pygmalion's bride essay

Pygmalion's Bride Summary & Analysis by Carol Ann Duffy

  • Line-by-Line Explanation & Analysis
  • Poetic Devices
  • Vocabulary & References
  • Form, Meter, & Rhyme Scheme
  • Line-by-Line Explanations

pygmalion's bride essay

Carol Ann Duffy published "Pygmalion's Bride" in her 1999 collection The World's Wife , a book of dramatic monologues spoken by the female counterparts of famous (and infamous) men from history, literature, and folklore. Pygmalion was a skilled sculptor from Greek mythology who fell in love with his own statue—an image of a beautiful woman whom he named Galatea. Aphrodite, the goddess of love, fulfilled Pygmalion's wishes by bringing Galatea to life, and the couple were married. "Pygmalion's Bride" offers Galatea's perspective. According to her, Pygmalion's advances are entirely unwelcome. She tries to dissuade him by acting uninterested—but, ironically , he stops only pursuing her once she pretends to respond to his attentions with pleasure. Indeed, the moment Galatea transforms from an inanimate object into a human being with thoughts and desires of her own, Pygmalion loses interest in her entirely. This, the poem hints, might be a dynamic that plays out in a lot of heterosexual relationships.

  • Read the full text of “Pygmalion's Bride”

pygmalion's bride essay

The Full Text of “Pygmalion's Bride”

“pygmalion's bride” summary, “pygmalion's bride” themes.

Theme Male Desire, Dominance, and Control

Male Desire, Dominance, and Control

Lines 50-51.

Theme Gender & Sexual Hypocrisy

Gender & Sexual Hypocrisy

Line-by-line explanation & analysis of “pygmalion's bride”.

Cold, I was, ... ... but he did.

pygmalion's bride essay

He kissed my ... ... my marbled eyes.

He spoke— ... ... stone-deaf shells.

Lines 14-16

I heard the ... ... heard him shout.

Lines 17-22

He brought me presents, ... ... girly things.

Lines 23-25

He ran his ... ... played statue, shtum.

Lines 26-33

He let his ... ... scrape, no scar.

Lines 34-38

He propped me ... ... talked white black.

Lines 39-43

So I changed ... ... began to moan,

Lines 44-49

got hot, got ... ... all an act.

And haven't seen ... ... Simple as that.

“Pygmalion's Bride” Symbols

Symbol The Statue

  • Line 1: “Cold, I was, like snow, like ivory.”
  • Lines 4-8: “He kissed my stone-cool lips. / I lay still / as though I'd died. / He stayed. / He thumbed my marbled eyes.”
  • Lines 12-15: “My ears were sculpture, / stone-deaf shells. / I heard the sea. / I drowned him out.”
  • Lines 19-20: “I didn't blink, / was dumb.”
  • Lines 24-25: “I didn't shrink, / played statue, shtum.”
  • Line 28: “I would not bruise.”

“Pygmalion's Bride” Poetic Devices & Figurative Language

Alliteration.

  • Line 4: “stone”
  • Line 5: “still”
  • Line 7: “stayed”
  • Line 12: “sculpture”
  • Line 13: “stone”
  • Line 14: “sea”
  • Line 17: “presents, polished pebbles”
  • Line 18: “bells”
  • Line 19: “blink”
  • Line 24: “shrink”
  • Line 25: “shtum”
  • Line 26: “fingers,” “flesh”
  • Line 33: “scratch,” “scrape,” “scar”
  • Line 34: “propped,” “pillows”
  • Line 40: “warm,” “wax”
  • Line 50: “seen,” “since”
  • Line 51: “Simple”
  • Line 1: “I,” “like,” “like”
  • Line 2: “I”
  • Line 4: “kissed,” “lips”
  • Line 6: “I'd died”
  • Line 13: “deaf shells”
  • Line 15: “drowned,” “out”
  • Line 16: “shout”
  • Line 17: “presents,” “pebbles”
  • Line 21: “pearls”
  • Line 22: “girly”
  • Line 23: “ran,” “clammy hands”
  • Line 26: “let,” “fingers sink,” “flesh”
  • Line 29: “marks”
  • Line 30: “hearts”
  • Line 31: “stars”
  • Line 40: “candle wax”
  • Line 1: “Cold, I,” “was, like,” “snow, like”
  • Line 10: “endearments, what”
  • Line 17: “presents, polished”
  • Line 25: “statue, shtum”
  • Line 27: “squeezed, he”
  • Line 31: “stars, for”
  • Line 33: “scratch, no,” “scrape, no”
  • Line 36: “ice, was”
  • Line 37: “gravel, hoarse”
  • Line 40: “warm, like”
  • Line 42: “soft, was”
  • Line 44: “hot, got”
  • Line 45: “arched, coiled, writhed”

Colloquialism

  • Lines 22-22: “He called them / girly things.”
  • Line 25: “played statue, shtum.”
  • Line 35: “jawed all night.”
  • Line 39: “So I changed tack,”
  • Line 44: “got hot, got wild,”
  • Line 48: “screamed my head off—”
  • Line 51: “Simple as that.”
  • Lines 12-13: “My ears were sculpture, / stone-deaf shells.”
  • Lines 29-31: “He looked for marks, / for purple hearts, / for inky stars, for smudgy clues.”
  • Line 32: “His nails were claws.”
  • Line 36: “My heart was ice, was glass.”
  • Line 37: “His voice was gravel, hoarse.”
  • Line 40: “grew warm, like candle wax,”

“Pygmalion's Bride” Vocabulary

Select any word below to get its definition in the context of the poem. The words are listed in the order in which they appear in the poem.

  • Endearments
  • Changed tack
  • (Location in poem: Line 1: “Cold, I was, like snow, like ivory.”)

Form, Meter, & Rhyme Scheme of “Pygmalion's Bride”

Rhyme scheme, “pygmalion's bride” speaker, “pygmalion's bride” setting, literary and historical context of “pygmalion's bride”, more “pygmalion's bride” resources, external resources.

About the Poet — Learn more about Carol Ann Duffy's life and work by reading this short biography, courtesy of the Poetry Foundation.

On the Myth of Pygmalion and Galatea — Read about the myth of Pygmalion and Galatea and its subsequent adaptations in this brief reference entry, courtesy of Encyclopedia Brittanica. 

“Pygmalion and Galatea” by Jean-Léon Gérôme — Visualize the poem using this famous artistic rendition of Pygmalion and Galatea by French painter Jean-Léon Gérôme.

Ovid's Pygmalion and the Statue — Read an early version of the story of Pygmalion and his statue from Ovid's Metamorphoses, as translated by A.S. Kline.

An Interview with Duffy — In this interview with the Independent, Carol Ann Duffy discusses The World's Wife shortly after its publication.  

LitCharts on Other Poems by Carol Ann Duffy

A Child's Sleep

Anne Hathaway

Before You Were Mine

Death of a Teacher

Education For Leisure

Elvis's Twin Sister

Head of English

In Mrs Tilscher’s Class

In Your Mind

Little Red Cap

Mrs Lazarus

Mrs Sisyphus

Pilate's Wife

Queen Herod

Recognition

Standing Female Nude

The Darling Letters

The Dolphins

The Good Teachers

Warming Her Pearls

War Photographer

We Remember Your Childhood Well

Everything you need for every book you read.

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pygmalion's bride essay

Lit. Summaries

  • Biographies

The World’s Wife: A Deeper Look into Carol Ann Duffy’s Poetic Masterpiece

  • Carol Ann Duffy

Carol Ann Duffy’s “The World’s Wife” is a collection of poems that reimagines the stories of famous men through the perspective of their wives. Published in 1999, the collection has been praised for its feminist themes and its exploration of gender roles. In this article, we will take a deeper look into this poetic masterpiece and examine the themes, motifs, and literary devices that make it a unique and powerful work of literature.

The World’s Wife: A Deeper Look into Carol Ann Duffy’s Poetic Masterpiece

Carol Ann Duffy’s “The World’s Wife” is a collection of poems that reimagines the stories of famous men from the perspective of their wives. The collection is a feminist masterpiece that challenges traditional gender roles and gives voice to the often-overlooked women behind history’s most famous men.

Duffy’s poems are witty, poignant, and often subversive. In “Mrs. Midas,” for example, she tells the story of King Midas from the perspective of his wife, who is turned to gold when she touches her husband. The poem is a commentary on the destructive nature of male ambition and the toll it takes on those around them.

In “Mrs. Lazarus,” Duffy imagines the wife of the biblical figure Lazarus, who is brought back to life by Jesus. The poem is a haunting meditation on grief and loss, as the narrator mourns the loss of her husband and the person he once was.

Throughout the collection, Duffy gives voice to a diverse range of women, from the wives of historical figures like Darwin and Freud to fictional characters like Mrs. Quasimodo and Queen Kong. The poems are united by their exploration of the complex relationships between men and women, and the ways in which women have been silenced and marginalized throughout history.

“The World’s Wife” is a powerful and thought-provoking collection that challenges readers to rethink the stories they thought they knew. Duffy’s poems are a testament to the enduring power of poetry to illuminate the human experience and to give voice to those who have been silenced.

The Concept of The World’s Wife

The concept of The World’s Wife is a unique and powerful one. Carol Ann Duffy’s collection of poems gives voice to the women who have been silenced throughout history, offering a fresh perspective on the stories we thought we knew so well. The World’s Wife is a celebration of the female experience, exploring the lives of famous women such as Mrs. Midas and Queen Herod, as well as lesser-known figures like Frau Freud and Mrs. Darwin. Through these poems, Duffy challenges the traditional male-dominated narratives and invites readers to see the world through a new lens. The World’s Wife is a testament to the power of poetry to give voice to the voiceless and to challenge the status quo.

The Role of Women in The World’s Wife

In Carol Ann Duffy’s The World’s Wife, women take center stage as they are given a voice and agency in a world that has historically silenced them. Through her collection of poems, Duffy reimagines the stories of famous men from history and mythology, but from the perspective of their wives. This shift in perspective allows for a deeper exploration of the role of women in society and the ways in which they have been marginalized and oppressed. The women in The World’s Wife are complex and multifaceted, challenging traditional gender roles and expectations. They are not simply passive figures in the lives of their husbands, but rather active participants in their own stories. Duffy’s collection is a powerful testament to the strength and resilience of women throughout history and a call to continue fighting for gender equality.

