• Privacy Policy

Buy Me a Coffee

Research Method

Home » Research Findings – Types Examples and Writing Guide

Research Findings – Types Examples and Writing Guide

Table of Contents

Research Findings

Research Findings

Definition:

Research findings refer to the results obtained from a study or investigation conducted through a systematic and scientific approach. These findings are the outcomes of the data analysis, interpretation, and evaluation carried out during the research process.

Types of Research Findings

There are two main types of research findings:

Qualitative Findings

Qualitative research is an exploratory research method used to understand the complexities of human behavior and experiences. Qualitative findings are non-numerical and descriptive data that describe the meaning and interpretation of the data collected. Examples of qualitative findings include quotes from participants, themes that emerge from the data, and descriptions of experiences and phenomena.

Quantitative Findings

Quantitative research is a research method that uses numerical data and statistical analysis to measure and quantify a phenomenon or behavior. Quantitative findings include numerical data such as mean, median, and mode, as well as statistical analyses such as t-tests, ANOVA, and regression analysis. These findings are often presented in tables, graphs, or charts.

Both qualitative and quantitative findings are important in research and can provide different insights into a research question or problem. Combining both types of findings can provide a more comprehensive understanding of a phenomenon and improve the validity and reliability of research results.

Parts of Research Findings

Research findings typically consist of several parts, including:

  • Introduction: This section provides an overview of the research topic and the purpose of the study.
  • Literature Review: This section summarizes previous research studies and findings that are relevant to the current study.
  • Methodology : This section describes the research design, methods, and procedures used in the study, including details on the sample, data collection, and data analysis.
  • Results : This section presents the findings of the study, including statistical analyses and data visualizations.
  • Discussion : This section interprets the results and explains what they mean in relation to the research question(s) and hypotheses. It may also compare and contrast the current findings with previous research studies and explore any implications or limitations of the study.
  • Conclusion : This section provides a summary of the key findings and the main conclusions of the study.
  • Recommendations: This section suggests areas for further research and potential applications or implications of the study’s findings.

How to Write Research Findings

Writing research findings requires careful planning and attention to detail. Here are some general steps to follow when writing research findings:

  • Organize your findings: Before you begin writing, it’s essential to organize your findings logically. Consider creating an outline or a flowchart that outlines the main points you want to make and how they relate to one another.
  • Use clear and concise language : When presenting your findings, be sure to use clear and concise language that is easy to understand. Avoid using jargon or technical terms unless they are necessary to convey your meaning.
  • Use visual aids : Visual aids such as tables, charts, and graphs can be helpful in presenting your findings. Be sure to label and title your visual aids clearly, and make sure they are easy to read.
  • Use headings and subheadings: Using headings and subheadings can help organize your findings and make them easier to read. Make sure your headings and subheadings are clear and descriptive.
  • Interpret your findings : When presenting your findings, it’s important to provide some interpretation of what the results mean. This can include discussing how your findings relate to the existing literature, identifying any limitations of your study, and suggesting areas for future research.
  • Be precise and accurate : When presenting your findings, be sure to use precise and accurate language. Avoid making generalizations or overstatements and be careful not to misrepresent your data.
  • Edit and revise: Once you have written your research findings, be sure to edit and revise them carefully. Check for grammar and spelling errors, make sure your formatting is consistent, and ensure that your writing is clear and concise.

Research Findings Example

Following is a Research Findings Example sample for students:

Title: The Effects of Exercise on Mental Health

Sample : 500 participants, both men and women, between the ages of 18-45.

Methodology : Participants were divided into two groups. The first group engaged in 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise five times a week for eight weeks. The second group did not exercise during the study period. Participants in both groups completed a questionnaire that assessed their mental health before and after the study period.

Findings : The group that engaged in regular exercise reported a significant improvement in mental health compared to the control group. Specifically, they reported lower levels of anxiety and depression, improved mood, and increased self-esteem.

Conclusion : Regular exercise can have a positive impact on mental health and may be an effective intervention for individuals experiencing symptoms of anxiety or depression.

Applications of Research Findings

Research findings can be applied in various fields to improve processes, products, services, and outcomes. Here are some examples:

  • Healthcare : Research findings in medicine and healthcare can be applied to improve patient outcomes, reduce morbidity and mortality rates, and develop new treatments for various diseases.
  • Education : Research findings in education can be used to develop effective teaching methods, improve learning outcomes, and design new educational programs.
  • Technology : Research findings in technology can be applied to develop new products, improve existing products, and enhance user experiences.
  • Business : Research findings in business can be applied to develop new strategies, improve operations, and increase profitability.
  • Public Policy: Research findings can be used to inform public policy decisions on issues such as environmental protection, social welfare, and economic development.
  • Social Sciences: Research findings in social sciences can be used to improve understanding of human behavior and social phenomena, inform public policy decisions, and develop interventions to address social issues.
  • Agriculture: Research findings in agriculture can be applied to improve crop yields, develop new farming techniques, and enhance food security.
  • Sports : Research findings in sports can be applied to improve athlete performance, reduce injuries, and develop new training programs.

When to use Research Findings

Research findings can be used in a variety of situations, depending on the context and the purpose. Here are some examples of when research findings may be useful:

  • Decision-making : Research findings can be used to inform decisions in various fields, such as business, education, healthcare, and public policy. For example, a business may use market research findings to make decisions about new product development or marketing strategies.
  • Problem-solving : Research findings can be used to solve problems or challenges in various fields, such as healthcare, engineering, and social sciences. For example, medical researchers may use findings from clinical trials to develop new treatments for diseases.
  • Policy development : Research findings can be used to inform the development of policies in various fields, such as environmental protection, social welfare, and economic development. For example, policymakers may use research findings to develop policies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Program evaluation: Research findings can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of programs or interventions in various fields, such as education, healthcare, and social services. For example, educational researchers may use findings from evaluations of educational programs to improve teaching and learning outcomes.
  • Innovation: Research findings can be used to inspire or guide innovation in various fields, such as technology and engineering. For example, engineers may use research findings on materials science to develop new and innovative products.

Purpose of Research Findings

The purpose of research findings is to contribute to the knowledge and understanding of a particular topic or issue. Research findings are the result of a systematic and rigorous investigation of a research question or hypothesis, using appropriate research methods and techniques.

The main purposes of research findings are:

  • To generate new knowledge : Research findings contribute to the body of knowledge on a particular topic, by adding new information, insights, and understanding to the existing knowledge base.
  • To test hypotheses or theories : Research findings can be used to test hypotheses or theories that have been proposed in a particular field or discipline. This helps to determine the validity and reliability of the hypotheses or theories, and to refine or develop new ones.
  • To inform practice: Research findings can be used to inform practice in various fields, such as healthcare, education, and business. By identifying best practices and evidence-based interventions, research findings can help practitioners to make informed decisions and improve outcomes.
  • To identify gaps in knowledge: Research findings can help to identify gaps in knowledge and understanding of a particular topic, which can then be addressed by further research.
  • To contribute to policy development: Research findings can be used to inform policy development in various fields, such as environmental protection, social welfare, and economic development. By providing evidence-based recommendations, research findings can help policymakers to develop effective policies that address societal challenges.

