Essay on Drought for Students and Children

500+ words essay on drought.

Drought is a dangerous condition which decreases the quality of life. It is termed as a natural disaster with harmful effects. A drought usually occurs when a region faces a shortage of water. This is mainly due to lesser rainfalls. In addition, droughts have proven to be fatal for mankind and wildlife as well.

Essay on Drought

Moreover, drought is the most dangerous for a farmer. As they do not have an ample supply of water, their crops dry out. This becomes a reason for worry as it is their sole income. Furthermore, drought also leads to various other problems for the environment and mankind.

Causes of Drought

Drought is caused due to various reasons. One of the main reasons is deforestation . When there will be no trees, the water on land will evaporate at a faster rate. Similarly, it lessens the soil capacity to hold water resulting in evaporation. Moreover, lesser trees also mean lesser rainfall which eventually leads to drought.

Furthermore, as the climate is changing, the water bodies are drying up. This results in a lower flow of surface water. Therefore, when the rivers and lakes will dry out, how will the people get water? In addition, global warming is a major cause of this. The greenhouse gas emitted causes the earth’s temperature to rise. Thus, it results in higher evaporation rates.

Subsequently, excessive irrigation is also a great cause of droughts. When we use water irresponsibly, the surface water dries up. As it does not get ample time to replenish, it causes drought.

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Impact of Drought

Drought is a serious disaster which impacts the whole of mankind, wildlife, and vegetation greatly. Moreover, a region which experiences drought requires a lot of time to recover from the disaster. It is a severe condition which interferes with the quality and functioning of life.

Most importantly, the agriculture sector suffers the most at the hands of drought. For instance, farmers face a loss of crop production, livestock production. Moreover, they experience plant disease and wind erosion. Similarly, they also have to face heavy financial losses. Their financial condition worsens and they end up in debt. This also leads to higher rates of depression and suicides.

conclusion to drought essay

Furthermore, wildlife also suffers. They do not get sources of water to drink from. In addition, when forest fires happen due to droughts, they also lose their habitats and life. Just like any natural disaster , droughts also result in inflation of prices. The basic products become expensive. The poor people do not get access to essential foods due to high rates. Subsequently, droughts also degrade the quality of the soil. This result in poor or no yielding of crops.

In short, drought is definitely one of the most catastrophic natural disasters. It causes loss of life, vegetation and gives rise to other deadly problems like famine. The citizens and government must join hands to prevent droughts to save thousands of lives. This joint effort can help save the world from such a catastrophe.

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Essay on Drought

List of essays on drought, essay on drought – short essay for kids and children (essay 1 – 100 words), essay on drought – 10 lines on drought written in english (essay 2 – 250 words), essay on drought – causes, effects and measures (essay 3 – 350 words), essay on drought (essay 4 – 400 words), essay on drought  – in india (essay 5 – 500 words), essay on drought – for school students (class 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 standard) (essay 6 – 600 words), essay on drought – for college and university students (essay 7 – 750 words), essay on drought – long essay on drought (essay 8 – 1000 words).

Drought is a disaster which affects many regions of India every year. A natural disaster which leads to a shortage of water for drinking, agriculture and other practices is called a drought. However, we are yet to come up with some concrete measure in order to avoid this adverse situation through which the people have to go through each year.

Audience: The below given essays are exclusively written for school students (Class 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Standard) and college students.

Drought is a severe condition in which some regions face a heavy shortage of water. There are some countries which are nowadays struggling with an insufficient amount of water. This situation occurs due to factors like climate change, deforestation or global warming.

In some areas, starvation as a result of drought, leads to the death of several people. Drought also affect the production of crops, causes forest fires and leads to insufficient electricity production.

It is important to adopt some solutions to tackle this issue. We can use methods like rainwater harvesting, seawater desalination or grow more plants and trees. The whole world is familiar with the misuse of water resources which needs to be overcome in order to prevent droughts.

The prolonged absence of rain or the lack of natural sources of water can bring about a drought. This natural phenomenon has been occurring all through the history of mankind and it has shaped many civilizations in the past. Droughts are something that people fear and it is also something that can be brought about by our actions towards our surrounding. One is compelled by practical reason to consider what actions can bring about potentially cataclysmic events like droughts and since I am still a student there is a lot I can do, further on as I go through life, to contribute to reasonable water usage.

The earth has its own principle of functioning and it changes our surrounding often and without warning, that’s why droughts sometimes happen even though we do nothing, in particular, to make them come about. When such events occur, people use different techniques to find alternative sources of water. The best we can do in such situations is to find tools that we can use to help us predict what the movement of water will be, or how much rain will fall.

On the other hand, we tend to misuse our natural resources and to drain them. That is why the recent decades have seen many rivers dry out due to our extensive agricultural needs. The lack of water brought about droughts in many regions that were previously famed for their natural wealth. Thankfully, people are becoming aware of how they are behaving and through this awareness, we are developing new methods for water use and distribution, it is up to us to implement those changes and make fear of the great drought a thing of the past.

“Drought” which results from the shortage of water due to lack of rainfall. The situation is challenging and can prove to be catastrophic for those living in the drought-affected areas.

Causes of Drought:

The Marathwada region of Maharashtra suffers from “drought” condition every year. There are various factors responsible for causing a “drought” like situation.

Some of these are discussed below:

1. Deforestation:

The main cause of “drought” is deforestation, which leads to a shortage of rainfall. Trees and shrubs hold the ground water, prevent it from evaporation and attracts rainfall. Deforestation is carried out to clear the land for farming, industrialization and urbanization. The soil in these areas loses its capacity to hold water, which also leads to “drought” condition. The devastating flood in the beautiful state of Kerala has become one of the biggest catastrophe in recent times.

2. Diminishing Water Bodies:

The usage of water bodies like rivers and lakes is done on a huge scale. During scorching summers these rivers and lakes are dried which result in dreadful “droughts”. Due to extreme climatic condition and various human activities, the water in these water bodies dries down which leads to “drought”. Wells are also a main sources of water in various regions in the country. Villages and towns in the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat are facing life threatening situation where water in the wells has dried up. People in these villages stand in long queues to purchase water for drinking and daily needs.

Effects of Drought:

The farming sector in India is the most vulnerable to the climatic condition. Most of the agriculture in India is dependent on rainfall and ground water. “Drought” like situation has tremendously affected the farming sector and animal husbandry in India. The scorching sun sucks the ground water and becomes fatal to the cattle.

Measures to Prevent Drought:

Droughts can be prevented by –

i. Planting more trees.

ii. Implementing water conservation techniques.

iii. Reducing wastage of water and water pollution.

Conclusion:

Although initiatives like the “Paani Foundation” are being taken to mitigate “drought” condition in India but not much is done till date. As a responsible citizen we must contribute to the efforts taken to combat “drought” condition so that our future generations will not face such crisis.

The problem of drought is very severe and there are plenty of different provinces in India which are being largely impacted. It is really important for people at large to understand that the time calls for taking some strict measures at the earliest.

We have exploited mother earth in a ruthless manner and owing to the anthropogenic exploitation; the natural balance of the ecosystem has been disturbed. This in turn has led to plenty of troubles which include drought.

Drought – Getting Familiar:

Drought mainly refers to the condition wherein the area receives almost negligible to nil rainfall making it a dry period. This can be really deadly for the farmers as most of the harvest won’t ripen and it has several adverse consequences. Granted there are artificial methods of irrigation and the option of water supply but not all farmers have access to these facilities. This infers that drought ends up wrecking havoc on their finances and the families of the farmers sometimes even end up committing suicide or dying because of starvation.

Remedial Measures:

This brings us to the question as to what can be done to remedy the situation of drought. The answerer lies in helping the environment. The environment has the power to heal itself, but we need to be supportive in our approach. It is extremely important to understand the grave concerns and the bleak future that awaits us.

Drought isn’t the only calamity which we are facing. The increased frequency of earthquakes, flash floods, depleting ice cover, striking change in climates are all symbolic of the piteous condition of our environment. Until and unless, we manage to educate the masses and enlighten them about the need to have a green cover and preserve the environment, the frequency of drought and other calamities will continue to be on the rise. More and more measures need to be taken and the ruthless exploitation of the environment needs to stop right away.

We know that it is easier said than done but the change needs to start from somewhere. You should make it a point to understand the possible areas wherein you can bring a change. Try by curtailing the cutting down of trees even if it is for development purpose. Use measures to combat pollution and stop the use of non bio-degradable products. It is the collective efforts which will end up making a huge difference.

Drought is a natural calamity which is an impending sign of the dark future which this planet might be enveloped in if we do not take the right action now!

What is a drought? As per the given definitions, it is a natural disaster resulting in scarcity of water for drinking, agriculture and industrial purposes. But, given the current scenario, is it actually a natural disaster. This may not be completely true as human activities over a period of time have resulted in altering of nature’s natural phenomenon and today we see droughts occurring at places which were once abundant with water resources. Hence there is a strong need to understand the causes of drought and what can be done to prevent or minimize it.

Drought Prone Regions in India:

Some states of India have been declared as drought-prone due to the frequent occurrence of drought year after year in these states. These states are Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashtra and Northern Karnataka. Apart from these many regions, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and parts of other states are also affected by drought every year.

India is a land which is dependent on monsoon rainfall for adequacy of water. Hence inadequate rainfall is considered as the major reason for drought in most parts of the country. However, this is again a subject of debate as to why there has been insufficient rainfall for quite some years now. Another reason is the drip in the water table and consequently less water vapour in the atmosphere which is responsible for the formation of clouds.

Again global warming has led to changes in the normal climatic conditions and with the increase in temperatures; there has been a significant effect on the monsoon season in India as well. Moreover, high sea temperatures have led to the El Nino effect taking place which has further affected the onset of monsoon season. All these factors combined with improper agricultural practices and increase in pollution levels have contributed to the reduction in the monsoon rainfall which has led to drought each year in many areas in India.

What should be done?

There is an urgent need to have measures in place in order to save the regions of India from drought. One of the major plans of the Government in this regard is the linking of rivers. If we are able to link the rivers we can divert excess rivers from region to the drought-affected areas and save them from this disaster. Another important measure is to have proper irrigation methods in place so as to utilize water only as much as it is required. Moreover, extracting of water through tube wells and other sources should be checked into as this leads to drip in the water table which triggers the onset of drought.

Last, but not least, it is not the responsibility of the government alone to have measures in place to prevent regions from being affected by drought, we all should ensure that we save water to the maximum and follow the rules as laid down by the Government. We should do rainwater harvesting as well so that we store the water provided to us by nature which shall be helpful in difficult times. A collective effort by all can surely be helpful in minimizing if not preventing the situation as adverse as drought.

Introduction:

Drought is a miserable condition caused due to lack of water in a particular region or country or territory for a long period of time. Drought is a natural calamity in which there is scarcity of water everywhere even for the basic needs. People in many countries suffer due to drought and many lose their lives since lack of water leads to lack of food. The impact of drought is very horrible and sometimes it becomes difficult for the affected country to recover to a normal state.

The main reason for drought to occur is the absence of rain. When the normally falling rain fails for a few months then there arises water scarcity. Wells become dry and people and other living beings start to move from one place to another in search of water.

Although lack of rainfall is the main cause for drought , there are also other causes that lead to such a condition.

The various causes of drought are:

Now-a-days people are mis-treating the environment. Why there is no rain? What causes rain? Everyone should ask these questions to themselves to know the real cause of drought. Trees are the main source of rainfall. When we cut trees for constructing buildings, we are not only removing the vegetation and greenery but also removing the main source of rainfall from the Earth.

2. Draining of Surface Water:

Rivers, lakes, ponds are the natural ways by which water is stored in the Earth. Activities like excessive irrigation, excessive use of water for industrial purposes drains the surface water from these natural reservoirs and cause a condition known as drought. Rise in temperature due to global warming is also a cause for draining of water.

Impacts of Drought:

The impact caused by drought is so huge that many countries that faces drought year on year still remains as under-developed countries. The day-to-day activities of the people get stopped. The severity of drought can even take many lives. Let us look into some of the major impacts:

1. Heavy Loss to Farmers:

Agriculture is the source of living for the farmers. Periodic rainfall and the availability of ground water is very much important for agriculture. Drought impacts farmers the most because if there is no rainfall, agriculture fails. There is no yield, plants die, livestock suffers and farmers end up with no income. They get debts to try other ways and make their living but when everything goes out of control, they have no other way than to end their lives. Severe droughts lead to increase in the number of farmer suicides.