The Use of Mythology in The World’s Wife

Carol Ann Duffy’s The World’s Wife is a collection of poems that retell the stories of famous men from the perspective of their wives. One of the most striking aspects of the collection is the use of mythology to explore the themes of power, gender, and identity. Duffy draws on a range of mythological figures, from the Greek goddesses to the Norse Valkyries, to create a rich tapestry of voices and perspectives.

One of the most powerful examples of this is the poem “Mrs Midas,” which retells the story of King Midas from the perspective of his wife. In the original myth, Midas is granted the power to turn everything he touches into gold, but this ultimately leads to his downfall. In Duffy’s version, Mrs Midas is left to deal with the consequences of her husband’s greed and the loss of their relationship. By using the myth as a starting point, Duffy is able to explore the themes of power and its corrupting influence in a fresh and engaging way.

Another example is the poem “Pygmalion’s Bride,” which draws on the Greek myth of Pygmalion, a sculptor who falls in love with his own creation. In Duffy’s version, the statue comes to life and tells her own story, challenging the traditional male gaze and the objectification of women. By using the myth to subvert traditional gender roles, Duffy is able to create a powerful commentary on the ways in which women have been silenced and objectified throughout history.

Overall, the use of mythology in The World’s Wife is a testament to Duffy’s skill as a poet and her ability to draw on a range of literary traditions to create something entirely new. By retelling these stories from the perspective of women, she is able to challenge traditional narratives and offer a fresh perspective on the themes of power, gender, and identity.

The Representation of Men in The World’s Wife

In Carol Ann Duffy’s The World’s Wife, men are portrayed in a variety of ways, ranging from heroic to villainous, from loving to abusive. The collection of poems offers a feminist perspective on history and mythology, giving voice to the women who have been silenced or marginalized in traditional narratives. However, the male characters are not simply one-dimensional stereotypes; they are complex and nuanced, reflecting the diversity of male experiences and attitudes. Some of the poems celebrate male figures, such as Elvis Presley or King Midas, while others criticize them, such as in the poem “Mrs. Faust,” where the titular character’s husband is portrayed as selfish and foolish. Overall, The World’s Wife challenges traditional gender roles and power dynamics, offering a fresh and thought-provoking perspective on the relationships between men and women.

The Poetic Techniques Used in The World’s Wife

Carol Ann Duffy’s The World’s Wife is a collection of poems that reimagines the stories of famous men from the perspective of their wives. The collection is a masterful display of poetic techniques that elevate the voices of these women and challenge traditional gender roles.

One of the most prominent techniques used in The World’s Wife is persona poetry. Each poem is written from the perspective of a different woman, giving voice to characters who have been silenced or overlooked in history. Duffy’s use of persona poetry allows her to explore the complexities of each woman’s experience and to challenge the dominant narratives that have been constructed around these male figures.

Another technique used in The World’s Wife is intertextuality. Duffy draws on a range of literary and cultural references to create a rich tapestry of allusions and echoes. For example, in the poem “Mrs. Midas,” Duffy references the Greek myth of King Midas, but reimagines the story from the perspective of his wife. This intertextual approach allows Duffy to engage with a range of cultural traditions and to create a sense of continuity and connection across time and space.

Duffy also uses a range of poetic devices to create a sense of rhythm and musicality in her poems. For example, in “Mrs. Tiresias,” she uses repetition and alliteration to create a hypnotic, incantatory effect. This musicality adds to the emotional impact of the poems and helps to create a sense of unity across the collection.

Overall, The World’s Wife is a masterful display of poetic techniques that elevate the voices of women and challenge traditional gender roles. Duffy’s use of persona poetry, intertextuality, and poetic devices creates a rich and complex collection that invites readers to reconsider the stories of famous men from a new perspective.

The Themes Explored in The World’s Wife

The World’s Wife, a collection of poems by Carol Ann Duffy, explores various themes that are relevant to contemporary society. One of the most prominent themes in the book is the idea of female empowerment. Through her poems, Duffy gives voice to the women who have been silenced or marginalized throughout history. She reimagines the stories of famous men and their wives, and in doing so, she challenges the traditional gender roles that have been imposed on women for centuries. Another important theme in the book is the concept of identity. Duffy’s poems explore the different facets of identity, including gender, sexuality, race, and class. She shows how these factors can shape a person’s experiences and how they can be used to empower or oppress individuals. Overall, The World’s Wife is a powerful and thought-provoking collection of poems that challenges readers to rethink their assumptions about gender, identity, and power.

The Reception of The World’s Wife

The reception of Carol Ann Duffy’s The World’s Wife has been overwhelmingly positive since its publication in 1999. The collection of poems, which gives voice to the wives of famous historical and mythological figures, has been praised for its wit, humor, and feminist perspective. Many critics have noted the way in which Duffy subverts traditional gender roles and reimagines these women as complex, multifaceted characters. The World’s Wife has also been celebrated for its accessibility, with its use of colloquial language and contemporary references making it a popular choice for both academic and casual readers. Overall, The World’s Wife has cemented Duffy’s reputation as one of the most important and innovative poets of her generation.

The Influence of The World’s Wife on Feminist Literature

The World’s Wife, a collection of poems by Carol Ann Duffy, has been hailed as a feminist masterpiece. The book, which was published in 1999, features a series of monologues from the perspectives of the wives of famous men from history and mythology. Through these poems, Duffy gives voice to the often-overlooked women who have been relegated to the sidelines of history.

The World’s Wife has had a significant influence on feminist literature. The book has been praised for its subversive approach to traditional gender roles and its celebration of female agency. Duffy’s poems challenge the patriarchal narratives that have dominated literature for centuries and offer a fresh perspective on the lives of women.

The book has also inspired a new generation of feminist writers. Many contemporary poets have cited Duffy as a major influence on their work, and The World’s Wife has become a touchstone for feminist literature. The book’s impact can be seen in the growing number of female voices in literature and the increasing focus on women’s experiences and perspectives.

Overall, The World’s Wife is a groundbreaking work that has had a profound impact on feminist literature. Through her poems, Duffy has given voice to the women who have been silenced by history and challenged the patriarchal narratives that have dominated literature for centuries. The book’s influence can be seen in the growing number of female voices in literature and the increasing focus on women’s experiences and perspectives.

The Relationship between The World’s Wife and Duffy’s Other Works

The World’s Wife is a collection of poems that stands out in Carol Ann Duffy’s body of work. However, it is not entirely disconnected from her other works. In fact, there are several themes and motifs that run through both The World’s Wife and Duffy’s other collections. One of the most prominent of these is the exploration of gender and power dynamics. In both The World’s Wife and other works like Mean Time and Feminine Gospels, Duffy examines the ways in which gender roles and societal expectations shape our experiences and relationships. Another common thread is the use of myth and fairy tale as a lens through which to view contemporary issues. This is particularly evident in The World’s Wife, where Duffy reimagines the stories of famous men from history and literature through the eyes of their wives. Overall, while The World’s Wife is a unique and powerful work in its own right, it is also part of a larger conversation that Duffy has been having throughout her career.

The Significance of The World’s Wife in Contemporary Poetry

The World’s Wife by Carol Ann Duffy is a collection of poems that has been widely celebrated for its unique perspective on the lives of famous men through the eyes of their wives. The collection has been praised for its feminist themes and its ability to give voice to the often-overlooked women in history. In contemporary poetry, The World’s Wife has become a significant work that challenges traditional gender roles and offers a fresh perspective on the male-dominated literary canon. Duffy’s collection has inspired many poets to explore similar themes in their own work, making it a seminal work in contemporary poetry.

The Importance of The World’s Wife in the Canon of Literature

The World’s Wife by Carol Ann Duffy is a collection of poems that reimagines the stories of famous men from history and mythology through the perspectives of their wives. This unique approach to storytelling has made The World’s Wife an important addition to the canon of literature. By giving voice to the often-overlooked women behind these powerful men, Duffy challenges traditional gender roles and highlights the importance of women’s perspectives in literature. The collection also showcases Duffy’s skill as a poet, with each poem crafted with precision and depth. Overall, The World’s Wife is a masterpiece that not only entertains but also provokes thought and reflection on the role of women in society and literature.

The Cultural and Historical Context of The World’s Wife

The World’s Wife, a collection of poems by Carol Ann Duffy, was published in 1999 and quickly became a literary sensation. The collection features a series of monologues from the perspectives of famous women throughout history, including Mrs. Midas, Queen Herod, and Mrs. Darwin. The poems explore the lives of these women and their relationships with the men in their lives, offering a feminist perspective on history and literature.

The collection was published at a time when feminist literature was gaining popularity, and Duffy’s work was seen as a significant contribution to the movement. The poems challenge traditional gender roles and offer a new perspective on the lives of women throughout history.

Duffy’s work is also influenced by the cultural and historical context in which it was written. The 1990s saw a rise in postmodernism, a literary movement that rejected traditional narrative structures and embraced fragmentation and intertextuality. The World’s Wife reflects this postmodern sensibility, with its fragmented narratives and references to other literary works.

The collection also draws on the rich history of poetry and literature, with references to Shakespeare, Chaucer, and other literary giants. Duffy’s use of these references adds depth and complexity to the poems, while also highlighting the ways in which women have been excluded from the literary canon.

Overall, The World’s Wife is a powerful and thought-provoking collection that challenges traditional gender roles and offers a new perspective on history and literature. Its cultural and historical context adds to its significance, making it a masterpiece of contemporary poetry.

The Role of Satire in The World’s Wife

Satire plays a crucial role in Carol Ann Duffy’s The World’s Wife. Through her use of humor and irony, Duffy is able to critique societal norms and gender roles. The poems in the collection are written from the perspective of famous women throughout history, giving them a voice and agency that they may not have had in their own time. Satire allows Duffy to subvert traditional narratives and challenge the reader’s assumptions about these women. By using humor to expose the absurdity of certain societal expectations, Duffy is able to make a powerful statement about the limitations placed on women throughout history. The role of satire in The World’s Wife is not just to entertain, but to provoke thought and inspire change.

