, promoting style of thought about humans, or ‘mashing up’ and ‘making up’ the future of people” (Williamson 2013 , p. 113).

Yes, we need to linger and take time to contemplate the curriculum question. Only in this way will we share what is common and distinctive in our experience of the current pandemic by changing our time and our learning to foreclose on our future. Curriculum conceived as a complicated conversation restarts historical not screen time; it enacts the private and public as distinguishable, not fused in a computer screen. That is the “new normal”.

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My thanks to William F. Pinar. Friendship is another moving image of eternity. I am grateful to the anonymous reviewer. This work is financed by national funds through the FCT - Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project PTDC / CED-EDG / 30410/2017, Centre for Research in Education, Institute of Education, University of Minho.

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Pacheco, J.A. The “new normal” in education. Prospects 51 , 3–14 (2021).

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The turning point: Why we must transform education now

Why we must transform education now

Global warming. Accelerated digital revolution. Growing inequalities. Democratic backsliding. Loss of biodiversity. Devastating pandemics. And the list goes on. These are just some of the most pressing challenges that we are facing today in our interconnected world.

The diagnosis is clear: Our current global education system is failing to address these alarming challenges and provide quality learning for everyone throughout life. We know that education today is not fulfilling its promise to help us shape peaceful, just, and sustainable societies. These findings were detailed in UNESCO’s Futures of Education Report in November 2021 which called for a new social contract for education.

That is why it has never been more crucial to reimagine the way we learn, what we learn and how we learn. The turning point is now. It’s time to transform education. How do we make that happen?

Here’s what you need to know. 

Why do we need to transform education?

The current state of the world calls for a major transformation in education to repair past injustices and enhance our capacity to act together for a more sustainable and just future. We must ensure the right to lifelong learning by providing all learners - of all ages in all contexts - the knowledge and skills they need to realize their full potential and live with dignity. Education can no longer be limited to a single period of one’s lifetime. Everyone, starting with the most marginalized and disadvantaged in our societies, must be entitled to learning opportunities throughout life both for employment and personal agency. A new social contract for education must unite us around collective endeavours and provide the knowledge and innovation needed to shape a better world anchored in social, economic, and environmental justice.  

What are the key areas that need to be transformed?

  • Inclusive, equitable, safe and healthy schools

Education is in crisis. High rates of poverty, exclusion and gender inequality continue to hold millions back from learning. Moreover, COVID-19 further exposed the inequities in education access and quality, and violence, armed conflict, disasters and reversal of women’s rights have increased insecurity. Inclusive, transformative education must ensure that all learners have unhindered access to and participation in education, that they are safe and healthy, free from violence and discrimination, and are supported with comprehensive care services within school settings. Transforming education requires a significant increase in investment in quality education, a strong foundation in comprehensive early childhood development and education, and must be underpinned by strong political commitment, sound planning, and a robust evidence base.

  • Learning and skills for life, work and sustainable development

There is a crisis in foundational learning, of literacy and numeracy skills among young learners. Since the COVID-19 pandemic, learning poverty has increased by a third in low- and middle-income countries, with an estimated 70% of 10-year-olds unable to understand a simple written text. Children with disabilities are 42% less likely to have foundational reading and numeracy skills compared to their peers. More than 771 million people still lack basic literacy skills, two-thirds of whom are women. Transforming education means empowering learners with knowledge, skills, values and attitudes to be resilient, adaptable and prepared for the uncertain future while contributing to human and planetary well-being and sustainable development. To do so, there must be emphasis on foundational learning for basic literacy and numeracy; education for sustainable development, which encompasses environmental and climate change education; and skills for employment and entrepreneurship.

  • Teachers, teaching and the teaching profession

Teachers are essential for achieving learning outcomes, and for achieving SDG 4 and the transformation of education. But teachers and education personnel are confronted by four major challenges: Teacher shortages; lack of professional development opportunities; low status and working conditions; and lack of capacity to develop teacher leadership, autonomy and innovation. Accelerating progress toward SDG 4 and transforming education require that there is an adequate number of teachers to meet learners’ needs, and all education personnel are trained, motivated, and supported. This can only be possible when education is adequately funded, and policies recognize and support the teaching profession, to improve their status and working conditions.

  • Digital learning and transformation

The COVID-19 crisis drove unprecedented innovations in remote learning through harnessing digital technologies. At the same time, the digital divide excluded many from learning, with nearly one-third of school-age children (463 million) without access to distance learning. These inequities in access meant some groups, such as young women and girls, were left out of learning opportunities. Digital transformation requires harnessing technology as part of larger systemic efforts to transform education, making it more inclusive, equitable, effective, relevant, and sustainable. Investments and action in digital learning should be guided by the three core principles: Center the most marginalized; Free, high-quality digital education content; and Pedagogical innovation and change.

  • Financing of education

While global education spending has grown overall, it has been thwarted by high population growth, the surmounting costs of managing education during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the diversion of aid to other emergencies, leaving a massive global education financial gap amounting to US$ 148 billion annually. In this context, the first step toward transformation is to urge funders to redirect resources back to education to close the funding gap. Following that, countries must have significantly increased and sustainable financing for achieving SDG 4 and that these resources must be equitably and effectively allocated and monitored. Addressing the gaps in education financing requires policy actions in three key areas: Mobilizing more resources, especially domestic; increasing efficiency and equity of allocations and expenditures; and improving education financing data. Finally, determining which areas needs to be financed, and how, will be informed by recommendations from each of the other four action tracks .

What is the Transforming Education Summit?

UNESCO is hosting the Transforming Education Pre-Summit on 28-30 June 2022, a meeting of  over 140 Ministers of Education, as well as  policy and business leaders and youth activists, who are coming together to build a roadmap to transform education globally. This meeting is a precursor to the Transforming Education Summit to be held on 19 September 2022 at the UN General Assembly in New York. This high-level summit is convened by the UN Secretary General to radically change our approach to education systems. Focusing on 5 key areas of transformation, the meeting seeks to mobilize political ambition, action, solutions and solidarity to transform education: to take stock of efforts to recover pandemic-related learning losses; to reimagine education systems for the world of today and tomorrow; and to revitalize national and global efforts to achieve SDG-4.

  • More on the Transforming Education Summit
  • More on the Pre-Summit

Related items

  • Future of education
  • SDG: SDG 4 - Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all

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What Changes to the U.S. Education System Are Needed to Support Long-Term Success for All Americans?

With the pandemic deepening inequities that threaten students’ prospects, the vice president of the Corporation’s National Program provides a vision for transforming our education system from one characterized by uneven and unjust results to one that puts all students on a path to bright futures 


At no point in our nation’s history have we asked so much of our education system as we do today. We ask that our primary and secondary schools prepare all students, regardless of background, for a lifetime of learning. We ask that teachers guide every child toward deeper understanding while simultaneously attending to their social-emotional development. And we ask that our institutions of higher learning serve students with a far broader range of life circumstances than ever before.

We ask these things of education because the future we aspire to requires it. The nature of work and civic participation is evolving at an unprecedented rate. Advances in automation, artificial intelligence, and social media are driving rapid changes in how we interact with each other and what skills hold value. In the world our children will inherit, their ability to adapt, think critically, and work effectively with others will be essential for both their own success and the well-being of society.

At Carnegie Corporation of New York, we focus on supporting people who are in a position to meet this challenge. That includes the full spectrum of educators, administrators, family members, and others who shape young people’s learning experiences as they progress toward and into adulthood. Our mission is to empower all students with the tools, systems, knowledge, and mindsets to prepare them to fully participate in the global economy and in a robust democracy.

All of our work is geared toward transforming student learning. The knowledge, skills, and dispositions required for success today call for a vastly different set of learning experiences than may have sufficed in the past. Students must play a more active role in their own learning, and that learning must encompass more than subject-matter knowledge. Preparing all children for success requires greater attention to inclusiveness in the classroom, differentiation in teaching and learning, and universal high expectations.

This transformation needs to happen in higher education as well. A high school education is no longer enough to ensure financial security. We need more high-quality postsecondary options, better guidance for students as they transition beyond high school, and sufficient supports to enable all students to complete their postsecondary programs. Preparing students for lifelong success requires stronger connections between K–12, higher education, and work.

The need for such transformation has become all the more urgent in the face of COVID-19. As with past economic crises, the downturn resulting from the pandemic is likely to accelerate the erosion of opportunities for low-skilled workers with only a high school education. Investments in innovative learning models and student supports are critical to preventing further inequities in learning outcomes. 

An Urgent Call for Advancing Equity 

The 2020–21 school year may prove to be the most consequential in American history. With unfathomable speed, COVID-19 has forced more change in how schools operate than in the previous half century.

What is most concerning in all of this is the impact on the most underserved and historically marginalized in our society: low-income children and students of color. Even before the current crisis, the future prospects of a young person today looked very different depending on the color of her skin and the zip code in which she grew up, but the pandemic exposed and exacerbated long-standing racial and economic inequities. And the same families who are faring worst in terms of disrupted schooling are bearing the brunt of the economic downturn and disproportionately getting sick, being hospitalized, and dying.

Our mission is to empower all students with the tools, systems, knowledge, and mindsets to prepare them to fully participate in the global economy and in a robust democracy.

Every organization that is committed to educational improvement needs to ask itself what it can do differently to further advance the cause of educational equity during this continuing crisis so that we can make lasting improvements. As we know from past experience, if the goal of equity is not kept front and center, those who are already behind through no fault of their own will benefit the least. If ever there were a time to heed this caution, it is now.

We hope that our nation will approach education with a new sense of purpose and a shared commitment to ensuring that our schools truly work for every child. Whether or not that happens will depend on our resolve and our actions in the coming months. We have the proof points and know-how to transform learning, bolster instruction, and meet the needs of our most disadvantaged students. What has changed is the urgency for doing so at scale.

Our starting place must be a vision of equal opportunity, and from there we must create the conditions that can actually ensure it — irrespective of how different they may look from the ones we now have. We need to reimagine the systems that shape student learning and put the communities whose circumstances we most need to elevate at the center of that process. We need to recognize that we will not improve student outcomes without building the capacity of the adults who work with them, supporting them with high-quality resources and meaningful opportunities for collaboration and professional growth. We need to promote stronger connections between K–12, higher education, and employment so that all students are prepared for lifelong success.

The pandemic has deepened inequities that threaten students’ prospects. But if we seize this moment and learn from it, if we marshal the necessary resources, we have the potential to transform our education system from one characterized by uneven and unjust results to one that puts all students on a path to bright futures.


In a pandemic-induced moment when the American education system has been blown into 25 million homes across the country, where do we go from here?

We Must Learn to Act in New Ways

These are not controversial ideas. In fact, they constitute the general consensus about where American education needs to go. But they also represent a tall order for the people who influence the system. Practically everyone who plays a part in education must learn to act in new ways.

That we have made progress in such areas as high school completion, college-going rates, and the adoption of college- and career-ready standards is a testament to the commitment of those working in the field. But it will take more than commitment to achieve the changes in student learning that our times demand. We can’t expect individuals to figure out what they need to do on their own, nor should we be surprised if they struggle to do so when working in institutional structures designed to produce different outcomes. The transformation we seek calls for much greater coordination and a broader set of allies than would suffice for more incremental changes.

Our starting place must be a vision of equal opportunity, and from there we must create the conditions that can actually ensure it — irrespective of how different they may look from the ones we now have.

Our best hope for achieving equity and the transformation of student learning is to enhance adults’ ability to contribute to that learning. That means building their capacity while supporting their authentic engagement in promoting a high-quality education for every child. It also means ensuring that people operate within systems that are optimized to support their effectiveness and that a growing body of knowledge informs their efforts.

These notions comprise our overarching strategy for promoting the systems change needed to transform student learning experiences on a large scale. We seek to enhance adult capacity and stakeholder engagement in the service of ensuring that all students are prepared to meet the demands of the 21st century. We also support knowledge development and organizational improvement to the extent that investments in these areas enhance adult capacity, stakeholder engagement, and student experiences.

Five Ways We Invest in the Future of Students

These views on how best to promote systems change in education guide our philanthropic work. The strategic areas of change we focus on are major themes throughout our five investment portfolios. Although they are managed separately and support different types of initiatives, each seeks to address its area of focus from multiple angles. A single portfolio may include grants that build adult capacity, enhance stakeholder engagement, and generate new knowledge.

New Designs to Advance Learning

Preparing all students for success requires that we fundamentally reimagine our nation’s schools and classrooms. Our public education system needs to catch up with how the world is evolving and with what we’ve come to understand about how people learn. That means attending to a broader diversity of learning styles and bringing what happens in school into greater alignment with what happens in the worlds of work and civic life. We make investments to increase the number of innovative learning models that support personalized experiences, academic mastery, and positive youth development. We also make investments that build the capacity of districts and intermediaries to improve learning experiences for all students as well as grants to investigate relevant issues of policy and practice.

Pathways to Postsecondary Success

Lifelong success in the United States has never been more dependent on educational attainment than it is today. Completing some education beyond the 12th grade has virtually become a necessity for financial security and meaningful work. But for that possibility to exist for everyone, we need to address the historical barriers that keep many students from pursuing and completing a postsecondary program, and we must strengthen the options available to all students for education after high school. Through our investments, we seek to increase the number of young people able to access and complete a postsecondary program, with a major focus on removing historical barriers for students who are first-generation college-goers, low-income, or from underrepresented groups. We also look to expand the range of high-quality postsecondary options and to strengthen alignment between K–12, higher education, and the world of work.

Leadership and Teaching to Advance Learning

At its core, learning is about the interplay between teachers, students, and content. How teachers and students engage with each other and with their curriculum plays a predominant role in determining what students learn and how well they learn it. That’s not to say that factors outside of school don’t also greatly impact student learning. But the research is clear that among the factors a school might control, nothing outweighs the teaching that students experience. We focus on supporting educators in implementing rigorous college- and career-ready standards in math, science, and English language arts. We make investments to increase the supply of and demand for high-quality curricular materials and professional learning experiences for teachers and administrators.

Public Understanding

As central as they are to the education process, school professionals are hardly the only people with a critical role to play in student learning. Students spend far more time with family and other community members than they do at school. And numerous stakeholders outside of the education system have the potential to strengthen and shape what happens within it. The success of our nation’s schools depends on far more individuals than are employed by them. 

We invest in efforts to engage families and other stakeholders as active partners in supporting equitable access to high-quality student learning. We also support media organizations and policy research groups in building awareness about key issues related to educational equity and improvement.

Integration, Learning, and Innovation

Those of us who work for change in education need a new set of habits to achieve our vision of 21st-century learning. It will take more than a factory-model mindset to transform our education system into one that prepares all learners for an increasingly complex world. We must approach this task with flexibility, empathy for the people involved, and an understanding of how to learn from what’s working and what’s not. We work to reduce the fragmentation, inefficiencies, and missteps that often result when educational improvement strategies are pursued in isolation and without an understanding of the contexts in which they are implemented. Through grants and other activities, we build the capacity of people working in educational organizations to change how they work by emphasizing systems and design thinking, iteration, and knowledge sharing within and across organizations.


Two recent surveys by Carnegie Corporation of New York and Gallup offer insights into how our education system can better help all Americans navigate job and career choices

Join Us in This Ambitious Endeavor

Our approach of supporting multiple stakeholders by pulling multiple levers is informed by our deep understanding of the system we’re trying to move. American education is a massive, diverse, and highly decentralized enterprise. There is no mechanism by which we might affect more than superficial change in many thousands of communities. The type of change that is needed cannot come from compliance alone. It requires that everyone grapple with new ideas.

We know from our history of promoting large-scale improvements in American education that advancements won’t happen overnight or as the result of one kind of initiative. Our vision for 21st-century education will require more than quick wins and isolated successes. Innovation is essential, and a major thrust of our work involves the incubation and dissemination of new models, resources, and exemplars. But we must also learn to move forward with the empathy, flexibility, and systems thinking needed to support people in making the transition. Novel solutions only help if they can be successfully implemented in different contexts.

Only a sustained and concerted effort will shift the center of gravity of a social enterprise that involves millions of adults and many tens of millions of young people. The challenge of philanthropy is to effect widespread social change with limited resources and without formal authority. This takes more than grantmaking. At the Corporation, we convene, communicate, and form coalitions. We provide thought leadership, issue challenges, and launch new initiatives. Through these multifaceted activities, we maximize our ability to forge, share, and put into practice powerful new ideas that build a foundation for more substantial changes in the future.

We encourage everyone who plays a role in education to join us in this work. Our strategy represents more than our priorities as a grantmaker. It conveys our strong beliefs about how to get American education to where it needs to be. The more organizations and individuals we have supporting those who are working to provide students with what they need, the more likely we are to succeed in this ambitious endeavor. 

LaVerne Evans Srinivasan is the vice president of Carnegie Corporation of New York’s National Program and the program director for Education.

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New Ideas for a New Era of Public Education: 8 Ways We Can Change How Schools Are Organized, Funded, Measured and Led to Prepare Grads for the Age of Automation

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I n 1993, Paul T. Hill founded the Center on Reinventing Public Education, a research center based out of the University of Washington’s Daniel J. Evans School of Public Policy and Governance that from the outset was focused on issues of the next century and the broader question of how America’s schools can better prepare their graduates for a rapidly changing society.

This past winter, CRPE, now led by Robin J. Lake and based at UW Bothell, hosted a gathering of education experts and observers to commemorate its first quarter-century of work, toasting 25 years of research, analysis, field studies and white papers created in hopes of aiding school leaders, elected officials and families in reimagining our education system. And not just the function of our schools — but the ways in which the larger system is structured, governed and evaluated.

Across its first 25 years, CRPE’s pursuits were focused primarily on developing more highly effective public schools in every community, especially for low-income or otherwise disadvantaged students. One prominent strategy at the core of the center’s work has been the portfolio strategy, in which public schools operate with high levels of flexibility and family choice, paired with strong government oversight. But beyond the portfolio model, the center has also focused on key issues of funding formulas, governmental oversight, innovative practice and the charter school sector.

In a series of new essays and analyses published in coordination with its anniversary celebration, CRPE took the longer view, considering how these systems and structures must adapt over the next 25 years as education becomes more nimble and personalized, and as it becomes a priority for learning to extend beyond the traditional classroom structure.

It was an eye-opening and horizon-expanding thought experiment. And we’ve assembled a handful of these new essays — and their bold theses — below, in a bid to answer the underlying question: What does success look like in 2050 America, and how must our schools evolve to set graduates up for that success?