2. Loss of Wildlife:

It is during the time of drought, forest fires start occurring. Since everything is dry, fire catches up very easily. The life of wild animals is at huge risk; some get burnt in the forest fires and some lose their habitat and have to move to some other place.

3. Soil Degradation:

Continuous drought will make the soil lose its moisture and fertility. We can see at many places where there are no rains, the lands will have cracks on them. Some areas regain their fertile soil after many years of rain but some totally lose their nature to yield crops.

4. Safety is at Risk:

The scarcity of food leads to increase in prices of commodities. As the droughts might have taken the employment of some, no income would push people to commit crimes such as theft.

There are some ways that people can try to manage drought. Few important ones are listed below: –

People can use rain water harvesting method to save and store rain water and use it at emergency times like drought.

Waste water must be collected, purified and re-used. The water thus stored can be used for watering plants and can be used for irrigation also.

Afforestation techniques can be adopted.

Drought has huge consequences but it is not the end. If everyone of us contribute their share in preserving the environment, then many hazards like drought can be managed very easily.

Drought is a natural disaster that occurs in some regions of the globe. Some regions are more prone to drought while other regions are not. In India, drought has been experienced and a lot of people have died. Drought causes death of humans, animals and plants due to the adverse conditions that are harsh to the ecosystem and limits survival. In disaster management, drought is considered among the threats to human and animal life. Drought is defined as a prolonged period of inadequate water and food. The periods of drought vary but lack of water for over two weeks is considered drought.

During drought, the ecosystem is negatively affected that is why agriculture is compromised and it results in lack of food. The effects of drought are both to the animate and inanimate objects in the environment. Drought is handled by disaster management teams by provision of water and food to the affected people and prevention of further effects like fires on dry vegetation. Drought can occur naturally due to dry seasons or can result from human activities that causes a change in climate.

Lack of rainfall for long periods of time results in drought. Rain formation or precipitation processes require moisture accumulation in the atmosphere or on the ground as ice. Sunshine and winds can affect the precipitation processes as it affects the formation of water.

Another cue of drought is the natural dry seasons whereby low humidity is experienced. During the dry season, water sources dry up due to high temperatures that increase vaporization. In the high demand for vapor, extreme measures like drawing water from plants is reached which results in death of those plants.

Human activities could also result in drought. Agriculture and human settlements result in deforestation. Deforestations predispose the environment to erosion of soil and vegetation destruction. The lack of vegetation and forests causes decreased rainfall in the region and could cause drought occurrence.

Climatic changes also result in drought. Human activities like emission of greenhouse gases to the environment has caused global warming. In global warming, climate change is experienced such that the temperatures on the surface of the earth are raised. Raised temperatures result in increased vaporization and depletion of water from rivers, boreholes. Effects of global warming have been determined to be either extremes of rainfall or drought.

Consequences of Drought:

Drought causes adverse effect on the ecosystem. Interruption and loss of biodiversity is experienced during drought because animals of several species die due to lack of water and food. Also, the living things like trees and vegetation die. Diseases also arise during seasons of drought that affect living things and cause death. Extinction of rare species is common during seasons of drought.

The losses experienced in the economy during drought are substantial. Drought causes death and deterioration of plants thus decreasing the agricultural economical activities. There will be inflation of food production costs and diminished water economic activities like tourism and energy production.

Health of both animals and plants is greatly affected by drought. Drought effects cause diseases like dehydration and malnutrition that are debilitating to both humans and plants. Extreme hunger for humans and animals cause death.

Drought Management:

Once drought has occurred, the protection of people and animals should be done. In disaster management, the focus is on mitigating the consequences and providing life sustenance to those affected by the disaster. In agriculture, methods of irrigation and crop rotation have been implemented in arid areas so as to mitigate the consequences of drought. Water harvesting is also essential in preparation for drought. In water harvesting, construction of dams and boreholes in arid areas has been helpful during seasons of drought.

Erosion is minimized through crop rotation. Water conservation methods like recycling and outdoor use restrictions have been employed in arid areas.

In conclusion, drought is a natural disaster whose effects are adverse and cause loss of life. The management of drought generally involves the water conservation, storage and expansion of sources of water. The consequences of drought are deleterious and destruct the ecosystem and loss of biodiversity.

In order to reduce the consequences of drought, several measures have been put in place. Disaster management teams have conducted projects for water conservation for use during drought like by constructing dams. Mitigating the consequences of drought also involved the inhibition of causes of drought. Mitigation of erosion through planting enough vegetation to prevent erosion goes a long way in preventing drought. Human activities should also be controlled.

Drought can simply be defined as a form of natural disaster that is a result of the precipitation in a particular region below average which results in prolonged periods of water supply shortage, be it ground water, surface water or rainfall water. Droughts can go on for a lot of months or even years; it is most times declared and claimed after about just 15 days.

The agriculture and ecosystem of a particular region can be substantially impacted by drought and this can lead to a great deal of harm on the economy of the region. It has been discovered that the probability of a drought taking place and bush fires occurring is increased significantly by the dry seasons annually. Drought conditions are significantly worsened by long heat periods and this is as a result of the hastened evaporation of vapours of water.

There are a lot of species of plants like the Cactaceae family that have adaptations for the tolerance of drought (like a reduce area of leaf and cuticles that are waxy to help improve their drought tolerance ability). There are other species of plants that survive periods of droughts as seeds that are buried.

Grasslands and Deserts are examples of arid biomes that are produced by droughts that are semi-permanent. Humanitarian crisis and mass migrations are caused by prolonged droughts. Majority of ecosystems that are arid have very low productivity. The world experienced its longest period of drought in Atacama Desert of Chile and the drought lasted for about 400 years.

There are a lot of causes of drought.

A few out of the many causes will be discussed below:

1. Climate Changes:

Droughts are triggered by all the various activities that result in climate change globally and this can have a very strong effect on agriculture all over the world most especially in countries that are developing. Global warming and climate change will bring about an imbalance in the ecosystem.

There is going to be erosion and flooding in some regions and drought in other regions. Therefore, it is quite obvious that climate change and global are one of the leading causes of drought in the world today.

2. Deficiency in Precipitation:

Precipitation is produced through mechanisms including orographic rainfall, strati-form rainfall and convective rainfall. The processes of convective rainfall involve vertical motions that are strong and can lead to the atmosphere overturning in that particular location in about an hour, causing heavy precipitation. The processes of stratiform precipitation involve upward motions that are weaker, a little bit less intense and can last a duration that is longer.

We can divide precipitation into about three categories; this is based on if it falls in form of liquid water, water in liquid form that freezes when it comes in contact with a surface and ice. Droughts mainly occur in areas that the normal rainfall levels are quite low. If the factors in the region do not help the volume of precipitation in a way that they can get to the surface in time, drought occurs. Drought can also be triggered through a very high reflected sunlight level.

3. Dry Season:

In the tropic regions, we have distinct dry and wet seasons and this is as a result of the Monsoon trough. The occurrence of drought is greatly increased during dry seasons, this season is known by the very low humidity and rivers and watering holes drying up. As a result of the inadequacy of watering holes and rivers, a lot of animals that graze migrate because of the absence of water and move to areas that are more fertile. Some of the animals that do this include wildebeest, elephants, zebra and cattle.

As a result of the absence of water, bushfires are very common during this season. Because of the increased temperature, the water vapour tend to become more energetic, to increase the relative humidity to 100%, required water vapour is more. When it is warm, the rate of vegetable and fruit production is increased and this causes an increase in transpiration and evaporation from plants leading to drought conditions that are worse.

Types of Drought :

With the persistence of drought, all of the various conditions that surround it worsen gradually and the effect on the region increases gradually.

There are three major types of droughts:

i. Meteorological drought is a type of drought that occurs anytime we have a prolonged period of below average rainfall or precipitation. It is common for meteorological drought to precede other types of drought.

ii. Agricultural drought is a type of drought that affects the ecology and production of crops in a particular region. Agricultural drought can also happen independently as a result of a change in the levels of precipitation when erosion and soil conditions that are triggered by agricultural endeavours that are poorly planned lead to a drop in the amount of water that is available for crop use. However, traditional droughts are caused by a period of precipitation that is below average.

iii. Hydrological drought is a type of drought that occurs when the available water reserves in sources like reservoirs, lakes and aquifers drop below average. Hydrological drought takes a lot of time to manifest since it deals with water that has been stored and is used and not replenished.

The effects of water shortages can be grouped into three namely:

i. Social effects

ii. Economic effects

iii. Environmental effects

Droughts can also cause wars, wildfires, social unrest, and drop in electricity production, mass migration, hunger, famine and so many more.

Prevention Measures:

Prevention measures include:

i. Building of Dams

ii. Cloud seeding

iii. Desalination

iv. Proper Drought monitoring

v. Proper Land use

vi. Rainwater harvesting

vii. Restriction of water use outdoors

viii. Use of Recycled water

Drought can be very detrimental to the ecosystem and can also have a lot of effects. It is therefore extremely necessary that we do our possible best to battle drought and try to employ methods of drought relief, mitigation methods to prevent drought.

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Essay on Drought

Students are often asked to write an essay on Drought in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

100 Words Essay on Drought

Understanding drought.

Drought is a natural event that happens when an area gets less rain than normal. It can last for months or even years.

Causes of Drought

Droughts often occur due to lack of rain. Sometimes, high temperatures can also cause drought by making water evaporate from soil and plants.

Effects of Drought

Drought can make it hard for plants and animals to survive. It can also lead to water shortages for people. In severe cases, drought can cause famine.

Dealing with Drought

People can deal with drought by conserving water, using it wisely, and planning for dry periods.

Also check:

  • Paragraph on Drought

250 Words Essay on Drought

Introduction.

Drought is a natural disaster characterized by a prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to a shortage of water. It is a complex phenomenon that can have serious ecological, social, and economic impacts.

Droughts are primarily caused by irregularities in global weather patterns. Climate change has been identified as a significant factor, with increasing global temperatures leading to changes in rainfall patterns and increased evaporation rates. Human activities, such as deforestation and overuse of water resources, can also exacerbate drought conditions.

Impacts of Drought

Drought can have severe consequences for both the environment and human societies. It can lead to crop failure, livestock death, and water shortages, impacting food production and access to clean water. This can consequently lead to malnutrition, disease, and death, particularly in vulnerable populations. Economically, droughts can result in increased prices and job losses in agricultural sectors.

Drought Mitigation

Mitigation strategies for drought include water conservation, efficient irrigation techniques, and the development of drought-resistant crops. Additionally, improving climate forecasting can help societies prepare for and manage drought conditions. Policymakers must also prioritize sustainable water management to ensure that water resources are used efficiently and equitably.

Drought is a pressing global issue that requires concerted efforts to mitigate its impacts. By understanding its causes and consequences, we can develop effective strategies to manage drought and reduce its harmful effects on society and the environment.

500 Words Essay on Drought

Drought, a natural disaster characterized by a prolonged period of insufficient rainfall, is a global phenomenon with profound impacts on both human and ecological systems. It is a complex, multi-dimensional issue that involves various aspects of climate, hydrology, and human activities.

Droughts occur when there is an extended period of below-average precipitation. This deficiency of water supply can last for months or even years. Droughts are categorized into three types: meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological. Meteorological droughts are associated with reduced rainfall, agricultural droughts with soil moisture deficits affecting crop production, and hydrological droughts with reduced water availability in streams, reservoirs, and aquifers.

The primary cause of drought is a lack of precipitation over an extended period. This can be due to natural climate variability, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation, or changes in atmospheric conditions that suppress the formation of clouds and rainfall. Human activities, such as deforestation and overuse of water resources, can also contribute to the occurrence and severity of droughts.

The impacts of drought are far-reaching and can be devastating. They affect the environment, economy, and society. Environmental impacts include reduced water quality, loss of wildlife habitat, and increased risk of wildfires. Economically, drought can lead to crop failure, livestock death, and increased food prices, affecting food security. Social impacts include displacement of people, health issues due to lack of clean water, and increased conflicts over scarce water resources.

Drought Management and Mitigation

Effective drought management requires a proactive approach, focusing on reducing vulnerability and enhancing resilience. Strategies can include improving water infrastructure, implementing water conservation practices, and developing drought-tolerant crops. At the policy level, it involves developing comprehensive drought management plans, early warning systems, and drought risk insurance. Climate change adaptation strategies also play a crucial role in drought mitigation.