The Use of Irony in The World’s Wife

One of the most striking features of Carol Ann Duffy’s The World’s Wife is the use of irony throughout the collection. Duffy employs irony to subvert traditional gender roles and challenge societal norms. In “Mrs. Midas,” for example, the titular character’s husband turns everything he touches into gold, including her. Mrs. Midas’s initial excitement at their newfound wealth quickly turns to despair as she realizes the cost of her husband’s power. The irony lies in the fact that Mrs. Midas, who is typically relegated to the role of a passive wife, is the one who ultimately gains agency and power in the poem. This use of irony is a recurring theme throughout The World’s Wife, as Duffy reimagines the stories of famous women from history and mythology. By using irony to subvert traditional narratives, Duffy challenges readers to reconsider their own assumptions about gender and power.

The Impact of The World’s Wife on Gender Studies

The World’s Wife, a collection of poems by Carol Ann Duffy, has had a significant impact on gender studies since its publication in 1999. The collection presents a feminist revision of history and mythology, giving voice to the often-overlooked female figures in literature and history. Through her poems, Duffy challenges traditional gender roles and stereotypes, and offers a new perspective on the female experience. The World’s Wife has become a staple in gender studies courses, as it provides a rich source of material for discussions on gender, power, and representation. Duffy’s work has also inspired other writers to explore similar themes in their own work, further contributing to the ongoing conversation on gender and identity. Overall, The World’s Wife has had a profound impact on the way we think about gender and representation in literature and beyond.

The Exploration of Power Dynamics in The World’s Wife

In Carol Ann Duffy’s The World’s Wife, power dynamics are explored through the lens of female perspectives. The collection of poems reimagines the stories of famous men from history and mythology, giving voice to the women who were often silenced or overlooked in their narratives. Through these retellings, Duffy exposes the power imbalances that exist between men and women, and the ways in which women have been oppressed and marginalized throughout history. The poems also challenge traditional gender roles and stereotypes, presenting women as complex and multifaceted individuals with their own desires, ambitions, and agency. Overall, The World’s Wife is a powerful exploration of power dynamics and gender politics, and a testament to the enduring strength and resilience of women throughout history.

The Representation of Love and Relationships in The World’s Wife

In Carol Ann Duffy’s The World’s Wife, love and relationships are explored through the lens of female perspectives. The collection of poems presents a diverse range of women, from historical figures to fictional characters, who have been silenced or overshadowed by their male counterparts. Through their voices, Duffy challenges traditional notions of love and relationships, and offers a fresh perspective on the complexities of human connections.

One of the recurring themes in The World’s Wife is the idea of love as a transformative force. In “Mrs. Midas,” the speaker’s husband turns everything he touches into gold, including her. The poem explores the consequences of this transformation on their relationship, as the speaker becomes increasingly isolated and estranged from her husband. Similarly, in “Mrs. Lazarus,” the speaker’s husband returns from the dead, but their reunion is fraught with tension and resentment. These poems suggest that love can be both a blessing and a curse, and that it has the power to change us in ways we may not anticipate.

Another theme that runs throughout The World’s Wife is the idea of female agency in relationships. In “Queen Herod,” the speaker challenges the traditional portrayal of Herod as a villain, and instead presents her as a woman who takes control of her own destiny. Similarly, in “Mrs. Faust,” the speaker refuses to be a passive participant in her husband’s deal with the devil, and instead demands a share of the profits. These poems suggest that women have the power to shape their own relationships, and that they should not be defined solely by their roles as wives or partners.

Overall, The World’s Wife offers a nuanced and thought-provoking exploration of love and relationships from a female perspective. Through her use of diverse voices and perspectives, Duffy challenges traditional notions of gender roles and power dynamics, and offers a fresh and insightful take on the complexities of human connections.

The Relevance of The World’s Wife in Today’s Society

In today’s society, where gender equality and women’s rights are at the forefront of many discussions, Carol Ann Duffy’s The World’s Wife remains a relevant and important piece of literature. Through her collection of poems, Duffy gives voice to the often-overlooked female figures in history and mythology, allowing them to tell their own stories and reclaim their identities. The World’s Wife challenges traditional gender roles and stereotypes, and encourages readers to question and challenge societal norms. In a world where women are still fighting for equal representation and recognition, Duffy’s work serves as a powerful reminder of the importance of amplifying women’s voices and perspectives.

Pygmalions Bride Essay Example

Pygmalions Bride Essay Example

  • Pages: 4 (1023 words)
  • Published: December 28, 2016
  • Type: Essay

“Although ‘Pygmalion’s Bride’ is humorous, it has an underlying dark message, like other poems in the collection.” With close analysis of ‘Pygmalion’s Bride’ explore how far you agree with this statement. Make references to other poems that we have studied in your answer.

Undoubtedly ‘Pygmalion’s Bride’ is a humorous poem, but the underlying dark message is clear throughout like many of Duffy’s poems. The confusion of the two is portrayed through the reader knowing the story of Pygmalion from mythology. The reader is led to believe that Pygmalion is either creating his statue. Or on a darker scale, he is committing an unlawful act against a woman. With those two different meanings of the poem being the humour to the reader.

em is told by ‘Pygmalion’s Bride’ who is either perceived as the statue or the woman depending on the reader’s interpretation. She starts the poem by telling us how ‘Cold, she was, like snow’ and how she ‘thought he would not touch her but he did’ which gives the reader two meanings to the quote, either meaning he could be sculpting her cold clay figure or she could have been cold with fear about Pygmalion touching her and giving him a sinister image to the reader, straight away providing the reader with a dark concept of the poem.

In the next stanza we are informed of how Pygmalion ‘kissed her stone-cool lips’ again she reiterates the cold vibe to the reader giving the poem that negative dark feel to it. We then learn how she ‘lay still as though she had died’ and that ‘he stayed’ which give

off the two meanings once again. As a statue she would have had no physical power or life of which to move with and he would have been observing his work. Whilst the darker meaning is clearly apparent as well. Giving the reader an imposing, creepy impression of Pygmalion. She then tells the reader of how he ‘thumbed her marble eyes’ automatically giving off a dark, dirty vibe. But the humour being that Pygmalion could simply be sculpting her eyes.

In the next stanza we are told that ‘He spoke blunt endearments, what he’d do and how’ which could imply that he was speaking of what he had to do next in terms of sculpting her. But it also gives off the dark image because we know that ‘his words were terrible’ It could also be an attack on men and suggest that men only want sex from women, which is shown in ‘Mrs, Rip Van Winkle’ when Rip Van Winkle ‘was sitting up in bed rattling Viagra’. Shjne tells us that her ‘ears were sculpture stone-death shells’ which contradicts her being a human being and could even remind the reader that she is a sculpture being created by Pygmalion. She then says how she ‘heard the sea’, ‘drowned him out’ and ‘heard him shout’ which could be seen as a dark message. Suggesting that he got angry with her ignoring him and he could be shouting at her, when really it can’t be directed at her as a person because she is a statue and wouldn’t respond him.

At the start of stanza four ‘He brought her presents, polished pebbles, little bells’ which

again contradicts the two meanings, the gifts could be accessorize to add onto the sculpture or it could relate to the dark meaning. Showing how he is trying to buy her conscience, make her feel guilty so she will almost give in to his dark desires. She then tells us how she ‘didn’t blink’ and ‘played dumb’ which could suggest that she unbeknownst to him has the control. Maybe suggesting that these women in Duffy’s poems have control, for instance in ‘Mrs Darwin’ when Mrs Darwin says to Darwin how ‘Something about that Chimpanzee over there reminds me of you’ she is mocking him, showing her comfort in doing so it suggests that she has control. When we are told about him buying her ‘pearls and rings’ and calling them ‘girly things’ it again emphasizes the dark point of him trying to buy her, as well as showing the idea that they are accessorise to add on to the sculpture. We find out that ‘He ran his clammy hands along her limbs’ which shows an obvious dark meaning. But coincidently it could also be obviously implying that he is simply sculpting her body. ‘She didn’t shrink, played statue, shtum’ which could either show that she is frozen with fear or simply she is the statue of which he has created. It could also reiterate this control she has or women have over men in Duffy’s poems.

In the next stanza we find out that ‘he let his fingers sink into her flesh’ and how ‘he squeezed’ and ‘pressed’ which relays a dark message to the reader that he is aggressively making sexual contact with

her. But it also can relate to him sculpting her. The fact that she ‘would not bruise’ and ‘he looked for marks’ makes the reader feel uncomfortable towards these seemingly sinister actions. But in fact he could be inspecting his masterpiece for blemishes. Another conflict between the two main ideas of this poem. We are informed that ‘his nails were claws’ which suggests he has hurt her, casting a dark notion into the readers head. Yet she showed no scratch’ or ‘scar’ which argues how she Is a statue and not a person

In the last stanza she takes complete control by ‘changing tack’ doing something the man doesn’t expect, which is shown in ‘Mrs Aesop’ when she gives Mr Aesop her own fable about how the ‘little cock that wouldn’t crow’.

In Pygmalion’s Bride the last stanza takes the poem away from the dark message and back towards the comical genre. The reader feels like they have read two different poems. Which is what Duffy intended. I agree that this makes the poem humorous as it relates to the original story whilst also conveying a dark underlying message.

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Interesting Literature

A Summary and Analysis of the Pygmalion and Galatea Myth

By Dr Oliver Tearle (Loughborough University)

The story of Pygmalion and Galatea is well-known: it’s a myth about art, about love, and about the relationship between the artist and his ‘muse’, in some respects. But there are also, as so often with classical myths, a few things we assume we know about this story but, it turns out, don’t really know. Or at any rate, we don’t know the full story.