In honor of CRPE’s 25th anniversary, here are eight of the center’s biggest thoughts about the next era of public education — some not-so-modest proposals worth thinking about:

essay on new education system

Reconfiguring the P-16 Pipeline — How do we redraw the high school–college career continuum? American public education assumes one common pathway for all: four years of high school and, for the lucky, another four years of higher education, the required credential for the vast majority of middle- and high-paying jobs. Even as careers grow ever more diverse, and students fall into a clear and concerning skill gap that will only get worse with continued automation, we remain almost singularly devoted to the “4+4” preparation model. Instead, the billions of dollars we devote each year to education would be better spent breaking down the traditional barriers among high school, college and career and reimagining the 9-16 continuum of learning so we can develop the talented workforce and democratic citizenry needed for our nation to thrive in the 21st century. Read the full proposal .

essay on new education system

Redefining Equity — Beyond the classroom, how are we going to grapple with out-of-school enrichment, postsecondary preparation and beyond?: Expanding access to educational opportunity has defined debates over school reform for nearly a century, including desegregation efforts, finance equalization cases and proposals to expand school choice. But despite notable progress in some areas, opportunity is more stratified than ever along the lines of race and class. While the issues of racial and income-based segregation, inadequate spending and gaps in achievement continue to define educational inequality, they fail to capture broader societal shifts that are changing the ways we think about youth development. These include increased household spending on out-of-school learning experiences, particularly among wealthy families; the growing complexity of postsecondary educational opportunities; and the importance of non-achievement-based educational outcomes. These shifts highlight sources of educational inequality that, to date, policy has largely failed to address — and at times actively undermined — and suggest a new framework for our evolving conversation surrounding improving opportunity for America’s most vulnerable children. Read the full proposal .

essay on new education system

Rejecting ‘Average’ — How we can redesign the school system for the tails, not the mean. The public education system must prepare all students to solve the problems of the future. But the current system is not rising to the challenge. While high school graduation rates are at an all-time high, completion and dropout statistics for students with disabilities remain dismal. (The latest federal education statistics show that fewer than two-thirds finished high school with a standard diploma.) Beyond students with disabilities, other student populations have unique needs that existing public school systems remain ill-equipped to meet. The struggles of these students, along with those of countless other “square pegs” — independent thinkers, nonconformists, students who are exceptionally creative — cry out for approaches that can better match talent with opportunity. Here’s a renewed call to design an education system for the tails, not the mean. Read the full analysis .

essay on new education system

Rethinking the Classroom — Instead of a portfolio of schools, envisioning a portfolio of student opportunities: Conversations about the next generation of education reforms often get bogged down in either-or disputes. Should districts focus on improving their own schools or contracting with autonomous schools of choice? Can students gain access to job-related learning opportunities without having to sacrifice high school college prep coursework? Should states invest in expanding universal pre-K and other programs built to help lay students’ academic foundations, or should they focus on building K-12 schools capable of helping them achieve faster rates of academic growth? An agile public education system, Lake argues in this new essay tied to the 25th anniversary of the Center on Reinventing Public Education, would avoid pat answers to these questions and concentrate instead on providing effective, flexible and individual pathways toward common goals. It would find ways to enable every student to achieve gateway competencies. It would give students the support necessary to achieve their full potential and allow them to pursue personal objectives such as job and language skills, social-emotional development and achievements in science or the arts. Most importantly, if something was not working, or a student’s needs were not being met, an agile education system would be equipped to change. Looking beyond merely a portfolio of schools, a broader student-centered system would be animated by a drive to do whatever is necessary to prepare every student to solve the problems and capitalize on the opportunities that await the next generation. Read the full proposal .

essay on new education system

Retraining Teachers — How personalization, specialization, soft skills and a talent shortage will reshape the profession: A rapidly changing future has implications not just for learners but also for educators. What might it mean for who teaches what — and how? In a new analysis, we consider the broader future of the teaching profession, from how instructors will be required to expand their expertise to how schools and districts will be forced to rethink issues of recruitment, development and collaboration. In particular, the paper identifies two areas of teacher expertise beyond academics that will become increasingly important and spotlights emerging ideas about how to challenge the one-teacher, one-classroom model while making the job more manageable. The authors also underscore the need to cast a wider net in engaging a broader community in the conversation about what quality teaching looks like for the next generation. “The future of teaching may be less about knowing the answer,” the authors write, “and more about rethinking who asks the questions and works to solve emerging problems.” Read the full thinkpiece .

essay on new education system

Redistributing Funding — How routing dollars to students instead of schools could fund a more nimble system: In a more nimble public education system, all students would have equitable access to learning opportunities during the summer, outside the normal school day and beyond the school walls. Students would also continue to have access to these learning opportunities, supplemental support and postsecondary education opportunities later in life. And students from special populations — those who are gifted and low-income, those with disabilities, those who are not native English speakers or who lack stable home environments — would have access to educational programs tailored to their circumstances. One policy could help enable all of them: personalized education funding. Rather than states and local governments allocating funding to specific public schools, students themselves would receive funding based on their needs and circumstances, and could then plan with their parents to direct this money toward their educational needs: basic school attendance, tutoring, therapy or supplemental learning experiences. Read the full analysis .

essay on new education system

Restructuring Education Systems — How can an innovative approach to school governance balance a need for experimentation with a parent’s right to make informed choices?: A local public education system built for personalization and rapid adjustment to workforce demands must be open to innovation and make full use of learning opportunities outside of conventional schools. But that system cannot be so atomized, chaotic or dominated by irresponsible providers that families are ultimately unable to make informed choices for their children. Families need a comprehensible set of options and information about likely results for students, and communities need options that prepare young people for jobs that are likely to exist. Still, this need for some degree of order and process must not drive out innovation and responsiveness to change. Students must be free to pursue — and providers free to offer — learning experiences that community leaders might not understand or prefer. Paul Hill takes the long view on how to balance these essential, conflicting needs. Read the full commentary .

essay on new education system

Empowering Change — Why America’s educators are ready to innovate (but their education systems are not): Designed more than 100 years ago, America’s public education system is not preparing students for today’s realities of civic and global competitiveness — much less tomorrow’s. Consider the facts: U.S. students are scoring poorly in math and science compared with students in other industrialized countries, and they’re not graduating with the necessary skills or knowledge to succeed in college. Think about social mobility, and the situation grows even starker: Children from high-income families are 10 times as likely as other children to become inventors; NAEP fourth-grade achievements show that only 8.6 percent of students with disabilities scored proficient in reading; and rural students have less access to high-speed internet, AP coursework and extracurricular opportunities, leaving them more likely to “undermatch” themselves when applying to colleges. There is no single answer, but for every solution tried, there is one common theme: Educators, students and families who want something better are thwarted by an outdated delivery model. Robin Lake pens an in-depth analysis of the current educational system — and why she says it will not deliver in preparing students to solve the problems of an unpredictable future society. Read the full analysis .

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How technology is reinventing education.

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New advances in technology are upending education, from the recent debut of new artificial intelligence (AI) chatbots like ChatGPT to the growing accessibility of virtual-reality tools that expand the boundaries of the classroom. For educators, at the heart of it all is the hope that every learner gets an equal chance to develop the skills they need to succeed. But that promise is not without its pitfalls.

“Technology is a game-changer for education – it offers the prospect of universal access to high-quality learning experiences, and it creates fundamentally new ways of teaching,” said Dan Schwartz, dean of  Stanford Graduate School of Education  (GSE), who is also a professor of educational technology at the GSE and faculty director of the  Stanford Accelerator for Learning . “But there are a lot of ways we teach that aren’t great, and a big fear with AI in particular is that we just get more efficient at teaching badly. This is a moment to pay attention, to do things differently.”

For K-12 schools, this year also marks the end of the Elementary and Secondary School Emergency Relief (ESSER) funding program, which has provided pandemic recovery funds that many districts used to invest in educational software and systems. With these funds running out in September 2024, schools are trying to determine their best use of technology as they face the prospect of diminishing resources.

Here, Schwartz and other Stanford education scholars weigh in on some of the technology trends taking center stage in the classroom this year.

AI in the classroom

In 2023, the big story in technology and education was generative AI, following the introduction of ChatGPT and other chatbots that produce text seemingly written by a human in response to a question or prompt. Educators immediately  worried  that students would use the chatbot to cheat by trying to pass its writing off as their own. As schools move to adopt policies around students’ use of the tool, many are also beginning to explore potential opportunities – for example, to generate reading assignments or  coach  students during the writing process.

AI can also help automate tasks like grading and lesson planning, freeing teachers to do the human work that drew them into the profession in the first place, said Victor Lee, an associate professor at the GSE and faculty lead for the AI + Education initiative at the Stanford Accelerator for Learning. “I’m heartened to see some movement toward creating AI tools that make teachers’ lives better – not to replace them, but to give them the time to do the work that only teachers are able to do,” he said. “I hope to see more on that front.”

He also emphasized the need to teach students now to begin questioning and critiquing the development and use of AI. “AI is not going away,” said Lee, who is also director of  CRAFT  (Classroom-Ready Resources about AI for Teaching), which provides free resources to help teach AI literacy to high school students across subject areas. “We need to teach students how to understand and think critically about this technology.”

Immersive environments

The use of immersive technologies like augmented reality, virtual reality, and mixed reality is also expected to surge in the classroom, especially as new high-profile devices integrating these realities hit the marketplace in 2024.

The educational possibilities now go beyond putting on a headset and experiencing life in a distant location. With new technologies, students can create their own local interactive 360-degree scenarios, using just a cell phone or inexpensive camera and simple online tools.

“This is an area that’s really going to explode over the next couple of years,” said Kristen Pilner Blair, director of research for the Digital Learning initiative at the Stanford Accelerator for Learning, which runs a program exploring the use of virtual field trips to promote learning. “Students can learn about the effects of climate change, say, by virtually experiencing the impact on a particular environment. But they can also become creators, documenting and sharing immersive media that shows the effects where they live.”

Integrating AI into virtual simulations could also soon take the experience to another level, Schwartz said. “If your VR experience brings me to a redwood tree, you could have a window pop up that allows me to ask questions about the tree, and AI can deliver the answers.”


Another trend expected to intensify this year is the gamification of learning activities, often featuring dynamic videos with interactive elements to engage and hold students’ attention.

“Gamification is a good motivator, because one key aspect is reward, which is very powerful,” said Schwartz. The downside? Rewards are specific to the activity at hand, which may not extend to learning more generally. “If I get rewarded for doing math in a space-age video game, it doesn’t mean I’m going to be motivated to do math anywhere else.”

Gamification sometimes tries to make “chocolate-covered broccoli,” Schwartz said, by adding art and rewards to make speeded response tasks involving single-answer, factual questions more fun. He hopes to see more creative play patterns that give students points for rethinking an approach or adapting their strategy, rather than only rewarding them for quickly producing a correct response.

Data-gathering and analysis

The growing use of technology in schools is producing massive amounts of data on students’ activities in the classroom and online. “We’re now able to capture moment-to-moment data, every keystroke a kid makes,” said Schwartz – data that can reveal areas of struggle and different learning opportunities, from solving a math problem to approaching a writing assignment.

But outside of research settings, he said, that type of granular data – now owned by tech companies – is more likely used to refine the design of the software than to provide teachers with actionable information.

The promise of personalized learning is being able to generate content aligned with students’ interests and skill levels, and making lessons more accessible for multilingual learners and students with disabilities. Realizing that promise requires that educators can make sense of the data that’s being collected, said Schwartz – and while advances in AI are making it easier to identify patterns and findings, the data also needs to be in a system and form educators can access and analyze for decision-making. Developing a usable infrastructure for that data, Schwartz said, is an important next step.

With the accumulation of student data comes privacy concerns: How is the data being collected? Are there regulations or guidelines around its use in decision-making? What steps are being taken to prevent unauthorized access? In 2023 K-12 schools experienced a rise in cyberattacks, underscoring the need to implement strong systems to safeguard student data.

Technology is “requiring people to check their assumptions about education,” said Schwartz, noting that AI in particular is very efficient at replicating biases and automating the way things have been done in the past, including poor models of instruction. “But it’s also opening up new possibilities for students producing material, and for being able to identify children who are not average so we can customize toward them. It’s an opportunity to think of entirely new ways of teaching – this is the path I hope to see.”

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What’s Next in Education? A New Education System

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By: Amy Anderson

The Donnell-Kay Foundation is encouraged by many of the exciting opportunities growing for students across the nation. However, after decades of work to improve and expand educational opportunities for students in our state, we have come to the conclusion that change will continue to occur in pockets, and be largely incremental, if we are solely reliant on innovation occurring within the existing education system. While our foundation continues to support important work happening in current education systems, we are also committing a significant amount of our time and resources to create an entirely new education system in Colorado.

To enable this much-needed fresh start, the Donnell-Kay Foundation initiated ReSchool Colorado to design and implement a new statewide public education system that pushes the boundaries of current thought and practice to provide an exceptional education for students living in this century, not the 20th century for which our current system was largely designed.

To excel in today’s highly technical world, students need an educational system that adapts quickly to the fluid expectations of society and enables schooling to transcend time and place to better fit the learner. Too many efforts to transform education fall short of this important step. As such, ReSchool will create one, aligned system that will ultimately offer a variety of opportunities for learners across all ages (early learning through the workforce). This means eliminating transitions that can be challenging to navigate in current systems between early childhood, K-12, postsecondary education, and the workforce.

ReSchool Colorado will start small and grow over time and operate in parallel with other systems serving students in our state. People will have the opportunity to enter the new system at various points: some may migrate from their current path; some may bundle opportunities that span across systems; others may start their education or career within it.

The good news is that when it comes to rethinking learning in this new system, we don’t need to start this design process from scratch. There is a lot to learn from colleagues in the field tackling this very topic, such as: Knowledgworks, 2 Revolutions, Convergence, the Global Education Leaders’ Program, the Innovation Lab Network , and the Next Gen collaboration between the Colorado Education Initiative & Colorado Department of Education .

What sets ReSchool Colorado apart from these other important efforts is our commitment to rethinking learning in a new system, as compared to trying to retrofit new learning into existing systems. Smart policies and a solid implementation plan will drive this effort.

If you were starting a system from scratch, how would you set it up? What would the governance structure look like? How would financing this public system work? And, how would you rethink metrics and accountability for a modern-day education system? We are tackling these topics--and more--on the road to designing this new system, which we hope will be on the way to implementation in 2016. We invite you to learn more and stay informed about our work.

The Smart Cities blog series catalogs innovations in learning in America’s great cities. We’re writing a book about what we’re learning-- and you can help.

Amy Anderson is Senior Director at the Donnell-Kay Foundation (DK) and Director of ReSchool Colorado , a multi-year initiative launched by DK in 2013 to create an entirely new state public education system in Colorado where learning is re-imagined and students graduate equipped to thrive in a rapidly changing world. Prior to DK, Amy was Associate Commissioner at the Colorado Department of Education where she created and led the Division of Innovation, Choice, and Engagement.

The opinions expressed in Vander Ark on Innovation are strictly those of the author(s) and do not reflect the opinions or endorsement of Editorial Projects in Education, or any of its publications.

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Education System in the United States


Ideally, education should continually prepare an individual for life so that they may live it to the fullest while aiming at an experience of the greater good for all and sundry. Nurturing of the human capacity for creativity requires a fertile environment for growth. Thus, education can be acquired from home, where the educative process is informal. It can also be appropriated from an institutionalized setting in the form of a public school or a privately owned school. In the United States, each of these environments is well represented as a source of education. The extent to which each of them has been instrumental in the drive for the greater good has, however, not yet been established.

Also, it would be an interesting engagement to try and determine how much each of the three entities have contributed towards this goal in the American context. This article shall explore education in the United States based on the aforementioned sources of enlightenment. According to the National Catholic Educational Association, no database extant in the American continent provides data regarding public schools. Furthermore, no database collects the same; also, no database compares findings concerning private and public schools (NCEA, 2010). This treatise shall attempt to make such comparisons. Findings of privately run schools and home-based learning centers shall be considered in mutual exclusivity, and comparisons made of the same regarding various parameters of interest. The author shall then endeavor to draw logical conclusions from the comparisons thus made.

​General Structure of the Education System in the United States

In the United States, education can be seen from two perspectives. There is a level at which education is considered not to be compulsory, and there is compulsory education. The non-compulsory level of education is below kindergarten. Different states have different ages at which children may enter compulsory education. This is usually six years of age. However, the range is usually between five and seven years (USAEducation, 2011). This level of education is also known as pre-higher education, and it lasts for ten years on average. For example, a child who joins compulsory education classes at the age of six years shall be expected to graduate at the age of sixteen, approximately ten years later. Within this level, one starts with pre-schooling, which commences from age three to six. The types of schools that provide pre-primary education include nursery schools, kindergarten, and daycare centers. A child in kindergarten spends two years in school (EuroEducation, 2011). In some cases, certificates are awarded as proof that a child indeed attended pre-primary classes. These certificates make the children eligible for admission into Elementary school.

Elementary school lasts four years, and the age of entry is usually six years, immediately after completion of Kindergarten. There are four grades at this level, but that also depends on the state and local practice. At ten years of age, one is likely to graduate with a certificate or a diploma that is awarded by the State or District. The student is then eligible to join Middle School. Sometimes, however, the issuance of awards may not be necessary (EuroEducation, 2011). For example, when a student is to maintain their residency within the same school, there will be no need for proof of graduation to the next level since the student is already known.

From ten to fourteen years of age, a student attends Middle School. This is from grade four to grade six but in some cases, it may go up to grade seven, or grade eight. On average the level takes three years to be completed. High school is from grade seven (or eight) to twelve and lasts six years; from thirteen to eighteen years of age. Some schools offer a level known as the Junior Secondary, which typically runs from thirteen to fifteen years of age and lasts an average of three years. The representative grades in this level are grade seven to eight, seven to nine, or eight to nine. It is a level followed immediately by the Upper secondary. The latter takes five years, is composed of grades nine or ten to twelve, and involves children who are between fifteen and eighteen years of age. Twelfth grade is the level for graduation from secondary school in all states. When one graduate, they are awarded a High School Diploma together with a transcript which details the marks that the student obtained and the curriculum in which he or she was involved (USAEducation, 2011).

Beyond secondary school education, there are two branches of education that one may opt for. They may get vocational education and training. This does not culminate in one being awarded a degree, but under certain circumstances, there may be transferable credits that lead to the award of a degree. On the other hand, a high school graduate can opt for the pursuance of a degree in any field that interests him or her (USAEducation, 2011). Higher education, also called post-secondary education can last an entire lifetime. It might also last for only three years after which the student decides to seek employment either in a field relevant to the acquired knowledge or an entirely different field. The transmutability of knowledge gained from higher education places the scholar at an advantage in that they are not confined to their area of expertise. The open-minded graduate will find gainful employment in whichever field they opt for. The essence of education is not to end up having a job, but to live life fully. Therefore, one who gets a job after they have acquired their degrees is fortunate

​Subjects Taught at Various School Levels

Much of what children are introduced to while they are in Kindergarten is repeated through the course of their elementary school life. Numbers, language, and social science are taught using computers, film, and books. These lists are, however, not exhaustive. Teachers have the responsibility of shaping the way children will think at this level and what the children learn shall be important determinants of whether or not the students shall be successful in the future. The teacher encourages them to play so that they may develop language and social skills. At Elementary School, one or two teachers are usually held responsible for a group of children whom they instruct in one of several special subjects. These subjects include science, music, and art (United States Bureau of Labour, 2002).

​The private education system in the United States

Behind every decision for one to embrace either the public school system or private school system, there is a motive. The rationale behind American people opting for private education is multi-faceted. However, there seems to be one underlying reason (opines the author) that traverses all others and that is, a collectively disgruntled group of people who have lost faith in the education that the public sector provides. What are some of the reasons for opting to go private? If the 2004 publication on private schooling is anything to go by, private schools are a reserve of the financially capable. The same publication gives the impression that the majority of rich people prefer having their children attend private schools that have no religious affiliations (Education Week, 2004). It would also so appear as if this group of people detests the idea of their progeny being indoctrinated with religious dogma; that not being relevant to their realization of the good life. Moreover, it depicts the definition of “the good life” as something subjective, arguable depending on personal perspectives of what comprises the good in life. If the observations on religious dogma were true, then a paltry 10% of the school-age population would still be an overestimation of the proportion of people who do not view success in life as a function of one’s religiousness or lack thereof.