Drought is a significant global challenge that requires concerted efforts to mitigate and adapt. While it is a natural phenomenon, human activities have exacerbated its occurrence and impacts. Therefore, understanding drought, its causes, impacts, and management strategies is essential for sustainable development and resilience. As we move forward, it is crucial that we continue to enhance our knowledge and strategies to better manage and mitigate the effects of droughts.

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Essay on Drought for Students and Children | PDF Download

Essay on Drought

Essay on Drought for Students and Children – Types, Causes, Prevention Steps: Drought is one of both human and natural made disasters. The main cause to occur drought is the human activities around the area’s environmental conditions. The more damage to the environment the more is the chance of rising to droughts. All the living beings will suffer heavily and even to death due to droughts as similarly, the major part is by human beings. Droughts are a disaster that human beings can’t fight against and only nature has the power to abolish it. Droughts have the power to decide whether there is a need for the existence of living beings are not. Similarly, the essay on drought will contain its types, causes, prevention steps to remove, and much more information.

Short Essay on Drought

Drought is one of the dangerous environmental conditions which damages the quality of life on Earth. It exposes the harmful effect and even it is considered a natural disaster. Drought will usually occur when there is a shortage of any of the essential natural resources in a particular area. These droughts are majorly affecting mankind and all other living beings on the earth. Some countries face drought conditions heavily, due to improper environmental balances. Drought will usually arise with the damage of the nature around the area which leads to hotter climatic conditions and fewer rainfalls. The drought was further divided into three types depending on the shortage of essential natural resources. It damages agricultural cultivation and heavy damage to the lives of farmers. Drought brings up the scarcity of water, food, moisture in the air, and high temperature. Initially, it removes the moisture level from the surroundings, and later on, it eliminates the resources.

Causes to occur droughts are deforestation and a rise in temperatures. As trees are removed it leads to an increase in temperature and ecological imbalances in the areas. As the environment was imbalanced it rises to decrease the rainfalls and hot climatic conditions. Global Warming has the part to bring Drought to the environment. On the other side impact of the drought will be high on living beings on earth. It can abolish food, water and tends to hard financial condition to the people and the country. However, there are some prevention steps like reforestation, using solar energy, and many more to reduce the hot climates and to improve the climate conditions. These steps bring up the rains and necessary moisture conditions for the sustainment of humans and living beings.

Long Essay on Droughts

Drought is a dangerous condition in nature where the scarcity of essential natural resources arises. These conditions are harmful to live beings and mankind where they can lead to death. Drought is nothing but the scarcity of water, food, which are due to climatic conditions. As the lesser rainfalls are seen in the areas which cause the droughts and chance to end of living beings. An example of a drought is the deserts where scarcity arises due to high temperature and less moisture climatic conditions. With increasing global pollution and global warming levels, drought will arise easily.

Types of Droughts

Droughts are further divided into four types namely Meteorological, Hydrological, Agricultural, and Socioeconomic. These all are happening due to the dry weather conditions that dominate in particular areas. As the drought arises it brings up the economical and environmental imbalances in the country or a particular area. There are some areas where the lesser rainfall and humid climatic conditions, there is a chance of observing droughts at a higher rate. People of these specific areas will face problems in their daily routine. Scarcity of essential resources is always present in the area and conditions of people are hard and move to a far distance to get resources.

Metrological drought is the scarcity of cool weather or the continuous dry weather located in a particular area. Hydrological drought happens in areas with less water supply and a decrease in the level of water bodies in the areas. Hydrological droughts occurred after the period of the metrological droughts are observed in the unique area. Agricultural Droughts happen when the crops are affected for any reason. Whereas Socioeconomic drought is observed when the demand and supply ratio of goods is unbalanced.

Causes of Droughts

The causes of droughts are many due to man-made activities and very limited natural activities. But the cause of damage for the droughts are due to humans at a higher rate and these are done every day. Whereas natural disaster occurs once and expose heavy damage. Natural activities like rising in temperature, orbital rotation of the earth, moisture levels in the atmosphere, and many others. Human activities like deforestation, global warming activities, etc. There are some other causes like air circulation, water availability, and some ecological imbalances.

The impact of the drought will be at a higher rate where the life span of human beings will decrease. drought will cut all the chains that are present in the ecosystem. All the living beings and nature will be impacted to a further extent which can remove everything on Planet Earth. However, some solution steps need to follow by human beings to the remove roots of droughts. Reforestation and planting of trees bring up the climatic changes in the environment and make fall the rains. These will develop greenness and remove all the pollution even. Every prevention step needs to follow for the removal of drought from the ecosystem.

Droughts are occurring due to various activities that are involved by human beings. Humans have the intelligence to change the environment in a good path and parallel fulfill their needs of them. Every individual in the ecosystem should feel responsible to follow the prevention steps for the improvement of nature for further decades. Everything is in the hands of human beings because there was the chance to reconstruct the issues less environment and healthy ecosystem.

Conclusion: We believe that the above essay on droughts contains all the information and more useful points to get awareness. These essays will helpful for UPSC aspirants and at competitions & exams for students.

Dear Students and Children, you can download the Drought Essay in the Hand Written Format by Clicking the Below Click Here Link.

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The History of Drought in Cape Town Essay (Critical Writing)

History of the drought, effect on luxury hospitality and tourism, media coverage, reasons for covering the topic, water saving measures, conclusions.

Cape Town is a coastal city in South Africa. With a population of 433,688, it is one of the most populated places in the country (DeyàTortella and Tirado 2011. This paper reviews the literature on the history of the drought, causes, and the effect on tourism.

The Western Cape Water Supply System supplies water to the city through six dams (Center for Responsible Travel 2016, Machnik 2013). About 63% of the water is used for domestic and industrial use, and the rest for agriculture and other uses (The Straits Times 2013, Beham 2018, Anonymous 2017). Since the past few years, the western cape region has seen drought-like situations, with rains scant rainfall for the past three years, and water levels at critically low levels (Gosling 2018, Bellis 2018). Population has increased in the city by 69% in the past decade, and people continue to draw more water through illegal tapping of water mains (Gabarda-Mallorquí, Garcia, and Ribas 2017, Sunday Times 2018). Water levels in the dams are almost exhausted. Experts link this rainfall shortage to global warming and climate change (Muller 2017, Ragab and Prudhomme 2002).

Tourism is a $3.4 billion business for Cape Town, about 9.3% to the GDP of South Africa, and it supports 300,000 jobs (The Lancet Planetary Health 2018). Cancellations of bookings increased and the overall visitors will see a drop of 12.6% (ValueWalk 2018). The tourism season begins in April and tour operators report a lack of queries to the city (Resource Capetown 2018). Water shortage is expected to discourage visitors who will be forced to ration water for drinking, showers, and flushing toilets (Amelia 2018). Tourists will also face rationing of water (Coffey 2018). With such an acute shortage, tourists are scared about the quality of service and if the visit would meet their expectations (Ferreira and Boshoff 2013). Hence, a severe fall in tourism related activity is expected. There would be widespread distress since jobs would be lost, business and economy would be shattered, leading to increased crimes and breakdown of law and order (Chitra 2015).

A number of online media have reported adversely about the water shortage and drought situation and the impending ‘Zero Day’, when water supply would be cut (Turner 2018; Pérez-Peña 2018). The reports paint a grim image of citizens queuing up for water at checkpoints, armed guards standing to quell riots, and citizens ready to fight viciously for a drop of water (Wolski 2018). Such reports increase the fear-mongering and further dissuade tourists from even considering Cape Town in the plan (Diallo 2018). Such negative messages and portrayal of a calamity, is not ethical, even if it true (Gabarda-Mallorquí and Palom 2016; Gopalakrishnan and Cox 2003).

Drought and cities running out of water is a scenario that many cities would face in the future (Cashman and Moore 2012, Rough Guide to Eco Escapes 2011). Many mega-cities such as New York, London, New Delhi, and others are facing these water shortage problems (Neto 2016; Pedro 2013). An understanding of water conservation, regulation, and sustainable methods that Cape Town employs, would help in solving this problem for other cities (Bridge 2017, Kelly 2017, Alonso 2008, Charara et al. 2011).

Cape Town has adopted some drastic measures to manage the water problem (Kelly 2016). These include very strict water rationing, control over water use in hotels, reducing water for agriculture, water leak detection, strict water metering, and pressure management in water pipelines (Welch 2018). Other methods ware waste water recycling, and water demand management (Caricoetzee 2018). There is criticism that these measures are introduced very late.

The analysis and review shows that global warming and climate change, mismanagement of water, and inability to control water use has lead to drought like situation in Cape Town. The tourism industry and agricultural sector will suffer from this drought. Other cities can learn from these problems and implement water use measures.

Alonso, A. (2008). How Australian hospitality operations view water consumption and water conservation: an exploratory study. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing , 17(3-4), 354-372.

Amelia, H. (2018). Cape Town water crisis: upcoming day zero is impending doom for the city’s tourism industries. Verdict . Web.

Anonymous. (2017). Water-saving solutions for the South African industry. Institution of Civil Engineering , (23), 61-62.

Beham, I. (2018). ValueWalk: Cape Town Water Crisis: Is Day Zero Approaching? Newstex Global Business Blogs. Web.

Bellis, C. (2018). Cape Town’s ‘Day Zero’ pushed to July. Aljazeera . Web.

Bridge, M. (2017). Eco-tourism to top 2018 travel trends’. The Times . Web.

Caricoetzee, M. (2018). How the president hotel plans to defeat Day zero. Biz Community . Web.

Cashman, A. and Moore, W. (2012). A market-based proposal for encouraging water use efficiency in a tourism-based economy. International Journal of Hospitality Management , 31(1), 286-294.

Center for Responsible Travel. (2016). The case for responsible travel: trends & statistics 2016. Responsible Travel . Web.

Charara, N., Cashman, A., Bonnell, R. and Gehr, R. (2011). Water use efficiency in the hotel sector of Barbados. Journal of Sustainable Tourism , 19(2), 231-245.

Coffey, H. (2018). Guests told not to flush toilet at Cape Town hotels as Day Zero approaches. The Independent . Web.

Chitra, N. (2015). Redefining luxury: Experiential, exclusive and eco-friendly are the 3 Es that drive the luxe hospitality business today. Business Today . Web.

DeyàTortella, B. and Tirado, D. (2011). Hotel water consumption at a seasonal mass tourist destination. The case of the island of Mallorca. Journal of Environmental Management , 92(10), 2568-2579.

Diallo, M. (2018). Cape Town could run out of water in April [Video file]. VOA News . Web.

Ferreira, S. and Boshoff, A. (2013). Post-2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup: oversupply and location of luxury hotel rooms in Cape Town. Current Issues in Tourism , 17(2), 180-198.

Gabarda-Mallorquí, A. and Palom, A. (2016). Understanding reductions in water consumption in tourist areas: a case study of the Costa Brava, Spain. International Journal of Water Resources Development , 32(6), 912-930.

Gabarda-Mallorquí, A., Garcia, X. and Ribas, A. (2017). Mass tourism and water efficiency in the hotel industry: A case study. International Journal of Hospitality Management , 61, 82-93.

Gopalakrishnan, C. and Cox, L. (2003). Water Consumption by the visitor industry: the case of Hawaii. International Journal of Water Resources Development , 19(1), 29-35.

Gosling, M. (2018). Cape Town’s taps can still run dry despite possible Day Zero scrapping – experts. News24 . Web.

Kelly, J. (2016). Ethical and green credentials in travel – July 2016. Academic Mintel . Web.

Kelly, J. (2017). The responsible traveler and authenticity/community-based tourism – September 2017’. Academic Mintel . Web.

Machnik, A. (2013). Nature-based tourism as an introduction to ecotourism experience – a new approach. Journal of Tourism Challenges and Trends , 6(1), 75-95.

Muller, M. (2017). Understanding the origins of Cape Town’s water crisis. Institution of Civil Engineering . Web.

Neto, S. (2016). Water governance in an urban age. Utilities Policy , 43, 32-41.

Pedro, L. (2013). Sustainable, responsible tourism: luxury travel’s new trend. Telegraph . Web.

Pérez-Peña, R. (2018). Cape Town pushes back ‘Day Zero’ as residents conserve water. New York Times . Web.

Ragab, R. and Prudhomme, C. (2002). Climate change and water resources management in arid and semi-arid regions: Prospective and challenges for the 21st century. Biosystems Engineering , 81(1), 3-34.