So let’s delve deeper into the myth of Pygmalion and the statue he sculpted (did he?) and which came alive as the woman named Galatea (was she?) …

Pygmalion and Galatea: plot summary

There are actually two Pygmalions in classical mythology. The first one was a king of Tyre, the son of Mutto and the brother of Elissa. Elissa is better-known to us as Dido, of the Dido and Aeneas love story .

But that Pygmalion is not the famous one. The other Pygmalion was also a king, but a king of Cyprus. Famously, this Pygmalion fell in love with an ivory statue of a woman. In many versions of the myth, Pygmalion was the one who sculpted the statue (though this isn’t always the case in every single account).

Pygmalion went and asked Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love, to give him a woman who looked as beautiful as the ivory statue: a real flesh-and-blood woman who looked exactly like the statue he had fallen head over heels for.

When Pygmalion got home, he discovered the statue had come to life. He married the statue-woman and they had a daughter together.

That’s the shorter version of the myth. But such a plot summary can be fleshed out if we turn to Ovid’s Metamorphoses , written much later than the original Greek myths arose, during the heyday of ancient Rome.

In Book 10 of the Metamorphoses , Ovid fleshes out the backstory for Pygmalion: in his account, the king – who was also the sculptor of the statue – was a raging misogynist. But when he sculpted the perfect woman, his misogyny was quickly forgotten and he longed for his creation to become a living, breathing woman.

As in the summary above, Pygmalion went to make offerings to Aphrodite and asked for a woman just like his perfect statue, and when he went back and kissed the statue, it came alive, and the two of them have a child together, a daughter whom Ovid names as Paphos.

Pygmalion and Galatea: analysis

You’ll notice that at no point in the above summary is the name of the statue mentioned. This is because Ovid doesn’t give Pygmalion’s statue a name, nor does the informative and comprehensive The Penguin Dictionary of Classical Mythology (Penguin Dictionary) .

And yet in the popular imagination, Pygmalion gives the statue a name: Galatea. The name of Galatea is found in the earlier Greek myths, given to several different women, but none of them is the statue from the Pygmalion legend. One of them is a maiden who was loved by Polyphemus, the Cyclops from the stories of Odysseus; she didn’t return Polyphemus’ love and when the Cyclops saw Galatea with Acis, her lover, he threw a boulder which killed the hapless man. Galatea turned Acis into a stream which contained sparkling water.

Indeed, according to the twentieth-century classical scholar Meyer Reinhold, it was only in the eighteenth century when Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote a play about the Pygmalion myth that the name Galatea began to be associated with the sculpture. The name is, however, entirely fitting for the ivory statue in the story, because it means ‘she who is milky white’ in ancient Greek (it’s related to words like lactic and galaxy and even, ultimately, latte , all of which mean ‘milk’).

And the myth of Pygmalion and Galatea (if we choose to call her that) is one that is laden with meaning and significance. Quite what that meaning and significance might be, however, is less easy to answer: we somehow feel that the story conveys something truthful about art, about inspiration, about masculine attitudes to femininity and womanhood (and, indeed, to their own desire for women), but reducing the various strands of the Pygmalion myth to a single line – as Aesop-like ‘moral’, if you will – is not at all straightforward.

Does the myth represent the triumph of love over hate, of male desire over male hatred of women? Does erotic desire and love trump misogyny in the case of Pygmalion, perhaps with a bit of help from Aphrodite? Perhaps love does conquer all here.

And yet it’s hardly representative of all male attitudes, given Pygmalion’s special status as a sculptor (at least in many retellings of the myth). Is the story, then, not about love but about art? Pygmalion hates women and can only love one that is, in a sense, a reflection of his own self: a ‘woman’ who is his own creation, and thus speaks, on some level, to his own inward-looking narcissism.

This is obviously a less positive interpretation of the Pygmalion myth, because it suggests that men can only like or love women who are made in the man’s own image, like ordering a bespoke tailor-made suit. Galatea (as she has become known, albeit only relatively recently) isn’t given any agency in the story, and is instead first a dumb statue and then, so far as the narrative goes, an equally dumb flesh-and-blood woman, voiceless and passive.

In this connection, it’s hardly surprising that Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale is one of Shakespeare’s most powerful explorations of misogyny. It’s a play in which Leontes’ wronged wife Hermione returns as a statue (the real Hermione being thought dead by Leontes) only to ‘come alive’ when it’s revealed this is the real Hermione who is not dead at all. The reconciliation of Leontes and the wife he had falsely accused can leave a bitter taste in many readers’ and spectators’ mouths.

Shaw’s play Pygmalion (1913) obviously takes its title from the myth, but Shaw inverts this love story: in Shaw’s Pygmalion a real woman is turned into a statue, a ‘mechanical doll who resembles a duchess’ in the words of the theatre critic Michael Billington. As Shaw makes clear in the epilogue to the play, Eliza makes a carefully considered decision not to marry Professor Higgins, the Pygmalion of the play.

Numerous poets have written about the Pygmalion myth: Robert Graves, who believed strongly in the idea of the female muse inspiring the male artist, wrote two poems about the story. Roy Fuller’s villanelle about Pygmalion and Galatea takes a less happy view: in the poem (not available online, sadly, but Fuller’s New and Collected Poems, 1934-84 is well worth picking up second-hand), Pygmalion voices his regret at making the wish that the statue would come alive.

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The Big Lit(erature) Eye

This blog is for those who've read a text and want to view it from an angle other than their own. Anything literary could be discussed here, as by no means do I necessarily know any more than others, but hopefully I have the passion about literature to make up for that. As I am studying French at university, there may be certain posts dedicated to francophone literature too!

Thursday 11 February 2016

Comparing 'delilah' and 'pygmalion’s bride', what is the essay title asking for,           line of a rgument, fleshing out the structure, no comments:, post a comment.

THE BIG LIT(ERATURE) EYE

Blog: thoughts of a phd student in french & francophone studies, poem comparison: 'delilah' and 'pygmalion's bride'.

OLD BLOG POST

Both Delilah and Pygmalion’s bride appear as passive objects within their relationships, and it is only through finally rising up actively that they are able to break away from their lovers’ holds.

To what extent do you agree with this statement?

The essay title put forward above is my own, and I thought it would be useful to see how it could be explored (I also happen to enjoy these two poems greatly).

Essay notes on desk

What is the essay title asking for?

1. Are the two truly passive?

2. Do they break away from their lovers’ holds actively?

3. What would be considered ‘breaking away’ and how do they fit that?

Since an essay is an argument, it should be built upon a structure; trying to change tack midway through throws everything off, and is just as painful for the person writing it as the person reading it, so my main piece of advice would be to have a clear line of argument. This may of course take quite some time to plan out, but once it is clear then the actual writing should (theoretically) produce itself much more easily.

LINE OF ARGUMENT

1. Passive? - clear in Pygmalion’s Bride , but a sense of mutual care and therefore equality in Delilah ?

Leading to…

2. Actively rising up (Delilah’s actions in particular, in light of the comparison)?

- depends on whether she is caring, responding to gender problems on the side of men,

- or a lover fed up with the falsity of male difficulties

3. On the front of it, Delilah seems to be a woman’s defense at helping a burdened Samson emasculate himself, yet I am more inclined to believe that the undertone of rebellion would place her in a much more similar position to that of Pygmalion’s bride.

FLESHING OUT THE STRUCTURE

Below are the beginnings of an essay response, so you could start to see how I decided to tackle the question; unfortunately it is unfinished, but feel free to carry on with it and share the direction of the next steps you took!

Carol Ann Duffy provides a voice for neglected female characters within myth, depicting their liberation from male power in both Delilah and Pygmalion’s Bride: Pygmalion’s bride frees herself from the sculptor’s violent advances, whilst Delilah seems to be aiding Samson in relieving himself of the need to embody the archetypal male. Thus Delilah, unlike the bride, remains active throughout the poem, and even her cutting of Samson’s hair becomes an act of love. However, a sense of sarcasm permeates Delilah, lending itself to the suggestion that the poem represents an act of defiance similar to that as displayed in Pygmalion’s Bride.

The image of the bride as a passive woman is clear: though Pygmalion constantly seeks to provoke a reaction from the bride, having ‘thumbed’ her eyes and ‘squeezed’ her flesh, she remains ‘dumb’, refusing even to ‘blink’. Even by using the mythical statue of Galatea as an underlay for the female poetic narrator, Duffy strengthens the lack of a response on the part of the bride. The irony, though, here lies in the narrative voice being that of a human being, not simply a personified statue, rendering Pygmalion’s acts even more violent.

Delilah, in contrast, holds an active role within the poem. She ‘nibbled the purse of‘ Samson’s ear, a tender act, and the opening scene presented to the reader depicts a happy couple: ‘we were lying in bed’. The image suggests contentment, even the pleasant laziness of a clichéd, loving couple; this is certainly not the ‘cold’, ‘stone-cool’ composure of Pygmalion’s bride.

However, Delilah’s later recounting of Samson’s actions places her own self as simply an object, expressed through the description of their sex: ‘He fucked me again/ until he was sore’. The grammatical subject-object relationship seems to reflect that of Samson and Delilah themselves, in which the latter remains not only passive, but also lacks importance in comparison to Samson’s carnal pleasures. Though without the sinister tone of Pygmalion running ‘his clammy hands along’ his bride’s limbs, Delilah nevertheless illustrate a certain inferiority in Delilah’s position within her and Samson’s relationship.

This ambiguity then feeds into the questionable purpose of Delilah’s final actions, as the reader, in the same manner as the assumed court to whom the narrator explains the ‘how and the why and the where’, seeks to unpick the reasons behind the cutting of Samson’s hair. For though the narrator of Pygmalion’s Bride clearly ‘changed tack… kissed back’ in order to achieve her end of being rid of Pygmalion, Delilah lacks such a marked shift; whilst even the pace of Pygmalion’s Bride suddenly, actively, increases as the narrator ‘got hot’, Delilah slows down towards the final couplet, whose polysyllabic words reflect the ‘deliberate’ actions of cutting each and ‘every lock’ on Samson’s head.