Characteristics of Research Findings

Research findings have several key characteristics that distinguish them from other types of information or knowledge. Here are some of the main characteristics of research findings:

  • Objective : Research findings are based on a systematic and rigorous investigation of a research question or hypothesis, using appropriate research methods and techniques. As such, they are generally considered to be more objective and reliable than other types of information.
  • Empirical : Research findings are based on empirical evidence, which means that they are derived from observations or measurements of the real world. This gives them a high degree of credibility and validity.
  • Generalizable : Research findings are often intended to be generalizable to a larger population or context beyond the specific study. This means that the findings can be applied to other situations or populations with similar characteristics.
  • Transparent : Research findings are typically reported in a transparent manner, with a clear description of the research methods and data analysis techniques used. This allows others to assess the credibility and reliability of the findings.
  • Peer-reviewed: Research findings are often subject to a rigorous peer-review process, in which experts in the field review the research methods, data analysis, and conclusions of the study. This helps to ensure the validity and reliability of the findings.
  • Reproducible : Research findings are often designed to be reproducible, meaning that other researchers can replicate the study using the same methods and obtain similar results. This helps to ensure the validity and reliability of the findings.

Advantages of Research Findings

Research findings have many advantages, which make them valuable sources of knowledge and information. Here are some of the main advantages of research findings:

  • Evidence-based: Research findings are based on empirical evidence, which means that they are grounded in data and observations from the real world. This makes them a reliable and credible source of information.
  • Inform decision-making: Research findings can be used to inform decision-making in various fields, such as healthcare, education, and business. By identifying best practices and evidence-based interventions, research findings can help practitioners and policymakers to make informed decisions and improve outcomes.
  • Identify gaps in knowledge: Research findings can help to identify gaps in knowledge and understanding of a particular topic, which can then be addressed by further research. This contributes to the ongoing development of knowledge in various fields.
  • Improve outcomes : Research findings can be used to develop and implement evidence-based practices and interventions, which have been shown to improve outcomes in various fields, such as healthcare, education, and social services.
  • Foster innovation: Research findings can inspire or guide innovation in various fields, such as technology and engineering. By providing new information and understanding of a particular topic, research findings can stimulate new ideas and approaches to problem-solving.
  • Enhance credibility: Research findings are generally considered to be more credible and reliable than other types of information, as they are based on rigorous research methods and are subject to peer-review processes.

Limitations of Research Findings

While research findings have many advantages, they also have some limitations. Here are some of the main limitations of research findings:

  • Limited scope: Research findings are typically based on a particular study or set of studies, which may have a limited scope or focus. This means that they may not be applicable to other contexts or populations.
  • Potential for bias : Research findings can be influenced by various sources of bias, such as researcher bias, selection bias, or measurement bias. This can affect the validity and reliability of the findings.
  • Ethical considerations: Research findings can raise ethical considerations, particularly in studies involving human subjects. Researchers must ensure that their studies are conducted in an ethical and responsible manner, with appropriate measures to protect the welfare and privacy of participants.
  • Time and resource constraints : Research studies can be time-consuming and require significant resources, which can limit the number and scope of studies that are conducted. This can lead to gaps in knowledge or a lack of research on certain topics.
  • Complexity: Some research findings can be complex and difficult to interpret, particularly in fields such as science or medicine. This can make it challenging for practitioners and policymakers to apply the findings to their work.
  • Lack of generalizability : While research findings are intended to be generalizable to larger populations or contexts, there may be factors that limit their generalizability. For example, cultural or environmental factors may influence how a particular intervention or treatment works in different populations or contexts.

About the author

' src=

Muhammad Hassan

Researcher, Academic Writer, Web developer

You may also like

Data collection

Data Collection – Methods Types and Examples

Delimitations

Delimitations in Research – Types, Examples and...

Research Process

Research Process – Steps, Examples and Tips

Research Design

Research Design – Types, Methods and Examples

Institutional Review Board (IRB)

Institutional Review Board – Application Sample...

Evaluating Research

Evaluating Research – Process, Examples and...

  • Affiliate Program

Wordvice

  • UNITED STATES
  • 台灣 (TAIWAN)
  • TÜRKIYE (TURKEY)
  • Academic Editing Services
  • - Research Paper
  • - Journal Manuscript
  • - Dissertation
  • - College & University Assignments
  • Admissions Editing Services
  • - Application Essay
  • - Personal Statement
  • - Recommendation Letter
  • - Cover Letter
  • - CV/Resume
  • Business Editing Services
  • - Business Documents
  • - Report & Brochure
  • - Website & Blog
  • Writer Editing Services
  • - Script & Screenplay
  • Our Editors
  • Client Reviews
  • Editing & Proofreading Prices
  • Wordvice Points
  • Partner Discount
  • Plagiarism Checker
  • APA Citation Generator
  • MLA Citation Generator
  • Chicago Citation Generator
  • Vancouver Citation Generator
  • - APA Style
  • - MLA Style
  • - Chicago Style
  • - Vancouver Style
  • Writing & Editing Guide
  • Academic Resources
  • Admissions Resources

How to Write the Results/Findings Section in Research

relevant findings meaning in research

What is the research paper Results section and what does it do?

The Results section of a scientific research paper represents the core findings of a study derived from the methods applied to gather and analyze information. It presents these findings in a logical sequence without bias or interpretation from the author, setting up the reader for later interpretation and evaluation in the Discussion section. A major purpose of the Results section is to break down the data into sentences that show its significance to the research question(s).

The Results section appears third in the section sequence in most scientific papers. It follows the presentation of the Methods and Materials and is presented before the Discussion section —although the Results and Discussion are presented together in many journals. This section answers the basic question “What did you find in your research?”

What is included in the Results section?

The Results section should include the findings of your study and ONLY the findings of your study. The findings include:

  • Data presented in tables, charts, graphs, and other figures (may be placed into the text or on separate pages at the end of the manuscript)
  • A contextual analysis of this data explaining its meaning in sentence form
  • All data that corresponds to the central research question(s)
  • All secondary findings (secondary outcomes, subgroup analyses, etc.)

If the scope of the study is broad, or if you studied a variety of variables, or if the methodology used yields a wide range of different results, the author should present only those results that are most relevant to the research question stated in the Introduction section .

As a general rule, any information that does not present the direct findings or outcome of the study should be left out of this section. Unless the journal requests that authors combine the Results and Discussion sections, explanations and interpretations should be omitted from the Results.

How are the results organized?

The best way to organize your Results section is “logically.” One logical and clear method of organizing research results is to provide them alongside the research questions—within each research question, present the type of data that addresses that research question.

Let’s look at an example. Your research question is based on a survey among patients who were treated at a hospital and received postoperative care. Let’s say your first research question is:

results section of a research paper, figures

“What do hospital patients over age 55 think about postoperative care?”

This can actually be represented as a heading within your Results section, though it might be presented as a statement rather than a question:

Attitudes towards postoperative care in patients over the age of 55

Now present the results that address this specific research question first. In this case, perhaps a table illustrating data from a survey. Likert items can be included in this example. Tables can also present standard deviations, probabilities, correlation matrices, etc.