Resource Capetown. (2018). City of Cape Town: Water Dashboard. Resource Cape Town . Web.

Rough Guide to Eco Escapes. (2011). Rough Guide, Episode 2, Channel 5, 27 January. Learning on Screen . Web.

Sunday Times. (2018). Cape Town’s ‘Day Zero’ delayed. Sunday Times, London, UK, p.2.

The Lancet Planetary Health. (2018). Water crisis in Cape Town: a failure in governance. The Lancet Planetary Health . Web.

The Straits Times. (2018). ‘Day Zero’ for dry taps in South Africa’s Cape Town may not occur in 2018, says official. The Straits Times . Web.

Turner, M. (2018). What the Cape Town water crisis means for tourism. Luxury Travel Advisor . Web.

ValueWalk. (2018). Cape Town water crisis: Is Day Zero approaching? Newstex Global Business Blogs . Web.

Welch, C. (2018). How cape town is coping with its worst drought on record [Video File] News. Web.

Wolski, P. (2018). How severe is Cape Town’s drought? A detailed look at the data. News 24 . Web.

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IvyPanda. (2023, October 31). The History of Drought in Cape Town. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-history-of-drought-in-cape-town/

"The History of Drought in Cape Town." IvyPanda , 31 Oct. 2023, ivypanda.com/essays/the-history-of-drought-in-cape-town/.

IvyPanda . (2023) 'The History of Drought in Cape Town'. 31 October.

IvyPanda . 2023. "The History of Drought in Cape Town." October 31, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-history-of-drought-in-cape-town/.

1. IvyPanda . "The History of Drought in Cape Town." October 31, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-history-of-drought-in-cape-town/.

Bibliography

IvyPanda . "The History of Drought in Cape Town." October 31, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-history-of-drought-in-cape-town/.

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Essay on Drought

Drought is a condition when there are no rains for a long period of time. The occurrence of drought is a common sight in many parts of the country. The consequences of this condition are drastic and many times irreversible. Drought is the condition when certain parts of the world are deprived of rain for months or at times the entire season. There are several reasons that cause drought-like situations in different parts and prove to be fatal.

Long and Short Essay on Drought in English

Here are some short and long essays on Drought of varying lengths to help you with the topic. You can choose any drought essay given below:

Drought Essay – 1 (200 words)

Drought which is marked by the absence of or low rain in a particular region for a long period of time occurs because of various reasons including global warming, deforestation and many other human activities. This climatic condition can cause disastrous impact on the environment as well as the living beings. Some of the effects of drought include failure of crops, financial loss, price rise and soil degradation.

Several Indian states have been hit by drought leading to mass destruction of crops and disruption of the normal functioning of the society. Many parts have even witnessed famine leading to the death of several people due to starvation. Looking at the adversities faced by people in such areas, the government of India has come up with various drought relief plans however a lot more needs to be done to control this problem and deal with its after effects.

Some of the solutions suggested in this direction are rainwater harvesting, recycling and reuse of water, controlling deforestation, sea water desalination, cloud seeding, growing more plants and trees, stopping overall waste of water. However, most of these cannot be achieved if the general public does not support the cause. Each one should thus take it as a responsibility to contribute his/ her bit to curb the problem.

Drought Essay – 2 (300 words)

Drought, which results in the shortage of water, is mainly caused due to lack of rainfall. The situation is problematic and can prove to be fatal for those living in the drought-affected areas. It is particularly a curse for the farmers as it destroys their crops. Continuous drought-like situation also leads to the soil becoming less fertile.

Causes of Drought

There are various factors that lead to drought. Here is a look at these causes in detail:

  • Deforestation

Deforestation is said to be one of the main causes of shortage of rainfall that leads to drought. Adequate amount of trees and vegetation is required on land to limit evaporation of water, store enough water on land and attract rainfall. Deforestation and construction of concrete buildings in their place has caused a major misbalance in the environment. It lowers the capacity of the soil to hold water and increases evaporation. Both these are a cause of low rainfall.

  • Low Surface Water Flow

Rivers and lakes are the main sources of surface water in various regions around the world. In extreme summers or because of usage of surface water for various human activities, the water in these sources dries down leading to drought.

  • Global Warming

The negative impact of global warming on the environment is known to all. Among other issues, the emission of greenhouse gases that results in the rise in earth’s temperature has resulted in the rise in evaporation. High temperature is also a cause of wildfires that worsens the drought-condition.

Apart from these, excessive irrigation is also one of the causes of drought as it drains the surface water.

Though the causes of drought are largely known and are mostly the result of misuse of water resources and other non-environmental friendly human activities, nothing much is being done to curb this problem. It is time the governments of various countries should join hands to overcome this global issue.

Drought Essay – 3 (400 words)

Drought occurs when a region receives no or less than the average amount of rainfall leading to water shortage, failure of crops and disruption of normal activities. Various factors such as global warming, deforestation and construction of buildings have given rise to drought.

Types of Droughts

While some areas are marked by complete absence of rain for a long period of time, others receive less than the average amount of precipitation, yet others might face drought for some part of the year – So the severity and type of drought varies from place to place and from time to time. Here is a look at the different types of droughts:

  • Meteorological Drought

When there is a reduction in rainfall in a region for a particular period – it can be for few days, months, seasons or year – it is said to be hit by meteorological drought. In India an area is said to be hit by meteorological drought when the annual rainfall is 75% less than the average rainfall.

  • Hydrological Drought

This is basically associated with the reduction in water. Hydrological droughts are often a result of two successive meteorological droughts. These are divided into two categories:

  • Surface Water Drought
  • Ground Water Drought
  • Soil Moisture Drought

As the name suggests, this situation involves inadequate soil moisture that hinders crop growth. This is an outcome of meteorological drought as it leads to lower water supply to soil and greater water loss due to evaporation.

  • Agricultural Drought

When the meteorological or hydrological droughts lead to negative impacts on the crop yield in a region, it is said to be hit by agricultural drought.

This is said to be the most severe drought situation. People in such regions do not get any access to food and there is mass starvation and devastation. The government needs to intervene in such a situation and food is supplied to these places from other places.

  • Socio-Economic Drought

This situation occurs when there is a decrease in the availability of food and loss of income due to the failure of crop and the social security and access to food for the people in such areas is at risk.

Drought is a difficult situation to deal with especially if the severity is high. Several people are affected due to drought each year. While the occurrence of drought is a natural phenomenon, we can certainly reduce the human activities that lead to such a situation. Government must also come up with effective measures to deal with its after effects.

Drought Essay – 4 (500 words)

Drought, a condition that occurs due to no or very low rainfall, has been classified into different categories including meteorological drought, famine, socio-economic drought, hydrological drought and agricultural drought. Whatever be the type of drought, it disturbs the normal functioning of the regions affected.

Impacts of Drought

The regions hit by drought take a good amount of time to recover from the disaster caused, particularly if the severity of the drought is high. Drought disrupts the day-to-day lives of the people and has a widespread impact on various sectors. Here is how this natural disaster impacts the lives of the people living in the affected region:

  • Agricultural Loss

A major impact occurs on the agriculture and other related sectors as these are directly dependent on the ground and surface water. Loss of crop yields, low rate of livestock production, rise in plant disease and wind erosion are some of the major impacts of drought.

  • Financial Loss for Farmers

Farmers are worst effected by drought. The crops in the drought hit areas do not yield and the farmers whose sole income is generated through farming are worst affected by this situation. In an attempt to make their ends meet, many farmers end up in debt. The cases of farmer suicides due to such situation are also common.

  • Wildlife at Risk

The cases of forest fires increase during droughts and this puts the wildlife population at high risk. Forests get burnt down and many wild animals end up losing life while others lose their shelter.

The prices of various cereals, fruits, vegetables rise because of low supply and high demand. The prices of food items such as jams, sauces and drinks that are produced from those particular fruits and vegetables also increase. In certain cases, goods are imported from other places to meet the demands of the people and hence the prices levied on the same are high. The retailers who offer goods and services to the farmers also face financial loss due to reduced business.

  • Degradation of Soil

The soil loses moisture due to continuous drought and its quality degrades. It takes a lot of time for some areas to regain the ability to yield crops.

  • Overall Impact on Environment

Damage is caused to various species of plants and animals, there is degradation of landscape quality and biodiversity is impacted. The quality of air and water is also affected due to drought. While some of these conditions are temporary others may last long and might even turn permanent.

  • Public Safety at Stake

Lack of food and increased prices of different commodities may give rise to crimes such as theft and this can put public safety at stake. Conflict may also occur between water users thereby causing tension among general public.

Drought Prone Countries

Some of the countries that are more prone to drought include Albania, Afghanistan, Armenia, Bahrain, Northeast parts of Brazil, Burma, Cuba, Morocco, Iran, China, Bangladesh, Botswana, Sudan, Uganda, Somalia, Eritrea and Ethiopia.

Drought is one of the most disastrous natural calamities. Famine, that is the most severe forms of drought, ends in major socio, economic and environmental loss for the regions affected.

Drought Essay – 5 (600 words)

Drought, a condition when certain regions are faced with scarcity of water due to low or no rainfall, has been the cause of several problems in India. There are many areas in the country that are hit by drought each year while others are faced with this condition occasionally. Drought is caused due to various factors such as deforestation, global warming and inadequate surface water and has severe impact on the lives of the people living in the affected areas as well as the general health of the environment.

Drought Prone Areas in India

Many regions in the country are hit by drought each year. Statistics reveal that approximately one-sixth of the total geographical area of the country that inhabits around 12% of the population is drought prone.

One of the most drought prone states in the country is Rajasthan. As many as eleven districts in this state are hit by drought. These regions receive scanty or no rainfall and have low level of ground water. Drought is also a common phenomenon in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Almost every district here is hit by drought each year.

Here is a look at some of the other regions in the country that face frequent drought:

  • Saurashtra and Kutch, Gujarat
  • Coimbatore in Kerala
  • Mirzapur Plateau and Palamu, Uttar Pradesh
  • Kalahandi, Orissa
  • Purulia, West Bengal
  • Tirunelveli District, South of Vaigai River, Tamil Nadu

Possible Solutions for Drought

  • Rain Water Harvesting

This is the technique of collecting and storing rainwater in tanks and natural reservoirs to use it later. Rain water harvesting must be made mandatory for all. The idea behind this is to put the available water to use.

  • Sea Water Desalination

Sea water desalination must be done so that the vast amount of water stored in the sea can be used for the purpose of irrigation and other agricultural activities. The government must make major investment in this direction.

  • Recycle Water

Waste water must be purified and recycled for reuse. This can be done in many ways. Small steps such as installing rain barrel, collecting the waste water from RO systems, usage of shower buckets, saving water from washing veggies and creating rain garden can help in this direction. The water collected by these means can be used to water the plants.

  • Cloud Seeding

Cloud seeding is done to modify weather. It is a way to increase the amount of precipitation. Potassium iodide, silver iodide and dry ice are some of the chemicals used for the purpose of cloud seeding. The government should invest in cloud seeding to avoid drought in the areas prone to this condition.

  • Plant More Trees

Deforestation and the building of concrete structures is one of the causes of scanty rainfall. Efforts must be made to plant more trees. This simple step can change the climatic conditions and also bring about other positive changes in the environment.

  • Water Usage

Each one should take it as a responsibility to stop the wastage of water so that there is availability of enough water even when during times of low rainfall. Government must take steps to keep a check on the usage of water.

  • Campaigns must be Run

The government must run campaigns stating the benefits of rain water harvesting, planting more trees and other measures that the general public can take to fight drought. This is a good way to spread awareness and control the problem.

Though the government has put certain drought relief plans in place however these are not enough to overcome the drastic problem of drought. It is important to take strong steps to avoid this problem. Everyone should contribute their bit to control this problem.