According to the Council of American Private Education, one of the reasons the American populace opts for private educational institutions is the provision of quality education that they appropriate (CAPE, 2011). The implication of this is that, for the parents of school-going children who attend private school, the delivery of quality is better experienced away from public institutions. Other reasons cited for preferring private to public schools are supportive communities, safety and orderliness in private environments, and the impartation of morals and ethical values. When each of these factors is taken in isolation and regarded as a polarizing factor, it does not appear to hold much water, if any at all. About the quality of education, for example, it would be expected that public schools would offer better quality. This is because the federal government has the backing of the whole American population, albeit begrudgingly for some, in form of income tax returns. Therefore, the acquisition of quality personnel and educative amenities would/should not be an unbearable burden.

The National Centre for Education Statistics (NCES) defines a private school as one that does not obtain its financial support primarily from public funds. Besides, such schools use classrooms to deliver educative material from kindergarten up to grade 12. Other levels that compare to K-12 but as yet ungraded are also considered, for example, some Montessori schools assign institutions to “primary” or “intermediate” levels rather than giving specific grades. The said schools should also employ one teacher or more, for them to snugly fit within this criterion. The NCES does not consider a private school an institution or organization that does not use a classroom set-up to deliver instruction. It has been running the private school survey since 1997, with data derived from administrative personnel in the same institutions (NCES, 2011).

According to NCESs 2009-2010 survey, some private schools had religious orientations and these formed the majority of private schools (Broughman, Swaim and Hryczaniuk, 2011). The religious leanings notwithstanding, an interesting fancy that comes to mind is a look at the reasons behind these proclivities. It would also be of sensual appeal to study the various religious interests represented in the various school, to find out which is the most represented and why.

From the same survey mentioned above, it was evident that the majority of private schools around the United States had no religious affiliations at all. That is, not one religion had several schools that exceeded that of schools devoid of religious inclinations. These “unspiritual” (read non-sectarian) schools were closely followed in number by private schools that are predominantly Roman Catholic (Broughman, Swaim, and Hryczaniuk, 2011). According to the National Catholic Educational Association, when a single year is considered, examining test scores to determine student achievement, and to compare the quality of education between public and private schools avails very little relevant information (NCEA, 2006). This statement has been construed to engender the lack of comparison of other relevant data within any single academic or survey year.

For example, based on the 2009-2010 NCEA report, one may easily compare the enrolment of students in Roman Catholic schools and those in the Baptist church, thereby concluding that the higher the number of schools, the higher the number of students who enroll in them. This conclusion, however, is flawed, especially when one goes a step further and makes the same comparisons with, say, Jewish schools. The conclusion would imply direct proportionality between the number of schools and the number of enrollees. Nevertheless, the Jewish schools number less than half of the Baptist schools, but students enrolled in Jewish schools are more than half the number of those in Baptist schools. Similarly, it would be expected that since the number of Greek orthodox schools are exactly half the number of schools of the Church of God in Christ, the enrollees in the latter institution would be, ideally, half the number in the former give or take a few thousand students. A stark contrast is observed in this case, when the number of Greek orthodox enrolees exceeds the number of enrollees in schools considered to be affiliated with the Church of God in Christ (Broughman, Swaim and Hryczaniuk, 2011). With such discrepancies, it is highly unlikely that comparisons within different years would avail anything different.

From the survey carried out by the NCEA, several questions are likely to arise in the curious-minded. One would ask, for instance, how religious affiliations affect examination scores or how the religiously inclined to turn out in life after attending school. Furthermore, one would be interested in knowing the drop-out rate per grade of the religiously inclined vis a vis the non-sectarian. This, followed by an exploration of the reasons why would be a worthwhile engagement leading to a keener understanding of the school demographics. It would also enlighten one who needs to make decisions regarding which school his or her children ought to attend. However, the report provided addresses none of these concerns. Where one would probably get the answers to these questions, the data is not as detailed as to be of much relevance. A document by the Council for American Private Education, in mentioning the scores by students doing science, states that in 2009, 44% of the students in private schools “scored at or above the ‘proficient level’ in science”. The same publication further states that, for students in the fourth grade, 48% were deemed proficient according to NAEP (CAPE, 2011). It is thus evident that one might need to investigate to arrive at the answers to the queries above.

Apart from the meager statistical information from the well-established institutions like NAEP and the NCEA, several studies have been carried out whose objectives are congruous with the raised questions. Some studies have concluded that students from private schools perform better than their public school counterparts. However, other studies find conflicting results. Those whose results are in the affirmative invariably find out also that the best performers are students from catholic schools (Figlio & Stone, 2011).

According to Figlio and Stone, these studies did not employ robust instruments for the adjustment of non-random selection. They, therefore, proposed the implementation of a system of study that would improve system power prediction by about three times compared to studies done before theirs. They, like the aforementioned National Catholic Educational Association, did their studies while considering high schools in three categories: religious private high schools, nonreligious private high schools, and public high schools. Having made these modifications, they found out that nonreligious schools have a significant superiority to the religious schools in as far as science and mathematics subjects are concerned (Figlio and Stone, 2011).

There exists a debate about the benefits (if any at all) that private schools bring to the American schooling system. Those who criticize the private schools say that parents decide to opt for them being driven by the desire to appear socially elite or simply to separate themselves. It is the collective points of view of these critics that parents do not necessarily choose private schools because of better academic performance. They contend that these parents are hell-bent on keeping their children separate and untainted from those who come from other races and backgrounds. Furthermore, they say that for these parents, their children’s attending private schools is an attractive status symbol. The critical punch line they put forward is that private schools propagate segregation by class and race (Education Week, 2004).

On the other hand, there exist proponents for private education. In support of the system, they say that the monopoly extant with many public schools is not competitive. They add that a competitive system that opens up the opportunity for people to choose the schools to which they shall take their children is required. To support this point, they say that private school students are superior academies to their public school counterparts. They contend that schools need to be autonomous, and such a system would promote this autonomy; also adding that due to autonomy, student performance would improve. The proponents say that there is bias in the private school system. They propose an opening up of the system by the introduction of children from low-income families and those whose affiliate groups are underrepresented. This would mean that a means of supporting these students’ education be established. They, therefore, propose the use of vouchers as well as school choice programs (Education Week, 2004).

The proposal regarding the use of vouchers and increased school choice was given a counter-offer by the group called Americans United. On their website, they gave several reasons why people ought not to support this emerging trend. Among the reasons was the fact that the First Amendment gave a guarantee of freedom of religion from state influences. That is, they invoke the unending debate of the separation of church and state. They contended that this law would be broken when Americans agreed to support the issuance of vouchers for schooling. Citing the fact that a majority of private schools have religious affiliations and that these institutions have the mandate to indoctrinate the students and to educate them as well, the Americans United felt that Americans would be inadvertently supporting religion against their free wills. Americans would be paying for their children to be indoctrinated with religious dogma with which they did not agree (Americans United, 2011).

Ostensibly, the issuance of the voucher would be a tad more acceptable if it appreciably led to an improvement in the academic performance of students in their academics. That not being the case, however, the Americans United group is vehemently opposed to the idea. They contended that students in public schools performed much better in mathematics and reading than students in private schools. Furthermore, they would have expected the program to cause several changes in the students who participated in it. For example, participants were expected to have positive aspirations concerning their schooling in the future and to improve in the frequency with which they did their homework. However, the program never did bring such changes. On the contrary, student participants’ likelihood of absenteeism from class increased significantly (Americans United, 2011).

The report by the NCES never detailed graduation statistics for the year 2009-2010. Instead, it had data for the previous year. Whereas the reason for missing this data remains unknown, the NCES reported that of the twelfth graders who were enrolled in October 2008, ninety-eight percent graduated in 2009 (NCES, 2011). That was a very high success rate for graduates in private schools, which would have been taken as indicative of the quality of education that private institutions have to offer. Furthermore, 64% of the high school graduates from private schools later enrolled in 4-year colleges. This was representative of 308,813 high school graduates, who enrolled by the fall of the same year as they did graduate (NCES, 2011).

Using multiple sources of data, Heckman and LaFontaine made estimations of trends of graduation rates in the United States high schools. They noted that previous calculations were rife with biases and corrections had to be made for their study to be acceptable. Eventually, they found out that the rates provided by the National Centre for Educational Statistics were substantially high and thus misleading. They also found out that for forty-odd years, there had been a decline in the rate of graduation. Furthermore, they observed that even though the number of immigrants and minorities was on the increase in American society, this was not the cause of declining high school graduation rates among native populations. Therefore, they were able to explain why college attendance was also on the decline. Findings concerning gender differences in graduation from high schools were also useful in deciphering the reasons behind the gaps extant in male-female college attendance, and why those gaps were gradually increasing (Heckman and LaFontaine, 2011). These findings were not specifically for high school graduates from private high schools, but a traversal of all high schools regardless of their administrative leanings. In an appeal to the part being a representative of the whole, one would comfortably suggest that these findings could be transmuted to the private school population with similar implications.

The sizes of private schools might affect the effective transmission of knowledge and its receptivity among students. Here, the paper explores what other people have said regarding this, and the recommendations that they put forth towards improving the education system in the United States. Taken from an economic perspective, larger school sizes are better than smaller ones because of economies of scale benefits realized in the former. According to Ferris and Leung though, this is a consensus that requires revision because the benefits accrued from one side are outweighed by the disadvantages from other fronts. They cite the fact that more and more students are growing frustrated by the system, and coupled with the escalation of violence in the same schools, the drop-out rates are also on the rise (Leung and Ferris, 2008).

Since class sizes in most private schools are small, the student to teacher ratio critical for individual attention is easily achieved. This ratio stands at 15:1, but smaller ratios are more advantageous both to the teachers and students alike. With smaller ratios, teachers have fewer students to deal with and can divide their time well among the few students demanding their attention. Each student benefits by having more time spent with the teacher. Therefore, each student in a private school classroom has the opportunity to be personally aided by the teacher when the need calls for it (Kennedy, 2011).

​A Summary of Some of the Benefits of Private School System

According to the United States Department of education, when private school students and their public school counterparts are compared, the former generally outperform the latter on standardized achievement tests. Also, for the former to graduate, they pass through requirements that are more demanding than for their counterparts. Completion of advanced-level courses is more likely for private school graduates than for their public school counterparts when they take three academic subject areas. National Assessment of Educational Progress results showed that private student scores were above average nationally. Experts recommend students to take up challenging subjects that push them into striving for excellence. Private schools make provisions for this by making it a requirement for students to take difficult courses like calculus before they graduate. When it was assessed who between the two was more likely to attain a bachelor’s degree by their mid-twenties, those who had gone to private schools in their eighth grade scored 52% compared to 26% for the public school attendees (CAPE, 2011b).

Depending on a school’s financial resources, compensation for private school teachers might be higher than that for public school teachers. On the whole, however, they are usually comparably lower. The teachers usually benefit from getting free housing and meals as opposed to the public school teachers who do not get such benefits. Also, teachers in private schools have widely variable pension schemes. They are required by private schools to be credentialed. That is, a teacher has to have a teaching certificate backed with a degree in the relevant subject. Armed with these two documents, a teacher stands a greater chance of being hired than one who does not have them. However, concerning budgetary costs, public schools stand a better chance of raising significantly large amounts of money. They do so by making annual appeals, cultivating alumni, and soliciting grants from corporations. Private schools nurture strong bonds with their alumni. Therefore, they also have high rates of fund-raising success. They also have a management structure that is considered to be lean. This means that a critical decision does not have to pass through several authorities to get approval. Rarely, if ever, will a private school have to contend with a union of teachers (Kennedy, 2011).

​Some observed discrepancies to the generalizations regarding private school superiority

Rothstein, Carnoy, and Benveniste filed a report regarding the accountability of private schools to students’ parents, the outcomes parents expected of their children, and policies for retention and selection of teachers. They found out that in elementary school accountability to students’ parents does not differ significantly from the same in public schools. There was also no clearly defined school outcome expectation in private schools, and that was in no way different from the situation in public schools. Neither type of school did mentor teachers nor evaluate them formally to assess variation in their performance and delivery of instruction. They also found that where there was a competition between private and public schools, innovations by private schools never made their competitor public schools improve in any way whatsoever. Therefore, they made a point to the proponents for choice in public education, that to improve academic achievement, choice of public versus private institutions held very little weight (Benveniste, Carnoy and Rothste, 1999).

Private schooling also has its disadvantages. Some things are not implicitly taught in private schools. For example, a graduate from a private school would find it difficult to strike a conversation with any other person, who is essentially different from them. Unless it was a fellow graduate who came from the same institution, or a school with a similar status, building meaningful rapport would not be easy. Indoctrination also occurs in private schools albeit of a different kind than the commonplace religious dogma inculcation. That indoctrination goes a long way to assure students of private schools that they are better than those who never succeeded in attending similar schools.

The latter is seen as inferior people who are not even worth spending time with. The effect of this influence upon the indoctrinated was made evident in the Democratic presidential nominee, Al Gore, who could not speak to the populace. Thus, such students remain ignorant of some facts like there being other smart people apart from those who attend similar schools to theirs. They remain unaware that some highly adept people never see the inside of classrooms. Also, they realize rather belatedly that some of the so-called smart people are not smart at all. School is lacking in the instruction on social intelligence, the ability to be creative, and it does not teach emotional intelligence (Deresiewicz, 2008). Deresiewicz does not, however, give the way through which one may be educated in these latter aspects, pertinent through the acquisition of this knowledge might be.

The private school system achieves the creation of analytically biased minds, thereby developing lopsided intelligence that may not be entirely beneficial in seeing and appreciating the value inherent in other people. Such people are more adept at dealing with machines or analyzing books than interacting with other members of the human race. The system of private schooling essentially alienates one from that which is human in the sense that it creates a block to interpersonal interactions that are every bit human. Besides, a person develops a misguided sense of how worthy they are to receive certain rights and privileges. The unbearable truth in all of this is the fact that all through the life of a student who has been in private school, they have been graded using numerical rankings. Such students end up equating their grades to their identity and value. Absolute excellence, they forget, does not imply academic excellence or vice versa (Deresiewicz, 2008).

Whether it is a private school or a public school, one would contend that both have a common disadvantage. This is about the type of interaction a school-going child is exposed to. They can only interact with their age-mates while in school. Bigger children invariably bully the smaller ones, who in turn do the same to yet smaller ones. Among these children, none appreciates how to interact with grownups. The fear that is inculcated into them by the bullies they meet in school becomes the same fear that they show towards their parents back at home. Fear is a monster that feeds upon itself, however. Therefore, the fear engenders a reciprocal propensity for abuse from parents who do not know better. It is not a seldom occurrence to find children who’ve been abused by otherwise well-meaning parents.

The vicious cycle started with their being taken to school, which alienated them from their parents. They then picked up bits and pieces of strange behavior from their peers, which they came home with, much to the chagrin of their unprepared parents. Thus, there is a growing concern that home-schooling would be the only best option for a growing child (Oeser, 2011). Furthermore, time taken out to quietly reflect on one’s own is an alien concept to school-going students, who are more inclined to be rowdy, loud, and disorderly. Also, since they learn to pass their examinations, school-goers eventually lack long-standing applicable knowledge. Most of what they learn is quickly forgotten with the passing of the examination. Their understanding of concepts is not adequate as the knowledge they have does not correlate well with real-life issues.

​American Education in Public Schools: A Brief History

A majority of people in the United States who come from low-income backgrounds take their children to public schools. Currently, the parents whose children attend private schools are rather similar in characteristics. For one, they are from affluent backgrounds. The fact that school fees charges in private schools are high shields this elitist group of people from other influences. However, if the restrictive costs of financing education in private schools were to be revised downwards, up to 59% of parents would opt for private education. This would be aided by vouchers which would, ideally, be catering for the whole tuition fees. Besides, parents with low income show greater enthusiasm for private school enrolment, but money continues to be their major hurdle. It is opined that there would be a greater diversity of parents and the group would inevitably be larger if the price of private education were reduced (Education Week, 2004).

For some people, the public education system is the ideal system of instruction. However, it faces a lot of criticism, and many times it has had to be revised so that it may continue playing a pivotal role in the shaping of public opinion regarding solidarity with the government. Having developed in the nineteenth century, its inception was the result of a suggestion by the then President Jefferson. Public school education is under the management of states and school districts. Whereas education in the United States began with puritans and Congregationalists, a purely Christian group of people, the introduction of the public school system came much later. With the coming of people from different countries, there was a foreign influence upon the natives. The entrant people did not all embrace the Christian faith, they have been of different inclinations. For this reason, private education began and thrived in the mid-eighteenth century (Thattai, 2011).

​Disadvantages of Public Schools

In public schools, teachers generally get better remuneration. However, starter salaries are usually very low. This leads to very few teachers being retained in the public sector. Too much bureaucracy in the public sector implies that decisions take very long to be made even when those decisions are critical. Public schools are usually bogged down with political influences and union contracts. The rules that they adhere to while at work are also antique (Kennedy, 2011). Some courses are considered to be more challenging than others. It is less likely for a student in a public school to be required to take such courses as calculus before they graduate (CAPE, 2011b). This has the effect of developing an individual who shall not strive to excel in real life. It also relegates such an individual to a life of relative ease or one that is not well equipped to face challenges. Such an individual ends up having difficulties solving personal problems. Suicidal tendencies and drug-related escape mechanisms are rife among these people who will under most circumstances seek the easiest way out of any rut. The ways that appear easy, however, are illusions and present the individuals with a false sense of comfort or repose from the hardships they experience.

​Of Co-Educational Schools versus Single-Sex Schools

Both private and public schools can be regarded as single-sex institutions or co-educational. In the latter case, a school trains students of both sexes, while in the former the school is exclusively for girls or boys. A debate continues regarding whether the genders should be separated in the school set-up. Those who oppose the idea are the conservative types who feel that there is the looseness of morals that comes into play when members of the two genders are nearby for extended periods. For the feminists, a separation of the sexes is the ideal environment for women to achieve success in life. Historically, it has been normal to separate girls and boys, giving them unequal status to each other based on their acquired societal roles in later life. Literacy was, therefore, more prevalent among males than among females. The former was trained in subjects that would be relevant in their workplaces, politics, and war. Girls, on the other hand, were trained on how to be better performers in the home arena. Thus, the inception of co-education was a threat to the widely accepted status quo, where men were regarded in higher esteem than women (Rury, 2008).

​Controversies in the Adoption of Coeducation

In 2006, Title IX regulations of the US department of education were amended. This allowed single-sex school enrolment, but with reservations. It contended that the enrolments ought o be voluntary. Also, an equal school for the opposite gender should have been present or catered for. While endeavoring to convert to single-sex institutions, some schools have been met with challenges like meager finances and political pressures. Enrolment in such schools has also been a problem for some of the administrators (Rury, 2008).

It would have been thrift for the United States to have learned a thing or two from her European contemporaries. Europe’s experience with coeducation has been anything but rosy. They have documented disadvantages that they have observed against female students in such schools. They state that contrary to their expectation that coeducation would bring about a keen appreciation of either gender by the other, the opposite remains true. Girls have invariably been the sufferers while boys (and teachers) have been the perpetrators of a myriad of atrocities. In a literal sense, girls lack adequate space in these schools. They are the objects of boys’ desires, and often battered with lewd suggestive remarks. Male teachers also tend to get romantically attached to girl students. Girls do not get as much appropriate attention from teachers as the boys do, and they are also taken as social workers to be strategically seated next to ill-mannered boys. This is done to cause the boys to learn some good manners from the better-behaved girls. The missing point in all this is that the bad behavior of the boys seated next to the girls might (and does) rub off on the girls, whose behavior will then be all the worse (Anon., 2004).