Following this, present a content analysis, in words, of one end of the spectrum of the survey or data table. In our example case, start with the POSITIVE survey responses regarding postoperative care, using descriptive phrases. For example:

“Sixty-five percent of patients over 55 responded positively to the question “ Are you satisfied with your hospital’s postoperative care ?” (Fig. 2)

Include other results such as subcategory analyses. The amount of textual description used will depend on how much interpretation of tables and figures is necessary and how many examples the reader needs in order to understand the significance of your research findings.

Next, present a content analysis of another part of the spectrum of the same research question, perhaps the NEGATIVE or NEUTRAL responses to the survey. For instance:

  “As Figure 1 shows, 15 out of 60 patients in Group A responded negatively to Question 2.”

After you have assessed the data in one figure and explained it sufficiently, move on to your next research question. For example:

  “How does patient satisfaction correspond to in-hospital improvements made to postoperative care?”

results section of a research paper, figures

This kind of data may be presented through a figure or set of figures (for instance, a paired T-test table).

Explain the data you present, here in a table, with a concise content analysis:

“The p-value for the comparison between the before and after groups of patients was .03% (Fig. 2), indicating that the greater the dissatisfaction among patients, the more frequent the improvements that were made to postoperative care.”

Let’s examine another example of a Results section from a study on plant tolerance to heavy metal stress . In the Introduction section, the aims of the study are presented as “determining the physiological and morphological responses of Allium cepa L. towards increased cadmium toxicity” and “evaluating its potential to accumulate the metal and its associated environmental consequences.” The Results section presents data showing how these aims are achieved in tables alongside a content analysis, beginning with an overview of the findings:

“Cadmium caused inhibition of root and leave elongation, with increasing effects at higher exposure doses (Fig. 1a-c).”

The figure containing this data is cited in parentheses. Note that this author has combined three graphs into one single figure. Separating the data into separate graphs focusing on specific aspects makes it easier for the reader to assess the findings, and consolidating this information into one figure saves space and makes it easy to locate the most relevant results.

results section of a research paper, figures

Following this overall summary, the relevant data in the tables is broken down into greater detail in text form in the Results section.

  • “Results on the bio-accumulation of cadmium were found to be the highest (17.5 mg kgG1) in the bulb, when the concentration of cadmium in the solution was 1×10G2 M and lowest (0.11 mg kgG1) in the leaves when the concentration was 1×10G3 M.”

Captioning and Referencing Tables and Figures

Tables and figures are central components of your Results section and you need to carefully think about the most effective way to use graphs and tables to present your findings . Therefore, it is crucial to know how to write strong figure captions and to refer to them within the text of the Results section.

The most important advice one can give here as well as throughout the paper is to check the requirements and standards of the journal to which you are submitting your work. Every journal has its own design and layout standards, which you can find in the author instructions on the target journal’s website. Perusing a journal’s published articles will also give you an idea of the proper number, size, and complexity of your figures.

Regardless of which format you use, the figures should be placed in the order they are referenced in the Results section and be as clear and easy to understand as possible. If there are multiple variables being considered (within one or more research questions), it can be a good idea to split these up into separate figures. Subsequently, these can be referenced and analyzed under separate headings and paragraphs in the text.

To create a caption, consider the research question being asked and change it into a phrase. For instance, if one question is “Which color did participants choose?”, the caption might be “Color choice by participant group.” Or in our last research paper example, where the question was “What is the concentration of cadmium in different parts of the onion after 14 days?” the caption reads:

 “Fig. 1(a-c): Mean concentration of Cd determined in (a) bulbs, (b) leaves, and (c) roots of onions after a 14-day period.”

Steps for Composing the Results Section

Because each study is unique, there is no one-size-fits-all approach when it comes to designing a strategy for structuring and writing the section of a research paper where findings are presented. The content and layout of this section will be determined by the specific area of research, the design of the study and its particular methodologies, and the guidelines of the target journal and its editors. However, the following steps can be used to compose the results of most scientific research studies and are essential for researchers who are new to preparing a manuscript for publication or who need a reminder of how to construct the Results section.

Step 1 : Consult the guidelines or instructions that the target journal or publisher provides authors and read research papers it has published, especially those with similar topics, methods, or results to your study.

  • The guidelines will generally outline specific requirements for the results or findings section, and the published articles will provide sound examples of successful approaches.
  • Note length limitations on restrictions on content. For instance, while many journals require the Results and Discussion sections to be separate, others do not—qualitative research papers often include results and interpretations in the same section (“Results and Discussion”).
  • Reading the aims and scope in the journal’s “ guide for authors ” section and understanding the interests of its readers will be invaluable in preparing to write the Results section.

Step 2 : Consider your research results in relation to the journal’s requirements and catalogue your results.

  • Focus on experimental results and other findings that are especially relevant to your research questions and objectives and include them even if they are unexpected or do not support your ideas and hypotheses.
  • Catalogue your findings—use subheadings to streamline and clarify your report. This will help you avoid excessive and peripheral details as you write and also help your reader understand and remember your findings. Create appendices that might interest specialists but prove too long or distracting for other readers.
  • Decide how you will structure of your results. You might match the order of the research questions and hypotheses to your results, or you could arrange them according to the order presented in the Methods section. A chronological order or even a hierarchy of importance or meaningful grouping of main themes or categories might prove effective. Consider your audience, evidence, and most importantly, the objectives of your research when choosing a structure for presenting your findings.

Step 3 : Design figures and tables to present and illustrate your data.

  • Tables and figures should be numbered according to the order in which they are mentioned in the main text of the paper.
  • Information in figures should be relatively self-explanatory (with the aid of captions), and their design should include all definitions and other information necessary for readers to understand the findings without reading all of the text.
  • Use tables and figures as a focal point to tell a clear and informative story about your research and avoid repeating information. But remember that while figures clarify and enhance the text, they cannot replace it.

Step 4 : Draft your Results section using the findings and figures you have organized.

  • The goal is to communicate this complex information as clearly and precisely as possible; precise and compact phrases and sentences are most effective.
  • In the opening paragraph of this section, restate your research questions or aims to focus the reader’s attention to what the results are trying to show. It is also a good idea to summarize key findings at the end of this section to create a logical transition to the interpretation and discussion that follows.
  • Try to write in the past tense and the active voice to relay the findings since the research has already been done and the agent is usually clear. This will ensure that your explanations are also clear and logical.
  • Make sure that any specialized terminology or abbreviation you have used here has been defined and clarified in the  Introduction section .

Step 5 : Review your draft; edit and revise until it reports results exactly as you would like to have them reported to your readers.

  • Double-check the accuracy and consistency of all the data, as well as all of the visual elements included.
  • Read your draft aloud to catch language errors (grammar, spelling, and mechanics), awkward phrases, and missing transitions.
  • Ensure that your results are presented in the best order to focus on objectives and prepare readers for interpretations, valuations, and recommendations in the Discussion section . Look back over the paper’s Introduction and background while anticipating the Discussion and Conclusion sections to ensure that the presentation of your results is consistent and effective.
  • Consider seeking additional guidance on your paper. Find additional readers to look over your Results section and see if it can be improved in any way. Peers, professors, or qualified experts can provide valuable insights.

One excellent option is to use a professional English proofreading and editing service  such as Wordvice, including our paper editing service . With hundreds of qualified editors from dozens of scientific fields, Wordvice has helped thousands of authors revise their manuscripts and get accepted into their target journals. Read more about the  proofreading and editing process  before proceeding with getting academic editing services and manuscript editing services for your manuscript.