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California Drought, Essay Example

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Although many critics would suggest that the droughts occurring in California are to be blamed on the farmers and their desire for profits, it can be effectively counter argued that such droughts are not the cause of man at all but rather be due to climate change in a natural process of global warming. To put it simply, natural patters in the weather such as lack of rain and increased heat are the primary cause of the ongoing drought having its major impact on the state of California. Richard Seager, a professor for the Lamont Doherty Earth Observation at Columbia University, stated that even though the drought effecting California may appear to be extreme, it is actually very common for such a climatic event to occur in this state. If you take a look back in the historical weather records of California, you will find that droughts such as this one actually occur on a regular basis and are a unique part of California’s climate. The continuous weather patterns in California throughout the previous years have presented the warm and dry yearlong climate which the state is known for. Such a weather pattern is due to the folds in high pressure the commonly occur throughout the Northern East Pacific Ocean region as well as the western parts of North America where California is located. These atmospheric ridges of such high pressure inhibit the formation of clouds. Of course when clouds are inhibited from forming, this renders no chance of rain fall through precipitation. It should be noted that these dry weather patterns appear to be the opposite of what was previously predicted by computer models that calculated initial weather predictions based on human causes. (Rice)

Because of such common patterns in California’s historical weather records, it is much likely that this climatic event will strike California again, regardless of any changes that the state imposes on the living habits of residents, factories, and agriculture. This means that even if California continues to mandate state restrictions on use of water by its residents and businesses, this will not change the fact that the natural dry climate is what is actually causing the drought. This includes any mandates, restrictions, or even eliminations of farm in in California.

It is true that the process of farming requires great amounts of water usage as well as consumption. However, even with this given fact in the process of farming, nothing about this issue carries any effect on how the rises in California’s temperature have contributed to this severe drought. The argument that farm supporters in California are keeping all of the water for themselves through the desire for mass profits and political influence is an entirely different issue. This issue does not at all correlate with analyzing causes of the drought through a perspective of meteorology. There is a fine line between a drought and an economical shortage of water. A drought is the absence of natural forms of water such as precipitation and loss of water from natural bodies through an increase in evaporation. Now although a drought may contribute to an economic shortage of water, the drought itself cannot be the blame for the shortage. Farmers, agriculture, residential usage of water, among other human factors may be blamed for shortages of water in the economy, but this has no bearing on the naturally occurring climate in the Pacific region. This means that even if the farms in California are relocated to other states as critics would suggests, the climatic drought will continue to persist. (Samenow)

Should the residents of California switch around their life styles to conform to a vegetarian diet, then this would undoubtedly conserve water for the state. However, just like the arguments against farming, this would not change the naturally dry climate that California has historically experienced on a regular basis. Such an action by the state residents would help fight against the effects caused by a drought, but this would not fix the drought itself. Considering this scenario, the living habits of California residents such as prolonged showers, water hose usage, and a meat based diet cannot be the blame for the drought. (Sobel)

The idea that Nestlé proposed in driving an increase in bottled water for the state would is actually an adequate counter measure to fight against the effects of the drought. Bottled water has been selling at stores in the state of California, as well as every other state and just about every other country, for decades. Producing plastic would not contribute to the natural factors causing the drought if done correctly through recycling and safeguards against air pollution. (Stephens)

While the drought in California can be dreadful for everyone, the blame should not be pointed at the actions of humans as they are not the cause of it. Farming, diet plans, and factory produced bottles of water do not have any bearing on what has already been proven to be a naturally occurring event. While these measures can contribute to the prospect of conserving water for the state, they are not to blame for the drought.

The aspects of the rhetorical situation that I felt I needed to change were the arguing elements that suggested should be blamed for the drought in the state of California. The reason I felt that I needed to change these factors in the rhetorical situations is because I viewed them from another perspective from the original. Where there were economic factors being used to fuel the argument, I saw the opportunity to use natural climatic factors to counter argue what the original claims were suggesting. After some research and use of economic logic, it became clear to me that the claims in the original argument were inaccurate and needed revision based on the extended research compelled by the counter claims. Where there was one perspective, I saw another to use as the basis of my new arguments concerning the drought in California.

They way that my changes affected each of the other aspects of the original argument were actually quite logical and compelling. The first factor I had to consider was what was actually causing the drought in California. I first needed to consider what constitutes a drought. After I concluded that the drought in California was a naturally occurring event based on my research, I then needed to counter argue each of the claims in the original argument piece by piece. First there was the issue of the process of farming and how it had an impact on the drought occurring in California. I knew that farming was an action executed by the works of humans. This was the basis of my argument and I used this to argue that farming would not change the climate in California. Next I had to analyze another human action in dieting. It was initially claimed that if all California residents were to switch to a vegetarian based diet, then this would contribute to eliminating the drought. My argument motioned that although a vegetarian based diet among residents would surely conserve water, it would not contribute to eliminating the climatic drought itself. Then there was the argument against the proposal of an increased supply of bottled water. I needed a way to argue that bottled water would actually be beneficial in fighting against the effects of the drought. I pointed out that bottled water had been a major part of the market for decades, and an increased supply would outweigh the minimal, if any, effects from the production of plastic.

Changing the rhetorical situation gave me a different perspective on the topic of the drought in California because I realized that there were many opportunities for counter arguments. Once I started to conduct research on my new arguments, I started to see a relation between both arguments. Although both arguments were driven by suggesting who or what to blame for the drought in California, they were based on different perspectives. The initial argument was based on an economic perspective, while the revised argument was based on a climatic perspective.

I learned from this writing process that in any argument, whatever claims are made, and whatever may be suggested, there is always an opposite perspective that can make counter claims against the initial argument. It is all a matter of which side has the most facts. Even in a case there one side of the argument has more facts, that argument may still be subjected to interpretation based on the perspective.

Works cited

Rice, Doyle. Causes of Calif. drought natural, not man-made: NOAA. 8 December 2014. 18 May 2015 <http://www.usatoday.com/story/weather/2014/12/08/california-drought-cause-noaa/20095869/>.

Samenow, Jason. Hot hands: Fingerprints of climate change all over California drought. 2 April 2015. 18 May 2015 <http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/capital-weather-gang/wp/2015/04/02/hot-hands-fingerprints-of-climate-change-all-over-california-drought/>.

Sobel, Adam. Did climate change cause California drought? 2015. 18 May 2015 <http://edition.cnn.com/2015/04/08/opinions/sobel-california-drought/>.

Stephens, Rachel. Plastics, human health and environmental impacts: The road ahead – See more at: http://journalistsresource.org/studies/environment/pollution-environment/plastics-environmental-health-literature-review#sthash.3XhAQeBU.dpuf. 9 October 2014. 18 May 2015 <http://journalistsresource.org/studies/environment/pollution-environment/plastics-environmental-health-literature-review>.

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Book cover

Parched - The Cape Town Drought Story pp 281–285 Cite as

  • Gisela Kaiser 2  
  • First Online: 26 October 2021

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The drought was caused by three years of exceptionally low rainfall, with a combined return period estimated at 590 years translating to a probability of occurrence of less than 0.2%. The severity of the water shortage was intensified by the failure to adhere to the system operating rules, resulting in dam levels ending up significantly lower than should have been the case. Deterioration in relationships both within the Cape Town municipality as well as amongst the different spheres of government involved in water supply had a tangible negative impact on the drought response. Water was politicised to the extent that factual information was mostly ignored and drought interventions weaponised. For a period, Cape Town unwisely accepted responsibility for water supply beyond its legal mandate, thereby seemingly absolving national government, and then produced a remedial plan that was never workable. This resulted in an ill-afforded distraction. The message to the public was that the City had it in hand, while creating a flurry of activity tying up the municipality’s limited resources instead of adhering to practical time-tested drought management interventions. Eventually political conflict culminated in changed leadership of the drought management effort, allowing for a rational focus to be restored. In the end, the close-to-average rainfall experienced in 2018 saved the day by boosting dam storage levels to above three-quarters of capacity and provided the region with some respite to implement preparatory strategies prior to the next, inevitable drought.

Water sustains all –Thales of Miletus

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McKenzie R (2018) Why intermittent supplies are no answer to cities hit by drought. International Water Association, The Source: August 2018. Available at: http://www.wrp.co.za/sites/default/files/event_attachments/The%20Source_August%202018_%20Ronnie%20McKenzie.pdf . Accessed Jan 2021

Van der Merwe M (2017) Hell or high water: face to face with Patricia de Lille and the battle to stave off Day Zero. Daily Maverick, 16 November 2017. Available at: https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2017-11-16-hell-or-high-water-face-to-face-with-patricia-de-lille-and-the-battle-to-stave-off-day-zero/ . Accessed Jan 2021

Wallace-Wells D (2019) The uninhabitable earth: a story for the future. Allen Lane, London

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  • How to conclude an essay | Interactive example

How to Conclude an Essay | Interactive Example

Published on January 24, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on July 23, 2023.

The conclusion is the final paragraph of your essay . A strong conclusion aims to:

  • Tie together the essay’s main points
  • Show why your argument matters
  • Leave the reader with a strong impression

Your conclusion should give a sense of closure and completion to your argument, but also show what new questions or possibilities it has opened up.

This conclusion is taken from our annotated essay example , which discusses the history of the Braille system. Hover over each part to see why it’s effective.

Braille paved the way for dramatic cultural changes in the way blind people were treated and the opportunities available to them. Louis Braille’s innovation was to reimagine existing reading systems from a blind perspective, and the success of this invention required sighted teachers to adapt to their students’ reality instead of the other way around. In this sense, Braille helped drive broader social changes in the status of blindness. New accessibility tools provide practical advantages to those who need them, but they can also change the perspectives and attitudes of those who do not.

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Table of contents

Step 1: return to your thesis, step 2: review your main points, step 3: show why it matters, what shouldn’t go in the conclusion, more examples of essay conclusions, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about writing an essay conclusion.

To begin your conclusion, signal that the essay is coming to an end by returning to your overall argument.

Don’t just repeat your thesis statement —instead, try to rephrase your argument in a way that shows how it has been developed since the introduction.

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

Next, remind the reader of the main points that you used to support your argument.

Avoid simply summarizing each paragraph or repeating each point in order; try to bring your points together in a way that makes the connections between them clear. The conclusion is your final chance to show how all the paragraphs of your essay add up to a coherent whole.

To wrap up your conclusion, zoom out to a broader view of the topic and consider the implications of your argument. For example:

  • Does it contribute a new understanding of your topic?
  • Does it raise new questions for future study?
  • Does it lead to practical suggestions or predictions?
  • Can it be applied to different contexts?
  • Can it be connected to a broader debate or theme?

Whatever your essay is about, the conclusion should aim to emphasize the significance of your argument, whether that’s within your academic subject or in the wider world.

Try to end with a strong, decisive sentence, leaving the reader with a lingering sense of interest in your topic.

The easiest way to improve your conclusion is to eliminate these common mistakes.

Don’t include new evidence

Any evidence or analysis that is essential to supporting your thesis statement should appear in the main body of the essay.

The conclusion might include minor pieces of new information—for example, a sentence or two discussing broader implications, or a quotation that nicely summarizes your central point. But it shouldn’t introduce any major new sources or ideas that need further explanation to understand.

Don’t use “concluding phrases”

Avoid using obvious stock phrases to tell the reader what you’re doing:

  • “In conclusion…”
  • “To sum up…”

These phrases aren’t forbidden, but they can make your writing sound weak. By returning to your main argument, it will quickly become clear that you are concluding the essay—you shouldn’t have to spell it out.

Don’t undermine your argument

Avoid using apologetic phrases that sound uncertain or confused:

  • “This is just one approach among many.”
  • “There are good arguments on both sides of this issue.”
  • “There is no clear answer to this problem.”

Even if your essay has explored different points of view, your own position should be clear. There may be many possible approaches to the topic, but you want to leave the reader convinced that yours is the best one!

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  • Argumentative
  • Literary analysis

This conclusion is taken from an argumentative essay about the internet’s impact on education. It acknowledges the opposing arguments while taking a clear, decisive position.

The internet has had a major positive impact on the world of education; occasional pitfalls aside, its value is evident in numerous applications. The future of teaching lies in the possibilities the internet opens up for communication, research, and interactivity. As the popularity of distance learning shows, students value the flexibility and accessibility offered by digital education, and educators should fully embrace these advantages. The internet’s dangers, real and imaginary, have been documented exhaustively by skeptics, but the internet is here to stay; it is time to focus seriously on its potential for good.

This conclusion is taken from a short expository essay that explains the invention of the printing press and its effects on European society. It focuses on giving a clear, concise overview of what was covered in the essay.

The invention of the printing press was important not only in terms of its immediate cultural and economic effects, but also in terms of its major impact on politics and religion across Europe. In the century following the invention of the printing press, the relatively stationary intellectual atmosphere of the Middle Ages gave way to the social upheavals of the Reformation and the Renaissance. A single technological innovation had contributed to the total reshaping of the continent.

This conclusion is taken from a literary analysis essay about Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein . It summarizes what the essay’s analysis achieved and emphasizes its originality.