In coeducational institutions, inequity exists in the meting out of punishments for wrongdoing. Girls get punished more severely than boys even when their misdeeds are essential of similar magnitude. It is understood, in a discriminatory manner, that girls are more diligent than boys, but that boys are more intelligent than girls. Therefore, when a girl performs well in class, it is attributed to her diligence, while if a boy does the same, it is said that he passed or excelled because he is intelligent. Boys are encouraged to be competitive while girls are frowned upon if they act similarly. The latter is expected to conform. They are also given less time for verbal expression than boys are given in class (Anon., 2004).

Other issues that have arisen through the years after the introduction of coeducational institutions include the argument by some doctors that women would suffer from overexertion and get harmed. It was argued that the overexertion would come from the girls’ competition with boys. Indulgence in sexual impropriety was also pointed out as being highly likely when the two sexes were left to interact for extended periods (Rury, 2008).

Outcomes of education that are of most interests to parents and students include academic achievement test scores, an appropriately delineated concept of self, and long-term success indicators. These are more evident in single-sex schools than in coeducational schools, and they give leverage for the proponents for single-sex schools. In comparison, single-sex schools perform academically better than coeducational schools.

​Current Trends of Education in the United States

In the late twentieth century, there arose a drive for the reformation of elementary education in the United States. Its purpose was to indiscriminately improve the academic performance of students. Children were left accountable to the schools, districts, and ultimately the states for their academic achievement. However, concerns have been raised that the United States students perform relatively poorly in their academics compared to students of other countries. They blame this on an educational system that they deem not to be enabling the students to perform as it should be. Elementary education in the United States is constantly being reformed and refined. The United States is democratizing its education so that it does not support systems that are representations of goals and expectations, and are industrial or social. It is drawn toward an education system that is open and universal (Howey and Post, 2011).

When students perform poorly, the education system is seen as being a failure. It thus behooves the government to ensure that a running system strikes the right balance. One that places a lot of demands on the students is sure to cause them to perform poorly. A very lax system, on the other hand, will produce individuals who are ill-equipped for their roles in society. Thus, the government has put in place measures to ensure that all children have equal access to quality education. These measures include the creation of a welcoming environment, which embodies the prevention of bullying and harassment, and the outlining of the responsibilities that education providers have towards this goal. The onus rests on education providers to ensure that harassment does not occur. Such harassment might be from the education providers themselves, or other sources. Education providers should take the measures necessary to remedy harassment when they know that students are being harassed. Otherwise, they (education providers) face imminent sanctions, since their laxity (or presumed indifference) allows the education system to be poisoned. Harassment is seen as one of the impediments to the ease of access to educational services. When one is harassed, they may not “participate fully in the educational experience” (OHRC, 2011).

An education provider helps reduce instances of bullying and harassment by being non-tolerant to the act of bullying and being unequivocal about the consequences a student has to face for being a bully. The educator further communicates this by educating students concerning disabilities; he or she then encourages them to appreciate diversity. Appreciating diversity will imply that the students do not taunt their peers who may be disabled in one way or another. They will respect their disabled peers, and even protect them from further harm if necessary. The education provider may also get involved in role-playing to cultivate compassion and awareness of the impact that bullying has on other people. They may act like the ones upon whose taunts are being thrown or being big, act as the bullies. In either case, the students will see the folly behind bullying as a front. Bullies are essentially weak people who hide their weaknesses by attacking others. Finally, the educator protects students who report bullying by maintaining confidence regarding their report (OHRC, 2011). The educator does not let other students know the one who reports instances of bullying to the authorities.

​The Role of Universities in the United States Education System

There was a decline in American education as was documented in 1983 by the National Commission on Excellence in Education. This brought about a change that saw the inception of standardized testing and accountability (Heckman & LaFontaine, 2011). A 2001 Act called the No Child Left Behind Act sets out requirements for each state to identify low-performing schools. Another of its requirements is for the annual assessment of students in reading and mathematics. Declining standards in the secondary school level of education imply that very few students get enrolled in universities around the country. America boasts of the largest number of institutions of higher learning throughout the world, but if these institutions cannot enroll Native Americans due to mediocre performance in their secondary schools, one is left to marvel at what the future holds for university education within the country.

Scientific research in universities thrives on funding from various sources. Research is important to the advancement of knowledge since it creates new perspectives to what is already known. Much of what results from research can be applied in areas such as pharmaceuticals for the production of new drugs. The current trend tends towards genetic science, which has brought about a lot of controversies. When universities lack students to carry out research then there is a paucity of funds from donors who fund the research projects. This brings a complication to the universities, which rely much on donor funding. The case of Berkeley and Novartis appears to have been instigated by such a state of affairs as has been described above. Berkeley signed an agreement with Novartis in November 1998 and rescinded about one-third of its patent rights to Novartis in exchange for a $25 million grant towards research (Washburn, 2005). The said company had vested interests in the outcome of the research and, thus, was in a way investing in it. That movie had a lot of ethical connotations.

Another issue that was highlighted in Washburn’s book is the notion that universities have gradually been shifting from their academic role to institutions that run businesses. This is a pithy subject since the university ought to be an institution of higher learning and not drawn into the rigmarole of generating income. Universities ought to set the pace for industry to follow, by making breakthroughs in research projects that will enhance the human experience of living within the planet earth. That notwithstanding, universities have become embroiled in the shaping of individuals to prepare them for employment within the industries. One may contend that they are responding to the dire needs of the economy by providing the market with the best brains the country has to offer. However, the country appears to stand no gain, especially when such patents as were aforementioned are left in the hands of foreign companies (Washburn, 2005).

A reversal of roles is readily observable in that the industry now makes the demands and the universities dance to her tune. For example, when the industry demands chemical analysts, the universities respond by giving their analysts to the industries. Due to the lack of employment in the country, an analyst who finishes their course at university and immediately finds a source of income sees herself as being very fortunate. This, however, results in a dilution of the high standards of excellence that are expected of all public institutions of higher learning. Universities need to maintain an autonomous stance that is neither swayed by the government nor by the industry as these two entities seek to push their agenda (Washburn, 2005). On one side is an entity with political ideals while on the other is one that seeks financial gains. Both the government and the industrial entities stand in opposition to the universities’ values of serving the common good of all humankind.

The involvement of outside forces in university affairs has made even students forget their primary agenda at having joined the universities. Like Reynolds in the Washburn (2005) book, many a scientist ends up being a politician due to these disruptions in the curriculum. If even the students should get derailed from their “calling” in such a manner, in all probability, the future of the universities is painted in bleak colors. It is necessary to redefine the role of the university and give the students clear guidelines as to the parts they ought to play therein. Not only are grades falling within secondary schools, but also those who end up in university, having attempted and succeeded at a difficult feat, may get disillusioned at what they find.

Hirsch (2006) appears to have the answer to one of the woes so far when he says that students have to read and comprehend. Any student can read, given the time to do so. But their understanding of what they have read is the most crucial part of their acquisition of knowledge. Comprehension is the difficult bone that students need to chew while at school to enable them to sit their examinations and pass with flying colors. Since they are not taught to comprehend, it follows that their performance in class also suffers. They are not even prepared within their extant grades for the grades which they shall be facing in the future. Hirsch says that a broad range of knowledge is required for students to be able to comprehend what they read (Hirsch, 2006). One may question at this point from whence that a “broad range of knowledge” shall be obtained.

Hitherto, it has been observed the diverse challenges that the American child faces as he or she pursues an education. The challenges start right from kindergarten through to university. The American child is also exposed to a lot of information that buffets them from all types of sources: the internet, television, radio, movies et cetera. These sources of information together with the students’ own experiences (however few and apart those experiences might be) ought to be sufficient to give the background knowledge that Hirsch craves for them. If these sources are not enough to give the American child the vast knowledge that Hirsch talks about, then it remains an enigma where else the knowledge shall come from. The school has synthesized the knowledge for the students to acquire, not in its raw form, but in a form that has been more purified; akin to the sugar that one gets on the table compared to the sugar from the cane.

According to Hirsch (2006), knowledge is all around us, but it is taken for granted. In essence, he says that even the modern student has a lot to learn from his or her surroundings. As they walk along the streets, go sightseeing or listen to music on the radio, all these areas hold a bit of knowledge here and a bit there that may stand the observer in good stead when they are faced with the problem of comprehending written material in class. It may be added that comprehension is context-dependent but knowledge garnered from one source can be transmuted to an application that is far much different than its source. Therefore, as students learn to be more in touch with their environments, they shall be better equipped to face the future challenges that they are bound to meet. They shall be able, when in university, to stand for what they know is right, disallowing the interference of other institutions whose missions stand at variance with the mission of the academia.


Reforms in education in the United States are bound to be a collective effort involving, not only the government but also all other stakeholders. America was founded as a nation on solid Christian principles, and these guiding principles worked well for the founding generation as well as the few generations that stood by them thereafter. The encumbrances that America faces are as a result of her generosity toward all nations. These nations have brought with them influences that have diluted the American spirit of democracy and freedom; for even the freedom that the founding father fought for has been misinterpreted. It is time that America went back to her first principles; for there lays the answer to most of the problems she faces nowadays. Democracy per se is a boon that the American people can never take for granted. Nevertheless, it only speaks of good things that have not been counterbalanced by the “bad”. A bit of non-democratization may be required to create the critical balance that America requires. The government needs to step up its authority to ensure that things happen in the correct way that they should, but that ought to be done with discretion as there still is an extant law that governs the land. It is a law that the people have put forth by themselves, and it is in the power of the people to repeal the same and come up with better laws.

The breaches in the education system in America are not irreparable. Since the United States has shined in glory in the past, she still can do the same but only if the people are willing to rise together and make that dream a reality. Right from elementary school to the university level, students have the latent ability to excel, for America does have the mental capacity to read and understand books. She is well endowed with comprehensive skills.

Reference List

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Broughman, S. P., Swaim, N. L. and Hryczaniuk, C. A. (2011). Characteristics of Private Schools in the United States: Results From the 2009-10 Private School Universe Survey.  

CAPE. (2011b). Benefits of Private Education . Web.

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Deresiewicz, W. (2008). The Disadvantages of an Elite Education.  

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EuroEducation. (2011). Structure of education system in the USA . Web.

Figlio, D. N. and Stone, J. A. (2011). School Choice and Student Performance: Are Private Schools Better?

Heckman, J. J. and LaFontaine, P. A. (2011). The American High School Graduation Rate: Trends and Levels.  

Hirsch, E. D. (2006). The Knowledge Deficit: Closing the Shocking Education Gap for American Children. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Howey, K. R. and Post, L. M. (2011). Elementary education: current trends . Web.

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Leung, A. and Ferris, J. S. (2008). School Size and Youth Violence – revised version. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization , 318–333.

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Washburn, J. (2005). University, Inc.: The Corporate Corruption of Higher Education. New York: Basic Books.

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  • Essay on New Education Policy (NEP)

Education helps us discover and accomplish our aims and make a fair contribution to the society. In a similar vein, education contributes significantly to a country's national growth. The National Education Policy 2020 was authorised by the Government of India since there is a significant change taking place in the world. Here are some sample essays on New Education Policy 2023.

100 Words Essay on New Education Policy

200 words essay on new education policy, 500 words essay on new education policy 2023.

Essay on New Education Policy (NEP)

The goal of the New Education Policy is to make education available to everyone from preschool through high school. With a 100% GRE (Gross Enrollment Ratio) in academics, it intends to achieve that. It is intended to be accomplished by 2030. A four-year, interdisciplinary undergraduate curriculum with a range of exit choices is what it intends to introduce. As a result, this new strategy aims to transform India into a superpower in the field of knowledge.

In similar terms, it seeks to make all colleges and universities multidisciplinary by the year 2040. The initiative also intends to fundamentally alter the current educational system while increasing the availability of jobs in India.

The New National Education Policy has had a really revolutionary impact on the Indian educational system. After 34 years of our education policy following the same standards without change, the Ministry of Education (formerly known as MHRD) made some significant changes to it on July 29, 2020. The Indian government just adopted this New National Education Policy for 2023.

How It Will Affect Learning Outcomes

It's no secret that the new education policy is going to affect students in a big way. But what exactly does that mean for them?

Well, for one, the new policy is going to impact learning outcomes. Students will no longer be able to coast through school by memorising facts and figures. Instead, they'll be required to apply what they learn in a hands-on way, in order to demonstrate their understanding of the material. This is a big change, and it'll take some time for students and educators to adjust. But in the long run, it's going to result in better-educated students who are prepared for the challenges of the real world.

The new education policy also includes a number of changes that will impact educators directly. For example, the policy stipulates that all educators must have a bachelor's degree in order to teach in public schools. Additionally, educators will be required to complete professional development courses on a regular basis.

When the new education policy is implemented, there will be some big changes for the teaching community.

Change for Teachers and Educators

First and foremost, the policy shifts the focus from teacher-centred instruction to student-centred instruction. This means that the teacher's role will change from delivering information to facilitating learning.

In order to facilitate learning, teachers will need to develop new skills. They will need to be able to create a safe and welcoming environment where all students feel comfortable participating, and they will need to be able to adapt their lessons to meet the needs of each individual student.

Benefits for Students Under New National Education Policy 2023

The new education policy is, in essence, a shift from memorization to learning. The main focus of the policy is to provide a holistic education that focuses on the development of the student's mind and body. Here are some of the ways this could benefit students:

More opportunity for students to pursue their interests outside of school - whether that be an extracurricular activity such as art or music, or receiving extra tutoring to help them excel in academics. A wider range of learning options that can provide students with tailored instruction and help them develop their individual skills.

More emphasis placed on experiential learning, where students are encouraged to apply what they've learned in school through projects and real-world activities. Increased access to technology including an increased use of digital classrooms and online resources such as eBooks, which can make studying more efficient and convenient.

These changes will make the education system more dynamic and create an environment where students can better prepare themselves for their future endeavours.

What Parents Need to Know About the New Education Policy

The new education policy is going to bring about a lot of change, and it's important for parents to be aware of how it will affect their children. First and foremost, the new policy puts more emphasis on technology and digital learning resources, so it's important for parents to ensure that their children have access to a reliable internet connection. Parents should also look into resources like online tutoring or additional support services that may be available to help their child stay on top of their studies.

It's also important for parents to be mindful of the potential stress and anxiety that students may experience while adjusting to the new system. Parents should make sure they provide emotional and moral support as needed, check in with their kids regularly, and encourage them to take breaks when needed

Finally, it's important for parents to educate themselves on the new policy so they can better understand what changes are taking place and how they can best support their children through the transition period. Changes in education policy can be difficult to navigate and often cause a lot of uncertainty. However, with the right preparation and support, you can make the most of the new policy and continue to achieve your academic goals.

Explore Career Options (By Industry)

  • Construction
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  • Information Technology

Data Administrator

Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.

Bio Medical Engineer

The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary. 

Ethical Hacker

A career as ethical hacker involves various challenges and provides lucrative opportunities in the digital era where every giant business and startup owns its cyberspace on the world wide web. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path try to find the vulnerabilities in the cyber system to get its authority. If he or she succeeds in it then he or she gets its illegal authority. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path then steal information or delete the file that could affect the business, functioning, or services of the organization.

Data Analyst

The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

Water Manager

A career as water manager needs to provide clean water, preventing flood damage, and disposing of sewage and other wastes. He or she also repairs and maintains structures that control the flow of water, such as reservoirs, sea defense walls, and pumping stations. In addition to these, the Manager has other responsibilities related to water resource management.

Geothermal Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as geothermal engineers are the professionals involved in the processing of geothermal energy. The responsibilities of geothermal engineers may vary depending on the workplace location. Those who work in fields design facilities to process and distribute geothermal energy. They oversee the functioning of machinery used in the field.

Geotechnical engineer

The role of geotechnical engineer starts with reviewing the projects needed to define the required material properties. The work responsibilities are followed by a site investigation of rock, soil, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest. The investigation is aimed to improve the ground engineering design and determine their engineering properties that include how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. 

The role of geotechnical engineer in mining includes designing and determining the type of foundations, earthworks, and or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be made. Geotechnical engineering jobs are involved in earthen and concrete dam construction projects, working under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions. 

Operations Manager

Individuals in the operations manager jobs are responsible for ensuring the efficiency of each department to acquire its optimal goal. They plan the use of resources and distribution of materials. The operations manager's job description includes managing budgets, negotiating contracts, and performing administrative tasks.

Budget Analyst

Budget analysis, in a nutshell, entails thoroughly analyzing the details of a financial budget. The budget analysis aims to better understand and manage revenue. Budget analysts assist in the achievement of financial targets, the preservation of profitability, and the pursuit of long-term growth for a business. Budget analysts generally have a bachelor's degree in accounting, finance, economics, or a closely related field. Knowledge of Financial Management is of prime importance in this career.

Investment Banker

An Investment Banking career involves the invention and generation of capital for other organizations, governments, and other entities. Individuals who opt for a career as Investment Bankers are the head of a team dedicated to raising capital by issuing bonds. Investment bankers are termed as the experts who have their fingers on the pulse of the current financial and investing climate. Students can pursue various Investment Banker courses, such as Banking and Insurance , and  Economics to opt for an Investment Banking career path.

Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

Treasury analyst career path is often regarded as certified treasury specialist in some business situations, is a finance expert who specifically manages a company or organisation's long-term and short-term financial targets. Treasurer synonym could be a financial officer, which is one of the reputed positions in the corporate world. In a large company, the corporate treasury jobs hold power over the financial decision-making of the total investment and development strategy of the organisation.


An underwriter is a person who assesses and evaluates the risk of insurance in his or her field like mortgage, loan, health policy, investment, and so on and so forth. The underwriter career path does involve risks as analysing the risks means finding out if there is a way for the insurance underwriter jobs to recover the money from its clients. If the risk turns out to be too much for the company then in the future it is an underwriter who will be held accountable for it. Therefore, one must carry out his or her job with a lot of attention and diligence.

Finance Executive

A career as a Finance Executive requires one to be responsible for monitoring an organisation's income, investments and expenses to create and evaluate financial reports. His or her role involves performing audits, invoices, and budget preparations. He or she manages accounting activities, bank reconciliations, and payable and receivable accounts.  

Welding Engineer

Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues. 

Transportation Planner

A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

Construction Manager

Individuals who opt for a career as construction managers have a senior-level management role offered in construction firms. Responsibilities in the construction management career path are assigning tasks to workers, inspecting their work, and coordinating with other professionals including architects, subcontractors, and building services engineers.

Environmental Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as an environmental engineer are construction professionals who utilise the skills and knowledge of biology, soil science, chemistry and the concept of engineering to design and develop projects that serve as solutions to various environmental problems. 

Naval Architect

A Naval Architect is a professional who designs, produces and repairs safe and sea-worthy surfaces or underwater structures. A Naval Architect stays involved in creating and designing ships, ferries, submarines and yachts with implementation of various principles such as gravity, ideal hull form, buoyancy and stability. 

Field Surveyor

Are you searching for a Field Surveyor Job Description? A Field Surveyor is a professional responsible for conducting field surveys for various places or geographical conditions. He or she collects the required data and information as per the instructions given by senior officials. 