Of course, the action of cutting is in itself active, yet perhaps Delilah aims to liberate Samson, rather than herself. Samson’s demand for the ‘cure’ to his inability to ‘be gentle… or tender’ could certainly suggest so. However, Delilah recognises the pretence in Samson’s inescapable, stereotypically manly, strength: he ‘slip[s] and slide[s] and sprawl[s]’ whilst asleep, actions incongruous with the warrior presented earlier in the poem. Even more so, the image of the narrator’s ‘scissors-/ snipping first at the black and biblical air’ reveal Delilah’s spite, attacking even her own blackened image…

I shall stop there, but hopefully this approach to writing an essay has been of at least some use to you, and perhaps also provided a different outlook on the poems examined!

  • On Readings

The European Graduate School

Boris Groys

Professor of philosophy at the european graduate school / egs..

Boris Groys (b.1947) is a philosopher, essayist, art critic, media theorist and an internationally renowned expert on Soviet-era art and literature, specifically, the Russian avant-garde. He is a Global Distinguished Professor of Russian and Slavic Studies at New York University, a Senior Research Fellow at the Staatliche Hochschule für Gestaltung Karlsruhe, and a professor of philosophy at The European Graduate School / EGS. His work engages radically different traditions from French poststructuralism to modern Russian philosophy, yet is firmly situated at the juncture of aesthetics and politics. Theoretically, Boris Groys’s work is influenced by a number of modern and post-modern philosophers and theoreticians, including Jacques Derrida, Jean Baudrillard, Gilles Deleuze and Walter Benjamin.

Born in the former German Democratic Republic, Groys grew up in the USSR. He studied philosophy, mathematics, and logic at Leningrad State University (now Saint Petersburg State University). While a student, he immersed himself in the unofficial cultural scenes taking place in Leningrad and Moscow, and coined the term “Moscow conceptualism.” The term first appeared in the essay “Moscow Romantic Conceptualism,” published in 1979, in the art magazine  A-YA . During this time in the Soviet Union, Groys published widely in a number of samizdat magazines, including  37  and  Chasy . Between 1976 and 1981, Boris Groys held the position of Research Fellow in the Department of Structural and Applied Linguistics at Moscow State University. At the end of this fellowship, he left the Soviet Union and moved to the Federal Republic of Germany.

In 1992, Groys earned his doctorate in philosophy from the Universität Münster, where he also served as an assistant professor in philosophy from 1998-1994. During this time, Groys was also a visiting professor in the Department of Slavic Languages and Literature at the University of Pennsylvania, followed by another appointment at the University of Southern California, also in the Department of Slavic Languages and Literature. From 1994 to 2009, Groys was Professor of Art History, Philosophy, and Media Theory at the Staatliche Hochschule für Gestaltung Karlsruhe, where he remains a senior research fellow. In 2001, he was the Director of the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna, and from 2003 to 2004, he spearheaded the research program  Post-Communist Condition , at the Federal Cultural Foundation of Germany. He assumed the position of Global Distinguished Professor in the Faculty of Arts and Science at New York University in 2005 and in 2009 he became a full Professor of Russian and Slavic Studies at NYU. Groys is also a senior Fellow at the International Center for Cultural Studies and Media Theory at the Bauhaus Universität (Weimar); a member of the Association Internationale des Critiques d’Art (AICA); and has been a senior scholar at the Courtauld Institute of Art (London); and a fellow at the International Research Center for Cultural Studies (IFK, Vienna), Harvard University Art Museum, and the University of Pittsburg.

In the Anglo-American world, Boris Groys is best known as the author of  The Total Art of Stalinism  (1992), and for introducing the western world to Russian postmodernist writers and artists. His contributions stretch across the field of philosophy, politics, history, and art theory and criticism. Within aesthetics, his major works include  Vanishing Point Moscow  (1994) and  The Art of Installation (1996). His philosophical works include  A Philosopher’s Diary  (1989) , The Invention of Russia  (1995), and  Introduction to Antiphilosophy  (2012). More recently, he has also published  Under Suspicion: A Phenomenology of the Media  (2000) , Ilya Kabakov: The Man Who Flew into Space from his Apartment  (2006) ,  and  The Communist Postscript  (2010). In addition to these works, other significant works in art, history, and philosophy include:  History Becomes Form: Moscow Conceptualism  (2010),  Going Public  (2010),  Art Power  (2008),  The Total Enlightenment: Conceptual Art in Moscow 1960-1990  (2008),  Dream Factory Communism: The Visual Culture of the Stalin Period  (2004),  Apotropikon  (1991), and  Thinking in Loop: Three Videos on Iconoclasm, Ritual and Immortality  (DVD, 2008), which is a trilogy of video-text syntheses, wherein Groys reads the composed text superimposed onto a collage of footage fragments taken from movies and film documentations.

As a prominent contemporary art theorist and critic, Boris Groys has also curated a number of notable exhibitions, including:  Fluchtpunkt Moskau  at Ludwig Forum (1994, Aachen, Germany),  Dream Factory Communism  at the Schirn Gallery (2003-2004, Frankfurt, Germany),  Privatizations  at the KW Institute of Contemporary Art (2004, Berlin, Germany),  Total Enlightenment: Conceptual Art in Moscow 1960–1990 at the Kunsthalle Schirn (2008-2009 Frankfurt, Germany; Fundación Juan March, Madrid, Spain),  Medium Religion  with Peter Weibel at the Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe (2009, Karlsruhe, Germany),  Andrei Monastyrski  for the Russian Pavilion at the 54th Venice Biennale (2011, Venice, Italy),  After History: Alexandre Kojève as a Photographer , at BAK Utrecht (2012, Netherlands).

While Boris Groys teaches, lectures, and writes on philosophy, politics, and history, it has been his work in aesthetics, and his co-mingling of ideas through aesthetics, that has brought him the most recognition and where he has made his most significant contributions. Groys proposes and underscores the involvement of the Russian avant-garde in the Bolshevik movement as well as in the early stages of the Bolshevik State. Following this premise, Groys’s work explores the implications of this relationship. One of his fundamental theses is that these artists––like their political counterparts––tried to outpace the developments of modernity, and so, they, like the Bolsheviks themselves, attempted to skip the steps supposed to be necessary and constitutive of historical progress.

While it is widely acknowledged in modern Russian art history that an opposition developed among artists during the revolutionary period between those constituting an avant-garde and those complicit with the state sanctioned art of the Soviet Union, Boris Groys contends that this was the result of a split and not a continuation of a pre-Revolutionary division. More specifically, Groys posits a more refined understanding of the period such that these artists cannot be simply and uniformly grouped as having been in partnership with the state Party and then, slowly, over the period split off into an opposing position. Indeed, he contends that much of the avant-garde remained on the ideological side of the state Party well past its early stages. Moreover, these artistic developments entered the political field and thereby became its extension. Under the leadership of the state, Soviet realism helped fulfil the avant-garde’s dream of demiurgic power. It is in this respect that Groys then posits the relationship between romanticism and twentieth century Russian avant-garde art. The partnership between Soviet realism and the state Party’s ideology resulted in (authorized) artworks as understood as the realization of socialism, thereby abolishing the supposed boundaries between life, art, and politics. According to Groys, the  Lenin Mausoleum  stands as the embodiment of this achievement of synchrony. Complicating and pushing this position further, Groys finds this phenomenon not at all exclusive to the Soviet Union, but in fact points to its uncanny parallel in the readymades of Marcel Duchamp.

Much of Groys’s work has centered on exploring the consequences of this suture resulting in a particular framework in which to think post-Stalinist art. With the fall of Stalinism, and its “iron laws of history,” Russian artists, both of the post-Stalin period of the Soviet Union and the post-Cold War period, have had to confront the difficult task of overcoming a notion of utopia without falling out of history, or rather, how to dissolve the notion of teleology without falling into the abyss of the end of history. Within this framework, Groys investigates not only the historical, political, and aesthetic relations in the Soviet Union and Russia, but as well specific artistic and literary works such as those by Ilya Kabakov, Komar and Melamid, and Prigov.

Without pronouncement, Boris Groys’s work, in all its varied forms, appears to follow a sustained thesis: art is a symptom of society. While the majority of his work is within aesthetics, his thesis is not exclusive to aesthetics. Rather, Groys tends to think politics, and philosophy, with and through the medium of art. This idea is underscored in a conversation between John-Paul Stonard and Boris Groys while he was Visiting Professorial Fellow at the Courtauld Institute of Art Research Forum, which was transcribed and published in the Institute’s journal,  immediations  (Vol.1, No. 4, 2007). In response to Stonard’s question as to whether “philosophers have a naturally closer relationship with artists than do art historians?” Groys responded, “We can look at artists in two ways. First, as if we were biologists, trying to construct a neo-Darwinian story of ‘art species’; how artists developed, how they succeeded, failed, survived. In these terms art history is formulated a little like botany or biology. The second way of considering art history is as part of the history of ideas. We have the history of philosophy, the history of science, the history of cultural history, just as we can have the history of art. So the question is whether we define art history more like botany, or more like the history of philosophy – and I tend more to the latter, because, as I have suggested, the driving force of art is philosophical.”