As the representation of your study’s data output, the Results section presents the core information in your research paper. By writing with clarity and conciseness and by highlighting and explaining the crucial findings of their study, authors increase the impact and effectiveness of their research manuscripts.

For more articles and videos on writing your research manuscript, visit Wordvice’s Resources page.

Wordvice Resources

  • How to Write a Research Paper Introduction 
  • Which Verb Tenses to Use in a Research Paper
  • How to Write an Abstract for a Research Paper
  • How to Write a Research Paper Title
  • Useful Phrases for Academic Writing
  • Common Transition Terms in Academic Papers
  • Active and Passive Voice in Research Papers
  • 100+ Verbs That Will Make Your Research Writing Amazing
  • Tips for Paraphrasing in Research Papers

Overview of Relevance in Research

Published 16 October, 2023

relevant findings meaning in research

Relevance in research is an interconnection of one research topic with others. It is basically the level up to which you can apply research findings in real life. In simple words, the investigation which you are conducting is useful for others.

Meaning of Relevance in Research

The relevance in research is the understanding of how finding or studying one thing affects another. “Relevance” can also be seen as the extent to which a certain study or theory is significant.

Research is the pursuit of new knowledge. The relevancy in research means that study which you are performing should be useful for others as well- and high relevancies mean research which you are performing has great potential to fill a gap in knowledge, especially if it’s something people currently don’t know about or understand very well!

For instance:

  • If you are conducting a market survey for an organization then the data which you are collecting through the survey research should be useful for your firm. High relevancy means the investigation which you are performing has a high potential of filling the knowledge gap.
  • If you are selecting the unemployment issue as your research topic. You are performing a research process for identifying the root cause of unemployment and then information which you have gathered through research can be helpful for formulating effective policies for the nation.

Significance of relevance in research

Relevance has great significance in research as it helps you in maintaining the momentum. In addition to this, it is the relevant information that will help you in making your dissertation interesting to the reader. Relevancy is the factor in research that helps you and the reader in developing confidence about the findings and outcome of the investigation.

Maintaining a high level of relevance is also very crucial for getting the dissertation approved by the tutor. It is very much essential for you to make sure that the topic or field which you are selecting for performing the investigation has academic and social relevance. A high level of relevancy in research is very much crucial for eliminating risk and ethical issues.

Types of relevance in research        

The different types of relevance in research are:

1. Academic relevance

This basically means level up to which investigation performed on a particular topic has helped you in accomplishing your academic goals. Academic relevance is a measure of how much something helped you progress towards your academic goals. In order to be academically relevant, the information one has learned must have been able to assist in some way with achieving their own personal goal or objective.

Academic relevance is an important consideration for any student when deciding to study a subject. It can help you determine if the investigation performed on that topic will be helpful in achieving your academic goals.

2. Societal relevance  

It is referred to as the information gathered through investigation helps in developing the understanding of the society. Good research will help us understand society better by giving insight into how it functions- or more specifically what processes are occurring behind the scenes that we might not see otherwise due to our own biases as someone embedded in this culture.

3. Practical relevance  

It is basically an extent up to which the findings could be applied in real-life situations . Research that has practical relevance not only adds value but also can make a recommendation for particular industries or improve processes in an organization.

4. Scientific relevance

It is basically an extent up to which you can fill the knowledge gap thorough research on a specific topic. You have to make sure that the research you are doing will fill in a gap of knowledge for the scientific community. The best way to do this is by extensively researching your topic and finding what hasn’t been researched yet. It’s important not just because it makes an impact on science but also so that you find something stimulating enough for you as well!

Read Also: Paragraph Structure in Research Paper

Stuck During Your Dissertation

Our top dissertation writing experts are waiting 24/7 to assist you with your university project,from critical literature reviews to a complete PhD dissertation.

relevant findings meaning in research

Other Related Guides

  • Research Project Questions
  • Types of Validity in Research – Explained With Examples
  • Schizophrenia Sample Research Paper
  • Quantitative Research Methods – Definitive Guide
  • Research Paper On Homelessness For College Students
  • How to Study for Biology Final Examination
  • Textual Analysis in Research / Methods of Analyzing Text

A Guide to Start Research Process – Introduction, Procedure and Tips

Research findings – objectives , importance and techniques.

  • Topic Sentences in Research Paper – Meaning, Parts, Importance, Procedure and Techniques

relevant findings meaning in research

Recent Research Guides for 2023

relevant findings meaning in research

Get 15% off your first order with My Research Topics

Connect with a professional writer within minutes by placing your first order. No matter the subject, difficulty, academic level or document type, our writers have the skills to complete it.

relevant findings meaning in research

My Research Topics is provides assistance since 2004 to Research Students Globally. We help PhD, Psyd, MD, Mphil, Undergrad, High school, College, Masters students to compete their research paper & Dissertations. Our Step by step mentorship helps students to understand the research paper making process.

Research Topics & Ideas

  • Sociological Research Paper Topics & Ideas For Students 2023
  • Nurses Research Paper Topics & Ideas 2023
  • Nursing Capstone Project Research Topics & Ideas 2023
  • Unique Research Paper Topics & Ideas For Students 2023
  • Teaching Research Paper Topics & Ideas 2023
  • Literary Research Paper Topics & Ideas 2023
  • Nursing Ethics Research Topics & Ideas 2023

Research Guide

Disclaimer: The Reference papers provided by the Myresearchtopics.com serve as model and sample papers for students and are not to be submitted as it is. These papers are intended to be used for reference and research purposes only.

Want to create or adapt books like this? Learn more about how Pressbooks supports open publishing practices.

6-Evaluating Sources

2. Evaluating for Relevancy

Relevant sources are those that pertain to your research question. You’ll be able to identify them fairly quickly by reading or skimming particular parts of sources and maybe jotting down little tables that help you keep track. We’ll show you how below, including where to look in specific kinds of sources and what questions to ask yourself as you do.

One thing to consider early on as you make inferences about relevancy is the effect that timeliness– called a source’s currency–should have on deciding whether a source is relevant. Sometimes timeliness has a lot to do with relevancy; sometimes it is less important. Your research question and your discipline will determine that.

For instance, if your research question is about the life sciences, you probably should consider only the most recent sources relevant for citing because the life sciences are changing so quickly. There is a good chance that anything but the most recent sources may be out of date. So it’s a good idea to aim for life sciences sources no more than 5 years old. (An example of a discipline that calls for even newer sources is computer security.)

Sometimes emergencies change the schedule of what is recent enough. For instance, when the Covid-19 pandemic started, it was incredibility important for scientists to share their research information as quickly as possible. At that time, scientific information about Covid-19 could become outdated in weeks or months–before the peer review process was barely started.

Lives were at stake and for that reason, scientists started publishing their new research results on Covid-19 as preprints —publications of results that had not yet been peer-reviewed–in an attempt to have them be useful faster. Nonetheless, after preprint publication, the peer review process continued for much of that research.

But pre-prints didn’t start with the Covid pandemic. Around for more than 30 years and now at Cornell University, arXiv is a free distribution service and an open-access archive for more than two million scholarly articles first published as preprints in the fields of physics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology, quantitative finance, statistics, electrical engineering and systems science, and economics. Materials on the site are not peer-reviewed by arXiv itself. (arXiv is pronounced archive.)

