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Pros and Cons of War

  • Post author: Amos Gikunda
  • Post published: July 19, 2021
  • Post category: Weapon
  • Post comments: 0 Comments

Is it possible for any sense to return from War or loss of lives? There are continuous casualties of War, together with some innocent lives that get caught amid assault. War is massive scale combat involving tons of thousands of troopers fighting for his or her country, freedoms, spiritual liberty. Of course, meaning War features a larger impact and should be rigorously thought-about and even before tried. It is troublesome to induce a stance on War. This paper can discuss the professionals and cons of War.

Pros of War

1. Stimulates economic growth: War creates job opportunities, particularly in weapons-producing industries. In War, additional weapons are bought, resulting in several changes. The folks’ commercialism weapons profit, and therefore the economy is boosted.

2. Technological advancement; The competition in wars ends up in innovation as Countries aim to raised their technology to defeat their enemies. The technology is additionally helpful once the War.

3. Social benefits; In some cases, War has a light-emitting diode to burdened folks’ liberation and, therefore, remove dangerous governments that oppress folks.

4. Land gain: War might cause countries to amass offshore territories of alternative nations. Betting on the war outcome, the land gained remains beneath the captors’ management, increasing the country’s territory.

5. Gain political prestige: Sometimes, Nations involve themselves in War as an illustration of their power and how to prove their superiority over their enemies. Winning a war additionally earns countries respect within the international community

6. Population control: In times of War, folks are united with the common goal of defeating the enemy, and that they focus their attention on the sector.

7. Independence: War will offer freedom to a different country through gaining independence from their country of origin.

8. Countries will defend themselves: In War, Nations will defend themselves against the aggressor or potential aggressors. This can be necessary to countries in defensive their territories and protective their voters. Countries additionally defend themselves against foreign invasion.

9. Peace is achieved;

war and, therefore, the threat of violence are the essential building blocks for peace and stability. Out of destruction comes a brand new starting.

10. History is written: You get to play your half in history. History is written once conflict happens, and those who participate in wars play a job in shaping the course of history.

Cons of War

1. Casualties: The flipside of War is that the range of lives lost. The character of War is that it’s not discriminatory within the lives lost. Innocent folks are fixed within the scenario and lose their lives within the method

2. Emotion and propaganda: War breeds emotion among folks and discrimination among sure teams that’s not sensible. Info is additionally used as a tool to rile folks up against their enemy or a particular cluster of individuals.

3. Environmental damage: The application of weapons, the destruction of structures and oil fields, fires, military transport movements, and chemical spraying are all samples of the destroying impact war might wear the setting. Severe pollution incidents are caused once industrial, oil or energy facilities are deliberately attacked, unknowingly broken, or continuous. In some cases, deliberate attacks on oil or industrial facilities are used to weaponize massive dirty areas and unfold terror. Most weapons utilized in warlike guns cause air and sound pollution. Fashionable warfare weapons cause intensive environmental harm to the air and soil.

4. Debt increase: Wars are costly, and Countries borrow cash to finance the wars. This features a terrible toll on the economy as cash that would be used for development is redirected to wars. This additionally means that countries might fall under Debt.

5. Loss of territory: Losing a war might mean losing territory happiness to a nation.

6. Liberty takes a back seat to patriotism: When in War, Countries expect their folks to support the War, and anyone United Nations agency that doesn’t support the war is viewed as a traitor and might be treated gratingly.

7. The toll on the economy : In most wars, Debt, inflation, and tax rates increase consumption and investment decrease, and military payment displaces additional productive government investment in high-tech industries, education, or infrastructure—all of that severely affect the semi-permanent economic process rates. Several resources are lost in War, from infrastructural harm to loss of lives that we’re productive to the country. The aftermath of war demands countries rebuilds themselves, which might take a minute.

