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Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

A grounded theory exploration of the changing dynamic in mission among pentecostals in ontario: the emergence of humanitarianism..

Todd Manuel Follow

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Faculty/School

Martin Luther University College

First Advisor

Dr Allen Jorgenson

Advisor Role

Second advisor.

Dr. Mark Harris

This dissertation explores the changing nature of mission among Pentecostal churches in Ontario. The findings of this grounded theory qualitative research project suggest that mission in those Pentecostal churches in Ontario under review have switched the priority of the juxtaposed foci of salvific and humanitarian such that the latter is now their primary means for expressing mission.

Christianity is a mission-oriented faith tradition. Throughout history, it is the case that the church’s understanding and expression of mission has adjusted and adapted according to the context and culture it has found itself in. In the ever changing religious and cultural context in the Global West, which has become primarily post-Christendom, the nature of mission is changing as well. It follows then that a recognition of the change in the current Canadian culture and context requires new and fresh approaches to mission. As discussed in this study, historically the mission of Pentecostal churches has focused on salvific and humanitarian understandings. However, because of a strong belief and commitment to individual conversion, that is, personal salvation by faith, traditionally Pentecostals have tended toward placing greater emphasis on the salvific aspect of mission rather than on the humanitarian aspect. This study illumines a reversal of that tendency: humanitarianism now receives the predominant focus.

In an effort to better understand how Canadian Pentecostal Pastors in the province of Ontario see their church enacting its mission, the following research question was posed, “How do Christian Pentecostal Pastors leading large churches perceive their congregations’ Expression of Mission in a Post-Christendom Canadian Context in Ontario?” The methodology chosen to explore this question is grounded theory. The data collected in this study found three key themes: intentionality and deliberateness in the sharing of the goals of the church; creativity and innovation in their humanitarian outreach, and the importance of place and context, with attention on the local, national, and global reach of their humanitarian activities. The data from this study indicates that the prior priority of salvific interpretations of the Pentecostal mission in Ontario churches has diminished in favor of the need to offer practical and useful outreach to those in need. The sixteen Pentecostal participants and their congregations engaged in this study reflect this change in missional understanding and expression. As a way of moving forward missionally, Pentecostals in Ontario may have to rethink their theology of mission to reflect one that is primarily humanitarian in focus and application.

Recommended Citation

Manuel, Todd, "A Grounded Theory Exploration of The Changing Dynamic in Mission Among Pentecostals in Ontario: The Emergence of Humanitarianism." (2022). Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive) . 2489. https://scholars.wlu.ca/etd/2489

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dissertation martin luther university college

Debbie Lou Ludolph

Dean of Chapel; Director, Kanata Centre for Worship and Global Song; Instructor, Practical Theology

Biography / Academic Background

I successfully defended my doctoral dissertation — as part of Martin Luther University College's PhD in Human Relationships program, field of Pastoral Leadership — in January 2021. I received my Master of Arts in Theology degree from Luther in 2009, when the school was known as Waterloo Lutheran Seminary, and my bachelor's degree in Vocal Performance from Wilfrid Laurier University in 1982.

Prior to working full-time at Luther, I performed in the musical theatre industry; taught vocal pedagogy, musical skills and voice at Laurier and in the community; and led music and worship at conferences and retreats.

In addition to teaching, I co-ordinate worship in Luther's Keffer Memorial Chapel.

Please feel free to read my dissertation, or view a video  reprising the defence of my dissertation, "Singing Difference Amid Relational Connectedness: A Narrative Study of How Singing Together Shapes Worldview."

View my Meet the Prof video .

Research Interests / Ongoing Projects

The main focus of my research is the power of music as a bridge-builder between communities and cultures. As director of the Kanata Centre for Worship and Global Song, I have created opportunities for public conversations and workshops about Christian worship practice, and I have co-ordinated ecumenical, interfaith and musical events that promote working towards the common good in the community. I also direct a community choir at Luther called Inshallah, which sings primarily songs of faith from the global south. For details, visit the website inshallah.ca.

Research / Areas of Expertise

  • Singing as a bridge-building strategy.
  • Global song and community singing.
  • Programming for multifaith and ecumenical gatherings.

Awards and Achievements

  • Laurier Community Music Award of Recognition (2010).
  • Companion of the Worship Arts, Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada (2006).

Selected Publications

  • Sing the Circle Wide (2016).
  • "Sing Fires of Justice: The Power of Song!" Lee Willingham, Debbie Lou Ludolph (2011, 2013).
  • "Singing Global Song in a North American Church Context," master’s degree thesis (2009).
  • Contributor to DVD Christian Music from Asia for the World: The Legacy of I-to Loh . GIA, 2013.
  • CDs: Inshallah Sings 1, Inshallah Sings 2, Singing Peace (2010, 2012, 2014).

Contact Info:

E: [email protected] T: (548) 889-3579 Office Location: MLU208

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Plagiarism Seen by Scholars In King's Ph.D. Dissertation

By Anthony de Palma

  • Nov. 10, 1990

Plagiarism Seen by Scholars In King's Ph.D. Dissertation

Torn between loyalty to his subject and to his discipline, the editor of the papers of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. reluctantly acknowledged yesterday that substantial parts of Dr. King's doctoral dissertation and other academic papers from his student years appeared to have been plagiarized.

The historian, Clayborne Carson, a professor of history at Stanford University who was chosen in 1985 by Dr. King's widow, Coretta Scott King, to head the King Papers Project, said that analysis of the papers by researchers working on the project had uncovered concepts, sentences and longer passages taken from other sources without attribution throughout Dr. King's writings as a theology student.

"We found that there was a pattern of appropriation, of textual appropriation," said the 46-year-old historian, who was active in the civil rights movement and has written extensively on black history. He spoke at a news conference at Stanford, called after an article in The Wall Street Journal yesterday disclosed details of the project's findings. "By the strictest definition of plagiarism -- that is, any appropriation of words or ideas -- there are instances of plagiarism in these papers." A Lack of Answers

Although he said that he believed Dr. King had acted unintentionally, Mr. Carson said that Dr. King had been sufficiently well acquainted with academic principles and procedures to have understood the need for extensive footnotes, and he was at a loss to explain why Dr. King had not used them.

Mr. Carson and other scholars who have seen the papers declined to say how great a percentage of the material had been plagiarized, but they said it was enough to indicate a serious violation of academic principles.

Officials at Boston University, which awarded Dr. King his doctorate in 1955, announced yesterday that a committee of four scholars had been formed to investigate the dissertation. But it is not likely, even if plagiarism is proved, that the Ph.D. degree in theology would be revoked, because neither Dr. King nor his dissertation adviser is alive to defend the work.

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Luther College University

  • Why 1517? The Ninety-Five Theses in Context (Y. Petry)
  • Luther College at the University of Regina, SK
  • Winter/Spring 2017
  • Table Talks at Luther College at the University of Regina (LCUR, February-March 2017)

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Luther College students are eligible for nearly  $100,000 in academic awards – in addition to scholarships and bursaries awarded by the U of R.

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The priority deadline for academic application is March 15 . To book a personalized enrolment counselling appointment, contact our Recruitment Office at 1-306-206-2117.

To enrol as a Luther College student , simply fill out the University of Regina application form and select Luther as your campus of choice.

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Why 1517? The Ninety-Five Theses in Context

By Yvonne Petry

Introduction

Any list of historic events or people includes Martin Luther (1483–1546) and the beginning of the Reformation in 1517 as one of the top ten historic changes in world history. The spark that Luther struck with the Ninety-Five Theses lit a fire across Western Europe, found a receptive audience among fellow clergymen and scholars, but also knights, urban middle class, and unhappy peasants. The German Reformation began in Wittenberg, where Luther taught, but within a few years spread throughout Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, France, then to England and Scandinavia. Over the next forty years, entire nations broke from the authority of the Roman church and redrew the map of Europe.

Martin Luther himself recognized the impact of the events of 1517. Looking back to that year thirty years later, by which time Luther was in his sixties, he wrote that

I was a preacher, a young Doctor of Theology, as they say. I began to dissuade the people from lending an ear to the shouts of the indulgence-sellers. I told them that they had better things to do and that I was sure that in these matters I had the pope on my side. … What I did toppled heaven and consumed earth by fire. [1]

One of the big questions historians ask about the history of church reform is: why did Martin Luther succeed when others before him had failed? One of the most common answers to this question is that, by 1517, European society had begun to change in fundamental ways, but the church as an institution had not.  

Late Medieval Christianity

In order to understand what happened in 1517, it is vital to begin by examining the social history of the Christian Church prior to the Reformation. Medieval Christianity was vibrant in many ways. For the peasants, who comprised the vast majority of the population, Christianity was part of village life. They did not understand complicated doctrines concerning the Trinity or the nature of Christ. Rather, they participated in the ritual life of the church, a life that was shared communally. They called on the saints for healing or protection; they watched the priest elevate the sacred host, believing he was doing something miraculous; they went on pilgrimages to view relics; they feasted and fasted according to the church calendar; and they relied on the sacraments of the church to carry them from cradle to grave and into the next life.

Most people did not worry about their salvation – after all, they were being watched over by the saints, and they had priests, monks, and nuns were praying for their souls. They understood that after death, people went to purgatory for a final cleansing or “purging” of their sins, on the path upward to heaven. Scholastic theology – called scholastic because it came out of the medieval universities – suggested that if individuals did their best, God would recognize their efforts and help them on their way.  

The Sacrament of Penance and the Sale of Indulgences

To understand the issue with indulgences, it is also important to know something about the sacrament of penance, which was the way in which the church promised people absolution of their sins. It involved three actions: contrition, confession, and satisfaction. Priests used books called penitentials which listed the appropriate action that would give satisfaction for any given sin. Typical acts of penance included fasting on bread and water, repeating the Ave Maria or Lord’s Prayer, giving alms, or visiting a shrine. Because acts of penance were often inconvenient, it became increasingly common to buy an indulgence rather than perform an act of penance.