Before using preprints as sources, talk with your professor about whether she or he recommends their use in your situation.

Many sciences other than life sciences primarily use newer content under 10 years old. But not always. That’s because the history department is not alone in valuing older content. For instance, mathematics is a discipline that makes heavy use of older content. So how important the currency of your sources is will depend on your research question and your discipline. Your professor can guide you about your own situation.

In most cases, it’s best not to use a hard and fast rule about how current your sources have to be. Instead, consider your discipline and research question and do some critical thinking. For example, suppose your research question is about the Edo Period in Japan (1603-1868) or about Robert Falcon Scott, who explored the Antarctic from 1901-1913. In these cases, an item from 1918 might be just as useful as an item from 2018 (although new information may have been found in the 100-year gap). But something from 1899 about Antarctica or from 1597 about Japan would not be current enough for these research questions.

These examples also give you two more clues about how to treat the timeliness or currency of sources as you consider relevance:

  • Because of how long ago they lived or occurred, it would be unusual for many sources on Robert Scott or the Edo Period to have been published very recently. So, unlike sources for the life sciences, whether a source is very recent should probably not determine its relevancy to research questions about Scott or the Edo Period.
  • Primary sources might be considered especially relevant to many humanities and other non-science research questions. For disciplines in the humanities, the phrase primary sources refers to sources created at the same time as something under study—in this case, things such as Scott’s diaries and expedition photographs, as well as paintings, literature, clothing, and household items from the Edo Period. They go a long way to explain faraway people and times. (See Primary, Secondary, & Tertiary Sources .) On the other hand, when science disciplines use the phrase primary source, they usually mean where they primarily find the information they consider valid—in research journals.

EXAMPLE: TED Currency

Check out how currency is handled on TED . This site provides videos of speakers talking about new ideas in technology, entertainment, and design. (That’s what TED stands for.) Some videos are labeled “Newest Talks,” and TED tells when every video was recorded. That’s because currency matters with TED Talks.

For your own sources for which timeliness matters, see the section below called Where to Look, which includes where to look in websites, articles, and books for information about a source’s currency.

Time-Saving Tips

Instead of thinking you have to read all of every source in order to figure out whether it’s relevant, read or skim only parts of each source. If you’re looking at the right parts, that should give you enough information to make an educated guess about relevancy and currency.

But what should you be looking for as you do that reading and skimming? One way to figure that out is to first parse your research question so that you can figure out its main concepts . (This is like identifying main concepts in your research question in order to search precisely, as we advise in Chapter 4.)

For instance, suppose your research question is: How does having diverse members in a group increase the critical thinking of the group?

What are this question’s main concepts? Our answer is: group diversity and critical thinking.

So when trying to judge which sources are relevant to these main concepts, you would assess whether each source you’ve found pertains to at least one of these main concepts. We recommend you jot down a little table like the one in the example below to keep track of which sources address each main concept.

To be considered relevant to your research question, a source wouldn’t necessarily have to cover all of your main concepts. But finding sources that do is ideal. Otherwise, you just have to make do with what you’ve got. Don’t forget that each source would have to pass the currency test, too, if the currency is important to your research question. So it saves time to record your decisions about the sources’ currency on your tables, too.

EXAMPLE: Sources’ Main Concepts and Currency

Research question: How does having diverse members in a group increase the critical thinking of the group?

The table in this hypothetical example indicates that both Sources A and C are relevant because each pertains to at least one main concept from the research question. Currency doesn’t seem to matter much to our research question, so all three sources were marked current. But since currency is all that Source B has to offer, it is not relevant for this project.

If you do make little tables for relevance, it’s probably a good idea to hang on to them. You might find them helpful later in your research process.

Where to Look in Websites, Articles, and Books

The information below tells where to look and what questions to ask yourself to assess the relevancy of articles, books, and websites. The name of a source seldom tells you enough about its relevance, so whatever you do, don’t stop evaluating after looking only at a website’s name or the title of another source.

Save time by looking in particular places in sources for information that will help you figure out whether the source is relevant to your research project. Much of our advice below comes from “Speedy Reading” in The Craft of Research , second edition, by Wayne Booth, Gregory Colomb, and Joseph Williams, University of Chicago Press, 2003, pp. 108-109.

On a website , check the name of the website and its articles for clues that they contain material relevant to your research question. Consider whether time should have an impact on what information can be considered relevant to your research question. If so:

  • Skim any dates, datelines, What’s New pages, and press releases to see whether any website content works with the time considerations you need.
  • Check for page creation or revision dates that you find. What you’ve already learned from other sources can also help. For instance, you may know that the information covered by a particular website, which seems relevant, is no longer considered the latest thinking. In that case, you could mark it irrelevant on your little table.
  • Skim any site map and index on the website for key words related to your research question.
  • Try the key words of your research question in the search box. Do you see enough content about your keywords to make you think parts of the website could be helpful?

For a research journal article, magazine article, or newspaper article , think about the title. Does it have something to do with your research question? Consider whether time should have an impact on what sources can be considered relevant. If so:

  • Is the publication date of any of these three kinds of articles within your parameters?
  • Skim the abstract of a journal article to see whether the article works with the time considerations you need. For instance, if there is a time period in your research question, does the article address the same time period or was it created during that time period?
  • Look at the abstract and section headings in a journal article or the early parts of a newspaper or magazine article to locate the problem or question that the article addresses, its solution, and the outline of the article’s argument for its main claim. Can those help answer your research question? Do they make it seem as if the article will give you information about what others have written about your research question? Do they offer a description of the situation surrounding your research question?
  • Do the journal article’s introduction and conclusion sections help you answer your research question and/or offer a description of the situation surrounding your question so you can explain in your final product why the question is important?
  • Check whether the journal article’s bibliography contains keywords related to your research question. Do the sources cited by the bibliography pertain to your research question? (Bibliographies are especially good places to look for sources.)
  • If you decide the newspaper or magazine article is relevant, look at sources quoted or otherwise identified within it. Those may be additional sources for you.

For a book (perhaps in its library catalog listing) , check whether the title and/or subtitle indicates the book could be about your research question. You can find a lot of such information about the book from its listing in a library catalog. Consider whether time should have an impact on what sources can be considered relevant.

  • Is the publication date or copyright date (usually listed in the library catalog or on the back of the book’s title page) too early or late for any time constraints in your research question? Maybe it’s just right.
  • Skim some of the preface and introduction to see whether the book works with the time considerations you need.
  • Check the bibliography to see whether the sources cited are about your research question.
  • Skim the book’s table of contents and any summary chapters to locate the problem or question that the book addresses, its solution, and the broad outline of the book’s argument for its main claim. Will any of that be helpful in answering your research question?
  • Do those sections give you information about what others have written about your research question?
  • Do they offer a description of the situation surrounding your research question?
  • Look for your key words in the bibliography. Do the sources cited pertain to your research question?
  • Skim the index for topics with the most page references. Do the topics with the most page references pertain to your research question?