8. Separation of families: When Men head to War, families are separated. The troopers United Nations agency head to War leave their families heartsick and in despair. Prolonged separation might cause intense concern, panic, grief (a combination of disappointment and loss), depression, helplessness, and despair. This usually makes the members of the family lose their sense of self.

9. Trauma: Military personnel, United Nations agency, see combat in War usually suffer lasting health issues, together with physical injuries and mental problems like depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. War destroys communities and families and sometimes disrupts the event of the social and economic cloth of states. the consequences of war embrace semi-permanent physical and psychological damage to kids and adults, moreover as a discount in material and human capital.

10. Client and capitalist uncertainty: With the upper inflation and enhanced government borrowing related to time, investors seeking safety might want to deliberate before finance within the country. This additionally decreases foreign direct investment. War step-up makes folks and corporations nervous enough that they sit down and stop payment. With a decline within the economy, folks buying power additionally scale back as affording basic wants is costly because of inflation.

War cannot be avoided as long as humans evolve and alter. There are several disadvantages and benefits of War. The war cycle ne’er ends and continuously ends up in a similar issue. One party winning the opposite losing. However, each side feels the devastating consequences brought by War. Death, Debt, and poorness are a number of the foremost major consequences that follow the War. The rewards could also be nice; however, the loss is just too nice. War ought to be avoided in any method potential.

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The Advantages and the Disadvantages of War, Research Paper Example

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The advantages and the disadvantages of war will be reviewed from the perspectives of Boot (2006), Coyne & Matthews (2011), Howard (2000), Lomborg (2003) and Tzu (2009). The distinct perspectives of the benefits of war will be reviewed and followed by the disadvantages of war.

Wars are expensive in terms of human costs and economic costs. Notwithstanding, wars have brought numerous technological advantages to mankind.  Nuclear energy was initially discovered and applied as a military device. Plastic surgery had been invented in order to remove the scars from the soldiers who had derived in the wars. GPS devices were initially used on spy satellites which were applied during the period of the Cold war (Boot, 2006).

The race into space and the search for extraterrestrial life was an outcome of the Second World War.  Many military philosophers have perceived that if a nation desires peace, they must be ready for war. If it were not for the Revolutionary war, the United States would not exist. If it were not for the Civil war between the states, slavery might have continued as a legal institution in the United States. Wars bring out the worst and the best in societies (Boot, 2006; Howard, 2000).

War is disadvantageous as a result of the human and the economic costs. Many nations apply the fear of incurring the disadvantages of war as a bargaining tool. War is an ineffective means of resolving disputes due to its attribute of causing the destruction of economic and human resources which might otherwise benefit the opposing factions. There are three conditions which cause nations which would normally resolve their differences peacefully to go to war with one another and to accept the potential disadvantage of war (Coyne & Mathers, 2011: Tzu, 2009).

Wars occur when the two opposing sides do not concur with regards to their relative influence and strength. This disagreement causes an imbalance in the judgments which evaluate the potential benefits and the potential disadvantages of war.  This aspect of disagreement is defined as the private information aspect of war. The second conditions which cause two nations to war with one another and accept the potential advantages in addition to the potential disadvantages of war are based on the commitment challenge. If the dissemination of power which is present between two nations has the possibility of shifting, the shift in power between the two nations may cause a peaceful negotiation of the two factions with regards to accepting the potential disadvantages to war for each side Coyne & Mathers, 2011,; Tzu, 2009).

If the weaker opponent is experiencing an increase in influence and strength, this increase may cause the opposing side to be willing to negotiate against war.  The weaker opponent may not choose to go to war, due to the aspect that a future position may have a greater promise of increased influence and strength. The nation which is losing influence and strength may wish to negotiate a peaceful agreement which keeps everything in the perspective of the moment. The nation which is losing influence and strength may doubt if the peaceful agreement can be maintained Coyne & Mathers, 2011).