Penitential practices evolved slowly over several centuries. Indulgences were first used during the crusades and promised remission of sins to those who fought in the Holy Land. Popes then began to issue them to those who made pilgrimages to Rome. By the fourteenth century, funds raised from indulgences were being used to repair and build churches. In 1343, Pope Clement VI began to speak of the treasury of merits, the concept that the church possessed surplus merits that could be purchased. In 1476, Sixtus IV said that indulgences could be used to help souls in purgatory; in other words, indulgences became transferable from one person to another.

With these developments, penitental practices also began to sound quite financial. In fact, scholastic theologians borrowed metaphors from the expanding money economy and the new science of bookkeeping. It was as though individuals had their own bank accounts with debits (sins) and credits (merits). Each sin committed depleted the account; fortunately, the Church possessed an inexhaustible reserve of surplus measured. As God’s representative on earth, the pope was the chief financial officer of the whole operation. By the late fifteenth century, increasing numbers of “pardoners” roamed around Europe, selling indulgences; we find one such individual in Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales (1476) .

The penitential system was based on the assumption that sin was quantifiable, and that the Church possessed the surplus merits to allow individuals to indulge in those merits in order to receive pardon for their own or others’ sins. Whatever we may think of this system, it did possess a sort of logical coherence. And it was accepted as valid for many centuries.

In summary, by the late Middle Ages, a picture emerges of tight-knit village communities, held together by festivals, by rituals, and processions, and more or less assured that the sacraments of the Church, including the sacrament of penance, would enable them to go to heaven. However, long before the Reformation began, it was clear that there were cracks appearing in the edifice of the institutional church.  

The Church as Institution

Throughout the Middle Ages, the Christian Church was not only the most important religious institution at the centre of European culture, society, and political life. Over many centuries, the Church had also become thoroughly wedded to the hierarchical class structure of Western Europe. In other words, the Church hierarchy mirrored the social hierarchy, with some bishoprics remaining in the hands of the same noble family over generations.

The office of the pope was a hugely important political position, and medieval popes repeatedly claimed authority over kings and emperors. Papal power reached its peak during the twelfth century, but then slowly began to erode. By 1309, political instability in Rome and political manoeuvering by Philip IV of France resulted in the pope leaving Rome for southern France, where his successors would remain for the next seventy years. The Avignonese popes tended to serve the interests of the French kings. Efforts to return to Rome resulted in the Great Schism in 1378 when two rival popes claimed precedence; efforts to resolve the Schism in turn led to a period where three men claimed to be pope. This institutional chaos ended only in 1417.  

Early Reformers

Beginning in the fourteenth century, there was general recognition that the Church needed reform at many levels. In fact, nearly two hundred years before Luther was born, Oxford Professor John Wycliffe (1320–1384) was outspoken in his criticism of the wealth of the church, the immorality of the clergy, and practices such as the veneration of saints. In the 1380s, he began translating the Bible into English and saw the need to make it available in the vernacular languages. The Czech scholar Jan Hus (1369–1415) translated Wycliffe’s work and ideas and introduced his program of reform in Bohemia.

At the Council of Constance of 1414–1418, one agenda item was the ending the Schism. Another item was the investigation of the ideas of Wycliffe and Hus. Both men were declared heretics by the Council: Hus was burned at the stake as a heretic, and the Council ordered that Wycliffe’s remains were to be exhumed and burned. Nevertheless, the Church would be increasingly criticized and ridiculed – and the new generation of popes just added to the problems.

By the fifteenth century, the Italian city states were embroiled in endless warfare amongst themselves, yet produced some of the most stunning art and architecture in Western history. The Renaissance popes were men of their time and waged war, plotted against their neighbours, hired Michelangelo and Raphael to decorate their homes, and began rebuilding St. Peter’s. They did not heed the growing calls for reform.  

Meanwhile, in Northern Europe …

By the fifteenth century, there was a clear cultural and religious disconnect between northern Europe and Italy. Northern Europeans in the Low Countries and the German states had slowly invented their own religious practices, known as the devotia moderna or Modern Devotion. Groups such as the Beguines emerged, women who wanted to live communally without taking the restrictive vows of the nuns. Schools were founded by the Brothers of the Common Life who taught a new form of introspective Christianity that had more to do with meditating on one's sins, and less with processing around the church with a consecrated host. One of the classic works of Christian devotion, The Imitation of Christ, was written during this time.

Moreover, humanist scholars were beginning to question scholastic theology, considering it too narrow. Italian humanists had rediscovered their own Roman heritage in the works of Cicero, but Northern humanists turned their attention to studying the Bible in the original languages. As he studied the original Greek text of the New Testament, the Dutch scholar Erasmus realized that in some places the Vulgate (the Latin translation of the Bible) was inaccurate. Among other things, he noticed that in Matthew 3:2 and 4:17 the Greek term metanoeite was used. The Vulgate translated this as “do penance.” In his annotations, Erasmus (1466–1536) pointed out that a more accurate translation would be “repent.” The combination of the new humanistic learning and the desire for a more interior spirituality meant that for many people in towns and cities, the traditional rituals and practices of the Church began to feel rather hollow. During this period, there was a significant increase in anticlerical sentiment, expressed in pamphlets and satires that ridiculed the clergy for their greed, lack of morals and lack of education.  

The Impact of the Printing Press

The most important development that undergirded this shifting cultural climate in Northern Europe was the invention of the printing press by Gutenberg around 1450. It ushered in a technological revolution matched only by the computer revolution of our day. For the first time in Western history, mass communication was possible. Within fifty years of the invention of movable type, print shops appeared all over Europe in towns and cities, producing books, broadsheets, pamphlets, and images.

Also for the first time in Western history, a literate middle class began to emerge; it would become the engine of the Reformation. Because reading is a solitary pursuit, that literate middle class was necessarily more individualistic, and it is obvious that by the early sixteenth century, people were beginning to worry about their salvation. For both scholars and the new literate middle class, the traditional answers that the Church provided began to sound empty and unsatisfying. The fact that many of the priests, especially those in rural areas, could not read also led to dissatisfaction.

In summary, criticism of the Church increased in the early sixteenth century – not so much because it was more corrupt than it had been, but because the expectations of the laity were higher than they had been, and by all accounts, the Church was not responding to those shifting expectations.

In May 1512, at the Fifth Lateran Church Council, just five years before Luther wrote the Ninety-Five Theses, Cardinal Egidio da Viterbo declared:

I see that unless by this council or some other means we place a limit on our morals, unless we force our greedy desire for human things … to yield to the love of divine things, it is all over with Christendom.

These words would be prophetic.  

Martin Luther Enters the Scene

Martin Luther, son of a Saxon miner, was born in Eisleben in 1483. He was one of that generation of devout Germans who began worrying about his salvation. He had attended a school run by the Brothers of the Common Life. He became a monk and was scrupulous about confessing his sins and performing all the acts of penance required – so much so that his fellow monks ridiculed him. To ease his conscience, Luther’s confessor Johann Staupitz (1460–1524) encouraged him to become a scholar of the New Testament. It may very well be that Luther would not have become the man he did without Staupitz’s friendship and encouragement.

In 1512, Luther received his doctorate and became a professor of New Testament at the University of Wittenberg. It had been founded just a few years earlier, in 1502, by the prince of the region, Frederick III the Wise, Duke of Saxony. He encouraged scholars and artists, especially those interested in the new humanistic learning, to come to his territory, and Luther thrived in this atmosphere. [2] At the time he wrote the Ninety-Five Theses , he was a thiry-four year old monk, priest, and professor.  

In Wittenberg, in the person of Luther, the issue of the sale of indulgences as an example of a corrupt and outdated Church practice came to a head. To understand what happened, it is important to know the political context. The German-speaking lands were not a unified country, but a conglomeration of small principalities united under the authority of the Holy Roman Emperor. The title of emperor was an elected position, and there were seven princes in Germany who had the right to vote, including Luther’s prince, Frederick of Saxony. Needless to say, holding one of the elector positions was politically desirable, especially when elections became imminent. In 1516, the current emperor, Maximilian I, was rather old.

One of the elector positions – that of the Archbishop of Mainz (the highest ecclesiastical office in the Empire) – was vacant in 1516. The Hohenstaufen family was eager to place one of their own in the position. However, their candidate, Albrecht, was underage, and not an ordained priest. There were ways around this, however, if one could get a dispensation from the pope, and popes were in the habit of granting such dispensations, at a cost.

The Pope in question was Leo X, a member of the wealthy and powerful Medici family. Among other activities, he was continuing the building of St. Peter's in Rome. Leo X agreed to sell the office of archbishop to Albrecht for a large sum of money. The family negotiated a loan to pay for it. In order to pay back the loan, they struck a deal with the Pope. They agreed to allow access to the papal indulgence sellers to their territory, with the understanding that the profits of the sale would be shared. Albrecht of Mainz would use his share to pay off the family debt, and the Pope could carry on his building programme.  

The Ninety-Five Theses

Indulgence sellers such as Johann Tetzel (1465–1519) were hired, and the sale was conducted among the German peasantry. Luther was certainly aware of indulgences before this time, but it was sales techniques used by Tetzel that brought the matter to his attention. Luther began to question the practice of selling indulgences and in response wrote the Ninety-Five Theses.

The first two of the Ninety-Five Theses state:

  • When our Lord and Master Jesus Christ said, 'Repent' (Matthew 4:17), he willed the entire life of believers to be one of repentance.
  • This word cannot be understood as referring to the sacrament of penance, that is, confession and satisfaction, as administered by the clergy.

Clearly, Luther was using Erasmus' Greek New Testament and had read his commentary.

In subsequent theses, Luther questioned the ethics of encouraging peasants to buy indulgences rather than give alms or buy food for their family. He also questioned the authority of the Church to forgive sins, a right that surely belonged to God alone. It is also important to recognize that Luther, a priest and a monk, was raising these issues as an insider. He noted in Thesis 81 that the “unbridled preaching of indulgences makes it difficult for even learned men to rescue the reverence which is due the pope from slander or from the shrewd questions of the laity.”