By tracing the depiction of Frankenstein through the novel’s three volumes, I have demonstrated how the narrative structure shifts our perception of the character. While the Frankenstein of the first volume is depicted as having innocent intentions, the second and third volumes—first in the creature’s accusatory voice, and then in his own voice—increasingly undermine him, causing him to appear alternately ridiculous and vindictive. Far from the one-dimensional villain he is often taken to be, the character of Frankenstein is compelling because of the dynamic narrative frame in which he is placed. In this frame, Frankenstein’s narrative self-presentation responds to the images of him we see from others’ perspectives. This conclusion sheds new light on the novel, foregrounding Shelley’s unique layering of narrative perspectives and its importance for the depiction of character.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

  • Ad hominem fallacy
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Your essay’s conclusion should contain:

  • A rephrased version of your overall thesis
  • A brief review of the key points you made in the main body
  • An indication of why your argument matters

The conclusion may also reflect on the broader implications of your argument, showing how your ideas could applied to other contexts or debates.

For a stronger conclusion paragraph, avoid including:

  • Important evidence or analysis that wasn’t mentioned in the main body
  • Generic concluding phrases (e.g. “In conclusion…”)
  • Weak statements that undermine your argument (e.g. “There are good points on both sides of this issue.”)

Your conclusion should leave the reader with a strong, decisive impression of your work.

The conclusion paragraph of an essay is usually shorter than the introduction . As a rule, it shouldn’t take up more than 10–15% of the text.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

McCombes, S. (2023, July 23). How to Conclude an Essay | Interactive Example. Scribbr. Retrieved February 22, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/academic-essay/conclusion/

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Essay on Drought for Children and Students

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Table of Contents

Drought is a condition when there are no rains for a long period of time. The occurrence of drought is a common sight in many parts of the country. The consequences of this condition are drastic and many times irreversible. Drought is the condition when certain parts of the world are deprived of rain for months or at times the entire season. There are several reasons that cause drought-like situations in different parts and prove to be fatal.

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Long and Short Essay on Drought in English

Here are some short and long essays on Drought of varying lengths to help you with the topic. You can choose any drought essay given below:

Drought Essay – 1 (200 words)

Drought which is marked by the absence of or low rain in a particular region for a long period of time occurs because of various reasons including global warming, deforestation and many other human activities. This climatic condition can cause disastrous impact on the environment as well as the living beings. Some of the effects of drought include failure of crops, financial loss, price rise and soil degradation.

Several Indian states have been hit by drought leading to mass destruction of crops and disruption of the normal functioning of the society. Many parts have even witnessed famine leading to the death of several people due to starvation. Looking at the adversities faced by people in such areas, the government of India has come up with various drought relief plans however a lot more needs to be done to control this problem and deal with its after effects.

Some of the solutions suggested in this direction are rainwater harvesting, recycling and reuse of water, controlling deforestation, sea water desalination, cloud seeding, growing more plants and trees, stopping overall waste of water. However, most of these cannot be achieved if the general public does not support the cause. Each one should thus take it as a responsibility to contribute his/ her bit to curb the problem.

Drought Essay – 2 (300 words)

Drought, which results in the shortage of water, is mainly caused due to lack of rainfall. The situation is problematic and can prove to be fatal for those living in the drought-affected areas. It is particularly a curse for the farmers as it destroys their crops. Continuous drought-like situation also leads to the soil becoming less fertile.

Causes of Drought

There are various factors that lead to drought. Here is a look at these causes in detail:

  • Deforestation

Deforestation is said to be one of the main causes of shortage of rainfall that leads to drought. Adequate amount of trees and vegetation is required on land to limit evaporation of water, store enough water on land and attract rainfall. Deforestation and construction of concrete buildings in their place has caused a major misbalance in the environment. It lowers the capacity of the soil to hold water and increases evaporation. Both these are a cause of low rainfall.

  • Low Surface Water Flow

Rivers and lakes are the main sources of surface water in various regions around the world. In extreme summers or because of usage of surface water for various human activities, the water in these sources dries down leading to drought.

  • Global Warming

The negative impact of global warming on the environment is known to all. Among other issues, the emission of greenhouse gases that results in the rise in earth’s temperature has resulted in the rise in evaporation. High temperature is also a cause of wildfires that worsens the drought-condition.

Apart from these, excessive irrigation is also one of the causes of drought as it drains the surface water.

Though the causes of drought are largely known and are mostly the result of misuse of water resources and other non-environmental friendly human activities, nothing much is being done to curb this problem. It is time the governments of various countries should join hands to overcome this global issue.

Drought Essay – 3 (400 words)

Drought occurs when a region receives no or less than the average amount of rainfall leading to water shortage, failure of crops and disruption of normal activities. Various factors such as global warming, deforestation and construction of buildings have given rise to drought.

Types of Droughts

While some areas are marked by complete absence of rain for a long period of time, others receive less than the average amount of precipitation, yet others might face drought for some part of the year – So the severity and type of drought varies from place to place and from time to time. Here is a look at the different types of droughts:

  • Meteorological Drought

When there is a reduction in rainfall in a region for a particular period – it can be for few days, months, seasons or year – it is said to be hit by meteorological drought. In India an area is said to be hit by meteorological drought when the annual rainfall is 75% less than the average rainfall.

  • Hydrological Drought

This is basically associated with the reduction in water. Hydrological droughts are often a result of two successive meteorological droughts. These are divided into two categories:

  • Surface Water Drought
  • Ground Water Drought
  • Soil Moisture Drought

As the name suggests, this situation involves inadequate soil moisture that hinders crop growth. This is an outcome of meteorological drought as it leads to lower water supply to soil and greater water loss due to evaporation.

  • Agricultural Drought

When the meteorological or hydrological droughts lead to negative impacts on the crop yield in a region, it is said to be hit by agricultural drought.

This is said to be the most severe drought situation. People in such regions do not get any access to food and there is mass starvation and devastation. The government needs to intervene in such a situation and food is supplied to these places from other places.

  • Socio-Economic Drought

This situation occurs when there is a decrease in the availability of food and loss of income due to the failure of crop and the social security and access to food for the people in such areas is at risk.

Drought is a difficult situation to deal with especially if the severity is high. Several people are affected due to drought each year. While the occurrence of drought is a natural phenomenon, we can certainly reduce the human activities that lead to such a situation. Government must also come up with effective measures to deal with its after effects.

Drought Essay – 4 (500 words)

Drought, a condition that occurs due to no or very low rainfall, has been classified into different categories including meteorological drought, famine, socio-economic drought, hydrological drought and agricultural drought. Whatever be the type of drought, it disturbs the normal functioning of the regions affected.

Impacts of Drought

The regions hit by drought take a good amount of time to recover from the disaster caused, particularly if the severity of the drought is high. Drought disrupts the day-to-day lives of the people and has a widespread impact on various sectors. Here is how this natural disaster impacts the lives of the people living in the affected region:

  • Agricultural Loss

A major impact occurs on the agriculture and other related sectors as these are directly dependent on the ground and surface water. Loss of crop yields, low rate of livestock production, rise in plant disease and wind erosion are some of the major impacts of drought.

  • Financial Loss for Farmers

Farmers are worst effected by drought. The crops in the drought hit areas do not yield and the farmers whose sole income is generated through farming are worst affected by this situation. In an attempt to make their ends meet, many farmers end up in debt. The cases of farmer suicides due to such situation are also common.

  • Wildlife at Risk

The cases of forest fires increase during droughts and this puts the wildlife population at high risk. Forests get burnt down and many wild animals end up losing life while others lose their shelter.

The prices of various cereals, fruits, vegetables rise because of low supply and high demand. The prices of food items such as jams, sauces and drinks that are produced from those particular fruits and vegetables also increase. In certain cases, goods are imported from other places to meet the demands of the people and hence the prices levied on the same are high. The retailers who offer goods and services to the farmers also face financial loss due to reduced business.

  • Degradation of Soil

The soil loses moisture due to continuous drought and its quality degrades. It takes a lot of time for some areas to regain the ability to yield crops.

  • Overall Impact on Environment

Damage is caused to various species of plants and animals, there is degradation of landscape quality and biodiversity is impacted. The quality of air and water is also affected due to drought. While some of these conditions are temporary others may last long and might even turn permanent.

  • Public Safety at Stake

Lack of food and increased prices of different commodities may give rise to crimes such as theft and this can put public safety at stake. Conflict may also occur between water users thereby causing tension among general public.

Drought Prone Countries

Some of the countries that are more prone to drought include Albania, Afghanistan, Armenia, Bahrain, Northeast parts of Brazil, Burma, Cuba, Morocco, Iran, China, Bangladesh, Botswana, Sudan, Uganda, Somalia, Eritrea and Ethiopia.

Drought is one of the most disastrous natural calamities. Famine, that is the most severe forms of drought, ends in major socio, economic and environmental loss for the regions affected.

Drought Essay – 5 (600 words)

Drought, a condition when certain regions are faced with scarcity of water due to low or no rainfall, has been the cause of several problems in India. There are many areas in the country that are hit by drought each year while others are faced with this condition occasionally. Drought is caused due to various factors such as deforestation, global warming and inadequate surface water and has severe impact on the lives of the people living in the affected areas as well as the general health of the environment.

Drought Prone Areas in India

Many regions in the country are hit by drought each year. Statistics reveal that approximately one-sixth of the total geographical area of the country that inhabits around 12% of the population is drought prone.

One of the most drought prone states in the country is Rajasthan. As many as eleven districts in this state are hit by drought. These regions receive scanty or no rainfall and have low level of ground water. Drought is also a common phenomenon in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Almost every district here is hit by drought each year.

Here is a look at some of the other regions in the country that face frequent drought:

  • Saurashtra and Kutch, Gujarat
  • Coimbatore in Kerala
  • Mirzapur Plateau and Palamu, Uttar Pradesh
  • Kalahandi, Orissa
  • Purulia, West Bengal
  • Tirunelveli District, South of Vaigai River, Tamil Nadu

Possible Solutions for Drought

  • Rain Water Harvesting

This is the technique of collecting and storing rainwater in tanks and natural reservoirs to use it later. Rain water harvesting must be made mandatory for all. The idea behind this is to put the available water to use.

  • Sea Water Desalination

Sea water desalination must be done so that the vast amount of water stored in the sea can be used for the purpose of irrigation and other agricultural activities. The government must make major investment in this direction.

  • Recycle Water

Waste water must be purified and recycled for reuse. This can be done in many ways. Small steps such as installing rain barrel, collecting the waste water from RO systems, usage of shower buckets, saving water from washing veggies and creating rain garden can help in this direction. The water collected by these means can be used to water the plants.

  • Cloud Seeding

Cloud seeding is done to modify weather. It is a way to increase the amount of precipitation. Potassium iodide, silver iodide and dry ice are some of the chemicals used for the purpose of cloud seeding. The government should invest in cloud seeding to avoid drought in the areas prone to this condition.

  • Plant More Trees

Deforestation and the building of concrete structures is one of the causes of scanty rainfall. Efforts must be made to plant more trees. This simple step can change the climatic conditions and also bring about other positive changes in the environment.

  • Water Usage

Each one should take it as a responsibility to stop the wastage of water so that there is availability of enough water even when during times of low rainfall. Government must take steps to keep a check on the usage of water.

  • Campaigns must be Run

The government must run campaigns stating the benefits of rain water harvesting, planting more trees and other measures that the general public can take to fight drought. This is a good way to spread awareness and control the problem.

Though the government has put certain drought relief plans in place however these are not enough to overcome the drastic problem of drought. It is important to take strong steps to avoid this problem. Everyone should contribute their bit to control this problem.

Related Information:

  • Essay on Flood
  • Paragraph on Flood
  • Essay on Loss of Biodiversity

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A Report on The Droughts

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Published: Oct 2, 2020

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The Chronicle

Duke no longer giving numerical rating to standardized testing, essays in undergraduate admissions

conclusion to drought essay

Duke is no longer giving essays and standardized testing scores numerical ratings in the undergraduate admissions process.

The change went into place this year, Dean of Undergraduate Admissions Christoph Guttentag wrote in an email to The Chronicle. He explained that essays are no longer receiving a score because of a rise in the use of generative artificial intelligence and college admissions consultants.

When asked about how the admissions office determines if an essay is AI-generated or written by consultants and if applicants are hurt if the office determines so, Guttentag answered that "there aren't simple answers to these questions." 

Despite the changes, Guttentag wrote that essays and standardized testing scores are still considered in the admissions process. 