––Srdjan Cvjeticanin

Kommunisticheskiy Postskriptum , Groys, Boris. Kommunisticheskiy Postskriptum. Ad Marginem, 2014.  ISBN: 5911031817

Google: Words beyond Grammar/Google: Worte jenseits der Grammatik , Groys, Boris. Google: Words beyond Grammar/Google: Worte jenseits der Grammatik. Hatje Cantz, 2011.  ISBN: 3775728953

Unter Verdacht: Eine Phänomenologie der Medien , Groys, Boris. Unter Verdacht: Eine Phänomenologie der Medien. Carl Hanser Verlag, 2010.  ISBN: 3446236023

Under Suspicion: A Phenomenology of Media , Groys, Boris. Under Suspicion: A Phenomenology of Media. Translated by Carsten Strathausen. Columbia University Press, 2012.  ISBN: 0231146183

Going Public , Groys, Boris. Going Public. Sternberg Press, 2010.  ISBN: 1934105309

History Becomes Form: Moscow Conceptualism , Groys, Boris. History Becomes Form: Moscow Conceptualism. MIT Press, 2010.  ISBN: 0262014238

Einführung in die Anti-philosophie , Groys, Boris. Einführung in die Anti-philosophie. Carl Hanser, 2009.  ISBN: 3446234047

An Introduction to Antiphilosophy , Groys, Boris. An Introduction to Antiphilosophy. Translated by David Fernbach. Verso, 2012.  ISBN: 0231146183

Art Power , Groys, Boris. Art Power. MIT Press, 2008.  ISBN: 0262518686

Drei Videos über das Ikonoklastische: Rituelle und Unsterbliche/Thinking in Loop: Three Videos on Iconoclasm, Ritual and Immortality. , Groys, Boris. Drei Videos über das Ikonoklastische: Rituelle und Unsterbliche/Thinking in Loop: Three Videos on Iconoclasm, Ritual and Immortality. ZKM/Hatje Cantz, 2008.  ISBN: 3775723374

Die Kunst des Denkens , Groys, Boris. Die Kunst des Denkens. Philo Fine Arts, 2008.  ISBN: 3865726399

Ilya Kabakov. The Man Who Flew into Space from His Apartment , Groys, Boris. Ilya Kabakov. The Man Who Flew into Space from His Apartment. Afterall/MIT Press, 2006.  ISBN: 1846380049

Das Kommunistische Postskriptum , Groys, Boris. Das Kommunistische Postskriptum. Suhrkamp, 2006.  ISBN: 351812403X

The Communist Postscript , Groys, Boris. The Communist Postscript. Verso, 2010.  ISBN: 1844674304

Le Post-scriptum Communiste , Groys, Boris. Le Post-scriptum Communiste. Translated by Olivier Mannoni. Libella/Maren Sell, 2008.  ISBN: 2355800057

Postscriptum Comunista , Groys, Boris. Postscriptum Comunista. Translated by Gianluca Bonaiuti. Metemi Melusine, 2008.  ISBN: 8883536738

Die Muse im Pelz , Groys, Boris. Die Muse im Pelz. Literaturverlag Droschl, 2004.  ISBN: 3854206720

Topologie der Kunst , Groys, Boris. Topologie der Kunst. Carl Hanser, 2003.  ISBN: 3446203680

Kommentarii k Iskusstvu , Groys, Boris. Kommentarii k iskusstvu. KhZh, 2003.  ISBN: 5901116089

Politik der Unsterblichkeit: Vier Gespräche mit Thomas Knöfel , Groys, Boris. Politik der Unsterblichkeit: Vier Gespräche mit Thomas Knöfel. Carl Hanser, 2002.  ISBN: 3446201394

Politique de l’Immortalité , Groys, Boris. Politique de l’Immortalité. Quatre entretiens avec Thomas Knoefel. Translator Olivieri Mannon. Maren Sell Editeurs, 2005.  ISBN: 2350040232

Dialogi , Groys, Boris, and Ilya Kabakov. Dialogi. Ad marginem, 1999.  ISBN: 593321003X

Logik der Sammlung , Groys, Boris. Logik der Sammlung. Carl Hanser, 1997.  ISBN: 3446189327

Kunst-Kommentare , Groys, Boris. Kunst-Kommentare. Passagen, 1997.  ISBN: 3851652916

Die Kunst der Installation , Groys, Boris, and Ilja Kabakov. Die Kunst der Installation. Carl Hanser, 1996.  ISBN: 3446185275

Die Erfindung Russlands , Groys, Boris. Die Erfindung Russlands. Carl Hanser, 1995.  ISBN: 3446180516

Über das Neue , Groys, Boris. Über das Neue. Versuch einer Kulturökonomie. Carl Hanser, 1992.  ISBN: 3446165428

On the New , Groys, Boris. On the New. Translated by G. M. Goshgarian. Verso, 2014.  ISBN: 1781682925

Sobre lo Nuevo , Groys, Boris. Sobre lo Nuevo. Pre-textos, 2005.  ISBN: 848191648X

Du Nouveau , Groys, Boris. Du Nouveau: Essai d’économie culturelle. Jacqueline Chambon, 1995.  ISBN: 2877111156

Zeitgenössische Kunst aus Moskau: Von der Neo-Avantgarde zum Post-Stalinismus ,Groys, Boris. Zeitgenössische Kunst aus Moskau: Von der Neo-Avantgarde zum Post-Stalinismus. Klinkhardt u. B., 1991.  ISBN: 3781403033

Die Kunst des Fliehens , Groys, Boris, and Ilya Kabakov. Die Kunst des Fliehens. Carl Hanser, 1991.  ISBN: 3446160779

Dnevnik filosofa , Groys, Boris. Dnevnik Filosofa. Beseda/Sintaksis, 1989.

全体芸術様式スターリン/ Zentai Geijutsu Yōshiki Sutārin , Groys, Boris. 全体芸術様式スターリン/ Zentai Geijutsu Yōshiki Sutārin. Translated by Ikuo Kameyama and Yoshiaki Koga. 現代思潮新社, 2000.  ISBN: 4329004119

Gesamtkunstwerk Stalin , Groys, Boris. Gesamtkunstwerk Stalin. Translated by Desiderio Navarro. Pre-textos, 2008.  ISBN: 848191925X

Lo Stalinismo Ovvero l’Opera d’Arte Totale , Groys, Boris. Lo Stalinismo Ovvero l’Opera d’Arte Totale. Translated by Emanuela Guercetti. Garzanti, 1992.  ISBN: 8811598346

The Total Art of Stalinism: Russian Avant-Garde, Aesthetic Dictatorship, and Beyond. , Groys, Boris. The Total Art of Stalinism: Russian Avant-Garde, Aesthetic Dictatorship, and Beyond. Translated by Charles Rougle. Verso, (1992) 2011.  ISBN: 1844677079

Staline: Oeuvre d’Art totale , Groys, Boris. Staline: Oeuvre d’Aart totale. Jacqueline Chambon, 1990.  ISBN: 2877110370

Gesamtkunstwerk Stalin , Groys, Boris. Gesamtkunstwerk Stalin. Die Gespaltene Kultur in der Sowjetunion. Translated by Gabriele Leupold. Carl Hanser, (1988) 2008.  ISBN: 3446187863

Edited Works

Moscow Symposium: Conceptualism Revisited

Groys, Boris, ed.  Moscow Symposium: Conceptualism Revisited . Sternberg Press, 2012.  ISBN: 3943365115

Empty Zones: Andrei Monastyrski and Collective Action

Groys, Boris, Claire Bishop, and Andrei Monastyrski, eds.  Empty Zones: Andrei Monastyrski and Collective Action . Black Dog, 2011.  ISBN: 1907317341

Die totale Aufklärung: Moskauer Konzeptkunst 1960-1990/The Total Enlightenment: Conceptual Art in Moscow 1960-1990

Groys, Boris, Max Hollein, and Manuel Fontan del Junco, eds.  Die totale Aufklärung: Moskauer Konzeptkunst 1960-1990/The Total Enlightenment: Conceptual Art in Moscow 1960-1990 . Exhibition catalogue. Hatje Cantz, 2008.  ISBN: 377572124 X

Die Neue Menschheit

Groys, Boris, and Michael Hagemeister, eds.  Die Neue Menschheit . Suhrkamp, 2005.  ISBN: 351829363 X

Am Nullpunkt

Groys, Boris, and Aage Hansen-Löve, eds.  Am Nullpunkt . Suhrkamp, 2005.  ISBN: 3518293648

Zurück aus der Zukunft. Osteuropäische Kulturen im Zeitalter des Postkommunismus

Groys, Boris, and Anne von der Heiden, eds.  Zurück aus der Zukunft. Osteuropäische Kulturen im Zeitalter des Postkommunismus . Suhrkamp, 2005.  ISBN: 3518124528

Privatisierungen/Privatisations

Groys, Boris, ed.  Privatisierungen/Privatisations . Revolver, 2004.  ISBN: 3865882285

Dream Factory Communism: The Visual Culture of the Stalin Era

Groys, Boris, and Max Hollein, eds.  Dream Factory Communism: The Visual Culture of the Stalin Era . Hatje Cantz, 2003.  ISBN: 377571328 X

Kierkegaard

Groys, Boris, ed.  Kierkegaard . Schriften. Diederichs, 1996.  ISBN: 3424012874

Fluchtpunkt Moskau

Groys, Boris, ed. Fluchtpunkt Moskau. Cantz, 1994.  ISBN: 3893226125

Utopia i Obmen

Groys, Boris, ed.  Utopia i Obmen . Izd-vo Znak, 1993.  ISBN: 5877070010

Today’s Legacy of Classical Modernism

Thinking Media and the Man-Machine Relation

Alexandre Kojève

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ESSAY; Moscow's China Card

By William Safire

  • Sept. 8, 1986

ESSAY; Moscow's China Card

Every decade or so, China undergoes a political convulsion. In 1948-49, the Communists threw out the Kuomintang; in 1956, Mao's ''Great Leap Forward'' plunged the country into a depression; in 1966, the Cultural Revolution to purify the party brought on a new Dark Ages; in 1976-78, we saw Mao's would-be radical successors, the ''Gang of Four,'' replaced by pragmatic Deng Xiaoping.

Now we are celebrating the 10th anniversary of the death of Mao, and some Pekingologists would have us believe that this decade's upheaval will not come.

Mr. Deng, at 82, has provided for his succession, we are assured: it's all set for Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang to succeed him, with Hu Qili of the next generation right behind. Not to worry, goes the current Edgar Snow-job: China's new era of ''commutalism,'' communism with a capitalist face, will march undisturbed into the next millennium.

I wonder. Maybe the conventional wisdom will prove right for once. But for argument's sake, let's look at what is happening in China through a different set of glasses, seeking truth from facts.

Fact number one is that a wave of materialism is sweeping across the billion people of China. After a generation of repression, good ol' greed is back in the saddle, and an I'm-all right-Deng attitude permeates the new entrepreneurs.

As a longtime expositor of the virtue of greed in powering the engine of social progress, I cannot cluck-cluck at this. But there is a difference between the materialism of the Chinese on Taiwan, who are accustomed to free enterprise, and the lust for the good life of available goods on the mainland, where a terrible thirst has been a-building.