Did Luther post The Ninety-Five Theses on the church door in Wittenberg? Scholars have been debating this issue for the last four decades. [3] Those who question it point out that the earliest reference to him doing so was written approximately thirty years later, by his colleague Philip Melanchthon (1495–1560), who was not present in 1517. Other scholars argue that posting notices to debate at a University was such a normal thing to do that it would not have been considered noteworthy at the time. What we do know is that the Theses were printed and circulated around Europe within a period of two months. We also know that Luther sent a copy to Albrecht of Mainz, who now held the most important ecclesiastical position in the empire. He was not aware of the deal that Albrecht had made with the Pope, or that Albrecht was himself profiting from the indulgence sale.  

The Church's Reaction

Albrecht sent his copies to the theologians in his city and a copy to Rome. There were church officials sent to debate and correct Luther’s mistaken views: Cardinal Cajetan met with him and then a few months later, Johannes Eck (1486–1543). At each interview, Luther refused to back down – his response to his critics was always along the lines of “show me in the Bible where I'm wrong”.

Leo X issued a bull of excommunication in June of 1520, stating that

we condemn, reprobate, and reject completely each of these theses or errors as either heretical, scandalous, false, offensive to pious ears or seductive of simple minds, and against Catholic truth…We likewise condemn … and reject completely the books and all the writings and sermons of the said Martin.

In other words, it was decreed that Luther’s books should be burned. He responded by calling the pope the Antichrist and burning the bull in Wittenberg, two months after he received it.

At the imperial Diet of Worms in spring 1521, presided over by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, Luther’s views were declared heretical, and he was made an outlaw. The Edict stated that

we forbid anyone from this time forward to dare, either by words or by deeds, to receive, defend, sustain, or favour the said Martin Luther. On the contrary, we want him to be apprehended and punished as a notorious heretic, as he deserves, to be brought personally before us, or to be securely guarded until those who have captured him inform us, whereupon we will order the appropriate manner of proceeding against the said Luther. Those who will help in his capture will be rewarded generously for their good work.  

Luther in Hiding

As a heretic and an outlaw, Luther could certainly have suffered the same fate as Hus. What saved him was his prince, Frederick, and the fact that Emperor Charles needed the support of his German princes, because he was fighting a costly war in Italy against France. Frederick spirited him away and placed him in hiding for a year. He spent that year in Eisenach making the first German translation of the Bible, using the new scholarly tools of the humanists.

Meanwhile, Luther's ideas had touched a nerve all over Europe. While Luther was in hiding, others in Wittenberg picked up the gauntlet. On Christmas Day 1521, Luther’s colleague Andreas Karlstadt (1486–1541) celebrated mass in the German tongue, without clerical vestments, and gave communion in both kinds to parishioners who had not confessed. Propagandists like Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472–1553) produced anti-Catholic broadsheets, including The Passion of Christ and Antichrist , which took scenes from the life of Christ and contrasted them with activities of the current pope.  

Salvation by Grace

The years between 1519 and 1521 were seminal for the Reformation. Historians do not know exactly when Martin Luther had his “tower experience” in which he turned traditional salvation theology on its head. It was likely sometime in 1519, as he was studying Romans 1:17, that Luther began to believe that salvation came through God's grace, not through human effort. In other words, humans did not need to earn God’s favour; God would forgive them in spite of their sinfulness. In a series of three treatises published in 1520, The Babylonian Captivity of the Church, The Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation , and The Freedom of the Christian, Luther laid out some of the most important features of what would become the Protestant position on many issues.  

Celibacy, Marriage, and Katharina von Bora

One of the most radical social changes for the institutional church was the abandonment of the idea of clerical celibacy. As Luther worked on a new theology of salvation, he also examined the theology around the priesthood, celibacy and marriage. In two treatises On the Estate of Marriage in 1519 and 1522, he made the bold claim that marriage is holy. For a thousand years, the Christian Church had taught that marriage was for the weak, that it was a second-best option, going back to Paul. Luther's views were pragmatic, but also realistic. His views on marriage were directly related to his views on the monastic life. He argued that only a select few were called to a celibate life.

As in other things, Luther's views resonated with the laity. German villagers knew that their priests had housekeepers, maids, cooks, girlfriends, and concubines. As long as the priest paid a fine for his misdeeds, the Church looked the other way. For Luther, the solution was simple – let the priests marry. In his Address to the Christian Nobility , he argued quite pragmatically that priests needed housekeepers to look after them. To put them together and expect them to be celibate was like putting fire to straw and thinking it would not burn.

For several years, his friends urged Luther to marry, as an example to others. But Luther stated on more than one occasion that he would not himself marry. However, theology became reality when, in 1523, nine nuns at a convent in Nimbschen became persuaded of the Lutheran message and asked for Luther’s assistance so they could escape. Luther had promised all nine Cistercian nuns that he would help them escape and find them suitable marriage partners. After two years, all of the nuns had married except for Katharina von Bora (1499–1552), a young woman from a minor noble family. Marriage to Luther was Katharina's idea. While it is obvious that Luther married Katharina out of a sense of responsibility for her and not out of any personal desire, he would later come to value her as a companion, praising her abilities and speaking kindly and fondly of her and of the goodness of the estate of marriage.  

Reformation as Political and Social Rebellion

Within a decade of the posting of the Ninety-Five Theses , the Reformation became both a political revolt and social rebellion. It is possible that the Reformation might have remained a debate among theologians and clergy. The fact that it did not, is a reflection of the power of the institution of the Church in early modern society. As noted previously, the church hierarchy was identical to the social hierarchy. Thus, all over Europe the bishop, landlord, and nobleman were the one and the same person. As a result, a lot of anger was directed against the Church because its officials were also the landowners, and city councils expelled (by violence or otherwise) the traditional elites, who were in many cases both bishop and lord, and began replacing them with representatives from the artisan class.

As with a lot of social change, the Reformation quickly became violent. Churches were ransacked, priests attacked, statues broken, and chalices stolen wherever the Reformation took hold on the continent. This was in part an attempt to purge the churches of statues, relics, and images that were thought to be irrelevant, but also an attack on the wealth of the church.

The most widespread violence occurred during the German Peasants’ War. Thomas Müntzer (1489–1525), sometimes considered the first communist, took Luther’s message and made it political – he spread his message of the “freedom of the Christian” and “priesthood of all believers” throughout Germany. The Twelve Articles of the Peasants asked for freedom to name their own pastors, and they also objected to excessive taxes, penalties against hunting, and the status of serfdom that landlords were trying to reinstate.

It ended, as most peasants’ revolts did, in failure, with tens of thousands of peasants and artisans dead at the hands of imperial soldiers.

The Reformation also became political. The German princes used Luther’s ideas to fight for their independence from the Holy Roman Emperor. Luther, for his part, appealed to the princes as political allies. Philip of Hesse organized a league of Lutheran princes. This led to three decades of warfare, concluding with the Peace of Augsburg in 1555 which allowed each prince to determine the religion in his territory.

Rulers around northern Europe, most notably Henry VIII of England, used the Reformation to declare their independence from Rome and establish the first national churches. In many Protestant countries, this was accompanied by the confiscation of Church lands and estates.  

Fragmenting the Reformation

The Reformation did not result in simply the separation of Protestants from the Catholic Church, but in the development of many types of Protestantism. This was inevitable. The Catholic Church was right to argue that authority needed to be vested in the pope or chaos would erupt – because it did erupt. By placing all authority in the Bible rather than in the traditions of the Church and its decrees, the door was opened for a plethora of interpretations. In 1529 at the Marbourg Colloquy (which was an attempt by one of the German princes to create a unified Protestant front for military purposes), Luther and Ulrich Zwingli (1483–1531) nearly came to blows over interpretations of the Lord’s Supper.

While all Protestants agreed on many issues, disputes arose very quickly regarding the interpretation of scriptures, the sacraments, the structure of the church (Episcopal or Presbyterian), and the role of the church in society. There were also divisions over whether to read certain statements literally or metaphorically, over the extent to which the New Testament ought to be a role model for the Church, and how to make decisions on issues on which the Bible is silent. These divisions eventually led to the spectrum of churches that we have with us today: Lutheran, Reformed, Presbyterian, and Anabaptist.

Within about ten years after Luther's writing his Ninety-Five Theses , Egidio da Viterbo words from 1512 had become prophetic – it was all over for Christendom. The Christian Church, the landscape of Europe, and the self-understanding of Europeans, would never be the same.

Further Reading

Dixon, Scott. Contesting the Reformation. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.Greengrass, Mark. Christendom Destroyed: Europe 1517-1648. New York: Viking, 2014.

Gregory, Brad S. The Unintended Reformation: How a Religious Revolution Secularized Society. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2012.Heal, Bridget and Ole Peter Grell, eds. The Impact of the Reformation. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008.Hendrix, Scott. Martin Luther: Visionary Reformer. New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 2015.

Karant-Nunn, Susan. The Reformation of Ritual: An Interpretation of Early Modern Germany . London: Routledge, 1997.Kolb, Robert et al, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Martin Luther’s Theology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Leppin, Volker and Wengert, Timothy. “Sources for and against the Posting of the Ninety-Five Theses .” Lutheran Quarterly 29 (2015): 373-98.

MacCulloch, Diarmid. Reformation: Europe’s House Divided, 1490-1700. London: Penguin, 2003.

Marty, Martin. October 31, 1517: Martin Luther and the Day that Changed the World. Brewster, MA: Paraclete Press, 2016.

McKim, Donald K., ed. The Cambridge Companion to Martin Luther. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Mjaaland, Marius Timmann. The Hidden God: Luther, Philosophy and Political Theology. Bloomington/Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2016.Oberman, Heiko. Luther: Man between God and the Devil. New York: Doubleday, 1989.

Ozment, Steven. Protestants: The Birth of a Revolution. New York: Doubleday, 1992.Payton, James R. Getting the Reformation Wrong: Correcting Some Misunderstandings. Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2010.