“Essays are very much part of our understanding of the applicant, we’re just no longer assuming that the essay is an accurate reflection of the student’s actual writing ability,” he wrote. “Standardized tests (SAT or ACT) are considered when they’re submitted as part of the application.”

According to Guttentag, essays will now be used to “help understand the applicant as an individual rather, not just as a set of attributes and accomplishments.” He also wrote that the admissions office now values essays that give “insight into who the unique person is whose application we’re reading” and that “content and insight matter more than style.”

“Because of that they are not given a numerical rating, but considered as we think holistically about a candidate as a potential member of the Duke community,” he wrote. 

Previously, the Duke admissions office would assign numerical ratings of one to five on six different categories: curriculum strength, academics, recommendations, essays, extracurriculars and test scores. Applicants would then receive a total score out of 30 by adding up each category’s numerical rating.

According to Guttentag, the only categories given numerical ratings now are the four categories that remain: “the strength of a student’s curriculum, their grades in academic courses, their extracurricular activities and the letters of recommendation.”

“There are naturally many, many more factors that are taken into account when making admissions decisions — these are just a partial but useful way of thinking [of] applicants in the context of the pool as a whole,” he wrote. “I suppose it may be something similar to looking at a player’s various statistics, which only give you a partial picture of the player’s contribution to the team.”

Guttentag noted that historically, numerical ratings have been “valuable in helping to identify competitive applicants.”

Admissions processes for colleges across the country have seen changes and experimentation recently due to a variety of factors, most notably the Supreme Court’s overturning of race-based affirmative action in June 2023 and changes to standardized testing requirements due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

“The Supreme Court decision was absolutely not a factor in how we decided to approach essays,” Guttentag wrote. Duke remained test-optional for the 2023-24 admissions cycle. 

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Breaking News

Grossman murder trial nears conclusion: Here’s what you need to know

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Good morning. It’s Thursday, Feb. 22 . Here’s what you need to know to start your day.

  • Closing arguments conclude in the Rebecca Grossman trial; jury verdict looms
  • A new storm is brewing for SoCal next week
  • A Hollywood nightlife boom brings back one of L.A.’s oldest gay bars
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Did she commit murder?

The high-profile trial of Rebecca Grossman in the 2020 collision that killed Mark and Jacob Iskander, 11 and 8, at a Westlake Village crosswalk, approaches its conclusion after closing arguments Wednesday.

Soon, a jury will determine the Hidden Hills woman’s fate as she faces two counts of second-degree murder , two counts of vehicular manslaughter with gross negligence, and one count of hit-and-run driving resulting in death. If found guilty on all charges, she could face 34 years to life in prison.

Grossman, 60, was a prominent figure in the local community. Alongside her husband, Dr. Peter Grossman, she founded the Grossman Burn Foundation.

Times staff writer Richard Winton has covered the six-week trial that has included unsettling details, emotional outbursts and witness testimony. Here’s a recap of the case.

Grossman’s murder charge

To secure a second-degree murder conviction, prosecutors must prove that Grossman acted with implied malice — knowing her actions could be deadly but disregarding the risk.

She was not charged with driving under the influence. But prosecutors allege Grossman, 60, was impaired. They say she had cocktails with Scott Erickson , a former Dodgers pitcher, and then raced with him — he in his black Mercedes SUV and she in her white Mercedes SUV — along Triunfo Canyon Road until they reached a crosswalk where she fatally struck the Iskander brothers.

A breathalyzer test conducted at the scene revealed Grossman’s blood-alcohol level to be around 0.075%; a subsequent blood test conducted three hours later showed the level at 0.08%, California’s legal limit. Additionally, traces of Valium were found in her system, two criminalists testified.

The judge denied her legal team’s request to dismiss the murder charges, ruling prosecutors had presented enough evidence showing voluntary intoxication and driving at a high speed.

Prosecutors said in court she reached a speed of 81 mph before lightly braking, then slamming into the boys at 73 mph, sending one child flying into the air. After striking the children, she did not stop until safety features on her car shut it down, according to the prosecution.

A crash expert testified that Grossman could have avoided hitting the boys if she had been traveling the posted limit of 45 mph because they already would have been at the curb.

Prosecutors highlighted Grossman’s awareness of the deadly consequences of speeding, saying she was warned of the risks when she was ticketed for going 92 mph on the 101 Freeway in 2013.

The defense’s argument

Grossman’s defense team argued that Erickson — not Grossman — was the first to strike the boys. Crash reconstruction experts for the defense have testified that Erickson’s black Mercedes SUV hit the boys first, sending Mark over his vehicle and onto the hood of Grossman’s vehicle.

Erickson faced a misdemeanor count of reckless driving in connection with the fatal crash. That was dismissed after he made a public service announcement about the importance of safe driving.

During closing arguments Wednesday, defense attorneys continued to point the finger at Erickson . “If you have doubt that the black car hit one of those children, this case is over,” said Grossman’s lead attorney, Tony Buzbee.

Her attorney presented witnesses who testified that she drove responsibly, wasn’t impaired and traveled at no more than 52 mph. The defense also contends that the collision occurred outside the crosswalk.

Grossman informed the judge that she would not be testifying in the trial.

Alexis Grossman, her daughter, shared tearful testimony that bolstered the defense’s argument that Erickson was at fault.

After closing argument rebuttals, the case is expected to go to the jury Thursday.

Murder charges in car deaths are uncommon

California criminal law generally categorizes vehicular killings under manslaughter — “the unlawful killing of a human being without malice.”

Several law experts discussed why vehicular murder charges are a rarity with Essential California’s Ryan Fonseca in November.

Several notable instances of drivers facing murder charges have made headlines recently.

A nurse faces multiple murder charges in a high-speed crash that killed five people two years ago. Additionally, in October, a man was charged with four counts of murder after his involvement in a high-speed crash that killed four Pepperdine students along Pacific Coast Highway.

The critical distinction between murder and manslaughter lies in the prosecutor’s ability to prove intent. Murder is described as a deliberate act, while manslaughter typically involves recklessness or negligence.

Prosecutors can charge someone with murder if it is believed they acted with implied malice, such as drunk driving, according to the California Supreme Court .

County prosecutors evaluate each incident “on a case-by-case basis,” the district attorney’s office said, with determining factors including:

  • Speed (and speed limit)
  • Driving pattern
  • Location of the incident (residential versus commercial, surface streets versus freeways, school zones)
  • Driving under the influence
  • Driving history
  • Driver’s prior warning history

Today’s top stories

A view of Badwater Basin in Death Valley National Park from July 2023 to February 2024

Climate and environment

  • After heavy storms, Death Valley is now open to kayakers: The return of ghostly Lake Manly.
  • It’s not just toxic chemicals. Radioactive waste was also dumped off Los Angeles coast .
  • ‘Snow drought’ eases as storms bring California near-average water supplies.
  • Epic downgrade: Hilary was not a tropical storm when it pummeled California, experts say.

Crime and courts

  • A judge again dismisses charges against members of a California white nationalist group .
  • A Riverside County pastor was arrested on child sexual assault charges .
  • A criminal case over handwritten lyrics to ‘Hotel California’ goes to trial.
  • A California bill proposes new standards for court-ordered parenting classes after Times investigation.
  • The ‘Rust’ movie shooting trial begins after a bumpy road to prosecution.

More big stories

  • The rain’s not over yet — a new storm is brewing for SoCal next week . How much rain could we get?
  • Biden, at a Los Angeles fundraiser, says the 2024 election offers a stark choice .
  • Capital One will acquire Discover for $35.3 billion. What does the deal mean for you?
  • Single-payer healthcare is a ‘tough, tough sell’ as California faces $73-billiion deficit .
  • Hold ’em! Beyoncé makes history as she tops Billboard’s country-music chart.
  • Thirteen pit bulls were euthanized , including eight puppies, after the owner is mauled to death.
  • Oversight investigators find deputy gang ‘logo’ outside the Los Angeles women’s jail.
  • California’s streak of female senators may be ending — and women appear to be a reason.
  • Jason Reitman and a group of directors have bought Westwood’s iconic Village Theater .

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Commentary and opinions

  • Jackie Calmes: I watched a Trump rally so you don’t have to . But you need to know what he’s saying.
  • LZ Granderson: On the economy, there’s no comparison between Biden and Trump .
  • Editorial: Let the Dodger gondola take flight . L.A. needs more transit options.
  • Mark Z. Barabak: Who needs passion or drama? Adam Schiff tries bland and steady in California U.S. Senate race .

Today’s great reads

A woman topless and head cropped. A black bar covers her chest and reads, "Ozempic is the hottest trend in weight loss."

The new beauty regimen: Lose weight with Ozempic, tighten up with cosmetic surgery . Patients taking Ozempic and other trendy injectables are going under the knife to correct the side effects of rapid weight loss, which include sagging skin, hollow cheeks and an aged appearance.

Other great reads

  • These entertainment workers could barely make rent. A Hollywood housing complex offers relief .
  • ‘Dune: Part Two’ stirs its sands darkly , deepening a sci-fi masterpiece in our midst.
  • Inside the NHL’s push to recruit Latino hockey fans and grow the game.

How can we make this newsletter more useful? Send comments to [email protected] .

For your downtime

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  • 💆🏽 These viral L.A. ‘head spas’ will show you what’s been hiding in your scalp (Ew!)
  • 🏳️‍🌈The Spotlight was one of L.A.’s oldest gay bars. A Hollywood nightlife boom brought it back .
  • 🎮 Starting Thursday, Lady Gaga will be the face of “Fortnite Festival,” a spinoff rhythm game that launched late last year.
  • 🍊🍋 Here are six peak-season citrus recipes .
  • ✏️ Get our free daily crossword puzzle, sudoku, word search and arcade games .

And finally ... from our archives

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On this day 44 years ago , the underdog U.S. hockey team defeated the four-time defending gold medal-winning Soviet team at the Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, N.Y.

For the 40th anniversary of the historic win, The Times’ Helene Elliott wrote about how the tournament still has a lot of meaning to players and fans .

Have a great day, from the Essential California team

Anthony De Leon, reporting fellow Kevinisha Walker, multiplatform editor Stephanie Chavez, deputy metro editor

Check our top stories , topics and the latest articles on latimes.com .

conclusion to drought essay

Anthony De Leon is a 2023-24 reporting fellow at the Los Angeles Times. Born in Fresno to a Chicano family, he pursued his higher education in his hometown, earning an associate‘s degree in journalism from Fresno City College and then completing a bachelor’s in media, communications and journalism at Fresno State. He went on to complete his master’s in media innovation at the University of Nevada, Reno.

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Castaic, CA - February 22: An aerial view of equipment where contaminated or polluted water is being extracted to fill roughly 100 metal storage containers, holding up to 20,000 gallons each as the result of an underground landfill fire at Chiquita Canyon Landfill in Castaic Thursday, Feb. 22, 2024. Around 200,000 gallons of the contaminated water is coming out of the landfill each day. Environmental regulators have found elevated levels of cancer causing Benzine in the polluted water spilling onto the surface of the landfill. Landfill operators are also constructing a drainage system to capture the contaminated water that is spilling onto the surface and proactively pumping the water. Residents of Val Verde and Castaic are protesting to call for Chiquita Canyon Landfill to be closed in Hasley Canyon Park in Castaic. Garbage has been burning deep inside the landfill due to a chemical reaction for much of the past year, and recently scalding-hot contaminated water has surged to the surface. The protest follows calls from the County Supervisor Kathryn Barger's office, which said the landfill should provide funds to relocate residents who want to temporarily move until the issue is resolved. (Allen J. Schaben / Los Angeles Times)

Climate & Environment

EPA orders action at Chiquita Canyon landfill, says leaks pose imminent endangerment to nearby communities

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Reddit Files to Go Public, in First Social Media I.P.O. in Years

The message board site, founded in 2005, detailed its financial performance in a filing. It is the last of an early generation of social media companies to aim for a public offering.

A hallway with the word “reddit” and the company’s symbol taking up a large wall.

By Mike Isaac

Mike Isaac has covered Reddit and social media companies since 2010 from San Francisco.

Reddit, the community-focused message board site, filed to go public on Thursday, paving the way for it to be the first major social media company to debut on the stock market in years and a test for private companies after a drought in initial public offerings.

In an offering prospectus , Reddit disclosed its financial performance in preparation for selling shares to investors. The San Francisco-based company reported that its revenue rose more than 20 percent as its losses narrowed last year. It added that it had 73 million daily users and more than 100,000 active communities.