Let us assume that the outburst of materialism in China leads to some reaction: that some spoilsport faction emerges to summon up the ghost of Mao's ideological purity, and that this new gang of fortyish Outs finds its way back in. It is at least a possibility.

I think that shrewd old Deng is well aware of this possibility. That is why, despite his ostentatious rejection of personal cultdom, he is preparing his most dramatic assault on the memory of Mao. That father of the revolution startled the world by breaking with the Soviet Union; Mr. Deng, playing a revisionist Lenin to Mao's Marx, wants to startle the world and overwhelm internal opposition by a rapprochement with Moscow.

Accordingly, fact two: He has abandoned his demand that Russia move back its huge army from the Chinese border, thereby double-crossing his own Army leaders. He has forgotten his requirement that Soviet forces be withdrawn from Afghanistan, thereby double-crossing his Westernish ally, Pakistan.

All Mr. Deng now asks of the Russians is that they try to squeeze their Vietnamese clients to pull out of Cambodia. Of course they'll try - ''best efforts'' is an easy promise - and since the Vietnamese are notoriously independent, Moscow cannot be blamed for not succeeding. Result: Mr. Deng takes the salute from atop the wall in Red Square.

That reestablishes his Communist credentials, defanging hard-left opposition at home. And it is Middle Kingdom orthodoxy; I suspect Chinese agents in the U.S. supply the K.G.B. with intelligence, just as Peking permits our Big Ears on its soil to overhear Kremlin transmissions. Chinese policy has always been to play the barbarians against each other.

This theory would also explain fact three: Mr. Gorbachev's seizure of a U.S. newsman as hostage. It is no coincidence that this particular hostage selection follows China's arrest and expulsion of a reporter for a U.S. newspaper. The Soviet leader, advised by Anatoly Dobrynin, must have known that this slap in the face would jeopardize a summit - and went ahead with his calculated humiliation, similar to Mr. Nixon's mining of Haiphong harbor before his Moscow summit in 1972.

Because the Russians now have the prospect of a pilgrimage to Moscow by Mr. Deng, they can taunt the U.S. President with impunity. As Mr. Dobrynin probably predicted, Mr. Reagan is reduced to begging for the hostage's release, in effect volunteering testimony to a Soviet court, in his eagerness to crown his Presidency with a peacemaking summit.

Now Mr. Gorbachev can hang tough, holding a show trial and thereby delaying negotiations with the U.S. until the Deng visit - or can graciously accede to the Reagan plea, thereby establishing his dominance. And the overconfident Mr. Reagan never suspected, as he sat down to summit poker, that this time the China card was in his opponent's hand.

Kings of Russia

The Comprehensive Guide to Moscow Nightlife

  • Posted on April 14, 2018 July 26, 2018
  • by Kings of Russia
  • 8 minute read

pygmalion's bride essay

Moscow’s nightlife scene is thriving, and arguably one of the best the world has to offer – top-notch Russian women, coupled with a never-ending list of venues, Moscow has a little bit of something for everyone’s taste. Moscow nightlife is not for the faint of heart – and if you’re coming, you better be ready to go Friday and Saturday night into the early morning.

This comprehensive guide to Moscow nightlife will run you through the nuts and bolts of all you need to know about Moscow’s nightclubs and give you a solid blueprint to operate with during your time in Moscow.

What you need to know before hitting Moscow nightclubs

Prices in moscow nightlife.

Before you head out and start gaming all the sexy Moscow girls , we have to talk money first. Bring plenty because in Moscow you can never bring a big enough bankroll. Remember, you’re the man so making a fuzz of not paying a drink here or there will not go down well.

Luckily most Moscow clubs don’t do cover fees. Some electro clubs will charge 15-20$, depending on their lineup. There’s the odd club with a minimum spend of 20-30$, which you’ll drop on drinks easily. By and large, you can scope out the venues for free, which is a big plus.

Bottle service is a great deal in Moscow. At top-tier clubs, it starts at 1,000$. That’ll go a long way with premium vodka at 250$, especially if you have three or four guys chipping in. Not to mention that it’s a massive status boost for getting girls, especially at high-end clubs.

Without bottle service, you should estimate a budget of 100-150$ per night. That is if you drink a lot and hit the top clubs with the hottest girls. Scale down for less alcohol and more basic places.

Dress code & Face control

Door policy in Moscow is called “face control” and it’s always the guy behind the two gorillas that gives the green light if you’re in or out.

In Moscow nightlife there’s only one rule when it comes to dress codes:

You can never be underdressed.

People dress A LOT sharper than, say, in the US and that goes for both sexes. For high-end clubs, you definitely want to roll with a sharp blazer and a pocket square, not to mention dress shoes in tip-top condition. Those are the minimum requirements to level the playing field vis a vis with other sharply dressed guys that have a lot more money than you do. Unless you plan to hit explicit electro or underground clubs, which have their own dress code, you are always on the money with that style.

Getting in a Moscow club isn’t as hard as it seems: dress sharp, speak English at the door and look like you’re in the mood to spend all that money that you supposedly have (even if you don’t). That will open almost any door in Moscow’s nightlife for you.

Types of Moscow Nightclubs

In Moscow there are four types of clubs with the accompanying female clientele:

High-end clubs:

These are often crossovers between restaurants and clubs with lots of tables and very little space to dance. Heavy accent on bottle service most of the time but you can work the room from the bar as well. The hottest and most expensive girls in Moscow go there. Bring deep pockets and lots of self-confidence and you have a shot at swooping them.

Regular Mid-level clubs:

They probably resemble more what you’re used to in a nightclub: big dancefloors, stages and more space to roam around. Bottle service will make you stand out more but you can also do well without. You can find all types of girls but most will be in the 6-8 range. Your targets should always be the girls drinking and ideally in pairs. It’s impossible not to swoop if your game is at least half-decent.

Basic clubs/dive bars:

Usually spots with very cheap booze and lax face control. If you’re dressed too sharp and speak no Russian, you might attract the wrong type of attention so be vigilant. If you know the local scene you can swoop 6s and 7s almost at will. Usually students and girls from the suburbs.

Electro/underground clubs:

Home of the hipsters and creatives. Parties there don’t mean meeting girls and getting drunk but doing pills and spacing out to the music. Lots of attractive hipster girls if that is your niche. That is its own scene with a different dress code as well.

pygmalion's bride essay

What time to go out in Moscow

Moscow nightlife starts late. Don’t show up at bars and preparty spots before 11pm because you’ll feel fairly alone. Peak time is between 1am and 3am. That is also the time of Moscow nightlife’s biggest nuisance: concerts by artists you won’t know and who only distract your girls from drinking and being gamed. From 4am to 6am the regular clubs are emptying out but plenty of people, women included, still hit up one of the many afterparty clubs. Those last till well past 10am.

As far as days go: Fridays and Saturdays are peak days. Thursday is an OK day, all other days are fairly weak and you have to know the right venues.

The Ultimate Moscow Nightclub List

Short disclaimer: I didn’t add basic and electro clubs since you’re coming for the girls, not for the music. This list will give you more options than you’ll be able to handle on a weekend.

Preparty – start here at 11PM

Classic restaurant club with lots of tables and a smallish bar and dancefloor. Come here between 11pm and 12am when the concert is over and they start with the actual party. Even early in the night tons of sexy women here, who lean slightly older (25 and up).

The second floor of the Ugolek restaurant is an extra bar with dim lights and house music tunes. Very small and cozy with a slight hipster vibe but generally draws plenty of attractive women too. A bit slower vibe than Valenok.

Very cool, spread-out venue that has a modern library theme. Not always full with people but when it is, it’s brimming with top-tier women. Slow vibe here and better for grabbing contacts and moving on.

pygmalion's bride essay

High-end: err on the side of being too early rather than too late because of face control.

Secret Room

Probably the top venue at the moment in Moscow . Very small but wildly popular club, which is crammed with tables but always packed. They do parties on Thursdays and Sundays as well. This club has a hip-hop/high-end theme, meaning most girls are gold diggers, IG models, and tattooed hip hop chicks. Very unfavorable logistics because there is almost no room no move inside the club but the party vibe makes it worth it. Strict face control.

Close to Secret Room and with a much more favorable and spacious three-part layout. This place attracts very hot women but also lots of ball busters and fakes that will leave you blue-balled. Come early because after 4am it starts getting empty fast. Electronic music.

A slightly kitsch restaurant club that plays Russian pop and is full of gold diggers, semi-pros, and men from the Caucasus republics. Thursday is the strongest night but that dynamic might be changing since Secret Room opened its doors. You can swoop here but it will be a struggle.

pygmalion's bride essay

Mid-level: your sweet spot in terms of ease and attractiveness of girls for an average budget.

Started going downwards in 2018 due to lax face control and this might get even worse with the World Cup. In terms of layout one of the best Moscow nightclubs because it’s very big and bottle service gives you a good edge here. Still attracts lots of cute girls with loose morals but plenty of provincial girls (and guys) as well. Swooping is fairly easy here.

I haven’t been at this place in over a year, ever since it started becoming ground zero for drunken teenagers. Similar clientele to Icon but less chic, younger and drunker. Decent mainstream music that attracts plenty of tourists. Girls are easy here as well.

Sort of a Coyote Ugly (the real one in Moscow sucks) with party music and lots of drunken people licking each others’ faces. Very entertaining with the right amount of alcohol and very easy to pull in there. Don’t think about staying sober in here, you’ll hate it.

Artel Bessonitsa/Shakti Terrace

Electronic music club that is sort of a high-end place with an underground clientele and located between the teenager clubs Icon and Gipsy. Very good music but a bit all over the place with their vibe and their branding. You can swoop almost any type of girl here from high-heeled beauty to coked-up hipsters, provided they’re not too sober.

pygmalion's bride essay

Afterparty: if by 5AM  you haven’t pulled, it’s time to move here.