It is comprehensible that the opposing state which is gaining influence and strength may behave motivations to renegotiate a novel collection of demands when the influence and strength have favorably shifted in their favor. This aspect may cause the weaker opposing nation to resort to war if the concessions which had been peacefully agreed upon are not maintained. The nation which is gaining power and influence may have a preference for peaceful negotiations and it may be willing to honor the outcomes of present negotiations. The two factions may dispute the viability of this promise once the situation changes and one off the opposing nations has the forceful strength to negotiate issues which had not been previously negotiated.  Peacefully and apply military force in order to procure those benefits. This aspect is acknowledged as the commitment challenge of war  ( Coyne & Mathers, 2011; Lomberg, 2013; Tzu, 2013).

The third reason for war is often indivisible challenges. The indivisible challenges may incorporate religious, philosophical issues and territorial challenges. Quite often resources can be divided, however religious distinctions and territorial disputes cannot be divided among actors. War and the human and economic costs which area associated may be avoided if the challenging subject of dispute can be associated to another challenge which can be more easily resolved or if one of the factions makes some sort of concession to the other. Usually the origin of an indivisible challenge is a pressure political group within one of the nations which possesses considerable influence (Coyne & Mathers, 2011; Lomberg, 2013; Tzu 2009).

This implies that one or both of the opposing nations may have a variety of actors. The significance of indivisibility challenges is slight when compared to the aspects of information and commitment challenges. This leaves the information and the commitment challenges as the two logical reasons that opposing nations go to war with one another (Coyne & Mathers, 2011).  The benefits of war were reviewed by Sun Tzu who had been a Chinese tactician and high ranking military official. Sun Tzu originally wrote the Art of War in the sixth century before the Common Era (Tzu, 2009). The Art of War which was composed by Sun Tzu is composed of thirteen chapters. Every chapter in the book is dedicated to a specific aspect of waging war. The Art of War is one of the most significant military strategy treatises that have ever been written. The themes which have been covered in the book which is titled the Art of War have been extended to spheres of influences which exceed military tactics (i.e., commerce, legal reflection and marketing strategies) (Tzu, 2009).

Sun Tzu thought that war was a required evil which must be evaded at all consequences. The war should be waged rapidly in order to overcome and limit the human and economic hardships. There has been no war which has caused any nation to profit (Lomberg, 2013; Tzu, 2009) A nation which becomes triumphant in war does so due to the aspect of taking decisive action prior to the opponent’s realization of their menacing position. Sun Tzu believed that holocausts and criminal war activities should be avoided due to the characteristic of motivating increased resistance from the opponent and the capacity of holocausts and criminal war activities to enable the tide of war to turn in the opponent’s favor ( Lomberg, 2013; Tzu, 2009).

The victorious faction should be able to capture the government of the opposing nation without completely destroying the government or the infrastructure. The destruction of the opposing nation’s government or infrastructure should be conducted as a final option. Sun Tzu also perceived that the location of the military forces in strategic positions was of great significance. The choice of positioning a military force in opposition to other nation’s military force must be performed objectively upon the need for the avoidance of the potential expense of human and economic loss (Tzu, 2009).

War has its advantages. War has its disadvantages. Wars are usually conducted by two opposing factions. These two opposing factions are usually willing to accept the advantages of war in exchange for the human and economic costs of war. Wars have led to invention. The benefits of the inventions which have been gained by war have been able to benefit many during the times of peace.

Sun Tzu believed that in order to avoid war, one of the nations must be willing to apply the disadvantages of war as a persuasive factor against waging war. Nations can apply techniques of negotiation in order to avoid the information, commitment and indivisible aspects which cause wars. If it were not for war, the United States would have never been conceived. If the Civil war had not been waged between the opposing factions of the United States, slavery would have perpetuated as an acceptable institution in the United States. If the United States had not become involved in the Second World War, the Holocaust may have never ended and other holocaust may have ensued.