Highway Engineer

Highway Engineer Job Description:  A Highway Engineer is a civil engineer who specialises in planning and building thousands of miles of roads that support connectivity and allow transportation across the country. He or she ensures that traffic management schemes are effectively planned concerning economic sustainability and successful implementation.

Conservation Architect

A Conservation Architect is a professional responsible for conserving and restoring buildings or monuments having a historic value. He or she applies techniques to document and stabilise the object’s state without any further damage. A Conservation Architect restores the monuments and heritage buildings to bring them back to their original state.

Orthotist and Prosthetist

Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

Veterinary Doctor

A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.


A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.

Speech Therapist


Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.


The audiologist career involves audiology professionals who are responsible to treat hearing loss and proactively preventing the relevant damage. Individuals who opt for a career as an audiologist use various testing strategies with the aim to determine if someone has a normal sensitivity to sounds or not. After the identification of hearing loss, a hearing doctor is required to determine which sections of the hearing are affected, to what extent they are affected, and where the wound causing the hearing loss is found. As soon as the hearing loss is identified, the patients are provided with recommendations for interventions and rehabilitation such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, and appropriate medical referrals. While audiology is a branch of science that studies and researches hearing, balance, and related disorders.

Cardiothoracic Surgeon

Cardiothoracic surgeons are an important part of the surgical team. They usually work in hospitals, and perform emergency as well as scheduled operations. Some of the cardiothoracic surgeons also work in teaching hospitals working as teachers and guides for medical students aspiring to become a cardiothoracic surgeon. A career as a cardiothoracic surgeon involves treating and managing various types of conditions within their speciality that includes their presence at different locations such as outpatient clinics, team meetings, and ward rounds. 

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages.

Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Talent Agent

The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.

If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.


Careers in videography are art that can be defined as a creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than a simple recording of a simple event. It would be wrong to portrait it as a subcategory of photography, rather photography is one of the crafts used in videographer jobs in addition to technical skills like organization, management, interpretation, and image-manipulation techniques. Students pursue Visual Media , Film, Television, Digital Video Production to opt for a videographer career path. The visual impacts of a film are driven by the creative decisions taken in videography jobs. Individuals who opt for a career as a videographer are involved in the entire lifecycle of a film and production. 

Multimedia Specialist

A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

An individual who is pursuing a career as a producer is responsible for managing the business aspects of production. They are involved in each aspect of production from its inception to deception. Famous movie producers review the script, recommend changes and visualise the story. 

They are responsible for overseeing the finance involved in the project and distributing the film for broadcasting on various platforms. A career as a producer is quite fulfilling as well as exhaustive in terms of playing different roles in order for a production to be successful. Famous movie producers are responsible for hiring creative and technical personnel on contract basis.

Copy Writer

In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. 

Ever since internet costs got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, a career as a vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the Vlogger eligibility, roles and responsibilities then continue reading the article. 

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

Fashion Journalist

Fashion journalism involves performing research and writing about the most recent fashion trends. Journalists obtain this knowledge by collaborating with stylists, conducting interviews with fashion designers, and attending fashion shows, photoshoots, and conferences. A fashion Journalist  job is to write copy for trade and advertisement journals, fashion magazines, newspapers, and online fashion forums about style and fashion.

Corporate Executive

Are you searching for a Corporate Executive job description? A Corporate Executive role comes with administrative duties. He or she provides support to the leadership of the organisation. A Corporate Executive fulfils the business purpose and ensures its financial stability. In this article, we are going to discuss how to become corporate executive.

Quality Controller

A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

Production Manager

A Team Leader is a professional responsible for guiding, monitoring and leading the entire group. He or she is responsible for motivating team members by providing a pleasant work environment to them and inspiring positive communication. A Team Leader contributes to the achievement of the organisation’s goals. He or she improves the confidence, product knowledge and communication skills of the team members and empowers them.

Procurement Manager

The procurement Manager is also known as  Purchasing Manager. The role of the Procurement Manager is to source products and services for a company. A Procurement Manager is involved in developing a purchasing strategy, including the company's budget and the supplies as well as the vendors who can provide goods and services to the company. His or her ultimate goal is to bring the right products or services at the right time with cost-effectiveness. 


A career as a merchandiser requires one to promote specific products and services of one or different brands, to increase the in-house sales of the store. Merchandising job focuses on enticing the customers to enter the store and hence increasing their chances of buying a product. Although the buyer is the one who selects the lines, it all depends on the merchandiser on how much money a buyer will spend, how many lines will be purchased, and what will be the quantity of those lines. In a career as merchandiser, one is required to closely work with the display staff in order to decide in what way a product would be displayed so that sales can be maximised. In small brands or local retail stores, a merchandiser is responsible for both merchandising and buying. 

AWS Solution Architect

An AWS Solution Architect is someone who specializes in developing and implementing cloud computing systems. He or she has a good understanding of the various aspects of cloud computing and can confidently deploy and manage their systems. He or she troubleshoots the issues and evaluates the risk from the third party. 

Azure Administrator

An Azure Administrator is a professional responsible for implementing, monitoring, and maintaining Azure Solutions. He or she manages cloud infrastructure service instances and various cloud servers as well as sets up public and private cloud systems. 

Information Security Manager

Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

ITSM Manager

.net developer.

.NET Developer Job Description: A .NET Developer is a professional responsible for producing code using .NET languages. He or she is a software developer who uses the .NET technologies platform to create various applications. Dot NET Developer job comes with the responsibility of  creating, designing and developing applications using .NET languages such as VB and C#. 

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Essay on Education System

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  • Updated on  
  • Nov 15, 2023

Essay on Education System

The future of a country is shaped by its classrooms. Implementing a sound education system based on a holistic approach to learning is quintessential for ensuring that every student gets the best learning environment to flourish. As education is the most important and basic right, everyone should have, it is our moral duty to facilitate the perfect learning environment for our students.

With the educational journey playing the foundation role in one’s career, there are contrary views concerning the type of education system and approaches we need to take. Hence, it has become a frequently asked topic under the essay writing section in school tests as well as competitive exams. To help you with this topic, we have curated a complete guide on how to write an essay on education system, with useful tips and tricks as well as reference samples. 

This Blog Includes:

How to write an essay on education system, essay on education system in india in 100 words, essay on education system in india in 200 words, sample essay on education system in 300 words, essay on new education system, essay on education system in india during covid-19, essay on education system in india: good or bad, how can we improve the indian education system, list of best education systems in the world.

Generally, the essay topics on education system revolve around analysing a specific education system, its strengths and weaknesses as well as suggesting the solutions for its improvement. You might also be asked about writing an essay on the Education system of India in which you must mention the characteristics of the history of our educational apparatus from the Gurukul Education System to the Current education system in India . You can also take notes from our exclusive blog on the New Education Policy formulated by India with a unique approach to academics. Further, your essay on education system must also imperatively elucidate the key aspects of the system and its salient features as well as an unbiased analysis of its strong characteristics as well as a critical overview of its weak areas where improvement is needed.

  • Format – Before drafting an essay on education system, you must know about the format of essay writing. Take a look at the following pointers which elaborate upon the general format of writing structured and impressive essays
  • Introduction -The education system essay introduction should provide an overview of the given topic in the introduction, i.e. highlight the recent instances or questions related to the concerned education system. When it comes to the writing style, the introduction as the first paragraph will set the tone of the whole essay thus make sure that it covers a general outline of your topic
  • Body of Content – After the introduction, you can start elaborating on the topic of the education system, its role in the development of a country, its key objectives, salient features (if a specific education system is given as a topic) as well as highlight its strong and weak areas. Then, you can further assess how the education system has evolved from earlier times. For example, talk about the history of the education system, and the prominent measures that contributed to its growth, amongst others. Analyse the major points thoroughly according to the essay question and then move towards the next section
  • Conclusion – The conclusion is the final section as you wrap up your essay underlining the major points you have mentioned. Avoid ending it abruptly, either go for an optimistic touch to it or just summarize what has been mentioned above

The education system in India comprises four levels: pre-primary, primary, secondary and senior secondary system; all these levels are well-structured and developed to systemically introduce students to the subject matter, develop their language and cognitive skills and prepare them for higher education. The Indian education system gives equal value to knowledge-based learning as well as co-curricular. Countries are now rigorously working on providing free access to education. Nowadays, being in school isn’t the same thing as before. Every individual is skilled in different fields and interests with a due focus on the set curriculum. We need a society that is more elevated towards balanced personal and professional growth . 

Also Read: Importance of Education in Development

Also Read: Essay on Co-education

For a nation to have harmony, the education system must focus on a holistic learning approach, i.e. provide equal educational opportunities to everyone, emphasize a wholesome curriculum as well and incorporate educational technologies to make learning a fun and interactive process. When it comes to the education system in India it is not only focused on rote learning and also pushes students towards sports , building interpersonal skills , etc. When schools were shut due to a global pandemic, Indian schools adopted online learning as the new method. There are a few drawbacks as well that the grading system starts from elementary classes and students are under the constant burden to score and pass the exams. Instead of learning something, new students become competitive to score better than the other students. The constant competition and comparison affect the mental health of all students. 

Also Read: Gurukul Education System

Also Read: Essay on Sarojini Naidu

Also Read: Essay on Online Education

The need for a well-balanced education system has become a necessity for every country as it plays a significant catalyst in its growth and development. As we know irrespective of one’s background, or family income the right to education is a necessity for everyone. Thus, the government of a nation shall work to make the system more accountable to every citizen. It should aim to enhance the features and policies as per the needs of the country so that it can contribute to the overall development as well as the growth of the economy.  Every child should get an opportunity to attend school and get educated as it is rightly said that “educated people make an educated nation”. The teachings of a sound education system help us to improve our lives in every way. For individuals, education raises self-confidence and opens opportunities for earning. On a country-wide level, it reduces the level of poverty and develops long-term economic growth.

The lack of diversity and engaging recreational activities is one of the biggest problems leading to the global crisis of illiteracy. For the developing nations, it is necessary to have ample knowledge regarding who is learning and what they are learning, so that they can mould their system in a more efficient way and hence, the future. The need for making the system reliable for children is very specific. It should aim to promote comprehensive growth which will ultimately help them in almost every aspect of life. The school and the teachers together shall prepare the children for future times. The children must know the practical aspects of what they are learning in the class. It can be easily said that students nowadays lack the ability to perform efficiently when given fundamental tasks. Thus, an education system must aim to penetrate creativity, decisiveness, communication, collaboration leadership and the spirit of teamwork.

Also Read: Women Empowerment Essay

Rooted in the ancient learnings of Vedas and Puranas, the Indian education system has come a long way from the old-school Gurukuls to the new-age hi-tech academic institutions. The students in schools and colleges are not just tested based on their learning abilities but also on their acquired knowledge and skills as well as their performance in extracurricular activities . This system is implemented in order to emphasize the importance of the overall growth of the child to broaden their horizons. The academic institutions in India, be it primary, secondary, or higher education, are embracing advanced technologies in facilitating learning and bringing a revolutionary change to the same-old classroom teaching. Many schools have brought tablets into their traditional classrooms to make learning an engaging and interesting process by teaching kids through digital applications .  

Also Read: Speech on Education for Students in English

Covid-19 has affected the world of education leading to a major shift from traditional four-walled classrooms to online classes. Online classes for online courses definitely lack the ‘personal’ touch and one-to-one interactions between teachers and students. On the contrary, traditional classrooms are less flexible and accessible to many students, especially in underprivileged communities. Attention and interaction are objective to every individual and can’t be attributed to any platform or mode of learning . Teachers and students have enhanced interaction and creative learning by using chatboxes, screen-share, whiteboards, etc. Which are useful for the presentation of images or PPTs. online classes becoming the new normal also gave the world the opportunity to make learning more flexible and accessible on a global level. It is also cost-effective since a good internet connection and a working computer is all you need to teach your class. 

Also Read: Best Schools in Delhi

The Indian education system is one of the oldest, most diverse learning systems in the world. The Indian educational system is designed to ensure a well-developed and uniform curriculum across different states for different grades in the subcontinent. Education is given utmost importance in India with schemes like free and compulsory education for children between the ages of 6 to 14, Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao campaign and Mid-meals in government schools to encourage students to attend school. Under the system, sports and performing arts are given the utmost significance and all students are encouraged to take part and develop a skill or expertise that will help them in the future. The Indian education system also focuses on practical learning and group activities to provide exposure and teach students the importance of teamwork and communication . The Indian education system focuses on the overall development of each student by introducing them to the basics of all the subjects from the start till the secondary level.

Also Read: Essay on Freedom: Wings of Liberation

With the rise in a lot of problems in the Indian Education System, we need a proper solution that will be effective. There is a requirement for improvement that creates a brighter future for the candidate. We can initiate a focus on skill development at the school level. Students and parents must understand that not only the ranks and grades but also the analytical and creative skills are also important. The subject taught in school must have both theory and practical teaching methods. Time-to-time syllabus update is necessary with changes with time.

This is also a high time for the government and private colleges to increase the payroll of teachers. The teachers who are working hard for the future of the students deserve more than what they are offered. The schools must hire teachers qualified teachers. The Indian Education System must change all these things. The schools must give equal opportunities to the students. The system now needs to let go of the old and traditional ways to elevate the teaching standards so our students can create a better and more advanced world.

Also Read: Best Education System in the World

  • UK Education System
  • Japan Education System
  • German Education System
  • Singapore Education System
  • USA Education System
  • Chinese Education System
  • South Korean Education System
  • Australian Education System
  • French Education System
  • Buddhist Education System
  • Gurukul Education System
  • Finland Education System
  • New Zealand Education System

Relevant Blogs

A sound education system based on a holistic approach to learning is quintessential for ensuring that every student gets the best learning environment to flourish.

The best education systems in the world focus tightly on key concepts which are taught in detail at an early age and ensure that students master the basics from which to build.

The modern school system was brought to India by Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay in the 1830s.

The Boston Latin School, established in 1635, was the first school.

Despite having improved over the years, the Indian education system still needs to be updated in various ways and the teaching techniques need to be revised.

Thus, we hope that this blog has helped you with the tips and tricks of essay writing on the topic education system. Unsure about finding the right course and university after completing 12th ? Our Leverage Edu counsellors are here to guide you throughout the process of finding the best program and university and sorting out the admission procedure to ensure that you send a winning application! Sign up for a free session with us today

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Education System Essays

by Keyla Simoes (Praia Grande, São Paulo, Brazil)

essay on new education system

Choice of Subjects at University

by Karlie (China)

Some people think that all university students should study whatever they like. Others believe that they should only be allowed to study subjects that will be useful in the future, such as those related to science and technology. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. Nowadays, more and more students are unconscious about how to choose their major. They think if they need to choose the subject that they love or choose the subject that is good and useful for the society in the future. It is no doubt that there are some benefits to study a major is about the technology and science. If most of the students study these kinds of major, there will be a sharp increase in the technical development, the productivity will be improved and produce more high-tech products, as a result, the living standard will be better that before and it will have a rise in the economic growth. Moreover, students may get high salary, if they find a job that needs a lot of skill about technology or science. On the other hand, the others think that students need to study the subject that they love it. For example, students choose their favorite subject, they would like to spend more time on their subject that they are interest and they don’t feel boring about their classes, try their best to do their research or lecture, even though the subject is difficult for them, so they could get high mark and get more successful in their major. In addition, different people have different favorite major, not all the students only study technology and science, it can makes the society develop in many kinds of ways, such as literature, art, sports. In conclusion, I believe that students need to choose the subject that they love, the reason for this is students can have more incentive to study and they can have a good mark in their exam. I think university could add some additional subjects about technology or science for students who do not learn these, let students learn some knowledge about technology or science. *** Please provide me with feedback on my Choice of Subjects at University Essay.

Testing and Exams in Education

Hello, can you give me a feedback on my essay please? What should I improve to reach band 7-8? Tests and examinations are a central feature of school systems in many countries. Do you think the educational benefits of testing outweigh any disadvantages? Assessing students includes many methods; however the majority of educational institutions regard examinations as the most efficient. Even though testing system is practiced in many countries and has many benefits, this system has become outdated and dilapidated. The main problem of current educational program is single-disciplinarily system, so it doesn’t take into consideration individual abilities of each student. Mostly, exams are in the written form consisting of tests and theoretical questions, hence practical skills and critical thinking play a minor role in assessment. By cramming for exams scholars remember information only for short period of time, meanwhile practical learning could give a lot more effective results. Another drawback of testing system is inaccuracy of exam results because scholars are pressured under limited time and strict conditions. There were many cases where students passed their exam and scored less than their real knowledge and abilities. Some people claim that written assessment provide effective studying by tracking the progress and enhancing competition among students. However, this can give a rise to conflicts among students or pupils and their parents, inferiority complexes and other consequences. Moreover different attitude of teacher towards pupils can lead to the unfair results too. In conclusion, testing takes the important part in educational system, however it shouldn’t be the most valuable description of student’s knowledge.

Education and a Country's Success Essay

essay on new education system

Giving Children Homework

by Miku (tokyo)

Some people believe that school children should not be given homework by their teachers, whereas others argue that homework plays an important role in the education of children. Discuss both views and give your own opinion. Homework has been given in large number of schools so far. However, there are agreement and disagreement in some people. This essay will indicate the both views how homework affects positively to educated students. I believe that doing homework leads their better education and it is highly likely to achieve their lives. Firstly, no homework can save students’ time and it is possible to develop their skills in the other interests. Younger generation have tons of opportunities and flexible mind and also some people do not actually use school subjects in their entire life. For example, many famous entertainers such as singer or dancer are absorbed their artistry in their childhood. So instead of doing homework, skilled person should experience and spend their time what they exactly want to do. On the other hand, to do homework still plays a significant role in teenager’s life. It is because there are only few people can be skilled person and the other ones would fail or suffer in a difficult situation before achievement. Furthermore, the mind of youngsters is changing easily. Moreover, making effort and handling a lot of tasks in schooling will even build a strong personality. Therefore, homework should be given to all students. In conclusion, it depends on the situation and people how they would like to advance their life. However, to manage school homework could be the momentous effect in any work environments. Thus, I will believe that being given homework is much important than without homework in school. [email protected] Thanks

Online Learning Essay

Online Learning Essay

With the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic, most schools have had to switch to teaching online. Some people think that online teaching is as effective as in-person instruction, while others think online teaching is inferior. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. It is considered by some that having online classes are as good as face-to-face classes, while there are others who think having face-to-face classes are better than having online classes. In my opinion, I believe that face-to-face classes are better for practical courses, while online classes are similar to face-to-face classes for theoretical courses. On the one hand, many think online classes are comparable to face-to-face classes. In other words, they think online classes could provide students the same standard of teaching and feedback. Nothing changes except for the medium to deliver the classes. Students would still need to finish assignments, do presentations and sit for examinations. On the other hand, some think online classes are lower in quality. Teaching staffs might not use to deliver lectures or classes through online platforms and ignore some questions from students. Consequently, some students need to spend extra time to email lecturers or teachers to answer their enquiries. Finally, in my opinion, whether face-to-face classes are better or equally efficient as online classes, depends on the major of the students. For example, face-to-face classes are better for students who are studying arts, physical education and chemistry, which required certain practical skills to succeed in their relevant fields. In contrast, online classes are as high quality as face-to-face classes for students who study law, accounting, cultural studies, which required more theoretical knowledge than getting their hands dirty. In conclusion, both teaching methods, either online or in person, could help students to achieve in their studies. It just depends on what students are studying to determine which method delivers better learning quality and experience.