Pettegree, Andrew. Brand Luther: 1517, Printing and the Making of the Reformation. New York: Penguin, 2015.

Pettegree, Andrew. The Reformation World. London: Routledge, 2000.

Plummer, Marjorie Elizabeth. From Priest's Whore to Pastor's Wife: Clerical Marriage and the Process of Reform in the Early German Reformation . Burlington: Ashgate, 2012.

Rittgers, Ronald. The Reformation of Suffering: Pastoral Theology and Lay Piety in Late Medieval and Early Modern Germany. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Tracy, James. Europe’s Reformations, 1450-1650: Doctrine, Politics and Community. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1999.

Wallace, Peter. The Long European Reformation. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

Wandel, Lee Palmer. The Reformation: Towards a New History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Wiesner-Hanks, Merry, ed. Convents Confront the Reformation: Catholic and Protestant Nuns in Germany . Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press, 1996.

Wengert, Timothy. Martin Luther's Ninety-Five Theses: With Introduction, Commentary and Study Guide. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2015.

*This Table Talk was given at Luther College at the University of Regina on February 7, 2017.

[1] Preface to the complete edition of Luther's Latin Works (1545), trans. Andrew Thornton, from “Vorrede zu Band I der Opera Latina der Wittenberger Ausgabe. 1545” in vol. 4 of Luthers Werke in Auswahl , ed. Otto Clemen, 6th ed. (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1967), pp. 421-428,  accessible online .

[2] As a faculty member at a young university, I find that there are interesting parallels to be drawn. In 1963, University of Regina faculty wrote the Regina Beach Manifesto, which stated that the goal of a liberal arts education is not merely the transition of past wisdom, but that scholars are critics of society, and "examiners of institutions and ideas." This same spirit of social criticism characterized the University of Wittenberg in the first decades of the sixteenth century.

[3] A useful summary of the debate is provided by Volker Leppin and Timothy Wengert in their recent article, “Sources for and against the Posting of the Ninety-Five Theses, ” Lutheran Quarterly 29 (2015): 373-98. They conclude (p. 390) that “there are equally good arguments for and against the posting of the Theses .”

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Plagiarism Issue Raised in College Work of Dr. King

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Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. plagiarized or inadequately credited other authors’ works in his doctoral dissertation and other college writings, according to a Stanford University history professor appointed by King’s widow to edit the papers of the civil rights leader.

As a result of that finding, by Clayborne Carson at Stanford and by other researchers, Boston University is reviewing whether King’s 1955 doctoral degree in theology should be revoked retroactively. But officials said that such a drastic step is unlikely.

Carson and King’s associates in the civil rights movement said Friday that the discovery of plagiarism by King in his student days, no matter how disturbing to strict scholars, should not detract from later achievements of the Nobel Peace Prize laureate.

“I think what it shows is that there was an earlier stage in King’s life when there were other goals in his mind. He wanted to succeed as a student of theology and he wasn’t practicing to be the Martin Luther King who has become a kind of national icon,” Carson said in a telephone interview. “He was just a flesh-and-blood human being with flaws and limitations.”

The Rev. Joseph Lowery, president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, the Atlanta-based organization King once led, said: “We’re impressed by Martin Luther King’s footprints and are willing to forgive any youthful errors in his footnotes.”

Carson, an expert in the history of black Americans’ struggle against bias, said the findings of plagiarism in the dissertation and other student writings by King were emotionally “draining” for him and other researchers. “There is very little elation about this kind of discovery. But I wouldn’t be a historian if I didn’t think it’s better to know than not to,” he said.

The interim president of Boston University, Jon Westling, said the allegations of plagiarism “merit close scrutiny” and he appointed a committee of scholars to look into the matter.

“Thirty-five years ago, as now, the university’s standards for the proper use and attribution of scholarly sources were strict, explicit and explicitly made known to all graduate students,” Westling said. But, he added, to investigate allegations against a dead man unable to defend “any misleading appearances” will be difficult. King was assassinated in 1968 in Memphis.

The findings have delayed an ambitious plan to edit and publish all of King’s papers in 14 volumes. The first two volumes, covering King’s life until just before the start of the Montgomery, Ala., bus boycott in 1955, were to be published this year. But now all the papers are being scrutinized for possible borrowing and are not expected to be published until 1992, complete with annotations showing similarities to others’ works.

The King papers project is sponsored by the Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change in Atlanta and is conducted in association with Stanford, Emory University and the University of California Press.

Staff members of the King papers project first became aware in 1988 of insufficiently credited similarities between some of King’s academic papers and other writers’ texts. How to address the issue reportedly caused much debate at the King Center last year. A spokesman at the King Center declined comment Friday and said King’s widow, Coretta Scott King, who appointed Carson as top editor, wanted the Stanford professor to handle any press inquiries about the matter. Carson said Friday that he had planned to discuss the findings in a history journal article next year but decided to talk publicly after the Wall Street Journal published an article Friday about the controversy.

Ralph Luker, the project’s associate editor, said Friday that he would not attach the word plagiarism to King’s writings but would let others reach their own conclusions. “Plagiarism is a charge and I am not making such a charge,” he said. Yet Luker, who works out of Emory University in Atlanta, said that he “had lost sleep” over the findings and that several graduate students quit the project because “the research was to some extent spiritually enervating.”

King himself donated many of his writings to Boston University six years before his assassination, but Mrs. King is suing to retrieve those documents. According to Carson, that donation shows that King probably felt no guilt about his scholarly work and was not trying to hide any plagiarism.

King’s dissertation, entitled “A Comparison of the Conceptions of God in the Thinking of Paul Tillich and Henry Nelson Wieman,” presented some of Tillich’s ideas in passages nearly identical to Tillich’s but did not credit him.

But that is not the worst of academic sins, because those sections were clearly intended to represent the views of Tillich, an influential Protestant theologian who died in 1965. Worse, in the view of most universities’ standards, was King’s appropriation of works by other writers about Tillich, including a 1952 doctoral dissertation by another Boston University student. In his own thesis, King cited that dissertation by Jack Boozer in the general bibliography but did not credit Boozer for particular passages.

“What we can say is by the strict definition of plagiarism, which is the appropriation of words or phrases, there are instances of plagiarism in King’s papers,” Carson said. “But in most of the cases, the sources were . . . in the bibliography or on another page.”

The revelation about King’s student writings may be viewed by some as another dent in his image. For example, last year, King’s former close associate, the Rev. Ralph David Abernathy, published a book which included details about King’s extramarital sex life.

Abernathy, who died in April, said he did not expect his account to diminish King’s stature.

On Friday, Lowery, who had disputed parts of Abernathy’s book, urged the public not to think any less of King as a result of the plagiarism issue. “Sometimes those who are in a high level of scholarship become so involved with technical secondary issues that they overlook the substantial issues,” Lowery said in a phone interview.

Carson’s project has not yet researched King’s later and more famous writings and speeches. But other scholars have noted similarities in those to works by other ministers and social activists.

Juan Williams, author of “Eyes on the Prize: America’s Civil Rights Years,” the 1987 book tied to the PBS television series of the same name, said there is “no doubt” that King or the aides who helped write his speeches sometimes borrowed from others’ words. To say otherwise, he said Friday, would be “intellectual dishonesty.” But Williams, now a Washington Post reporter, emphasized that focusing on this aspect of King’s work was petty, and he feared it will be used by “people who haven’t gotten over the fact that King was such a great man and that we are a changed society in large part because of him.”

COMPARING THE TEXTS

Here is a passage from King’s 1955 doctoral dissertation and a similar passage from a 1952 dissertation by Jack Boozer, another Boston University student. They both deal with views of theologian Paul Tillich. In his bibliography, King cited Boozer’s dissertation, but did not credit this particular passage to Boozer. KING

Tillich insists that a symbol is more than a merely technical sign. The basic characteristic of the symbol is its innate power. A symbol possesses a necessary characteristic. It cannot be exchanged. A sign, on the contrary, is impotent and can be exchanged at will. BOOZER

Tillich distinguishes between a sign and a symbol. A characteristic of the symbol is its innate power. A symbol possesses a necessary character. It cannot be exchanged. On the other hand a sign is impotent in itself and can be exchanged at will . . .

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Divinity School professor considers the man and his 95 Theses 500 years later

On Oct. 31, 1517, the German priest and professor of theology Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses to the door of a Wittenberg church, protesting all that he saw wrong with the late-Renaissance Roman Catholic power structure. Outraged by the church’s practice of selling indulgences to fund the reconstruction of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome, he challenged papal authority and church doctrine, eventually asserting the primacy of scripture and faith over priests and good works. Aided by the era’s most revolutionary innovation — the printing press — and protected by a sympathetic local prince, Luther sparked the massive religious upheaval that came to be known as the Protestant Reformation. We asked Harvard Divinity School Assistant Professor Michelle C. Sanchez about his life and legacy.

GAZETTE: What about Luther might surprise people?

SANCHEZ: One of my favorite aspects of Luther’s thinking is how he understands the devil. But it’s also underappreciated — no doubt because modern people don’t talk a lot about the devil. I find Luther’s interpretation of the devil to be insightful. For Luther, the devil doesn’t do his mischief by tempting human beings to bodily excess. It’s not sex or gluttony that we most need to fear. The devil works by tempting us to use our minds in ways that flatter us into thinking that we can find satisfaction, certainty, and happiness by mental domination, or by trying to think our way to mastery. But this only leads to more uncertainty, more fear, and most of all to melancholy. The devil operates this way because the devil is jealous of Jesus. Unlike the devil, Christ actually became human. So Christ can relate to human beings in a way that the devil can’t. The devil has to do his work by luring our minds away from the places where love and joy are found, and Christ is our most powerful helper precisely because Christ lived, ate, drank, and suffered right along with us.

GAZETTE: Did Luther cause the Protestant Reformation, or was the Reformation inevitable? In other words, had Luther not nailed his 95 Theses to the church door, would someone else have initiated a major split in the church?