ACTIVITY: Follow a Title’s Clues for Relevance

Instructions: This quiz asks you to use logic, the titles of sources, and their publication dates, to identify the source most likely to be relevant to each research question. (Outside of this quiz, sources are not actually in competition with one another to be relevant. But this seemed like a good way to have you practice your skills at assessing relevance.) Many titles and dates below are fictitious, but that doesn’t affect their relevance within the quiz. Book, journal, website, and newspaper titles are italicized; chapter and article titles are in quotes.

  • For each, read the information about the research question and each source.
  • For each, record your judgments on a little table that you jot down like those illustrated earlier.
  • For each, mark your answer, which should be the most relevant source according to the little table you completed for the question.
  • Check your answers with our feedback.

ACTIVITY: Connecting the Dots Beyond the Title

Instructions: You always need to go beyond the title of a source when judging relevance. In the previous activity, you evaluated the titles of sources for currency and relevance. For this activity, you will investigate beyond the title to see whether one of the (hypothetical) articles named in the last activity is indeed relevant to meeting your information needs.

  • Read the abstract of the article below, using your critical thinking skills to try to identify the information needs of your project it could help you meet.
  • Then answer the questions about which information needs the source can help you meet. (Mark all that apply.)
  • If there is at least one need it can help meet, you should judge the article relevant. Don’t forget to compare your answers with our feedback.

Your research question is: How does “prospect theory” in behavioral economics help explain medical doctors’ decisions to favor surgery or radiation to cure cancer in patients?

As usual, your information needs are:

  • To learn more background information.
  • To answer your research question.
  • To convince your audience that your answer is correct or, at least, the most reasonable answer.
  • To describe the situation surrounding your research question for your audience and explain why it’s important,
  • To report what others have said about your question, including any different answers to your research question.
Abstract: “Cancer Treatment Prescription–Advancing Prospect Theory beyond Economics,” in Journal of The American Medical Association Oncology , June, 2022. (This article and abstract are fictitious but the journal and its form for abstracts are real.) Importance Cancer treatment is complex. We expect oncologists to make treatment decisions according to definitive standards of care. Finding out that prospect theory demonstrates that they react very much like most other people when deciding to recommend surgery or chemotherapy for their patients indicates that more self-reflection on oncologists’ part could help patients make better decisions. (Prospect theory describes how people choose between alternatives that have risk when the probability of different outcomes is unknown.) Objective To show whether prospect theory applies to how oncologists framed their recommendations for surgery or chemotherapy for patients in good condition and bad condition. Design, Settings, and Participants Records of 100 U.S. oncologists were examined for the years 2019 and 2020, which documented patient conditions and the way oncologists framed their recommendations regarding surgery or chemotherapy. Records of nine thousand patients were involved. Thus, a quasiexperimental ex post facto design was used for the study. Main Outcomes and Measures This study explored the relationship between the way in which the oncologists “framed” the choice of surgery or chemotherapy as they made recommendations to patients, the patients’ conditions, and the choice actually made. Those results were compared to what prospect theory would predict for this situation. Results Physicians seemed to present their recommendation of surgery or chemotherapy in a loss frame (e.g., “This is likely to happen to you if you don’t have this procedure”) when patients’ conditions were poor and in a gain frame (e.g., “By having this procedure, you can probably dramatically cut your chances of reoccurrence”) when their conditions were less poor. These results are what prospect theory would have predicted. Conclusions and Relevance This study opens up the possibility that, as described by prospect theory, a person’s choice of framing behavior is not limited to how we naturally act for ourselves but includes how we act for other people, as the oncologists were acting on behalf of their patients. More research is necessary to confirm this line of evidence and determine whether oncologists’ decision making and framing is the most effective and entirely according to the best standards of care.

Which information needs could this source help you meet if your research question was: How does “prospect theory” in behavioral economics help explain medical doctors’ decisions to favor surgery or radiation to cure cancer in patients?

A brief summary of what a journal article is about and a quick read in order to decide whether the article is likely to contain information relevant to your research project. The abstract may appear in research databases and, sometimes, in the article itself.

Choosing & Using Sources: A Guide to Academic Research Copyright © 2015 by Teaching & Learning, Ohio State University Libraries is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book

Book cover

Standards of Futures Research pp 101–107 Cite as

Scientific Relevance

  • Birgit Weimert 10 &
  • Axel Zweck 11  
  • First Online: 14 July 2022

595 Accesses

Part of the book series: Zukunft und Forschung ((ZUFORSCH))

Research results are scientifically relevant if they help expand the knowledge base, advance our understanding of a certain subject, or provide interdisciplinary insights. In other words, they represent findings that are novel, worth knowing, and accepted by the scientific community. Scientifically relevant information serves the interests of scientific inquiry and emerges from good scientific practices, i.e. from processes that are transparent and public.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution .

Buying options

  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

The implementation of the research results must “neither be immediate, nor [must] the intended benefit exactly correspond to the actual benefit” (Baumgarth et al. 2009 ).

This aspect includes project success rate and quantitative performance measurements.

Baumgarth, C., Eisend, M., & Evanschitzky, H. (2009). Empirische Mastertechniken . Springer.

Book   Google Scholar  

Bender, G. (2001). Einleitung. In Gerd Bender (Ed.), Neue Formen der Wissenserzeugung , 9–22. Frankfurt a. M.: Campus.

Google Scholar  

Dilger, A. (2012). Rigor, wissenschaftliche und praktische Relevanz. Diskussionspapier für das Institut für Organisationsökonomie, 03/2012. http://www.wiwi.uni-muenster.de/io/forschen/downloads/DPIO_03_2012.pdf . Accessed 17 May 2021.

Heinze, T., Parthey, H., Spur, G., & Wink, R. (2013). Kreativität in der Forschung . Wissenschaftsforschung Jahrbuch 2012. Berlin: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Berlin.

Knorr-Cetina, K. (1984). Die Fabrikation von Erkenntnis: Zur Anthropologie der Naturwissenschaft . Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp.

Kreibich, R. (2006). Zukunftsforschung . IZT – Institut für Zukunftsstudien und Technologiebewertung. Arbeitsbericht Nr. 23/2006. Berlin. http://www.izt.de/fileadmin/downloads/pdf/IZT_AB23.pdf . Accessed 17 May 2021.

Kuhn, T. (1976). Die Struktur wissenschaftlicher Revolutionen . Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp.

Popper, K. (1996). Alles Leben ist Problemlösen: Über Erkenntnis, Geschichte und Politik . Munich: Piper.

Rust, H. (2012). Schwache Signale, Weltgeist und “Gourmet-Sex.” In R. Popp (Ed.), Zukunft und Wissenschaft: Wege und Irrwege der Zukunftsforschung , 35–57. Springer.

Solla-Price, D. (1974). Little Science, Big Science: Von der Studierstube zur Großforschung . Frankfurt /Main: Suhrkamp.

Weimert, B. (2012). Der Blick auf die Technologien von morgen. Wissenschaftsmanagement, 4 , 42–45.

Werth, L., & Sedlbauer, K. (2011). In Forschung und Lehre professionell agieren . Bonn: Deutscher Hochschulverband.

Winter, M., & Würmann, C. (Eds.) (2012). Wettbewerb und Hochschulen. 6. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Hochschulforschung in Wittenberg 2011. Die Hochschule, Journal für Wissenschaft und Bildung, 2 /2012.