IELTS Essay - Choice of School Subjects

by Ali Almasi (Esfahan, Iran)

Schools should only offer subjects that are beneficial to students’ future career success. Other subjects, such as music and sports, are not important. To what extent do you agree or disagree? It is generally thought that students should only study subjects which are beneficial to their successful future career and other topics like music and sports are not of importance. Personally, I am of the opinion that schools should provide, pupils with a marvelous opportunity to learn different subjects. There are many positive points if schools incorporate are lessons into their curriculum. One of the most important advantages with respect to this view is that it can significantly contribute to the enhancement of children’s creativity. Scientifically speaking, it has been proven that music and sports lessons may afford students the opportunity to develop their efficiency, performance and innovation. As a result, it can be particularly beneficial for them if they have an acquaintance with this type of subjects. Another merit can be ascribed to the fact that music can provide students with assistance to recall satisfactory memories and sports lessons may mitigate the risk of suffering from the infirmities and frailties of old age. Therefore, the more children study art topics during their studies the more they become successful in their occupation in the future. Another benefit in support of this view stems from the familiarity with expressing emotions. In other words, music and sports can boost children’s ability to explain their emotions and display their affection towards each other. Hence, they are competent in leading a tranquil lifestyle fraught with composure. By contrast, there is no doubt that subjects, such as math, chemistry and physics have played a significant role in the future career of children. This is because these subjects are rooted in reality and have a direct impact on all facets of children’s existence. It is true, though, that the brain of students is growing and needs to become acquainted with other courses. There are a large number of illustrations which indicate that children should be at liberty to opt their favorite discipline themselves to become successful, such as Elon Mask and Taylor Swift In conclusion, although educational systems consider subjects in the curriculum that would be useful for future job success of students, other topics like music and sports are of immense significance for them.

IELTS Essay - Compulsory Sport at School

by zaid khan

It is generally accepted that exercise is good for children and teenagers. Therefore physical education and sport should be compulsory for all students in all schools. What is your opinion? Although physical training is beneficial for children and teenagers alike, making it compulsory for all students in all schools is not a good idea. Rather it is the duty of each and every child's parents to ensure that their children get the required fitness education. In today's world, there are many types of schools including those for specially abled children where some pupils may not be able participate in sports due to some disability. Also there are a plenty of games that all played today and it is not feasible for any school to train their pupil for every one of them. For the sake of argument, if we make physical education as a mandatory subject in the curriculum then people will next argue which sport to make as obligatory in schools and that will be a never ending debate. Also, each sport has their specific requirements such as hiring qualified trainers, high-end equipment, open spaces, and quality time which would add to the expenses of institutions and shift the focus from their fundamental duty of imparting scholastic knowledge. Rather, It is the duty of each parents and not the schools to facilitate recreational activities for their children. Every parent should try to encourage their child to be sportive and should try to find which sport interest their child the most. They can then, enroll their offspring to master in his or her favorite play at sport-complexes which are designed for making champions which can never happen in a school. Also some games such as boxing involve a high risk of injury and should only be trained at premises where immediate medical help can be given which again cannot be expected in a school compound. In conclusion, although sports education is good for a child but it should not be made compulsory in a school. Instead parents should take the responsibility of their child's physical fitness and let schools pay attention on children's curricular activities. 329 words 1,939 characters

IELTS Essay - Investing in Computers or Teachers

by Shatha Salman (Jordan)

Computers or Teachers?

Computers or Teachers?

Some believe that money for education should mainly be spent on better computers while others believe it would be better spent on teachers. Discuss both views and give your own opinion. There is no doubt education play a crucial role in people’s lives. However, while some think investments in teaching should be towards enhanced technology and up to date computing machines, I would agree with those who argue that it will be a well spent fund if spent on tutors. Opponents point out that increased technology capabilities are important in students’ life cycle. This is because nowadays market requirements are all evolved on acquiring better computer skills. For instance, a student who has dealt earlier years in his education with advanced soft wares will somehow surpass the other. If, in contrast no funds were allocated for such valuable tool, a huge gap will arise later in students’ career. Meanwhile attracting talented tutors with a rich experience and knowledgeable resume will somehow comes in favor of students. In other words these teachers will inherit their lessons and expand learnings if they were paid the salary they deserve and by that they will be motivated to achieve their objectives and deliver the value to students. For example, some teachers connect spiritually with their students and encourage them to unleash the potential inside of them by the skills they already have throughout life. In order to have high maintained educational system, good talents with high level of experience to expand should be first on demand. In conclusion, although developed computers could contribute positively in education process and readiness, in my opinion investing in teachers are more vulnerable.

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Essay on Indian Education System for Students and Children

500+ words essay on indian education system for students and children.

The Indian education system is quite an old education system that still exists. It has produced so many genius minds that are making India proud all over the world. However, while it is one of the oldest systems, it is still not that developed when compared to others, which are in fact newer. This is so as the other countries have gone through growth and advancement, but the Indian education system is still stuck in old age. It faces a lot of problems that need to be sorted to let it reach its full potential.

Essay on Indian Education System

Problems with Indian Education System

Our Indian education system faces a lot of problems that do not let it prosper and help other children succeed in life . The biggest problem which it has to face is the poor grading system. It judges the intelligence of a student on the basis of academics which is in the form of exam papers. That is very unfair to students who are good in their overall performance but not that good at specific subjects.

Moreover, they only strive to get good marks not paying attention to understanding what is taught. In other words, this encourages getting good marks through mugging up and not actually grasping the concept efficiently.

Furthermore, we see how the Indian education system focuses on theory more. Only a little percentage is given for practical. This makes them run after the bookish knowledge and not actually applying it to the real world. This practice makes them perplexed when they go out in the real world due to lack of practical knowledge.

Most importantly, the Indian education system does not emphasize enough on the importance of sports and arts. Students are always asked to study all the time where they get no time for other activities like sports and arts.

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How Can We Improve Indian Education System?

As the Indian Education System is facing so many problems, we need to come up with effective solutions so it improves and creates a brighter future for students . We can start by focusing on the skill development of the students. The schools and colleges must not only focus on the ranks and grades but on the analytical and creative skills of children.

In addition, subjects must not be merely taught theoretically but with practical. This will help in a better understanding of the subject without them having to mug up the whole thing due to lack of practical knowledge. Also, the syllabus must be updated with the changing times and not follow the old age pattern.

Other than that, the government and private colleges must now increase the payroll of teachers. As they clearly deserve more than what they offer. To save money, the schools hire teachers who are not qualified enough. This creates a very bad classroom environment and learning. They must be hired if they are fit for the job and not because they are working at a lesser salary.

In conclusion, the Indian education system must change for the better. It must give the students equal opportunities to shine better in the future. We need to let go of the old and traditional ways and enhance the teaching standards so our youth can get create a better world.

FAQs on Indian Education System

Q.1 What problems does the Indian Education System face?

A.1 Indian education is very old and outdated. It judges students on the basis of marks and grades ignoring the overall performance of the student. It focuses on academics side-lining arts and sports.

Q.2 How can we improve the Indian education system?

A.2 The colleges and schools must hire well and qualified teachers. They must help students to understand the concept instead of merely mugging up the whole subject.

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How technology is reinventing education

Stanford Graduate School of Education Dean Dan Schwartz and other education scholars weigh in on what's next for some of the technology trends taking center stage in the classroom.

essay on new education system

Image credit: Claire Scully

New advances in technology are upending education, from the recent debut of new artificial intelligence (AI) chatbots like ChatGPT to the growing accessibility of virtual-reality tools that expand the boundaries of the classroom. For educators, at the heart of it all is the hope that every learner gets an equal chance to develop the skills they need to succeed. But that promise is not without its pitfalls.

“Technology is a game-changer for education – it offers the prospect of universal access to high-quality learning experiences, and it creates fundamentally new ways of teaching,” said Dan Schwartz, dean of Stanford Graduate School of Education (GSE), who is also a professor of educational technology at the GSE and faculty director of the Stanford Accelerator for Learning . “But there are a lot of ways we teach that aren’t great, and a big fear with AI in particular is that we just get more efficient at teaching badly. This is a moment to pay attention, to do things differently.”

For K-12 schools, this year also marks the end of the Elementary and Secondary School Emergency Relief (ESSER) funding program, which has provided pandemic recovery funds that many districts used to invest in educational software and systems. With these funds running out in September 2024, schools are trying to determine their best use of technology as they face the prospect of diminishing resources.

Here, Schwartz and other Stanford education scholars weigh in on some of the technology trends taking center stage in the classroom this year.

AI in the classroom

In 2023, the big story in technology and education was generative AI, following the introduction of ChatGPT and other chatbots that produce text seemingly written by a human in response to a question or prompt. Educators immediately worried that students would use the chatbot to cheat by trying to pass its writing off as their own. As schools move to adopt policies around students’ use of the tool, many are also beginning to explore potential opportunities – for example, to generate reading assignments or coach students during the writing process.

AI can also help automate tasks like grading and lesson planning, freeing teachers to do the human work that drew them into the profession in the first place, said Victor Lee, an associate professor at the GSE and faculty lead for the AI + Education initiative at the Stanford Accelerator for Learning. “I’m heartened to see some movement toward creating AI tools that make teachers’ lives better – not to replace them, but to give them the time to do the work that only teachers are able to do,” he said. “I hope to see more on that front.”

He also emphasized the need to teach students now to begin questioning and critiquing the development and use of AI. “AI is not going away,” said Lee, who is also director of CRAFT (Classroom-Ready Resources about AI for Teaching), which provides free resources to help teach AI literacy to high school students across subject areas. “We need to teach students how to understand and think critically about this technology.”

Immersive environments

The use of immersive technologies like augmented reality, virtual reality, and mixed reality is also expected to surge in the classroom, especially as new high-profile devices integrating these realities hit the marketplace in 2024.

The educational possibilities now go beyond putting on a headset and experiencing life in a distant location. With new technologies, students can create their own local interactive 360-degree scenarios, using just a cell phone or inexpensive camera and simple online tools.

“This is an area that’s really going to explode over the next couple of years,” said Kristen Pilner Blair, director of research for the Digital Learning initiative at the Stanford Accelerator for Learning, which runs a program exploring the use of virtual field trips to promote learning. “Students can learn about the effects of climate change, say, by virtually experiencing the impact on a particular environment. But they can also become creators, documenting and sharing immersive media that shows the effects where they live.”

Integrating AI into virtual simulations could also soon take the experience to another level, Schwartz said. “If your VR experience brings me to a redwood tree, you could have a window pop up that allows me to ask questions about the tree, and AI can deliver the answers.”


Another trend expected to intensify this year is the gamification of learning activities, often featuring dynamic videos with interactive elements to engage and hold students’ attention.

“Gamification is a good motivator, because one key aspect is reward, which is very powerful,” said Schwartz. The downside? Rewards are specific to the activity at hand, which may not extend to learning more generally. “If I get rewarded for doing math in a space-age video game, it doesn’t mean I’m going to be motivated to do math anywhere else.”

Gamification sometimes tries to make “chocolate-covered broccoli,” Schwartz said, by adding art and rewards to make speeded response tasks involving single-answer, factual questions more fun. He hopes to see more creative play patterns that give students points for rethinking an approach or adapting their strategy, rather than only rewarding them for quickly producing a correct response.

Data-gathering and analysis

The growing use of technology in schools is producing massive amounts of data on students’ activities in the classroom and online. “We’re now able to capture moment-to-moment data, every keystroke a kid makes,” said Schwartz – data that can reveal areas of struggle and different learning opportunities, from solving a math problem to approaching a writing assignment.

But outside of research settings, he said, that type of granular data – now owned by tech companies – is more likely used to refine the design of the software than to provide teachers with actionable information.

The promise of personalized learning is being able to generate content aligned with students’ interests and skill levels, and making lessons more accessible for multilingual learners and students with disabilities. Realizing that promise requires that educators can make sense of the data that’s being collected, said Schwartz – and while advances in AI are making it easier to identify patterns and findings, the data also needs to be in a system and form educators can access and analyze for decision-making. Developing a usable infrastructure for that data, Schwartz said, is an important next step.

With the accumulation of student data comes privacy concerns: How is the data being collected? Are there regulations or guidelines around its use in decision-making? What steps are being taken to prevent unauthorized access? In 2023 K-12 schools experienced a rise in cyberattacks, underscoring the need to implement strong systems to safeguard student data.

Technology is “requiring people to check their assumptions about education,” said Schwartz, noting that AI in particular is very efficient at replicating biases and automating the way things have been done in the past, including poor models of instruction. “But it’s also opening up new possibilities for students producing material, and for being able to identify children who are not average so we can customize toward them. It’s an opportunity to think of entirely new ways of teaching – this is the path I hope to see.”

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New York City schools went online instead of calling a snow day. It didn’t go well

New York City’s plan to have students go remote instead of a snow day didn’t go quite as planned. Many students, teachers and administrators were unable to log in to their accounts. City officials blamed on a technology contractor. (Feb. 13) (AP Video: Joseph B. Frederick)

A woman plays with a child that is sledding in New York's Central Park Tuesday, Feb. 13, 2024. Technology glitches kept many New York City teachers and students from virtual classes Tuesday — the first attempt by the country's largest school system to switch to remote learning for a snow storm since the COVID-19 pandemic. (AP Photo/Frank Franklin II)

A woman plays with a child that is sledding in New York’s Central Park Tuesday, Feb. 13, 2024. Technology glitches kept many New York City teachers and students from virtual classes Tuesday — the first attempt by the country’s largest school system to switch to remote learning for a snow storm since the COVID-19 pandemic. (AP Photo/Frank Franklin II)

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A person works to clear wet and heavy snow from a sidewalk during a winter storm in Philadelphia, Tuesday, Feb. 13, 2024. (AP Photo/Matt Rourke)

NEW YORK (AP) — When New York City officials got wind of the major winter storm headed their way, they rewound the clock four years, reopened their coronavirus pandemic playbook, and announced that instead of canceling school, teachers and students would once again meet online. No snow day.

Mayor Eric Adams said it was important to give children enrolled in the nation’s largest school system stability considering the massive upheaval to education the pandemic had caused throughout the country. Some school districts in other states have done the same since adopting the technology essential in 2020 to make virtual school days possible.

Unfortunately for Adams, the plan didn’t go so well: Many students, teachers and administrators were unable to log in to their accounts — a problem that city officials blamed on a technology contractor.

Naveed Hasan, a Manhattan resident, said he struggled to get his 4-year-old daughter logged on because of the district’s technical issues even though his 9-year-old son was able to gain access. He hoped to take both out for sledding later in the day.

Nelson Taylor, of Providence, R.I., left, uses cross-country skis while making his way along a residential street, Tuesday, Feb. 13, 2024, in Providence. Parts of the Northeast have been hit by a coastal storm that's dumping snow and packing strong winds in some areas, while others aren't getting as much snow as anticipated. (AP Photo/Steven Senne)

“It honestly worked out for the best,” Hasan said. “I’d rather not have the youngest on a device all day anyways.”

Schools nationwide shuttered classrooms for the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, and some did not reopen fully for more than a year. Some children barely logged on , and many struggled with the social isolation.

The months spent with online education were marked by widespread learning losses . Young students often struggled with the technology, and some parents said online learning was a factor in their decision to delay enrolling their kids .

In a November 2020 survey conducted by the EdWeek Research Center, 39% of district leaders said they had converted snow days to remote learning. Another 32% said they would consider the change. But in recent years, some districts, including Fairfax County Public Schools in Virginia, have reverted to prepandemic snow day policies. School systems in Boston and Hartford, Connecticut, among many others, closed in response to Tuesday’s storm.

Connecticut does not allow remote learning on a snow day to count toward the minimum 180 learning days in the school calendar. The state weighed factors such as the challenges of setting up remote classrooms on short notice, and local officials also reported that parents and students wanted traditional snow days, said Irene Parizi, chief academic officer for the state Department of Education.

“Let them have their snow day and go sledding and have their hot chocolate and things like that,” Parizi said.

With schools closed in Columbia, Connecticut, Susan Smith spent the day at home with her three children, ages 14, 11 and 8. She said she likes traditional snow days, but would also like to see remote learning on some bad weather days.

“I still remember being a kid and really looking forward to snow days, so I don’t want to completely wipe that off the map with remote learning,” Smith said.

Adams defended the decision to have NYC schools operate virtually.

“Using this as a teaching moment to have our children learn how to continue the expansion of remote learning is so important,” the mayor said in an interview on WPIX-TV Monday evening. “We fell back in education because of COVID. We cannot afford our young people to miss school days.”

Gina Cirrito, a parent on Manhattan’s Lower East Side, said she appreciated the structure the remote classes provided for her three sons, even if Tuesday morning was a bit of rough sledding in her household.

“I know people around the country get really frustrated with the idea of these remote days and not just letting the kids have a day,” she said. “But I don’t think the teachers are asking above and beyond and to be honest, they’re so far behind. If there’s a way to keep their (students’) brains a little engaged, I’m all for it.”

Cirrito said the family had to work through some early morning logistics, including making sure everyone had a functioning computer and a quiet spot in the apartment to work — only to run into the district’s login issues.

By about 9:15 a.m. her sons — ages 10, 13 and 17 — had settled into the day’s routine.

“For the kids, it’s like riding a bike. Like, ‘Here we go again,’” Cirrito said.

New York City officials did not say how many students were prevented from accessing online classes but they blamed the problem on their technology contractor, IBM. While both teachers and students recently participated in simulations to prepare for remote instruction, IBM was not involved in those walk-throughs, officials said at a news conference.

“IBM was not ready for prime time. That’s what happened here,” said New York City Schools Chancellor David Banks.

In a statement, IBM said it had been “working closely with New York City schools to address this situation as quickly as possible.”

“The issues have been largely resolved, and we regret the inconvenience to students and parents across the city,” the statement read.

The morning technical glitches only added to the stress for teachers already scrambling to pivot lessons and assignments to remote work, said Michael Mulgrew, president of the United Federation of Teachers, which represents roughly 200,000 NYC public schools teachers and staff.

But Mulgrew said educators anticipated trouble after their experience with distance learning during the pandemic. He noted that by 12:30 p.m., 900,000 students and teachers were utilizing the district’s remote learning system — a testament, he said, to how teachers were able to keep their classes engaged despite the morning challenges.

“It’s also a good lesson for students,” he said. “This is what happens when things go wrong. You don’t get frustrated or angry. You got to figure it out.”

Mulgrew added that this year’s school calendar only allows for one or so snow days, “so you want to save that, just in case.”

Still, Hasan, a software developer, wondered whether students and teachers alike would have been better served with a snow day, even as he acknowledged Tuesday’s accumulations in the city might not have warranted it in a bygone era.

“It’s like a mental health day for kids to just go and play,” he said. “It’s already enough of a challenge for parents to figure out how they are going to do their work.”

Ma reported from Washington, D.C. Associated Press writer Jake Offenhartz in New York and Pat Eaton-Robb in Columbia, Connecticut, contributed to this report.

The Associated Press’ education coverage receives financial support from multiple private foundations. AP is solely responsible for all content. Find AP’s standards for working with philanthropies, a list of supporters and funded coverage areas at .


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Old And New Education System (Essay Sample) 2023

Table of Contents

Old And New Education System

How Can I Get Essay For Free and Is it realistic to expect a low-cost, High-Quality Essay from a Cheap Paper Writing Service ?