SANCHEZ: It’s always tough to talk about historical developments in terms of inevitability, because social systems are vastly complicated and human actors are notoriously unpredictable. But it’s a fact that “reform” had been a common watchword in the church for at least two centuries before Luther, and many strategies of reform had been tried and tested before Luther’s 95 Theses appeared at All Saints’ Church in Wittenberg on Oct. 31, 1517.

Jan Hus was active in Prague in the early 1400s, drawing on ideas about an invisible church of the predestined in order to reimagine what the true church consisted of. He wanted to reimagine the church as a spiritual body in which true teaching and moral purity lined up, and to use this as a kind of Archimedean point from which to oppose what he saw as the obvious moral failings and greed of the church establishment at the time. Hus’ thinking was directly informed by his readings of Oxford scholar and dissident John Wycliffe , who had died in 1384 and shared many of the same concerns. Hus was ultimately burned at the stake at the Council of Constance in 1415, which is interesting in retrospect because the third stated purpose of the council was to “reform the corrupt morals of the church.”

So, in the two centuries prior to Luther, there was a general consensus that corruption was a problem and that reform needed to happen, yet there were radically different views on how to reform. The radicals began to appeal more strongly to biblical authority, but this was only one strategy alongside others. And when Luther came along a century later, he reinhabited many of these strategies.

dissertation martin luther university college

GAZETTE: What were his key differences with the Roman Catholic Church?

SANCHEZ: Luther seems to have been driven, fundamentally, by his anxiety over whether and how you could know that you were, in fact, pleasing to God. Biographical accounts suggest that Luther never felt good enough, but he also never felt like he could make himself good enough by following the practices the church prescribed, such as confession and penance. So when he latched onto St. Paul’s claim that we are justified before God “by faith, not works,” this was deeply personal. It meant that God loves us not because we’ve achieved anything, but merely because God decided to love us. God decided to be “for us,” and proved it through the incarnation, when Jesus Christ was born as a human being to proclaim divine love, and to live and die on our behalf. So we’re assured that God loves us simply by believing God’s promise to love us, and this frees us up to follow Christ in acts of love to our neighbors and enemies.

Of course, this whole vision has another side — one that entails a passionate rebuttal of church practices designed to give one confidence before God. For Luther, the pursuit of righteousness is an asymptote: You can approach it, but you’ll never get there on your own. So when priests would preach, on the pope’s authority, that the purchase of an indulgence could remit a sin, Luther saw this as a fundamental deception misleading ordinary people away from the true source of salvation by faith.

GAZETTE: Others had protested church practices before, without making much of an impact. Why did Luther succeed where others had not?

SANCHEZ: This is where the question of historical inevitability gets complicated, because there are a lot of complicated reasons tying the Reformation to Luther rather than someone else. Some of these reasons are fundamentally political. Luther enjoyed the protection of his prince, Frederick the Wise, who was the elector of Saxony and a major political player in the Holy Roman Empire. So, unlike Wycliffe, Luther was operating closer to the center of ecclesial and political power; and unlike Hus, Luther did not meet an untimely death. These factors surely contributed to his success. Add to this the fact that Luther’s teachings proved friendly to German princes and the rising middle class, and you can begin to see why his reforms gained traction.

And there’s no doubt that Luther’s fame was aided by the economics of printing. Printers were cropping up all over German-speaking areas at the time, and Luther was really good at expressing himself in simple, everyday terms. So even though many ordinary people couldn’t read, Luther’s tracts — and the controversy they stirred up — proved to be really good for the bottom lines of printing entrepreneurs.

There’s also the fact that Luther’s way of understanding salvation — the emphasis he gave to faith in the promises of God — was really compelling, and downright inspiring to many, then and now.

GAZETTE: Can you summarize Luther’s legacy?

SANCHEZ: I find that Luther’s ongoing impact is most felt in the challenge his life poses to us; the way in which it’s both frustrating and inspiring, both embarrassing and revealing. Luther is a helpful conversation partner not because he’s some kind of reforming hero, but because he’s a mirror for our contradictions and struggles, for all the ways our society and our religious establishments continue to try and fail.

And yet, in some strange way, Luther remains important because he was wise to this very dynamic. He deeply got both the joy and the tragedy of the human condition. He didn’t try to explain away human flaws. He knew he was full of them. Instead, he called for us to learn to think of life in this world as a constant practice of critique, a constant practice of meeting the limitations of our own thinking. And he called on us to look for insight outside of ourselves, and especially in those places that seem most unlikely, most humble, because that’s where Jesus went. For Luther, we cannot forget that the highest form of divinity is revealed in the body of a criminal who was condemned by the state to death on a cross.

Interview was edited and condensed.

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Boston University

April 24, 1839

After graduating from  Crozer Theological Seminary  in 1951, Martin Luther King pursued his doctoral studies in systematic theology at Boston University’s graduate school. King’s desire to study at Boston University was influenced by his increasing interest in  personalism , a philosophy that emphasizes the necessity of personal religious experience in understanding God. Two of the country’s leading personalist theologians, Edgar S.  Brightman  and L. Harold  DeWolf ,   taught at Boston University and helped to refine King’s concept of the theory. King stated in his graduate application that Crozer professor and Boston University graduate Raymond Bean’s “great influence over me has turned my eyes toward his former school” ( Papers  1:390 ). 

At Boston University Brightman and DeWolf became King’s primary mentors. King also broadened his studies by taking several classes on the history of philosophy that examined the works of Reinhold  Niebuhr ,   Alfred North Whitehead, Plato, and Hegel. King’s tenure at Boston University culminated with the completion of his  dissertation , entitled “A Comparison of the Conceptions of God in the Thinking of Paul Tillich and Henry Nelson Wieman.” Although King had not previously studied either  Tillich  or Wieman, he was interested in their denial of both the personality of God and of the possibility of personal knowledge of God, which contrasted greatly with his earlier studies of personalism. 

Outside the classroom King helped organize, and participated in, the Dialectical Society, a dozen African American theological students who met monthly to discuss philosophical and theological ideas and their application to the black situation in the United States. A classmate of King’s, W. T. Handy, described the group as “solving the problems of the world, politically, socially, and in the theological realm” ( Papers  2:161 ). King also delivered sermons at local churches and developed a reputation as a powerful preacher. 

Although King received satisfactory grades at Boston University, later analysis would reveal that many of King’s essays and his dissertation relied upon appropriated words and ideas for which he failed to provide adequate citations. King’s plagiarism escaped detection during his lifetime, and his professors had little reason to suspect him of such, based on his success in the classroom. King completed his dissertation in April 1955 and received his PhD that June. He was not able to attend his graduation ceremony due to financial constraints and his wife Coretta Scott  King ’s pregnancy. 

W. T. Handy to King, 18 November 1952, in  Papers  2:160–164 .

Introduction, in  Papers  2:1–25 .

King, “A Comparison of the Conceptions of God in the Thinking of Paul Tillich and Henry Nelson Wieman,” 15 April 1955, in  Papers  2:339–544 .

King, Fragment of Application to Boston University, September 1950–December 1950, in  Papers  1:390 .

dissertation martin luther university college

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Martin Luther and the 95 Theses

By: History.com Editors

Updated: June 6, 2019 | Original: October 29, 2009

Martin LutherMartin Luther, (Eisleben, 1483, Eisleben, 1546), German reformer, Doctor of Theology and Augustinian priest, In 1517, outlined the main thesis of Lutheranism in Wittenberg, He was excommunicated in 1520, Martin Luther nailed to the door of the Wittenberg castle church his Ninety-Five Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences (31/10/1517), Colored engraving. (Photo by Prisma/UIG/Getty Images)

Born in Eisleben, Germany, in 1483, Martin Luther went on to become one of Western history’s most significant figures. Luther spent his early years in relative anonymity as a monk and scholar. But in 1517 Luther penned a document attacking the Catholic Church’s corrupt practice of selling “indulgences” to absolve sin. His “95 Theses,” which propounded two central beliefs—that the Bible is the central religious authority and that humans may reach salvation only by their faith and not by their deeds—was to spark the Protestant Reformation. Although these ideas had been advanced before, Martin Luther codified them at a moment in history ripe for religious reformation. The Catholic Church was ever after divided, and the Protestantism that soon emerged was shaped by Luther’s ideas. His writings changed the course of religious and cultural history in the West.

Martin Luther (1483–1546) was born in Eisleben, Saxony (now Germany), part of the Holy Roman Empire, to parents Hans and Margaretta. Luther’s father was a prosperous businessman, and when Luther was young, his father moved the family of 10 to Mansfeld. At age five, Luther began his education at a local school where he learned reading, writing and Latin. At 13, Luther began to attend a school run by the Brethren of the Common Life in Magdeburg. The Brethren’s teachings focused on personal piety, and while there Luther developed an early interest in monastic life.

Did you know? Legend says Martin Luther was inspired to launch the Protestant Reformation while seated comfortably on the chamber pot. That cannot be confirmed, but in 2004 archeologists discovered Luther's lavatory, which was remarkably modern for its day, featuring a heated-floor system and a primitive drain.

Martin Luther Enters the Monastery

But Hans Luther had other plans for young Martin—he wanted him to become a lawyer—so he withdrew him from the school in Magdeburg and sent him to new school in Eisenach. Then, in 1501, Luther enrolled at the University of Erfurt, the premiere university in Germany at the time. There, he studied the typical curriculum of the day: arithmetic, astronomy, geometry and philosophy and he attained a Master’s degree from the school in 1505. In July of that year, Luther got caught in a violent thunderstorm, in which a bolt of lightning nearly struck him down. He considered the incident a sign from God and vowed to become a monk if he survived the storm. The storm subsided, Luther emerged unscathed and, true to his promise, Luther turned his back on his study of the law days later on July 17, 1505. Instead, he entered an Augustinian monastery.