The aspect of the United States, Russia, the European Union, China, Japan and India launching satellites and spaceships into space in order to search for extraterrestrial life is an outcome of the benefits of the Second World War. Many of the inventions which are applied today, (i.e., GPS tracking systems, microwave ovens and cellular phones) are results of technologies which have been developed for wartime applications. Wars have their disadvantages; however, wars also have their advantages.

Boot, M. (2006). War made new: Weapons, warriors and the making of the modern world.  USA: Gotham Books.

Coyne, C.J. & Mathers. R.L. (2011). The handbook on the political economy of war . UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Howard, M. (2000). The invention of peace: reflections on war and international order . USA: Yale University Press.

Lomborg, B. (2013). How much have global problems cost the world? New York:  Cambridge University Press.

Tsu, s. (2009). The art of war by Sun Tzu- classic edition . (L. Giles, Trans.), El Paso, TX: El Paso Norte Press.

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Essay on War - A nation or organisation may turn to war to reach its goals, but what is the actual cost of progress? Countless lives have been lost to war and continue to be lost. It costs a lot of money and resources as well. Wars have always been brutal, deadly, and tragic, from the American Revolution to World Wars I and II to the Crusades and the ancient Hundred Years' War. Here are a few sample essays on "war" .

War Essay

100 Words Essay on War

The greatest destroyers of people in modern times are wars. No matter who wins a war, mankind loses in every case. Millions of people have died in battles during the past century, with World Wars I and II being the worst. Wars are typically fought to protect a nation. Whatever the motive, it is hazardous conduct that results in the loss of millions of priceless innocent lives and has dangerous impacts that even future generations will have to deal with.

The results of using nuclear bombs are catastrophic. The weapons business benefits when there is a war elsewhere in the world because it maintains its supply chain. Weapons that cause massive destruction are being made bigger and better. The only way to end wars is to raise awareness among the general public.

200 Words Essay on War

Without a doubt, war is terrible, and the most devastating thing that can happen to humans. It causes death and devastation, illness and poverty, humiliation and destruction. To evaluate the devastation caused by war, one needs to consider the havoc that was wrecked on several nations not too many years ago. A particularly frightening ability of modern wars is that they tend to become global so that they may absorb the entire world. The fact that some people view war as a great and heroic adventure that brings out the best in people does not change the fact that it is a horrible tragedy.

This is more true now that atomic weapons will be used to fight a war. War, according to some, is required. Looking at the past reveals that war has drastically changed throughout the nation's history. The destructive impacts of war have never been more prevalent in human history. We have experienced lengthy and brief wars of various kinds. There have been supporters of nonviolence and the brotherhood of man. Buddha, Christ, and Mahatma Gandhi have all lived. Despite this, war has always been fought, weapons are always used, military power has always been deployed, and there have always been armies in war.

500 Words Essay on War

If we take a closer look at human history, it will become evident that conflicts have existed ever since the primitive eras. Although efforts have been made to end it, this has not been successful so far. Thus, it appears that we are unable to achieve eternal peace. Many defend wars by claiming that nature's rules require them. Charles Darwin is placed in front of them to illustrate their point. He was the one who created the rule of the fittest. He claimed that everything in nature, whether alive or dead, is constantly engaged in a battle for survival. Only the strongest will survive in this fight. Therefore, it is believed that without battle, humankind won't be able to progress.

Impacts of War

People fail to see that war invariably results in severe damage. They ignored the nonviolent principles taught by Mahatma Gandhi, who used them to liberate his country from the shackles of slavery. They fail to consider that if Gandhi could push out the powerful Britishers without resorting to violence, why shouldn't others do the same? Wars are unavoidable calamities, and there are no words to adequately depict the vast quantity and scope of their tragedies. The atrocities of the two world wars must never be forgotten. There was tremendous murder and property devastation during the battles. There were thousands of widows and orphans. War spreads falsehoods and creates hatred. People start acting brutally selfishly. Humanity and morals suffer as a result.