Further Reading

German Research Foundation (1998). Vorschläge zur Sicherung guter wissenschaftlicher Praxis . Empfehlungen der Kommission “Selbstkontrolle der Wissenschaft.” Weinheim: Wiley-VHC Verlag.

Zweck, A. (2005). Qualitätssicherung in der Zukunftsforschung. Wissenschaftsmanagement, 2 , 7–13.

Download references

Author information

Authors and affiliations.

Corporate Technology Foresight, Fraunhofer Institute for Technological Trend Analysis INT, Euskirchen, Germany

Birgit Weimert

Innovations- und Zukunftsforschung, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany

You can also search for this author in PubMed   Google Scholar

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Birgit Weimert .

Editor information

Editors and affiliations.

Research Forum on Public Safety and Security, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany

Lars Gerhold

VDI Technologiezentrum GmbH, Düsseldorf, Germany

Dirk Holtmannspötter

FUTURESAFFAIRS, Büro für aufgeklärte Zukunftsforschung, Berlin, Germany

Christian Neuhaus

Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Salzburg, Austria

Elmar Schüll

Foresightlab, Berlin, Germany

Beate Schulz-Montag

Z_punkt GmbH, Berlin, Germany

Karlheinz Steinmüller

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, part of Springer Nature

About this chapter

Cite this chapter.

Weimert, B., Zweck, A. (2022). Scientific Relevance. In: Gerhold, L., et al. Standards of Futures Research. Zukunft und Forschung. Springer VS, Wiesbaden. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-35806-8_12

Download citation

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-35806-8_12

Published : 14 July 2022

Publisher Name : Springer VS, Wiesbaden

Print ISBN : 978-3-658-35805-1

Online ISBN : 978-3-658-35806-8

eBook Packages : Behavioral Science and Psychology Behavioral Science and Psychology (R0)

Share this chapter

Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative

  • Publish with us

Policies and ethics

  • Find a journal
  • Track your research

Generate accurate APA citations for free

  • Knowledge Base
  • APA Style 7th edition
  • How to write an APA results section

Reporting Research Results in APA Style | Tips & Examples

Published on December 21, 2020 by Pritha Bhandari . Revised on January 17, 2024.

The results section of a quantitative research paper is where you summarize your data and report the findings of any relevant statistical analyses.

The APA manual provides rigorous guidelines for what to report in quantitative research papers in the fields of psychology, education, and other social sciences.

Use these standards to answer your research questions and report your data analyses in a complete and transparent way.

Instantly correct all language mistakes in your text

Upload your document to correct all your mistakes in minutes

upload-your-document-ai-proofreader

Table of contents

What goes in your results section, introduce your data, summarize your data, report statistical results, presenting numbers effectively, what doesn’t belong in your results section, frequently asked questions about results in apa.

In APA style, the results section includes preliminary information about the participants and data, descriptive and inferential statistics, and the results of any exploratory analyses.

Include these in your results section:

  • Participant flow and recruitment period. Report the number of participants at every stage of the study, as well as the dates when recruitment took place.
  • Missing data . Identify the proportion of data that wasn’t included in your final analysis and state the reasons.
  • Any adverse events. Make sure to report any unexpected events or side effects (for clinical studies).
  • Descriptive statistics . Summarize the primary and secondary outcomes of the study.
  • Inferential statistics , including confidence intervals and effect sizes. Address the primary and secondary research questions by reporting the detailed results of your main analyses.
  • Results of subgroup or exploratory analyses, if applicable. Place detailed results in supplementary materials.

Write up the results in the past tense because you’re describing the outcomes of a completed research study.

Scribbr Citation Checker New

The AI-powered Citation Checker helps you avoid common mistakes such as:

  • Missing commas and periods
  • Incorrect usage of “et al.”
  • Ampersands (&) in narrative citations
  • Missing reference entries

relevant findings meaning in research

Before diving into your research findings, first describe the flow of participants at every stage of your study and whether any data were excluded from the final analysis.

Participant flow and recruitment period

It’s necessary to report any attrition, which is the decline in participants at every sequential stage of a study. That’s because an uneven number of participants across groups sometimes threatens internal validity and makes it difficult to compare groups. Be sure to also state all reasons for attrition.

If your study has multiple stages (e.g., pre-test, intervention, and post-test) and groups (e.g., experimental and control groups), a flow chart is the best way to report the number of participants in each group per stage and reasons for attrition.

Also report the dates for when you recruited participants or performed follow-up sessions.

Missing data

Another key issue is the completeness of your dataset. It’s necessary to report both the amount and reasons for data that was missing or excluded.

Data can become unusable due to equipment malfunctions, improper storage, unexpected events, participant ineligibility, and so on. For each case, state the reason why the data were unusable.

Some data points may be removed from the final analysis because they are outliers—but you must be able to justify how you decided what to exclude.

If you applied any techniques for overcoming or compensating for lost data, report those as well.

Adverse events

For clinical studies, report all events with serious consequences or any side effects that occured.

Descriptive statistics summarize your data for the reader. Present descriptive statistics for each primary, secondary, and subgroup analysis.

Don’t provide formulas or citations for commonly used statistics (e.g., standard deviation) – but do provide them for new or rare equations.

Descriptive statistics

The exact descriptive statistics that you report depends on the types of data in your study. Categorical variables can be reported using proportions, while quantitative data can be reported using means and standard deviations . For a large set of numbers, a table is the most effective presentation format.

Include sample sizes (overall and for each group) as well as appropriate measures of central tendency and variability for the outcomes in your results section. For every point estimate , add a clearly labelled measure of variability as well.

Be sure to note how you combined data to come up with variables of interest. For every variable of interest, explain how you operationalized it.

According to APA journal standards, it’s necessary to report all relevant hypothesis tests performed, estimates of effect sizes, and confidence intervals.

When reporting statistical results, you should first address primary research questions before moving onto secondary research questions and any exploratory or subgroup analyses.

Present the results of tests in the order that you performed them—report the outcomes of main tests before post-hoc tests, for example. Don’t leave out any relevant results, even if they don’t support your hypothesis.

Inferential statistics

For each statistical test performed, first restate the hypothesis , then state whether your hypothesis was supported and provide the outcomes that led you to that conclusion.

Report the following for each hypothesis test:

  • the test statistic value,
  • the degrees of freedom ,
  • the exact p- value (unless it is less than 0.001),
  • the magnitude and direction of the effect.

When reporting complex data analyses, such as factor analysis or multivariate analysis, present the models estimated in detail, and state the statistical software used. Make sure to report any violations of statistical assumptions or problems with estimation.

Effect sizes and confidence intervals

For each hypothesis test performed, you should present confidence intervals and estimates of effect sizes .

Confidence intervals are useful for showing the variability around point estimates. They should be included whenever you report population parameter estimates.

Effect sizes indicate how impactful the outcomes of a study are. But since they are estimates, it’s recommended that you also provide confidence intervals of effect sizes.

Subgroup or exploratory analyses

Briefly report the results of any other planned or exploratory analyses you performed. These may include subgroup analyses as well.

Subgroup analyses come with a high chance of false positive results, because performing a large number of comparison or correlation tests increases the chances of finding significant results.