Luther began to live the spartan and rigorous life of a monk but did not abandon his studies. Between 1507 and 1510, Luther studied at the University of Erfurt and at a university in Wittenberg. In 1510–1511, he took a break from his education to serve as a representative in Rome for the German Augustinian monasteries. In 1512, Luther received his doctorate and became a professor of biblical studies. Over the next five years Luther’s continuing theological studies would lead him to insights that would have implications for Christian thought for centuries to come.

Martin Luther Questions the Catholic Church

In early 16th-century Europe, some theologians and scholars were beginning to question the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church. It was also around this time that translations of original texts—namely, the Bible and the writings of the early church philosopher Augustine—became more widely available.

Augustine (340–430) had emphasized the primacy of the Bible rather than Church officials as the ultimate religious authority. He also believed that humans could not reach salvation by their own acts, but that only God could bestow salvation by his divine grace. In the Middle Ages the Catholic Church taught that salvation was possible through “good works,” or works of righteousness, that pleased God. Luther came to share Augustine’s two central beliefs, which would later form the basis of Protestantism.

Meanwhile, the Catholic Church’s practice of granting “indulgences” to provide absolution to sinners became increasingly corrupt. Indulgence-selling had been banned in Germany, but the practice continued unabated. In 1517, a friar named Johann Tetzel began to sell indulgences in Germany to raise funds to renovate St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome.

The 95 Theses

Committed to the idea that salvation could be reached through faith and by divine grace only, Luther vigorously objected to the corrupt practice of selling indulgences. Acting on this belief, he wrote the “Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences,” also known as “The 95 Theses,” a list of questions and propositions for debate. Popular legend has it that on October 31, 1517 Luther defiantly nailed a copy of his 95 Theses to the door of the Wittenberg Castle church. The reality was probably not so dramatic; Luther more likely hung the document on the door of the church matter-of-factly to announce the ensuing academic discussion around it that he was organizing.

The 95 Theses, which would later become the foundation of the Protestant Reformation, were written in a remarkably humble and academic tone, questioning rather than accusing. The overall thrust of the document was nonetheless quite provocative. The first two of the theses contained Luther’s central idea, that God intended believers to seek repentance and that faith alone, and not deeds, would lead to salvation. The other 93 theses, a number of them directly criticizing the practice of indulgences, supported these first two.

In addition to his criticisms of indulgences, Luther also reflected popular sentiment about the “St. Peter’s scandal” in the 95 Theses:

Why does not the pope, whose wealth today is greater than the wealth of the richest Crassus, build the basilica of St. Peter with his own money rather than with the money of poor believers?

The 95 Theses were quickly distributed throughout Germany and then made their way to Rome. In 1518, Luther was summoned to Augsburg, a city in southern Germany, to defend his opinions before an imperial diet (assembly). A debate lasting three days between Luther and Cardinal Thomas Cajetan produced no agreement. Cajetan defended the church’s use of indulgences, but Luther refused to recant and returned to Wittenberg.

Luther the Heretic

On November 9, 1518 the pope condemned Luther’s writings as conflicting with the teachings of the Church. One year later a series of commissions were convened to examine Luther’s teachings. The first papal commission found them to be heretical, but the second merely stated that Luther’s writings were “scandalous and offensive to pious ears.” Finally, in July 1520 Pope Leo X issued a papal bull (public decree) that concluded that Luther’s propositions were heretical and gave Luther 120 days to recant in Rome. Luther refused to recant, and on January 3, 1521 Pope Leo excommunicated Martin Luther from the Catholic Church.

On April 17, 1521 Luther appeared before the Diet of Worms in Germany. Refusing again to recant, Luther concluded his testimony with the defiant statement: “Here I stand. God help me. I can do no other.” On May 25, the Holy Roman emperor Charles V signed an edict against Luther, ordering his writings to be burned. Luther hid in the town of Eisenach for the next year, where he began work on one of his major life projects, the translation of the New Testament into German, which took him 10 months to complete.

Martin Luther's Later Years

Luther returned to Wittenberg in 1521, where the reform movement initiated by his writings had grown beyond his influence. It was no longer a purely theological cause; it had become political. Other leaders stepped up to lead the reform, and concurrently, the rebellion known as the Peasants’ War was making its way across Germany.

Luther had previously written against the Church’s adherence to clerical celibacy, and in 1525 he married Katherine of Bora, a former nun. They had five children. At the end of his life, Luther turned strident in his views, and pronounced the pope the Antichrist, advocated for the expulsion of Jews from the empire and condoned polygamy based on the practice of the patriarchs in the Old Testament.

Luther died on February 18, 1546.

Significance of Martin Luther’s Work

Martin Luther is one of the most influential figures in Western history. His writings were responsible for fractionalizing the Catholic Church and sparking the Protestant Reformation. His central teachings, that the Bible is the central source of religious authority and that salvation is reached through faith and not deeds, shaped the core of Protestantism. Although Luther was critical of the Catholic Church, he distanced himself from the radical successors who took up his mantle. Luther is remembered as a controversial figure, not only because his writings led to significant religious reform and division, but also because in later life he took on radical positions on other questions, including his pronouncements against Jews, which some have said may have portended German anti-Semitism; others dismiss them as just one man’s vitriol that did not gain a following. Some of Luther’s most significant contributions to theological history, however, such as his insistence that as the sole source of religious authority the Bible be translated and made available to everyone, were truly revolutionary in his day.

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List of Dissertations

List of dissertations supervised by prof. dr.-ing. habil. dr. h.c. joachim ulrich.

90. Seidel, Felix  Johannes                                                                       Additives for Faster Separation in Melt Layer  Crystallization                  Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t  Halle-Wittenberg, 2017

89. Seidel,  Julia                                                                                    Container Crystals for Microcapsulation: Manufacturing and Application  Potential Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2017

88. Frohberg,  Patrick                                                                               Protein-based biopolymers,Habilitation,                                                      Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, 2016

87. Hartwig, Anne In situ encapsulation of liquids by means of crystallization, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2017. http://141.48.65.178/hs/content/titleinfo/2516314   

86. Altaher, Hamid Zur Wachstums- und Aufl�sungskinetik von anorganischen Kristallen, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2016. http://141.48.65.178/hs/content/titleinfo/2466886   

85. Selbmann, Stefanie Influence of food additives on the crystallization of sugar: case study - sugar body -, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2016.

84. Ahmad, Muhammad Separation of complex feed streams of products by layer melt crystallization, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2016. http://141.48.65.178/hs/content/titleinfo/2452500   

83. Tang, Haihao     Purification of phosphoric acid by melt crystallization, Dissertation, Martin-Luther Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2016. http://141.48.65.178/hs/content/titleinfo/2414172   

82. Krei�ig, Franziska The influence of certain additives on the stability of all-trans astaxanthin dissolved in methylene chloride and chloroform, Dissertation, Martin-Luther Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2016. http://141.48.65.178/hs/content/titleinfo/2380357   

81. Lee, Kyeongsill Cocrystal Formation - Thermodynamics and Kinetics - Dissertation, Martin-Luther Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2015. http://141.48.65.178/hs/content/titleinfo/2356011   

80. Nguyen, Thi Nhat Phuong Freeze casting – a new formulation for fast dissolving tablets or foods, Dissertation, Martin-Luther Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2015. http://141.48.65.178/hs/search/quick?query=nguyen   

79. Fardmostafavi, Maryam In-line/on-line measuring techniques in the solution crystallization processes, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2015. http://141.48.65.178/hs/content/titleinfo/2283271   

78. Abouzeid, Ahmed Application of a new technology utilizing melt crystallization for the production of coated tablets, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2015. http://141.48.65.178/hs/content/titleinfo/2258727   

77. Wendt, Kristin Necessary requirements for an industrial application of the in situ coating process, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2015, ISBN: 978-3-8440-3531-5.

76. Jones, M. J. On the Industrial Crystallization of Proteins, Habilitation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, 2014, Shaker Verlag, Aachen, 2015, ISBN 978-3-8440-3355-7.

75. Liu, Yi, Crystallization of one Protein from a Raw Material -case  study of L-asparaginase II from Escherichia coli cells-, Dissertation,  Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2014. http://141.48.65.178/hs/content/titleinfo/1958558   

74. Helmdach, Lydia, Application of process analytical technology  (PAT) tools to  develop and monitor scalable crystallization processes  of  pharmaceuticals, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2014. http://141.48.65.178/hs/content/titleinfo/1798244   

73. Stolte, Isabell Crystallizing Additives in Protein-Based Biopolymers, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2013. http://141.48.65.178/hs/content/titleinfo/1798342   

72. Schuster, Anke Investigations on the Formation of Hollow Acicular Crystals as Container Systems, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2013. Aachen, Shaker Verlag GmbH, ISBN: 978-3-8440-2261-2

71. Pertig, Dan Crystallization of Isomeric Compounds - On the Multiple facts of Astaxanthin -, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2013. Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2013, ISBN: 978-3-8440-1913-1.

70. Diaz Borb�n, Viviana Patricia Solvent Freeze Out (SFO) Technology for Protein Crystallization - Optimization and Applicability -, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2013. http://digital.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/hs/content/titleinfo/1584655

69. Wachsmuth, Anika Nanotubes: One Mechanism of their Generation Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2013. Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2013, ISBN: 978-3-8440-1776-2.