Essay Writing

Education is one of the most important tool that a person can have to face this world full  of judgements. The knowledge that you acquire from studying will be your weapon in overcoming all the challenges that you will encounter daily. The importance of being educated could not be compared to any amount of money a person has. All of us needs to be educated in any way possible, but as human race evolves, the way education has been taught also evolves.

The education system of our ancestors during the Paleolithic age  is very different from the education that we know today. Before computers or any technology has been developed, the only way our ancestors educate their children is  by teaching them skills they need in their daily life. Things like climbing up the tree, hunting, fishing and farming are the skills our ancestors are taught in order to be called educated. In their education system they are taught how to survive life by using their body as a tool.

It was in 3500 B.C when the ancient civilizations developed different writing styles. The hieroglyphics of Egyptians are known to be the very first writing style discovered. They carved writings on monuments or on papyrus using ink. The only people who are allowed to be educated by that time are the family of the King and other people who are connected to the Royal family . After hieroglyphics, people from around the round learned so many other writing styles like cuneiform and calligraphy. The only problem with this knowledge in writing is that, only selected people are allowed to learn it. In some countries, only men are allowed and in other countries only the royal family.

As we can observed the development of educational system,  it started with letters and then the reading followed. It was in  the twelfth century when education has been open to both men and women little by little. In Europe, churches became the first educational institution that can teach people the knowledge they need to be educated.

After the fifteenth century, most schools were founded and education has been more accessible for everybody. Most of those schools are founded with religious principles, so it means that it can be inclusive depending on your religion. It started in Europe and the rest of the world followed. After that era, school after school emerged and the demand for higher quality education heightened.

Now, in this age of overflowing knowledge and non stop innovation, the education style also improved a lot. From practicing skills that can be used for ever day tasks to complicated mathematical solutions. We can really say that the educational system have evolved so much to fit in the evolving world. People who are brain intelligent are now more sought after than people who are manually skilled. Diploma is now a proof of knowledge and dignity. The degree that you have is now the basis for job applications. The medals that a person has now defines how intelligent that person is.

The education system may have changed a lot, but its aim to make us all fit for a living and ready for life challenges will never change. So give your education importance, because it is not something that is given to everyone. It is a privilege that you get, so  make the most out of it.

essay on new education system – Collections of Essay for Students of all Class in English

Essay on New Education Policy

A New Education Policy has been sanctioned by our government in July 2020; after a gap of 34 years, for bringing the changes in the National Education System. The New Education Policy has its objective of making the learning process more efficient by enhancing students thinking and creative ability. The New Education Policy includes several changes in the school level as well as higher education. These essays on the New Education Policy will help you to understand in detail about this subject.

Short and Long Essay on New Education Policy in English

Essay on New Education Policy for students of class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and class 12 in English in 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 500 words. Also find short New Education Policy essay 10 lines.

New Education Policy Essay 10 Lines (100 – 150 Words)

1) On 29 July 2020, the new education policy came into existence.

2) The Union Cabinet of India is responsible for approving the Education Policy.

3) The National Education Policy (NEP 2020) describes India’s vision for a new education system.

4) This new policy is the replacement of the previous Education Policy of 1986.

5) By 2040, India’s education system is expected to be transformed under this policy.

6) Under this policy, the state expenditure on education will be hiked from 3% to 6%.

7) It enforces the use of local language for instructing students up to class 5.

8) The new model 5+3+3+4 is introduced stating 3 years of preschool and 12 years of schooling.

9) Exams will be held only in classes 2, 5, and 8 instead of every academic year.

10) The main aim is to reduce classroom load from students and make them more interdisciplinary and multi-lingual.

Essay 1 (250 Words) – New Education Policy: Necessity and Objective


The new National Education Policy came into existence on 29 July 2020, after replacing the existing National Education Policy. The change in education policy is made after a gap of a total of 34 years. But the change was necessary and the need for the time should have been made earlier.

The Necessity of New Education Policy 2020

The earlier system of education was basically focused on learning and giving results. The students were judged by the marks attained. This was a unidirectional approach to development. But the new education policy focuses on the relevance of a multi-disciplinary approach. It aims at all-round development of the student.

New education policy visualizes the formation of a new curriculum and structure of education which will help the students at their different stages of learning. The change has to be done in the existing education system in order to make education reach up to all, ranging from urban to rural areas. It will be towards meeting sustainability by fulfilling Goal 4- Quality Education.

The main motive is making a child learn along with becoming a skilled one, in whatever field they are interested. In this way, the learners are able to figure out their aim, and their capabilities. The learners are to be provided with integrated learning i.e. having the knowledge of every discipline. The same is applicable in higher education too. The new education policy also lays emphasis on the reformation of teacher’s education and training processes.

The present education system is the result of changes made in the existing education policy of 1986. It has been implemented to foster the learner and the nation’s development. The new education policy focuses on the child’s overall development. The policy is destined to achieve its objective by 2030.

Essay 2 (400 Words) – New Education Policy: Vision and Advantages/Disadvantages

Getting proper basic education is the birthright of each and every individual as per the Indian Constitution. Education is the key element in the development of a child for getting ready to lead a happy life. The change in the National education policy, after 1986 in the 21st century took place in July 2020 and emerges out to be the new education policy 2020.

The Vision of the New Education Policy

The new education policy is the reworking of the earlier national education policy. It is the change of the entire system of education by new structural outlines.

The vision laid in the New Education Policy is turning the system into a high-spirited and energetic one. There must be an effort in making the learner responsive and skilled.

Advantages and Disadvantages of the New Education Policy 2020


  • The new education policy focuses on the integrated development of the learners.
  • It replaces the 10+2 system with 5+3+3+4 structure, which states 12 years of schooling and 3 years of pre-schooling, thus kids with the experience of schooling at an earlier stage.
  • The examinations will be conducted in 3, 5, and 8th grades only, others will go for the regular assessments. Board exams will also be made easier and, and held twice in a year so that each child gets two attempts.
  • The policy envisages a multi-disciplinary and integrated approach to the under-graduate programmes with greater flexibility of exit from the course.
  • The state and central government both will work together towards greater public investments by the public for education will give rise to GDP by 6%, at its earliest.
  • The new education policy focuses on enhancing practical education instead of laying stress on books for learning.
  • NEP allows for the development and learning of children by general interaction, group discussions, and reasoning.
  • The NTA will conduct a common entrance exam for universities at a national level.
  • The students will have the freedom to select the course they desire to learn along with the course subjects, thus promoting skill development.
  • The government will be setting up new ways of research and innovations at the university and college level by setting NRF (National Research Foundation).


  • The implementation of the language i.e. the teaching up to 5 th grade to be continued in the regional languages is the utmost problem. The child will be taught in regional language and therefore will have less approach towards the English language, which is required after completing 5th grade.
  • Kids have been subject to structural learning, which might increase the burden on their small minds.

There was a need for change to the existing education policy which was earlier implemented in 1986. The resulting change is the approval of the New Education policy. The policy has many positive features but the same can only be achieved by strictly making it happen. Mere consideration for the layout will not work efficiently instead of actions.

Essay 3 (500 – 600 Words) – Structural Transformations in New Education Policy

New education policy is formulated by the government of India aiming towards achieving the policy initiatives by 2030. It is a complete change in the existing education policy which was last implemented in 1986. It is focusing on the self-capabilities of child and concept-based learning, instead of rote learning procedures.

The framework of the National Education Policy

  • The current policy replaces the National Education Policy 1986.
  • The discussion regarding the New Education Policy was started in January 2015 by the committee under the leadership of cabinet secretary TSR Subramanian and a report was submitted by the committee in 2017.
  • A Draft of National Education Policy, made on the basis of the report of 2017, was submitted by the new team led by former ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) chief Krishnaswamy Kasturirangan in 2019.
  • The drafted New Education Policy was announced, by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, after consulting with the public and stakeholders.
  • The New Education Policy then came into existence on 29 July 2020.

Structural Transformations in New Education Policy

School Education

The 10+2 module is replaced by 5+3+3+4 model. The execution will be carried out as:

  • Foundational Stage – It will include three years of pre-schooling period.
  • Preparatory Stage – It constitutes of classes 3-5, with ages 8-11 years.
  • Middle Stage – It will constitute of class 6-8, with age 11-14 years.
  • Secondary Stage – It will constitute class 9-12, with ages 14- 19 years. These four years will be linked with choice for multi-disciplinary study. It will not be necessary to study in only one discipline.
  • The students have to give exams only thrice i.e. in 3, 5, and 8 th class.
  • “PARAKH”, an assessment body has to be established for assessing student’s performance.

Higher Education

  • The bachelor’s programme would be a 4-year programme with a flexible exit. Obtaining a year course will provide with certification, 2-year with a diploma degree, 3-year with a bachelor’s degree, and 4-year will be integrated with the research work and finding related to the subject studied.
  • Higher Education Grants Council (HEGC) for providing funds and finances to universities and colleges. This will replace AICTE and UGC.
  • The responsibility of the national testing agency to hold common entrance for universities and colleges along with conducting NEET and JEE.
  • Master of Philosophy courses to discontinue, as it was an intermediate course between Masters and Ph.D.
  • National Research Foundation (NRA) to be developed to foster research and innovations.
  • The foreign universities to set their campuses in our country and vice versa.

Teacher’s Education and Recruitment

  • The 4-year integrated B.Ed programme made it essential for teaching.
  • There must be workshops organized for the training of the teachers regarding various teaching aids.
  • Transparency in recruiting processes of teachers as teachers are at a centralized role for the development of students.

Beneficial Impacts of the New Education Policy

  • It lays stress on the self-capability, cognitive skills of the learner. It will help a child to develop their talents if they are having inborn talents.
  • Earlier the students had the option of opting for only one discipline for studying but now different subjects can opt, for example – one can opt for art and craft along with mathematics.
  • Emphasis on every subject to be treated equally.
  • The main motive is to develop the power of interaction, critical thinking, and the ability to reasoning with the inculcation of innovative ideas among the students.
  • The multiple exit option in bachelor’s courses will provide an opportunity for the students to benefit from the experience and attain skills by working somewhere in meantime and then continue later.
  • The new education policy focuses on the practical aspect of learning any subject, as it is considered a better way of understanding the concept.
  • All the institutions and higher education institutes to become multidisciplinary by 2040.

The new education policy is laid down with several initiatives that are really the need of the present scenario. The policy is concerned with attention on skill development along with the study curriculum. Merely dreaming of anything will not make it work, as proper planning and working according to that will only help in fulfilling the objective. No sooner the objectives of NEP are achieved, will propel our nation towards progress.

FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions

Ans. The National Education Policy was formed in 1986.

Ans . Dr. K. Kasturirangan is appointed as the chairman of New Education Policy 2020.

Ans . The new pattern of 10+2 in the New Education Policy 2020 is 5+3+3+4.

Ans . The Government has decided to spend 6% of GDP on education according to the New Education Policy 2020.

Ans . The Human Resource and Development ministry has been given the name of Education ministry in New Education Policy 2020.

Ans . The skill development course will start from class 6th for students in New Education Policy 2020.

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Feds move to ease FAFSA financial aid chaos, but no quick fix emerges

 A college counselor huddles around computers with her students.

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Under enormous pressure, federal education officials announced Tuesday another round of steps to ease a crisis caused by the trouble-plagued rollout of the key form used by aspiring college students to calculate all-important financial aid packages linked to their upcoming college acceptances.

The online form, known as FAFSA, or the Free Application for Federal Student Aid, which was previously available in late October, did not become fully accessible until mid-January. That delay and numerous computer glitches have resulted in a steep drop in the number of submissions — by about half as of late January.

The frustrating irony for students is that the new system was supposed to make things easier and faster but has so far resulted in just the opposite.

The steps announced Tuesday don’t actually fix the computer problems students have encountered with the forms. Instead, the Department of Education diminished — at least temporarily — federal oversight of the financial aid system to streamline the process. Fewer students will have to verify their identity or financial information; a smaller number of colleges will face program reviews and such reviews can be delayed past the current crunch period.

Officials said they still would be able to target suspected fraud or prevent it in part because the new form connects online directly to tax information parents have filed with the Internal Revenue Service.

“Our top priority is to ensure students can access the maximum financial aid possible to help them pursue their higher education goals,” U.S. Secretary of Education Miguel Cardona said in a Monday telephone media briefing. “These steps reflect the many conversations my colleagues and I are having with college and university leaders, financial aid administrators, students and parents, and others who are on the front lines.”

Democratic lawmakers, loath to criticize the Biden administration in reelection mode, expressed exasperation in a Monday letter to Cardona’s agency.

“Any delays in financial aid processing will most impact the students that need aid most, including many students of color, students from mixed status families, students from rural backgrounds, students experiencing homelessness or in foster care, first-generation students, and students from underserved communities,” wrote the lawmakers, who included Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.) and Sen. Alex Padilla (D-Calif.).

LOS ANGELES, CA - FEBRUARY 08: Lynda McGee, right, a college counselor, helps student Eric Gomez fill FASFA application at Downtown Magnets High School, Los Angeles, CA. (Irfan Khan / Los Angeles Times)

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Especially withering criticism has come from Republicans in Congress, including Sen. Bill Cassidy from Louisiana.

“The Department of Education has had over three years to prepare and yet students are still not able to use their completed applications to secure federal, state, and campus-based financial aid,” Cassidy wrote Cardona in a Jan. 12 letter. “This is unacceptable and does not appear to be consistent with industry standards for website development and launch.”

He added: “The botched rollout means students will be forced to make financial aid decisions with less time and less information than in the past. Where to go to college, and how to finance it, is one of the most important financial decisions a person will make in their lifetime. ED needs to be making that decision easier, not harder.”

Cassidy and other Republican lawmakers have called for an investigation.

Each year, about 17 million students fill out the FAFSA as a first step to accessing financial aid. The feds turn over the processed applications to colleges, which use them to craft financial aid packages. The Education Department had predicted that the new FAFSA would result in 610,000 more students from low-income backgrounds becoming eligible to receive a federal Pell Grant and 1.5 million more becoming eligible to receive a maximum Pell award of $7,395.

The latest actions follow those announced last week, including assigning assistance teams to help colleges manage the new process and the crush of data arriving later than usual. The department also pledged $50 million for nonprofits to provide similar assistance for both colleges and families.

Education Department officials said a shortage of funding contributed mightily to the problems.

Congress had “set deadlines requiring us to undertake three massive modernization projects within a few months of each other,” said a senior department official, who spoke on condition of not being named.

The official was referring to the complex fall resumption of student loan payments as well as the new FAFSA.

“Congress did not provide the substantial amount of increased funding we requested to implement these ... bipartisan projects, and here we are well into the fiscal year and we don’t have a budget for this year as well. So it’s very, very challenging for us to deliver on the level of service we want to provide,” the official said.

The Democratic lawmakers also acknowledged in the letter that the Education Department has had to work with “less funding than it anticipated would be needed to complete the job correctly and on time.”

Students and staff cheer on a student after he completes his intent to enroll at UCLA during Bruins Day, when the school welcomes to campus all admitted students. (Jay L. Clendenin / Los Angeles Times)

UC and CSU extend May 1 deadline to accept admission offers for fall 2024, citing FAFSA delays

The two university systems will extend their May 1 deadline for students to accept admission offers, citing delays in financial aid applications known as FAFSA.

Feb. 7, 2024

The latest FAFSA moves will be no panacea.

The department, for example, still has no fix for the system’s apparent breakdown when a student reports that a parent lacks a Social Security number.

“We are meeting daily to form a path forward on it,” a senior department official said. “I don’t have news to share at the moment. But it’s an issue that’s very, very important to us and we’re working very hard to find a path forward.”

One potential work-around is for families in this situation to file the paper version of the FAFSA, bypassing the computer glitch.

Officials also had no ready answer for the near-interminable waits for help and automated hang-ups on phone-assistance lines.

As a condition for taking part in the briefing, reporters had to agree to identify no senior officials by name. Only Secretary Cardona spoke on the record, but he did not take questions and left the briefing before the Q&A began.

But Cardona did talk about the technical challenge having resulted in “delays that come with completely overhauling a broken system that is older than me.”

“This is about delivering the promise of transformational change,” Cardona said. “It’s about overhauling a broken system that was failing too many students and one that we normalized in this country. It’s about making sure the doors of higher education open for so many more students whose lives can be changed for the better but had been deterred by the cost and complexity of the system.”

As of late January, about 700,000 seniors nationwide had filed applications, down from about 1.5 million applicants the same time last year, according to National College Attainment Network, which analyzed data from the U.S. Department of Education.

In California, only 16.1% of seniors had submitted a FAFSA through Feb. 2, a drop of more than 57% from that same date the previous year, according to the network’s data .

The delays prompted the University of California and California State University to announce last week that they would extend their May 1 deadline for first-year students to accept their admission offers for fall 2024. Both systems announced extensions until at least May 15. The state, which provides Cal Grants through the California Student Aid Commission, also extended the priority deadline to submit financial aid applications by one month, to April 2.

Adam Swarth, a Calabasas High senior, had been hoping to finish the college application process early. But instead, the FAFSA issues worsened and lengthened a stressful time. He’s still worried.

“We don’t understand exactly what the problems are,” he said. “We just know the problems exist. Maybe I won’t be able to go to the college of my choice because the college won’t have the financial package ready for me by the time I have to decide.”

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FILE - President Joe Biden speaks on student loan debt forgiveness, in the Roosevelt Room of the White House, Oct. 4, 2023, in Washington. The Biden administration will start canceling student loans for some borrowers starting in February as part of a new repayment plan. Cancellation was originally set to begin in July under the new SAVE repayment plan, but it's being unrolled ahead of schedule to provide faster relief to borrowers. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci, File)

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Jan. 12, 2024

A US flag flies above a building as students earning degrees at Pasadena City College participate in the graduation ceremony, June 14, 2019, in Pasadena, California. - With 45 million borrowers owing $1.5 trillion, the student debt crisis in the United States has exploded in recent years and has become a key electoral issue in the run-up to the 2020 presidential elections. "Somebody who graduates from a public university this year is expected to have over $35,000 in student loan debt on average," said Cody Hounanian, program director of Student Debt Crisis, a California NGO that assists students and is fighting for reforms. (Photo by Robyn Beck / AFP) (Photo credit should read ROBYN BECK/AFP via Getty Images)

Now that student loan payments are back, here are 5 options if you’re crushed by debt

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Howard Blume covers education for the Los Angeles Times. He’s won the top investigative reporting prize from the L.A. Press Club and print Journalist of the Year from the L.A. Society of Professional Journalists chapter. He recently retired “Deadline L.A.,” a past honoree for best public-affairs radio program, which he produced and co-hosted on KPFK-FM (90.7) for 15 years. He teaches tap dancing and has two superior daughters.

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Dallas Morning News

Computers scoring Texas students’ STAAR essay answers, state officials say

Texas students’ written responses on the STAAR test will most likely be scored by a computer, rather than a person.

Some education leaders are confused by the change and question how using this technology to assess essays will impact students and teachers. State officials say this system is not the same as the generative artificial intelligence that powers programs like ChatGPT, but a tool with narrow abilities that can improve scoring efficiency.

The Texas Education Agency quietly rolled out a new model for evaluating student answers on the State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness, or STAAR, in December. Roughly three-quarters of written responses are scored by an “automated scoring engine.”

Officials emphasized that these engines don’t learn beyond a single question and are programmed to emulate how humans would score an essay. The computer determines how to assess written answers after analyzing thousands of students’ responses that were previously scored by people.