The prospectus kicks off a process to the stock market, with the 18-year-old company set to meet potential investors to whet their appetites for buying its shares. Reddit could go public on the New York Stock Exchange in a matter of weeks under the stock symbol RDDT.

Reddit’s bankers are seeking a valuation of at least $5 billion in its I.P.O., according to two people familiar with the matter. That is roughly half of the $10 billion valuation the company fetched in a 2021 private financing round. The talks are continuing, and the price could still rise or fall in the weeks ahead.

Reddit is the last of an earlier generation of social media companies to aim for the stock market, after Facebook’s high-profile offering in 2012 , Twitter’s in 2013 and Snap’s in 2017 . In the years since, the social media industry has changed, facing scrutiny for misinformation, hate speech and other effects. Some of the companies have shifted directions; Facebook was renamed Meta, and Twitter was bought by Elon Musk , who took the company private in 2022 and renamed it X.

Reddit’s move is also highly anticipated after a lull in initial public offerings. Just 108 companies went public in the United States last year, roughly a quarter of the number that debuted in 2021, according to data compiled by Renaissance Capital. Some of the biggest tech offerings last year were Arm, a chip designer , and Instacart , a grocery delivery company.

“We are going public to advance our mission and become a stronger company,” Steve Huffman, Reddit’s chief executive, said in a founder’s letter included in the prospectus. “We hope going public will provide meaningful benefits to our community as well. Our users have a deep sense of ownership over the communities they create on Reddit.”

Mr. Huffman added that the company wanted “this sense of ownership to be reflected in real ownership — for our users to be our owners” and that “becoming a public company makes this possible.” Reddit said it would reserve a chunk of its shares at the I.P.O. price for 75,000 of the company’s most prolific users if they wished to purchase them.

In its prospectus, Reddit said revenue in 2023 was $804 million, up about 21 percent from $666 million a year earlier. The company lost $90 million in 2023, compared with a $158 million loss the year before, according to the prospectus.

Some of its largest shareholders include Advance Magazine Publishers, Tencent Cloud Europe, Vy Capital, Fidelity Management, and Sam Altman, a former Reddit board member and the chief executive of OpenAI.

Reddit’s path to the public markets has been long and rocky. Founded in a University of Virginia dorm room in 2005 by Mr. Huffman and Alexis Ohanian, the site began as a destination for anonymous users to come together and discuss anything from popular TV shows, to guitars, makeup and power washers.

The site was unique in that it largely focused on tightknit communities, mostly anonymous, all moderated by volunteers who self-governed their forums, or “subreddits,” based on rules of their own making. It became known for “A.M.A.s,” otherwise known as the “ask me anything” sessions, sometimes with public figures like former President Barack Obama, Microsoft’s Bill Gates and the actor Nicolas Cage.

The company raised hundreds of millions of dollars in funding over the years, including $250 million and more than $410 million in two financing rounds in 2021. Investors include Fidelity Investments, Andreessen Horowitz, Sequoia Capital and Tencent Holdings.

Like other early social networking efforts, Reddit initially eschewed offering advertising and making money. It instead focused on forms of revenue that came from community ideas, like a user-generated e-commerce system and awards that users could buy one another. Those ideas are still in play.

Reddit eventually embraced advertising based on its topic-focused communities. Brands like Laneige, for instance, targeted ads to a forum called Makeup Addiction, one of the most active subreddits, in which users discuss cosmetics and how to apply them.

The site has also built an emerging data licensing business based on its enormous corpus of conversation data, which has become increasingly important amid a frenzy over artificial intelligence. A.I. models are trained on gobs of such data so that they can become more powerful. On Thursday, Reddit announced a licensing deal with Google, which has used Reddit data to train and build its A.I. systems.

“We expect our data advantage and intellectual property to continue to be a key element in the training of” future A.I. models, Mr. Huffman said in the letter. The company has a number of undisclosed licensing agreements to use its data and expects to make upward of $203 million over the next three years from those contracts, according to the filing.

The site has had its share of struggles. It faced controversy after controversy over its refusal to moderate communities in its early years, including its role in spreading misinformation during the Boston Marathon bombing in 2013 , and hosting racist and misogynistic content in some of its smaller subreddits. Last year, Reddit faced a user revolt after changing some of its rules and restricting third-party developers from using the site’s content without paying for it.

Reddit has reversed its position on moderation and has updated and more strictly enforced its policies in recent years, making it more attractive for marketers to place advertising across the site.

The company also had a revolving door of leaders in its first decade, being helmed by four chief executives before Mr. Huffman returned to lead the site in 2015 .

Reddit cautioned potential investors that it faced challenges and potential risks as a public company, including the rise of large language models, the underlying A.I. systems that could potentially aggregate and synthesize the site’s content and let users view Reddit without visiting the site or seeing advertising.

The company may also face difficulty courting brands in a digital ad market dominated by Meta and Google.

“Reddit may face a daunting challenge in growing its advertising business, given the gap between its platform’s capabilities and those that are best in class,” said Eric Seufert, an independent mobile analyst who closely monitors social media companies and advertising.

The company also warned that it was heavily dependent on its community for moderating the platform, and that future revolts or departures could harm the site.

“We have many opportunities and much to do,” Mr. Huffman said.

Lauren Hirsch contributed reporting from New York.

Mike Isaac is a technology correspondent for The Times based in San Francisco. He regularly covers Facebook and Silicon Valley. More about Mike Isaac

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Illustration shows ChatGPT logo and AI Artificial Intelligence words

How to get away with AI-generated essays

Prof Paul Kleiman on putting ChatGPT to the test on his work. Plus letters from Michael Bulley and Dr Paul Flewers

No wonder Robert Topinka found himself in a quandary ( The software says my student cheated using AI. They say they’re innocent. Who do I believe?, 13 February ). To test ChatGPT’s abilities and weaknesses, I asked it to write a short essay on a particular topic that I specialised in. Before looking at what it produced, I wrote my own 100% original short essay on the same topic. I then submitted both pieces to ChatGPT and asked it to identify whether they were written by AI or a human. It immediately identified the first piece as AI-generated. But then it also said that my essay “was probably generated by AI”.

I concluded that if you write well, in logical, appropriate and grammatically correct English, then the chances are that it will be deemed to be AI-generated. To avoid detection, write badly. Prof Paul Kleiman Truro, Cornwall

Robert Topinka gets into a twist about whether his student’s essay was genuine or produced by AI. The obvious solution is for such work not to contribute to the final degree qualification. Then there would be no point in cheating.

Let there be real chat between teachers and students rather than ChatGPT , and let the degree be decided only by exams, with surprise questions, done in an exam room with pen and paper, and not a computer in sight. Michael Bulley Chalon-sur-Saône, France

Dr Robert Topinka overlooks a crucial factor with respect to student cheating – so long as a degree is a requirement to obtain a reasonable job, then chicanery is inevitable. When I left school at 16 in the early 1970s, an administrative job could be had with a few O-levels; when I finished my PhD two decades ago and was looking for that sort of job, each one required A-levels, and often a degree. I was a mature student, studying for my own edification, and so cheating was self-defeating. Cheating will stop being a major problem only when students attend university primarily to learn for the sake of learning and not as a means of gaining employment. Dr Paul Flewers London

  • Artificial intelligence (AI)
  • Higher education
  • Universities

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  4. Essays on Drought

    1 page / 630 words In this paper we will be discussing what, how, and why a drought occurs and what we can do to prevent and stop these droughts and not lose all of our valuable resources. Also going to talk about how it damages the environment and how... Drought Environmental Issues 2 Causes and Consequences of Drought in South Africa: Cape Town

  5. Essay on Drought: Top 9 Essays

    Essay # 1. Introduction to Drought: Since time immemorial, mankind has lived under the threat of natural disasters. Amongst various hazards of nature, drought is the most disastrous. In the past, India had been a frequent victim of disastrous droughts, which resulted in famine deaths of large members of human and livestock. ADVERTISEMENTS:

  6. Essay on Drought for Students

    Students are often asked to write an essay on Drought in their schools and colleges. And if you're also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic. Let's take a look… 100 Words Essay on Drought Understanding Drought. Drought is a natural event that happens when an area gets less rain than ...

  7. Essay on Drought for Students and Children

    - 2022-01-20 Essay on Drought for Students and Children - Types, Causes, Prevention Steps: Drought is one of both human and natural made disasters. The main cause to occur drought is the human activities around the area's environmental conditions. The more damage to the environment the more is the chance of rising to droughts.

  8. OVERVIEW AND CONCLUSIONS

    Suggested Citation:"OVERVIEW AND CONCLUSIONS." National Research Council. 1986. Drought Management and Its Impact on Public Water Systems: Report on a Colloquium Sponsored by the Water Science and Technology Board: Colloquium 1 of a Series. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21286.

  9. Economic, Environmental and Social Impacts of Drought

    Impact. The drought has an impact on many aspects of human beings because water is an important part of human existence. Economically, the impact of the drought is on personal or corporate property. For example, due to drought, the decline in crop yields and an increase in the cost of raising livestock, lead to losses for farmers.

  10. Drought Essay

    In conclusion, tackling a drought essay requires a combination of in-depth research, effective organization, and a nuanced approach to presenting complex information. It demands a careful balance between scientific rigor and accessibility, making it a challenging yet rewarding endeavor for writers. For those seeking assistance with essays on ...

  11. Drought Essays: Examples, Topics, & Outlines

    California Drought. PAGES 2 WORDS 833. The drought in California is a maddening study in contradictions. The state is an epicenter for drought even as other parts of the United States are awash in rain. At the same time, many of the people of California are subject to strict very strict conditions on the use of water.

  12. Drought Essay

    Droughts are very problematic, because they can lead to fire hazards, low food cropping, and many other things. Drought is the absents or shortage of water and water is an absolute must have in the world. There are so many problems because of drought and people need to find. 1736 Words.

  13. The Dust Bowl Disaster: America's Great Drought

    The Dust Bowl, also known as the Dirty Thirties, was a period of severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the American and Canadian prairies during the 1930s; severe drought and a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion (the Aeolian processes) caused the phenomenon.

  14. Drought In African Countries: Effects And Possible Solutions: [Essay

    Analysis Of Mechanisms To Tolerate The Drought Stress In Plants Essay. Drought stress is one of the most threatened environmental stresses to mankind. It is the most serious stress which limits the agricultural growth and its development and further leads to a great threat to world food security.

  15. The History of Drought in Cape Town Essay (Critical Writing)

    The History of Drought in Cape Town Essay (Critical Writing) Cape Town is a coastal city in South Africa. With a population of 433,688, it is one of the most populated places in the country (DeyàTortella and Tirado 2011. This paper reviews the literature on the history of the drought, causes, and the effect on tourism.

  16. Essay on Drought for Children and Students

    Drought Essay - 1 (200 words) Drought which is marked by the absence of or low rain in a particular region for a long period of time occurs because of various reasons including global warming, deforestation and many other human activities. This climatic condition can cause disastrous impact on the environment as well as the living beings.

  17. California Drought, Essay Example

    A drought is the absence of natural forms of water such as precipitation and loss of water from natural bodies through an increase in evaporation. Now although a drought may contribute to an economic shortage of water, the drought itself cannot be the blame for the shortage.

  18. Conclusion

    Gisela Kaiser Chapter First Online: 26 October 2021 134 Accesses Abstract The drought was caused by three years of exceptionally low rainfall, with a combined return period estimated at 590 years translating to a probability of occurrence of less than 0.2%.

  19. How to Conclude an Essay

    Step 1: Return to your thesis To begin your conclusion, signal that the essay is coming to an end by returning to your overall argument. Don't just repeat your thesis statement —instead, try to rephrase your argument in a way that shows how it has been developed since the introduction. Example: Returning to the thesis

  20. The Impact of Drought in South Africa Essay

    Conclusion: The Way Forward Introduction to Drought in Africa Water shortages are a major threat globally but their impact is more severe in Africa in general and in Sub-Saharan Africa in particular.

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  22. Essay on Drought for Children and Students in English

    Conclusion. Drought is one of the most disastrous natural calamities. Famine, that is the most severe forms of drought, ends in major socio, economic and environmental loss for the regions affected. Drought Essay - 5 (600 words)

  23. A Report On The Droughts: [Essay Example], 630 words

    Droughts are one of the major things that damage the environment because, plants need water to survive along with animals and if a drought comes along then that limited source of water will disappear due to animals and plants using it and will run out and have nothing to live on.

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