68. Jin, Yong Suk Discovering New Crystalline Forms of Atorvastatin Calcium –New Strategies for Screening-, Dissertation, Martin- Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2012. http://digital.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/hs/content/titleinfo/1390128

67. M�ller, Claudia How to describe protein crystals correctly? –case study of lysozyme crystals-, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2012. http://141.48.65.178/hs/content/titleinfo/1177647   

66. Schmidt, Christiane Predicting the Crystal Morphology Grown from Aqueous Solution, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2012 Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2012, ISBN: 978-3-8440-1408-2. http://141.48.65.178/hs/content/titleinfo/1148089   

65. Petersen, Sandra Bestimmung der Emulgiereffektivit�t von Emulgatoren am Beispiel der Scheibenemulgierung und Hochdruckhomogenisierung, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2012. Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2012, ISBN: 978-3-8440-2256-8. http://141.48.65.178/hs/content/titleinfo/1149512   

64. Iqbal, Javed Solidification of Emulsions: Formation of Spherical Particles - A New Concept, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2011. http://141.48.65.178/hs/content/titleinfo/991260   

63. Buchfink, Robert Effects of Impurities on an Industrial Crystallization Process of Ammonium Sulfate, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2011. http://141.48.65.178/hs/content/titleinfo/910858   

62. Chaleepa, Kesarin A new Concept in Layer-Based Fractional Crystallization Processes for Fats, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2010, http://141.48.65.178/hs/content/titleinfo/788208   

61. Abohamra, Essa Vermeidung von arteigenen kristallinen Verkrustungen in der Batchkristallisation, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2010 http://141.48.65.178/hs/content/titleinfo/821019   

60. Y�r�d�, Caner Predicting Crystal Growth Rates Using Molecular Modelling Techniques with Explicit Consideration of the Driving Force, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2010, http://digital.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/hs/content/titleinfo/711601

59. Frohberg, Patrick Untersuchungen zur Herstellung und Optimierung proteinogener Biopolymere, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2010, Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2010, ISBN: 978-3-8440-2260-5. http://digital.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/hs/content/titleinfo/546267

58. R�mbach, Eric Zur in situ Beschichtung - Voraussetzungen und Anwendbarkeit, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2009, ISBN: 978-3-8322-8905-8.

57. Ryu, Bo-Hyun Protein Crystallization by Solvent Freeze-Out Technology, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2009, Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2010, ISBN: 978-3-8322-9004-7.

56. Guo, Jingfei Crystallization of Polymorphs: A Case Study on Astaxanthin and Apocarotenoic Ester, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2009, Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2009, ISBN: 978-3-8322-8717-7.

55. Tr�mper, Isolde Systematik der Herstellung nachverd�nnbarer nano- und mikroskaliger Emulsionskonzentrate, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2009 Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2009, ISBN: 978-3-8322-8249-3.

54. Stelzer, Torsten Produktentwicklung eines kristallinen D�ngers, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2009, Onlinever�ffentlichung: http://digital.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/hs/content/titleinfo/171670

53. J�ger, Kathrin Untersuchungen zum Einsatz von Additiven zur Verhinderung der NaCl-Scalebildung unter hoher Temperatur und Druck, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2009.

52. Dette, Severine S. Kristalline R�hren - Erzeugt durch die Dehydratation in organischen L�sungsmitteln, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2009, ISBN: 978-3-8322-8051-2.

51. Zhang, Ping SO2 Adsorption an Aktivkohle mit geringer Konzentration in Luft, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2008, ISBN: 978-3-8322-7838-0.

50. Heinrich, J�rg Determination of crystallization kinetics using in-situ measurement techniques and model-based experimental design and analysis, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2008, Onlinever�ffentlichung: http://sundoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/diss-online/08/09H002/index.htm

49. Fuhr, Indra Crystallization of the energetic oxidizer salt ammonium dinitramide: Theoretical and experimental considerations, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2008, Onlinever�ffentlichung: http://sundoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/diss-online/08/08H203/index.htm

48. Al-Atia, Ali Crystallization of Inorganic Compounds - Scaling in Seawater Desalination, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2008, Onlinever�ffentlichung: http://sundoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/diss-online/08/09H003/index.htm

47. Weber, Maxim Industrial Purification of the Enzyme Urease from Jack Beans Using Crystallization, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg (2007), Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2008, ISBN: 978-3-8322-7409-2.

46. Pachulski, Nadine Herstellung von pharmazeutischen Tablettenk�rpern mit einem Gefrierguss- /Sol-Gel-Prozess, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2007, ISBN: 978-3-8322-6808-4.

45. Fiebig, Anke Prediction of Crystal Morphology for a Limited Range of Impurity Concentrations, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg (2007), Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2008, ISBN: 978-3-8322-7120-6.

44. Bay, Kerem Biodiesel - Hoch siedendes Absorbens f�r die Abluftreinigung, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, G�ttingen: Cuvillier Verlag 2007, ISBN: 978-3-8672-7471-5.

43. Warstat, Andrea Heuristische Regeln zur Optimierung von Batch-K�hlungskristallisationsprozessen, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2006, Onlinever�ffentlichung: http://sundoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/diss-online/06/07H060/index.htm

42. Urban, Kai Zum Emulgieren mit Dispergierscheiben, Rotor-Stator und Hochdruck-Systemen, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg (2006), Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2007, ISBN: 978-3-8322-5873-3.

41. Mohnicke, Mandy On the control of riboflavin (vitamin B2) crystal structures, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg (2006), Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2007, ISBN: 978-3-8322-6064-4.

40. Donchev, Danail Controlling porosity and pore size distribution in green ceramics bodies via Freeze-casting method, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2005, Onlinever�ffentlichung: http://sundoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/diss-online/05/06H049/index.htm

39. T�hti, Tero Suspension Melt Crystallization in Tubular and Scraped Surface Heat Exchangers, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle Wittenberg, 2004, Onlinever�ffentlichung: http://sundoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/diss-online/04/04H181/index.htm

38. Strege, Christine On (Pseudo-) Polymorphic Phase Transformations, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2004, Onlinever�ffentlichung: http://sundoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/diss-online/04/04H318/index.htm

37. Schmiech, Peter Zur Vorhersage des Kristallhabitus unter Fremdstoffeinflu� mittels PBC-Vektoren, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2004, ISBN: 978-3-8322-3823-0.

36. Lu, Jun Jun Predicting Crystal Morphology in the Presence of Additives by Molecular Modeling, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2004, ISBN: 978-3-8322-2454-7.

35. Hermersdorf, Mirko Untersuchungen zur Bildung kristalliner Krusten in Horizontalrohrverdampfern, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2004.

34. Al-Rawajfeh, Aiman Modellieren der Wechselwirkung von L�sungsgleichgewicht und Krustenbildung bei der Meerwasserentsalzung, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2004, ISBN: 978-3-8322-3052-4.

33. L�decke, Uta Fractionation of multi-component fatty acid mixtures by melt crystallization, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg (2003), Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2004, ISBN: 978-3-8322-2918-4.

32. Kim, Jung-Woo Manufacture and characteristics of pastilles and their coating by crystallization process, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2003, Onlinever�ffentlichung: http://sundoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/diss-online/03/04H037/index.htm

31. Schultz, Stefan Zur Optimierung des Dispergierergebnisses und zum Scale-up beim Emulgieren in Blendensystemen, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg (2002), Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2003, ISBN: 978-3-8322-1889-8.

30. Poppe, Olaf Untersuchungen zur Regenerierung von Aktivkohle mit Wasserdampf nach der Adsorption von 1,2-Dichlorethan aus der Gasphase, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2002, ISBN: 978-3-8322-0783-0.

29. Haasner, Torsten Beeinflussung der Keimbildung in der Schichtkristallisation durch gezielte Oberfl�chenmodifikation, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, Fortschrittsberichte VDI, Reihe 3: Verfahrenstechnik, Nr. 759, D�sseldorf: VDI Verlag 2002.

28. Bechtloff, Bernd Gezielte Beeinflussung der Kinetik von Fest-Fl�ssig-Reaktionskristallisationen, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2002, Onlinever�ffentlichung: http://sundoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/diss-online/02/02H105/index.htm

27. Al-Jibbouri, Sattar Effect of Additives in Solution Crystallization, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg, 2002, Onlinever�ffentlichung: http://sundoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/diss-online/02/03H046/index.htm

26. Peters-Erjawetz, Sandra Schichtkristallisation von Lebensmitteln an den Beispielen Milch und Zucker, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen (2001), Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2002, ISBN: 978-3-8322-1063-2.

25. Kolb, Gudrun Zur Emulsionsherstellung in Blendensystemen, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen, Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2001, ISBN: 978-3-8265-9204-1.

24. Kim, Kwang-Joo Impurity distributions in crystalline solid layer in melt crystallization, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universit�t Halle-Wittenberg (2001), Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2002, ISBN: 978-3-8265-9887-6.

23. Henning, Sabine Zur Migration fl�ssiger Einschl�sse in Schichten von Schmelzkristallisationsprozessen, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen (2001), Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2002, ISBN: 978-3-8322-0988-9.

22. Schuldei, Sigrid Zur Schmelzkristallisation in Apparaten der L�sungskristallisation, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen, Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2000, ISBN: 978-3-8265-7990-5.

21. Omar, Waid Zur Bestimmung von Kristallisationskinetiken auch unter der Einwirkung von Additiven mittels Ultraschallme�technik, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen, 1999.

20. Nordhoff, Stefan Zur Pseudopolymorphie unter L�sungsmitteleinflu�, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen, Aachen, Shaker Verlag 1999, ISBN: 978-3-8265-6303-4.

19. Mattos, Marco Zur �bertragung der Einbau-Ann�herung auf die Kristallhabitus�nderung durch Adsorption, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen, Aachen, Shaker Verlag 1999, ISBN: 978-3-8265-6400-0.

18. B�lau, Henrik Zum Aufreinigungspotential pastillierter Schmelzen, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen, Aachen, Shaker Verlag 1999, ISBN: 978-3-8265-6710-0.

17. Berg, Marco Zum Aufprall, zur Ausbreitung und Zerteilung von Schmelzetropfen aus reinen Metallen, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen, 1999.

16. Weber, Henriette Gas-Antisolvent-Kristallisation des pharmazeutischen Wirkstoffs Abecarnil, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen (1998), Aachen, Shaker Verlag 2000, ISBN: 978-3-8265-7512-9.

15. Bierwirth, Jutta Zur Trennwirkung von Schichtkristallisationsprozessen, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen, Aachen, Shaker Verlag 1998, ISBN: 978-3-8265-4402-6.

14. Tiedtke, Michaela Die Fraktionierung von Milchfett - ein neues Einsatzgebiet f�r die Schichtkristallisation, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen, Aachen, Shaker Verlag 1997, ISBN: 978-3-8265-2784-5.