If you find significant results in these analyses, make sure to appropriately report them as exploratory (rather than confirmatory) results to avoid overstating their importance.

While these analyses can be reported in less detail in the main text, you can provide the full analyses in supplementary materials.

To effectively present numbers, use a mix of text, tables , and figures where appropriate:

  • To present three or fewer numbers, try a sentence ,
  • To present between 4 and 20 numbers, try a table ,
  • To present more than 20 numbers, try a figure .

Since these are general guidelines, use your own judgment and feedback from others for effective presentation of numbers.

Tables and figures should be numbered and have titles, along with relevant notes. Make sure to present data only once throughout the paper and refer to any tables and figures in the text.

Formatting statistics and numbers

It’s important to follow capitalization , italicization, and abbreviation rules when referring to statistics in your paper. There are specific format guidelines for reporting statistics in APA , as well as general rules about writing numbers .

If you are unsure of how to present specific symbols, look up the detailed APA guidelines or other papers in your field.

It’s important to provide a complete picture of your data analyses and outcomes in a concise way. For that reason, raw data and any interpretations of your results are not included in the results section.

It’s rarely appropriate to include raw data in your results section. Instead, you should always save the raw data securely and make them available and accessible to any other researchers who request them.

Making scientific research available to others is a key part of academic integrity and open science.

Interpretation or discussion of results

This belongs in your discussion section. Your results section is where you objectively report all relevant findings and leave them open for interpretation by readers.

While you should state whether the findings of statistical tests lend support to your hypotheses, refrain from forming conclusions to your research questions in the results section.

Explanation of how statistics tests work

For the sake of concise writing, you can safely assume that readers of your paper have professional knowledge of how statistical inferences work.

In an APA results section , you should generally report the following:

  • Participant flow and recruitment period.
  • Missing data and any adverse events.
  • Descriptive statistics about your samples.
  • Inferential statistics , including confidence intervals and effect sizes.
  • Results of any subgroup or exploratory analyses, if applicable.

According to the APA guidelines, you should report enough detail on inferential statistics so that your readers understand your analyses.

  • the test statistic value
  • the degrees of freedom
  • the exact p value (unless it is less than 0.001)
  • the magnitude and direction of the effect

You should also present confidence intervals and estimates of effect sizes where relevant.

In APA style, statistics can be presented in the main text or as tables or figures . To decide how to present numbers, you can follow APA guidelines:

  • To present three or fewer numbers, try a sentence,
  • To present between 4 and 20 numbers, try a table,
  • To present more than 20 numbers, try a figure.

Results are usually written in the past tense , because they are describing the outcome of completed actions.

The results chapter or section simply and objectively reports what you found, without speculating on why you found these results. The discussion interprets the meaning of the results, puts them in context, and explains why they matter.

In qualitative research , results and discussion are sometimes combined. But in quantitative research , it’s considered important to separate the objective results from your interpretation of them.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Bhandari, P. (2024, January 17). Reporting Research Results in APA Style | Tips & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved April 2, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/results-section/

Is this article helpful?

Pritha Bhandari

Pritha Bhandari

Other students also liked, how to write an apa methods section, how to format tables and figures in apa style, reporting statistics in apa style | guidelines & examples, unlimited academic ai-proofreading.

✔ Document error-free in 5minutes ✔ Unlimited document corrections ✔ Specialized in correcting academic texts

IMAGES

  1. Types of Research Report

    relevant findings meaning in research

  2. Research Paper Findings

    relevant findings meaning in research

  3. 💐 How to write up research findings. How to write chapter 4 Research

    relevant findings meaning in research

  4. 10 Easy Steps: How to Write Implications in Research for 2024

    relevant findings meaning in research

  5. How To Write A Findings Section For Qualitative Research

    relevant findings meaning in research

  6. 18 Qualitative Research Examples (2024)

    relevant findings meaning in research

VIDEO

  1. Findings Meaning In Bengali /Findings mane ki

  2. Guide to Corvirtus Hiring Assessment Results

  3. Renewable Energy and Climate Action in the GCC: Achievements, Plans and Priorities

  4. LECTURE 1. THE MEANING OF RESEARCH

  5. What is research

  6. TikTok's a THREAT to NATIONAL SECURITY ⚠️ or is it? Are these Pew Research findings still relevant?

COMMENTS

  1. Research Findings - Types Examples and Writing Guide

    Qualitative Findings. Qualitative research is an exploratory research method used to understand the complexities of human behavior and experiences. Qualitative findings are non-numerical and descriptive data that describe the meaning and interpretation of the data collected. Examples of qualitative findings include quotes from participants ...

  2. How to Write a Results Section | Tips & Examples - Scribbr

    Checklist: Research results 0 / 7. I have completed my data collection and analyzed the results. I have included all results that are relevant to my research questions. I have concisely and objectively reported each result, including relevant descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. I have stated whether each hypothesis was supported ...

  3. Relevance of Your Dissertation Topic | Criteria & Tips - Scribbr

    Revised on May 31, 2023. A relevant dissertation topic means that your research will contribute something worthwhile to your field in a scientific, social, or practical way. As you plan out your dissertation process, make sure that you’re writing something that is important and interesting to you personally, as well as appropriate within your ...

  4. How to Write the Results/Findings Section in Research

    Step 1: Consult the guidelines or instructions that the target journal or publisher provides authors and read research papers it has published, especially those with similar topics, methods, or results to your study. The guidelines will generally outline specific requirements for the results or findings section, and the published articles will ...

  5. Relevance in Research | Meaning, Types | My Research Topics

    Meaning of Relevance in Research. The relevance in research is the understanding of how finding or studying one thing affects another. “Relevance” can also be seen as the extent to which a certain study or theory is significant. Research is the pursuit of new knowledge. The relevancy in research means that study which you are performing ...

  6. Analyzing and Interpreting Findings - SAGE Publications Inc

    forth between the findings of your research and your own perspectives and understandings to make sense and meaning. Meaning can come from looking at differences and similari-ties, from inquiring into and interpreting causes, consequences, and relationships. Data analysis in qualitative research remains somewhat mysterious (Marshall & Rossman,

  7. 2. Evaluating for Relevancy – Choosing & Using Sources: A ...

    6-Evaluating Sources. 2. Evaluating for Relevancy. Relevant sources are those that pertain to your research question. You’ll be able to identify them fairly quickly by reading or skimming particular parts of sources and maybe jotting down little tables that help you keep track. We’ll show you how below, including where to look in specific ...

  8. Scientific Relevance | SpringerLink

    Research results are scientifically relevant if they help expand the knowledge base, advance our understanding of a certain subject, or provide interdisciplinary insights. In other words, they represent findings that are novel, worth knowing, and accepted by the...

  9. Reporting Research Results in APA Style | Tips & Examples

    The results section of a quantitative research paper is where you summarize your data and report the findings of any relevant statistical analyses. The APA manual provides rigorous guidelines for what to report in quantitative research papers in the fields of psychology, education, and other social sciences.

  10. Enhancing the Practical Relevance of Research 2016-03-06 ...

    Enhancing the Practical Relevance of Research. This article seeks to encourage scholars to conduct research that is more relevant to the decisions faced by managers and policymakers, and addresses why research relevance matters, what relevance means in terms of a journal article, and how scholars can increase the relevance of their research.