The automated scoring engine is “programmed by humans, overseen by humans, and is analyzed at the end by humans,” said Jose Rios, director of the student assessment division.

The new scoring method comes amid a broader STAAR redesign. There’s now a cap on multiple choice questions. The new test – which launched last year – includes essays at every grade level.

“These questions are very time consuming and laborious to score,” Rios said. “At the same time, you need to balance that with our commitment to produce results as fast as we can for districts. We needed to find a way to be more efficient.”

Agency officials estimated the new test format would require four to five times the number of human scorers, costing an extra $15 million to $20 million per year if they were to exclusively use people.

Only about one in four student responses will end up in front of a person’s eyes.

The rollout confused some education leaders, who said agency officials could have announced the move with more transparency.

“At the very least, they should do a pilot or study for a pretty long time,” State Board of Education member Pat Hardy, R-Fort Worth, said. “It’s an area that needs more exploration. … It just seems so cold.”

Dallas schools Superintendent Stephanie Elizalde said she only recently learned about the change and is left with questions about how the system was created and potential biases within it.

“It’s the same lesson, certainly, that I learn and want to improve on: That the more information we provide our communities, the better trusting relationships we build,” Elizalde said.

TEA officials say a technical report, with a detailed overview of the system, will be available later this year.

Other states have used this type of model for years, though not without criticism . In Ohio, for example , some districts said they spotted irregularities after tests were scored by computers, The Plain Dealer reported in 2018.

Cleveland’s newspaper reported that district officials began asking questions about scoring after a larger-than-expected number of student answers received zero points.

A similar question emerged in Texas, where large numbers of high schoolers received zeroes during the most recent STAAR test. State officials insist the automated scoring engines are not the reason for this.

Agency officials say they’re confident in their program.

The scoring engines were “successful in recreating the Spring 2023 results and were shown to be as accurate as human scorers,” they said. TEA officials did not provide information showing this result to The Dallas Morning News.

Humans validate about 25% of the answers scored by the computer. Essays are routed to human scorers based on certain conditions or if the scoring engine expresses low confidence about its determination. Random tests are also audited.

“The low confidence responses are often those responses that are on the border between two score points,” according to a state document outlining the method . “The purpose of this routing is to ensure that unusual or borderline responses receive fair and accurate scores.”

All Spanish STAAR tests are scored by people. Agency officials said their automated scoring engines don’t work for languages other than English.

Les Perelman, a former Massachusetts Institute of Technology associate dean and longtime critic of automated essay scoring, said this differentiation concerns him.

“It’s inherently unequal,” he said.

The shift in scoring STAAR tests is part of a larger conversation about the role of technology in classrooms. How can teachers catch students using ChatGPT to write essays? What could be accomplished with AI tutors?

“Where I really see AI going in education is moving towards: how do we give really timely, useful feedback that is going to allow students to learn better?” said Peter Foltz, a University of Colorado, Boulder professor and director of the Institute for Student-AI Teaming.

Teacher concerns

Some educators were taken aback by the quiet introduction of this new scoring method. Schools are graded on the state’s academic accountability system largely based on how students perform on STAAR.

During the latest round of STAAR testing in the fall, a huge number of high school students scored poorly on the written questions. Roughly 8 in 10 written responses on the English II End of Course exam received zero points .

In the spring – the first iteration of the redesigned test, but scored only by humans – roughly a quarter of responses scored zero points in the same subject.

Many students who take STAAR in the fall are “re-testers” who did not meet grade level on a previous test attempt. Spring testers tend to perform better, according to agency officials who were asked to explain the spike in low scores in the fall.

Chris Rozunick, the director of the state’s assessment development division, said she understands why people connect the spike in zeroes to the rollout of automated scoring based on the timing. But she insists that the two are unrelated.

“It really is the population of testers much more than anything else,” Rozunick said.

Observers’ skepticism may be fueled by Texas’ previous problems with STAAR technology.

In 2016, thousands of Texas students had difficulties logging in and staying online during writing exams, prompting state officials to void those results.

Testing vendor ETS was fined $5.7 million for damages by the TEA and ordered to spend more than $15 million on improvements to its online system and test shipping.

In 2018, the state was forced to throw out 71,000 online STAAR exams after server problems caused crashes during April and May testing windows.

Three years later, the state saw more technology flare-ups during testing , with students in various districts kicked out of tests and unable to log back in. ETS’ contract ended that year.

TEA officials said they worked with their assessment vendors, Cambium and Pearson, to develop the automated scoring engines.

Perelman said one of his concerns with the trend toward machine scoring is that it “teaches students to be bad writers,” with teachers incentivized to instruct children on how to write to a computer rather than to a human. The problem, he said, is machines are “really stupid” when it comes to ideas.

He previously made waves when he and others developed the “BABEL Generator,” which spit out incoherent essays that scored well when evaluated by automated scoring engines about a decade ago.

Texas Education Agency officials said their scoring engines look for anomalies, such as if a student has not responded in English or wrote an answer of “unexpected length.” Those responses are sent for human scoring.

Foltz said automated scorers must be built with strong guardrails. He added that it’s not easy to coach students on how to game a scoring engine.

Texas’ standard of checking roughly 25% of essays with a human scorer provides “a pretty good margin of safety ... to know that things are working,” he added.

More information about how Texas’ new system operates is expected in the coming months. Education observers are likely to look for whether the system appears biased toward any student group.

“There are also human biases there, and the computers may learn any biases that the humans may have,” Foltz said. “If there’s certain kinds of phrases that humans value more, the computer will tend to pick up on that.”

Staff writer Ari Sen contributed to this article.

The DMN Education Lab deepens the coverage and conversation about urgent education issues critical to the future of North Texas.

The DMN Education Lab is a community-funded journalism initiative, with support from Bobby and Lottye Lyle, Communities Foundation of Texas, The Dallas Foundation, Dallas Regional Chamber, Deedie Rose, Garrett and Cecilia Boone, The Meadows Foundation, The Murrell Foundation, Solutions Journalism Network, Southern Methodist University, Sydney Smith Hicks and the University of Texas at Dallas. The Dallas Morning News retains full editorial control of the Education Lab’s journalism.

©2024 The Dallas Morning News. Visit Distributed by Tribune Content Agency, LLC.



N.Y.C. Revived Remote Schooling for a Day. It Was a Mess.

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Three people in dark coats walk on a snowy sidewalk. One carries a blue umbrella.

By Troy Closson

  • Feb. 13, 2024

New York City public schools on Tuesday embarked on their first major experiment with remote learning since the coronavirus pandemic. More than 900,000 students were asked to join virtual classes during the winter storm.

It didn’t go well.

Many teachers, parents and students trying to log on found that they were locked out of their classrooms. Instead of joining their video meetings, they received an error message: “The service that you are trying to reach is temporarily unavailable.”

“It seems like a very wide issue,” said Jay Brown, an elected parent leader in southern Brooklyn, who was trying to help his children log on while he attempted to work from home.

He added: “I know this is a huge undertaking. But the preparedness just seems lacking.”

Mayor Eric Adams said that the disarray would serve as a “teaching moment” for the city.

“Remote learning’s going to be with us for a while,” Mr. Adams said. “The goal is to get perfection, and there’s a journey to get perfection.”

On social media, dozens of people described a chaotic morning that recalled their worst memories of pandemic-era education.

“Total disaster,” Sam Green, who opted to take his 7-year-old son to McCarren Park to play in the snow, said in an interview. “I texted the teacher ‘Am I the only one having problems?’ And like, no — the whole system crashed, even the principal can’t get on.”

Students dawdled in their first period classes with cameras off, waiting for teachers who had not been able to log in. Some were only able to get on after repeatedly refreshing their sites. Others were kicked out of online meetings. As parents and educators took on the role of makeshift tech support, several schools fully called off meetings and classes until at least 10 a.m., unable even to take attendance.

One parent said that by 8:45 a.m., his family had already given up on remote learning for the day, joining others that opted to declare a full snow day.

By noon on Tuesday, the schools chancellor, David C. Banks, said that about 850,000 students and teachers had been able to log on. (The system has roughly 915,000 children and 75,000 educators.)

As the school day was getting underway, the Education Department blamed the chaos on issues with services that require authentication by the tech company IBM, which Mr. Banks later said “was not ready for prime time.”

“To say that I am disappointed, frustrated and angry is an understatement,” he added. “This was a test. I don’t think we passed this test.”

IBM did not immediately respond to requests for comment. The school system had tested out remote learning earlier this winter, but Mr. Banks said the company was not involved in those simulations.

Some students and educators were able to log on without any trouble. Alan Cohen, a parent in Central Queens, had his children, who are in kindergarten and third grade, set up their devices on Monday night — and they successfully joined their virtual rooms.

Their classmates were not so lucky: “At first, there were three kids,” Mr. Cohen said, adding that the parents’ WhatsApp groups for the school and individual classes were “blowing up.”

“The idea that every kid is going to be present for all their classes, all day has kind of gone out the window,” he said.

The city bought more than 550,000 iPads for children and 175,000 Chromebook laptops during the pandemic, and the era of remote learning it ushered in has prompted many school districts across the nation to forgo traditional days off for winter weather.

But Tuesday’s debacle was certain to prompt a wave of pushback in New York. Shekar Krishnan, a city councilman who represents parts of northern Queens, wrote on social media that the administration “should’ve just given them the damn snow day!”

Some schools that are not administered by the Education Department did exactly that.

“It’s just an old-school snow day,” said Arthur Samuels, the founder of a charter high school in Brooklyn’s Bushwick neighborhood.

“Too many students need to care for younger siblings, and we know how subpar remote instruction is,” Mr. Samuels said on social media. “We’ll see everyone back in person tomorrow. Enjoy the snow!”

Olivia Bensimon contributed reporting.

Troy Closson reports on K-12 schools in New York City for The Times. More about Troy Closson

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Blog The Education Hub

Disposable vape ban and what it means for young people

essay on new education system

The number of children using vapes has tripled in the last three years and there is strong evidence to suggest that cheap and easy-to-use disposable vapes are partly to blame.

Our research shows that in 2023, around 69 per cent of vapers aged 11 to 17 in Great Britain were using disposable vapes, up from 7.7 percent in 2021. This is extremely worrying given the unknown long-term health impacts and the addictive nature of the nicotine in vapes.

While vaping can play a role in helping adult smokers to quit, the NHS advises that you shouldn’t take it up if you don’t already smoke– and children should never vape.

Here’s what we’re doing to prevent children from vaping and smoking to protect their health, both in school and out.

Are disposable vapes being banned?

Yes, the sale and supply of disposable vapes is being banned in England, Scotland and Wales because of their appeal to young people. Northern Ireland will also consider introducing this in future.

Alongside this, to make vapes less attractive to children, we're strengthening the regulation of vape flavours, packaging and how they are displayed in shops.

To crack down on underage sales, trading standards officers will have the power to issue an ‘on the spot’ fine of up to £100 when they spot the sale of tobacco and vapes to children in England and Wales.

The ban is being introduced after a public consultation on smoking and vaping showed nearly 70 percent of respondents including parents, teachers, healthcare professionals were in favour of the measure.

Adults will still have access to non-disposable vapes to help them to stop smoking.

When will the disposable vape ban begin?

We aim to bring in legislation to ban disposable vapes as soon as possible.

Any legislation will allow for a buffer period of at least 6 months, to allow businesses to adapt.

What action are you taking to stop young people smoking?

It will soon be illegal to sell tobacco products to anyone born on or after 1 January 2009.

The measures, which we announced in October, means that children turning 15 this year or younger can never legally be sold tobacco.

Stopping young people from ever starting to smoke will protect an entire generation from smoking harms as they grow up.

What are you doing to prevent vaping in schools?

Schools are legally required to have a behaviour policy that sets out what is expected of pupils, including what items are banned from school premises. Some schools have already banned vapes.

In Relationships, Sex and Health Education (RSHE), pupils in primary and secondary school are taught the facts about legal and illegal harmful substances and their risks, including smoking, alcohol and drugs.

We are currently reviewing the RSHE curriculum, including looking at strengthening content around smoking and vaping, and will launch a public consultation on a revised version as soon as possible.

We have also published training resources for teachers, including one on drugs, alcohol and tobacco, which makes specific reference to e-cigarettes and vaping.

You may also be interested in:

  • What is RSHE and can parents access curriculum materials?
  • 5 ways we support schools to deal with bullying
  • How we’re taking action to keep young people and children safe in our schools

Tags: Ban on disposable vapes , Vaping ban , vaping rules at school

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    The Future of Education panel, moderated by Dean Bridget Long and hosted by HGSE's Askwith Forums, focused on hopes for education going forward, as well as HGSE's role. "The story of HGSE is the story of pivotal decisions, meeting challenges, and tremendous growth," Long said. "We have a long history of empowering our students and ...

  3. The "new normal" in education

    The new normal. The pandemic ushers in a "new" normal, in which digitization enforces ways of working and learning. It forces education further into technologization, a development already well underway, fueled by commercialism and the reigning market ideology. Daniel ( 2020, p.

  4. What Students Are Saying About How to Improve American Education

    An international exam shows that American 15-year-olds are stagnant in reading and math. Teenagers told us what's working and what's not in the American education system. 62. In American ...

  5. Best Education Essays of 2021: Our 15 Most Discussed Columns About

    A full calendar year of education under COVID-19 and its variants gave rise to a wave of memorable essays in 2021, focusing both on the ongoing damage done and how to mitigate learning loss going forward. While consensus emerged around several key themes — the need for extensive, in-depth tutoring, the possibilities presented by unprecedented […]

  6. The turning point: Why we must transform education now

    Transforming education requires a significant increase in investment in quality education, a strong foundation in comprehensive early childhood development and education, and must be underpinned by strong political commitment, sound planning, and a robust evidence base. Learning and skills for life, work and sustainable development.

  7. What Changes to the U.S. Education System Are Needed to Support Long

    What Changes to the U.S. Education System Are Needed to Support Long-Term Success for All Americans? | Future of Learning & Work | Carnegie Corporation of New York

  8. New Ideas for a New Era of Public Education: 8 Ways We Can ...

    An agile public education system, Lake argues in this new essay tied to the 25th anniversary of the Center on Reinventing Public Education, would avoid pat answers to these questions and concentrate instead on providing effective, flexible and individual pathways toward common goals.

  9. What the best education systems are doing right

    Teachers in Finland teach 600 hours a year, spending the rest of time in professional development. In the U.S., teachers are in the classroom 1,100 hours a year, with little time for feedback. "A key to that is education. Finns do not really exist outside of Finland," says Sahlberg.

  10. Education in America: School Is for Everyone

    Home-schooling is on the rise, private schools have gained students, and an unknown number have dropped out altogether; Los Angeles said up to 50,000 students were absent on the first day of class ...

  11. How technology is reinventing education

    New advances in technology are upending education, from the recent debut of new artificial intelligence (AI) chatbots like ChatGPT to the growing accessibility of virtual-reality tools that expand the boundaries of the classroom. For educators, at the heart of it all is the hope that every learner gets an equal chance to develop the skills they need to succeed.

  12. What's Next in Education? A New Education System

    ReSchool Colorado. , a multi-year initiative launched by DK in 2013 to create an entirely new state public education system in Colorado where learning is re-imagined and. students graduate ...

  13. Essay on New Education Policy 2020

    This essay on new education policy 2020 will help you learn how this new policy has replaced the National Education Policy 1986 that is 34 years old. Aim of the New Education Policy 2020 This new policy has the aim of universalizing education from pre-school to secondary level.

  14. Education System in the United States

    The Role of Universities in the United States Education System. There was a decline in American education as was documented in 1983 by the National Commission on Excellence in Education. This brought about a change that saw the inception of standardized testing and accountability (Heckman & LaFontaine, 2011).

  15. Essay on New Education Policy (NEP)

    200 Words Essay on New Education Policy. The New National Education Policy has had a really revolutionary impact on the Indian educational system. After 34 years of our education policy following the same standards without change, the Ministry of Education (formerly known as MHRD) made some significant changes to it on July 29, 2020.

  16. Essay on New Education Policy

    The new education policy is centred on the holistic development of students. The 5+3+3+4 structure, which requires 12 years of schooling and three years of preschool, replaces the 10+2 system and provides children with schooling experience at a younger age. The exams will be taken only by students in grades 3, 5, and 8; all other students will ...

  17. Still Separate, Still Unequal: Teaching about ...

    Activity #1: Warm-Up: Visualize segregation and inequality in education. Image Using the original interactive map on ProPublica , you can search for individual school districts and change data ...

  18. Essay on Education System

    The education system in India comprises four levels: pre-primary, primary, secondary and senior secondary system; all these levels are well-structured and developed to systemically introduce students to the subject matter, develop their language and cognitive skills and prepare them for higher education.

  19. Education System Essays

    Education System Essays IELTS Computer Based Tests + Band Score Education System Essays by Keyla Simoes (Praia Grande, São Paulo, Brazil) Some people say that the education system is the only critical factor to development of a country. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?

  20. Essay about The Education System

    1012 Words. 5 Pages. Open Document. The education system has been a controversial issue among educators. Requirements of school do not let student choose what they want to study for their future. It's a big issue to force student study specific curriculums, which don't help them improve, and what they like to create something.

  21. Essay on Indian Education System for Students

    500+ Words Essay on Indian Education System for Students and Children The Indian education system is quite an old education system that still exists. It has produced so many genius minds that are making India proud all over the world.

  22. How technology is reinventing K-12 education

    "Technology is a game-changer for education - it offers the prospect of universal access to high-quality learning experiences, and it creates fundamentally new ways of teaching," said Dan ...

  23. Winter weather: New York City used online learning, not a snow day. It

    A woman plays with a child that is sledding in New York's Central Park Tuesday, Feb. 13, 2024. Technology glitches kept many New York City teachers and students from virtual classes Tuesday — the first attempt by the country's largest school system to switch to remote learning for a snow storm since the COVID-19 pandemic.

  24. Old And New Education System Essay Sample 2023

    Hire an expert to complete your argumentative essay and save time! Only. $38. 3 pages. Get Writing Help. As we can observed the development of educational system, it started with letters and then the reading followed. It was in the twelfth century when education has been open to both men and women little by little.

  25. Essay on New Education Policy

    Introduction The new National Education Policy came into existence on 29 July 2020, after replacing the existing National Education Policy. The change in education policy is made after a gap of a total of 34 years. But the change was necessary and the need for the time should have been made earlier. The Necessity of New Education Policy 2020

  26. Feds move to ease FAFSA financial aid chaos, but no quick fix emerges

    The Education Department had predicted that the new FAFSA would result in 610,000 more students from low-income backgrounds becoming eligible to receive a federal Pell Grant and 1.5 million more ...

  27. Computers scoring Texas students' STAAR essay answers, state ...

    The Texas Education Agency quietly rolled out a new model for evaluating student answers on the State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness, or STAAR, in December. Roughly three-quarters of ...

  28. NYC Revived Remote Schooling for a Day. It Was a Mess ...

    By noon on Tuesday, the schools chancellor, David C. Banks, said that about 850,000 students and teachers had been able to log on. (The system has roughly 915,000 children and 75,000 educators.)

  29. Disposable vape ban and what it means for young people

    About the Education Hub. The Education Hub is a site for parents, pupils, education professionals and the media that captures all you need to know about the education system. You'll find accessible, straightforward information on popular topics, Q&As, interviews, case studies, and more.