Best afterparty spot in terms of trying to get girls. Pretty much no one is sober in there and savage gorilla game goes a long way. Lots of very hot and slutty-looking girls but it can be hard to tell apart who is looking for dick and who is just on drugs but not interested. If by 9-10am you haven’t pulled, it is probably better to surrender.

The hipster alternative for afterparties, where even more drugs are in play. Plenty of attractive girls there but you have to know how to work this type of club. A nicer atmosphere and better music but if you’re desperate to pull, you’ll probably go to Miks.

Weekday jokers: if you’re on the hunt for some sexy Russian girls during the week, here are two tips to make your life easier.

Chesterfield

Ladies night on Wednesdays means this place gets pretty packed with smashed teenagers and 6s and 7s. Don’t pull out the three-piece suit in here because it’s a “simpler” crowd. Definitely your best shot on Wednesdays.

If you haven’t pulled at Chesterfield, you can throw a Hail Mary and hit up Garage’s Black Music Wednesdays. Fills up really late but there are some cute Black Music groupies in here. Very small club. Thursday through Saturday they do afterparties and you have an excellent shot and swooping girls that are probably high.

Shishas Sferum

This is pretty much your only shot on Mondays and Tuesdays because they offer free or almost free drinks for women. A fairly low-class club where you should watch your drinks. As always the case in Moscow, there will be cute girls here on any day of the week but it’s nowhere near as good as on the weekend.

pygmalion's bride essay

In a nutshell, that is all you need to know about where to meet Moscow girls in nightlife. There are tons of options, and it all depends on what best fits your style, based on the type of girls that you’re looking for.

Related Topics

  • moscow girls
  • moscow nightlife

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pygmalion's bride essay

Modern Dance Ballet of Boris Eifman presents  "The Pygmalion Effect"

at the  New Stage of Bolshoi Theatre  on  3 April 2020

Music: Johann Strauss, Jr.

pygmalion's bride essay

To make an order, please use mobile version of our website - buy tickets from any smartphone

IMAGES

  1. Pygmalion Essay

    pygmalion's bride essay

  2. Pygmalion's Bride .pdf

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  3. Pygmalion's Bride by Kaya Purchase on Prezi

    pygmalion's bride essay

  4. Pygmalions bride essay

    pygmalion's bride essay

  5. ⇉The Prostitute with a Heart of Gold

    pygmalion's bride essay

  6. Pygmalions Bride Poem Analysis Essay. Carol Ann Duffy \u2013 Pygmalion

    pygmalion's bride essay

VIDEO

  1. Pygmalion : Summary by George Bernard Shaw

  2. Why You Should Max Rarity Your Deck

  3. PYGMALION Act 2 2of5

  4. The Pygmalion Effect #bias #psychology #criticalthinking #psychologyfacts #shorts

  5. The cast of Pygmalion play

  6. Pygmalion's Love

COMMENTS

  1. Pygmalion's Bride Poem Summary and Analysis

    Carol Ann Duffy published "Pygmalion's Bride" in her 1999 collection The World's Wife, a book of dramatic monologues spoken by the female counterparts of famous (and infamous) men from history, literature, and folklore.Pygmalion was a skilled sculptor from Greek mythology who fell in love with his own statue—an image of a beautiful woman whom he named Galatea.

  2. Carol Ann Duffy

    Cold, I was, like snow, like ivory. I thought "He will not touch me", but he did. He kissed my stone-cool lips. I lay still as though I'd died. He stayed. He thumbed my marbled eyes.

  3. Exploring The World's Wife: A Literary Analysis of Carol Ann Duffy's Poems

    Another example is the poem "Pygmalion's Bride," which draws on the Greek myth of Pygmalion, a sculptor who falls in love with his own creation. In Duffy's version, the statue comes to life and tells her own story, challenging the traditional male gaze and the objectification of women. By using the myth to subvert traditional gender ...

  4. Pygmalions Bride Essay Example

    Pygmalions Bride Essay Example 🎓 Get access to high-quality and unique 50 000 college essay examples and more than 100 000 flashcards and test answers from around the world! ... In Pygmalion's Bride the last stanza takes the poem away from the dark message and back towards the comical genre. The reader feels like they have read two ...

  5. Pygmalion: Mini Essays

    Pygmalion is a sculptor who creates a sculpture of a woman so perfectly formed that he falls in love with her. Aphrodite is moved by his love and touches the statue to life so that she becomes Galatea, and the sculptor can experience bliss with his own creation. While Shaw maintains the skeletal structure of the fantasy in which a gifted male ...

  6. SparkNotes

    SparkNotes

  7. PDF Essays and Criticism: The Ending of Pygmalion: A Structural View

    Essays and Criticism: The Ending of Pygmalion: A Structural View Pygmalion is one of Shaw's most popular plays as well as one of his most straightforward ones. The form has none of the complexity that we find in Heartbreak House or Saint Joan, nor are the ideas in Pygmalion nearly as profound as the ideas in any of Shaw's other major works.

  8. Pygmalions Bride Poem Analysis Essay. Carol Ann Duffy

    MENU Pygmalions Bride Poem Analysis Essay Lyubomir GospodinovIB English Literature IVDecember 5, 2016Commentary on "Pygmalion's Bride"In "Pygmalion's Bride", a poem from Carol Ann Du ff y's The World's Wife, Du ff y imagines the voice and thoughts of the bride of Pygmalion. Mythology states Pygmalion, a sculptor, falls in love with a statue he carves.

  9. Pygmalions Bride

    1011 Words. 5 Pages. Open Document. "Although 'Pygmalion's Bride' is humorous, it has an underlying dark message, like other poems in the collection.". With close analysis of 'Pygmalion's Bride' explore how far you agree with this statement. Make references to other poems that we have studied in your answer.

  10. Recent Work on Pygmalion in Nineteenth-Century Literature

    In this essay I review recent work on Pygmalion in 19th-century literature, focusing on the key themes of gender, class and metamorphosis. The literature reviewed includes analyses of specific Pygmalion poems and plays, as well as the use of Pygmalion as a trope for a range of concerns relating to male control, fashioning and the female subject

  11. A Summary and Analysis of the Pygmalion and Galatea Myth

    There are actually two Pygmalions in classical mythology. The first one was a king of Tyre, the son of Mutto and the brother of Elissa. Elissa is better-known to us as Dido, of the Dido and Aeneas love story. But that Pygmalion is not the famous one. The other Pygmalion was also a king, but a king of Cyprus.

  12. Pygmalion's Bride.pptx

    Authorial choices and Analysis: Stanza 1 Authorial choices The narrator, Pygmalion's bride (the statue), describes herself "like snow, like ivory ", a simile that reflects the fact that she was carved from ivory, which is hard but beautiful. Ivory and snow are both cold and white, a color that symbolizes innocence, cleanliness and purity. This narration indicates that while the statue is ...

  13. Pygmalion: Full Play Analysis

    Pygmalion derives its name from the famous story in Ovid's Metamorphoses, in which Pygmalion, disgusted by the loose and shameful lives of the women of his era, decides to live alone and unmarried. With wondrous art, he creates a beautiful statue more perfect than any living woman. The more he looks upon her, the more deeply he falls in love with her, until he wishes that she were more than a ...

  14. Comparing 'Delilah' and 'Pygmalion's Bride'

    Carol Ann Duffy provides a voice for neglected female characters within myth, depicting their liberation from male power in both Delilah and Pygmalion's Bride: Pygmalion's bride frees herself from the sculptor's violent advances, whilst Delilah seems to be aiding Samson in relieving himself of the need to embody the archetypal male.Thus Delilah, unlike the bride, remains active ...

  15. Poem Comparison: 'Delilah' and 'Pygmalion's Bride'

    An outline of how to go about answering an essay title comparing 'Delilah' and 'Pygmalion's Bride' OLD BLOG POST Both Delilah and Pygmalion's bride appear as passive objects within their relationships, and it is only through finally rising up actively that they are able to break away from their lovers' holds.

  16. Pygmalion's Bride Archetype

    Pygmalion's Bride Archetype. 713 Words2 Pages. One key archetype which is significantly highlighted by both writers is that of female beauty. One way in which this is explored is by presenting the female protagonists through the lens of 'Male Gaze' in order to articulate the way in which women are typically portrayed as objects, products or ...

  17. Pygmalions Bride

    With close analysis of 'Pygmalion's Bride' explore how far you agree with this statement. Make references to other poems that we have studied in your answer. Undoubtedly 'Pygmalion's Bride' is a humorous poem, but the underlying dark message is clear throughout like many of Duffy's poems. The confusion of the two is portrayed ...

  18. Pygmalion Bride IO.docx

    Pygmalion's Bride IO Pygmalion's Bride is a poem by Carol Ann Duffy which portrays the suffering of women as well as objectification of women by men. Duffy in her poem, tackles the Global Issue I mentioned above by the use of similes, metaphors, wordplay and many more. Pygmalion was a sculptor who fell in love with a statue he had carved, named Galatea and Pygmalion sexually and ...

  19. Boris Groys

    Boris Groys (b.1947) is a philosopher, essayist, art critic, media theorist and an internationally renowned expert on Soviet-era art and literature, specifically, the Russian avant-garde. He is a Global Distinguished Professor of Russian and Slavic Studies at New York University, a Senior Research Fellow at the Staatliche Hochschule für ...

  20. Opinion

    See the article in its original context from September 8, 1986, Section A, Page 23 September 8, 1986, Section A, Page 23

  21. The Comprehensive Guide to Moscow Nightlife

    Moscow nightlife starts late. Don't show up at bars and preparty spots before 11pm because you'll feel fairly alone. Peak time is between 1am and 3am. That is also the time of Moscow nightlife's biggest nuisance: concerts by artists you won't know and who only distract your girls from drinking and being gamed.

  22. Modern Dance Ballet of Boris Eifman. "The Pygmalion Effect"

    "The Pygmalion Effect" Modern Dance Ballet of Boris Eifman presents "The Pygmalion Effect" at the New Stage of Bolshoi Theatre on 3 April 2020. Music: Johann Strauss, Jr. Submitted on 10 January 2020, Friday Schedule and tickets | Company | About the theatre | News | Help & Policies | Contacts.