13. Nieh�rster, Silke Der Kristallhabitus unter Additiveinflu�: eine Modellierungsmethode, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen, Clausthal-Zellerfeld: Papierflieger 1997, ISBN: 3-932243-59-5.

12. Mohameed, Hazim-Ali Wachstumskinetik in der L�sungskristallisation mit Fremdstoffen, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen, Aachen, Shaker Verlag 1996, ISBN: 978-3-8265-1952-9.

11. L�hmann, J�rgen Optische on-line Me�technik zur Bestimmung der Kristallwachstumsgeschwindigkeit, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen, Aachen: Verlag Mainz 1996, ISBN: 3-89653-115-8.

10. Kallies, Bernd Zur gezielten Suspensionserzeugung f�r die Konfektionierung von Schmelzen, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen, 1996.

09. Fabian, J�rgen Untersuchungen zur Aufl�sungskinetik in der L�sungskristallisation, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen, 1996.

08. Poschmann, Markus Zu den Nachbehandlungsschritten der Suspensionskristallisation aus Schmelzen, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen, Aachen, Shaker Verlag 1995, ISBN: 978-3-8265-1261-2.

07. Neumann, Matthias Vergleich statischer und dynamischer Schichtkristallisation und das Reinigungspotential der Diffusionsw�sche, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen (1995), Clausthal-Zellerfeld: Papierflieger 1996, ISBN: 978-3-9319-8613-1.

06. Wangnick, Katrin Das Waschen als Nachbehandlungsproze� der Schichtkristallisation, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen, Fortschrittsberichte VDI, Reihe 3: Verfahrenstechnik, Nr. 355, D�sseldorf: VDI Verlag 1994.

05. Scholz, Reinhard Die Schichtkristallisation als thermisches Trennverfahren, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen, Fortschrittsberichte VDI, Reihe 3: Verfahrenstechnik, Nr. 347, D�sseldorf: VDI Verlag 1993.

04. Kruse, Michael Zur Modellierung der Wachstumskinetik in der L�sungskristallisation, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen, Fortschrittsberichte VDI, Reihe 3: Verfahrenstechnik, Nr. 309, D�sseldorf: VDI Verlag 1993.

03. �zoguz, Yavus Zur Schichtkristallisation als Schmelzkristallisationsverfahren, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen, Fortschrittsberichte VDI, Reihe 3: Verfahrenstechnik, Nr. 271, D�sseldorf: VDI Verlag 1992.

02. Stepanski, Manfred Zur Wachstumskinetik in der L�sungskristallisation, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen, 1990.

01. Kuszlik, Andrej-Kornel Einfluss der Pulsation auf die Stofftrennung in Apparaten zur statischen gerichteten Kristallisation, Dissertation, Universit�t Bremen, 1990.

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  1. Luther Theses and Dissertations

    Theses/Dissertations from 1997. The search for meaning in grief: A comparison of Victor Frankl's Search for Meaning with Douglas Hall's Theology of the Cross, and their implications for grief ministry, Byron Ross Gilmore. A study of Biblical families from the perspective of family systems therapy, Gunar John Kravalis.

  2. Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

    Martin Luther University College. First Advisor. Dr Allen Jorgenson. Advisor Role. Advisor. Second Advisor. Dr. Mark Harris. Advisor Role. Advisor. Abstract. Abstract. This dissertation explores the changing nature of mission among Pentecostal churches in Ontario. The findings of this grounded theory qualitative research project suggest that ...

  3. Dissertation of Martin Luther King, Jr

    April 15, 1955. During his third year of doctoral work at Boston University, Martin Luther King wrote Crozer Theological Seminary's George Davis, his former advisor, about his progress in graduate school.He disclosed that he had begun to research his dissertation and that the late Edgar Brightman, his first mentor at Boston, and his current dissertation advisor, L. Harold DeWolf, were both ...

  4. Boston U. Panel Finds Plagiarism by Dr. King

    A committee of scholars appointed by Boston University concluded today that the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. plagiarized passages in his dissertation for a doctoral degree at the university 36 ...

  5. Debbie Lou Ludolph

    Debbie Lou Ludolph. I successfully defended my doctoral dissertation — as part of Martin Luther University College's PhD in Human Relationships program, field of Pastoral Leadership — in January 2021. I received my Master of Arts in Theology degree from Luther in 2009, when the school was known as Waterloo Lutheran Seminary, and my bachelor ...

  6. Plagiarism Seen by Scholars In King's Ph.D. Dissertation

    Officials at Boston University, which awarded Dr. King his doctorate in 1955, announced yesterday that a committee of four scholars had been formed to investigate the dissertation. But it is not ...

  7. King's Plagiarism: Imitation,

    Martin Luther King, Jr.'s extensive plagiarism in his graduate school term papers and. doctoral dissertation is a crucial issue in any biographical evaluation of King, but. it will amount to only a brief footnote in the expanding historiography of the black freedom struggle of the 1950s and 1960s. While the impressive annotations and dis ...

  8. Martin Luther King Jr. authorship issues

    Martin Luther King, Jr and the civil rights movement : controversies and debates. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. p. See chapter 4, "Authorship: Plagiarism, Ghost-Writing, and Voice-Merging". ISBN 978-1403996541. Boston University Committee to Investigate Charges of Plagiarism in the Ph. D. Dissertation of Martin Luther King, Jr. (1991).

  9. King's Doctorate Upheld Despite Plagiarisms

    Oct. 11, 1991 12 AM PT. TIMES EDUCATION WRITER. A panel of scholars at Boston University has decided that the doctorate earned there by the late Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in 1956 should not be ...

  10. Why 1517? The Ninety-Five Theses in Context (Y. Petry)

    Introduction. Any list of historic events or people includes Martin Luther (1483-1546) and the beginning of the Reformation in 1517 as one of the top ten historic changes in world history. The spark that Luther struck with the Ninety-Five Theses lit a fire across Western Europe, found a receptive audience among fellow clergymen and scholars ...

  11. Master of Theology Theses

    Theses/Dissertations from 2018. PDF. The Need for Older Adults' Ministry in the Evangelical Church Winning All (ECWA), Bitrus Habu Bamai. PDF. Luther's Understanding of Grace and Its Implications for Administration of the Lord's Supper in the Lutheran Church of Christ in Nigeria (LCCN), Yelerubi Birgamus. PDF.

  12. Open Dissertations

    » Open Dissertations; Open Dissertations. Historic and contemporary dissertations and theses. Open Resource. Audience Adults. Category All Databases. ... Martin Luther College Library | 1995 Luther Ct. | New Ulm, MN 56073 | 507-233-9131 | [email protected]

  13. Plagiarism Issue Raised in College Work of Dr. King

    Nov. 10, 1990 12 AM PT. TIMES EDUCATION WRITER. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. plagiarized or inadequately credited other authors' works in his doctoral dissertation and other college writings ...

  14. Harvard scholar on the legacy of Martin Luther

    Divinity School professor considers the man and his 95 Theses 500 years later. On Oct. 31, 1517, the German priest and professor of theology Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses to the door of a Wittenberg church, protesting all that he saw wrong with the late-Renaissance Roman Catholic power structure. Outraged by the church's practice of ...

  15. The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr. Volume II

    The Institute cannot give permission to use or reproduce any of the writings, statements, or images of Martin Luther King, Jr. Please contact Intellectual Properties Management (IPM), the exclusive licensor of the Estate of Martin Luther King, Jr., Inc. at [email protected] or 404 526-8968. Screenshots are considered by the King Estate a ...

  16. The Student Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr.: A Summary ...

    As part of a long-term effort to preserve the historical legacy of the African-. American freedom struggle, the Martin Luther King, Jr., Papers Project is preparing a definitive, multivolume edition of King's papers.'. King Project staff members and students at Stanford University, Emory University, and at the Martin Luther King,

  17. Boston University

    Boston University. April 24, 1839. After graduating from Crozer Theological Seminary in 1951, Martin Luther King pursued his doctoral studies in systematic theology at Boston University's graduate school. King's desire to study at Boston University was influenced by his increasing interest in personalism, a philosophy that emphasizes the ...

  18. Ninety-five Theses

    The Ninety-five Theses or Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences is a list of propositions for an academic disputation written in 1517 by Martin Luther, then a professor of moral theology at the University of Wittenberg, Germany. The Theses is retrospectively considered to have launched the Protestant Reformation and the birth of Protestantism, despite various proto-Protestant ...

  19. Martin Luther and the 95 Theses

    Martin Luther was a German theologian who challenged a number of teachings of the Roman Catholic Church. His 1517 document, "95 Theses," sparked the Protestant Reformation. Read a summary of the ...

  20. List of Dissertations

    85. Selbmann, Stefanie Influence of food additives on the crystallization of sugar: case study - sugar body -, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 2016. 84. Ahmad, Muhammad Separation of complex feed streams of products by layer melt crystallization, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 2016. http ...

  21. "Thus Saith the Lord": The Theological Rhetoric of Dr. Martin Luther

    The Theological Rhetoric of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. A Thesis Submitted to ... In Candidacy for the Degree of Master of Arts in English By Nathaniel Ryan Davis May 1, 2019 . ii Liberty University College of Arts and Sciences Master of Arts in English ... Contextualizing Martin Luther King's Rhetoric To everything there is a season, a time ...

  22. Dissertations / Theses: 'Martin Luther King'

    This dissertation explores Martin Luther King, Jr.'s (1929-1968) ideas and philosophy in the context of dialogue with the moral and literary imagination. King was a leading thinker and voice for the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s in the United States. Two fundamental philosophical ideas for King were love and empathy.

  23. Sep 18 Luther's Doctorate and the Start of the Reformation

    Sep 18. Sep 18 Luther's Doctorate and the Start of the Reformation. Richard J. Serina. by Richard J. Serina. Read the PDF. from LF Fall 2017. On October 19, 1512, Martin Luther became a doctor of theology at the University of Wittenberg. The proceedings lasted a week. First, the chancellor of the university issued him a license to teach ...