War is an Enemy

War is the enemy of all humanity and human civilisation. Nothing positive can come of it. Consequently, it should never be celebrated in any way. In addition to impeding national progress, it undermines social cohesion. It slows down the rate of human progress. Wars are not the answer to the world's issues. Instead, they cause issues and generate hatred among nations. War can settle one issue but creates far too many other ones. The two most horrific examples of the war's after-effects are Hiroshima and Nagasaki. People are still enduring the effects of war 77 years later. Whatever the reason for war, it always ends in the widespread loss of human life and property.

Disadvantages of War

Massive human deaths and injuries, the depletion of financial resources, environmental degradation, lost productivity, and long-term harm to military personnel are all drawbacks of war. Families are split apart by war. Both towns and cities are destroyed by it. People become more sensitive, and every industry faces collapse. People’s health declines physically and they lose their sense of security. They won't have any security, and those who win the battle will treat the citizens of the defeated nation as their slaves and prohibit them from the right to work. After the war, there will be a lack of jobs and corruption issues for the nation to deal with.

Russia – Ukraine War

The world saw great turmoil beginning in February 2022 with the Russian-Ukraine War. Russia's invasion of Ukraine was the most serious conventional attack on a nation, bringing a severe economic crisis to the world. India has taken a neutral stance for Russia, keeping in mind the two countries' long-standing alliance, especially in its foreign policies and positive international relationships. Russia was concerned about Ukraine's security due to its intention to join NATO and invaded Ukraine in 2014. Additionally, Russia provided help to the rebels in the eastern Ukrainian districts of Donetsk and Luhansk.

The war between Russia and Ukraine has had a substantial impact on oil prices and other commodity prices, as well as increased trade uncertainty. India has economic troubles due to Western countries' supply disruptions and limited trade with Russia.

War has historically been the worst mark on humanity. Although it was made by man, it is now beyond the power of any human force. To preserve humanity, the entire human species must now reflect on this. Otherwise, neither humanity nor war will survive.

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Bio Medical Engineer

The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary. 

Data Administrator

Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.

Ethical Hacker

A career as ethical hacker involves various challenges and provides lucrative opportunities in the digital era where every giant business and startup owns its cyberspace on the world wide web. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path try to find the vulnerabilities in the cyber system to get its authority. If he or she succeeds in it then he or she gets its illegal authority. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path then steal information or delete the file that could affect the business, functioning, or services of the organization.

Data Analyst

The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

Geothermal Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as geothermal engineers are the professionals involved in the processing of geothermal energy. The responsibilities of geothermal engineers may vary depending on the workplace location. Those who work in fields design facilities to process and distribute geothermal energy. They oversee the functioning of machinery used in the field.

Remote Sensing Technician

Individuals who opt for a career as a remote sensing technician possess unique personalities. Remote sensing analysts seem to be rational human beings, they are strong, independent, persistent, sincere, realistic and resourceful. Some of them are analytical as well, which means they are intelligent, introspective and inquisitive. 

Remote sensing scientists use remote sensing technology to support scientists in fields such as community planning, flight planning or the management of natural resources. Analysing data collected from aircraft, satellites or ground-based platforms using statistical analysis software, image analysis software or Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a significant part of their work. Do you want to learn how to become remote sensing technician? There's no need to be concerned; we've devised a simple remote sensing technician career path for you. Scroll through the pages and read.

Geotechnical engineer

The role of geotechnical engineer starts with reviewing the projects needed to define the required material properties. The work responsibilities are followed by a site investigation of rock, soil, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest. The investigation is aimed to improve the ground engineering design and determine their engineering properties that include how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. 

The role of geotechnical engineer in mining includes designing and determining the type of foundations, earthworks, and or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be made. Geotechnical engineering jobs are involved in earthen and concrete dam construction projects, working under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions. 


How fascinating it is to represent the whole world on just a piece of paper or a sphere. With the help of maps, we are able to represent the real world on a much smaller scale. Individuals who opt for a career as a cartographer are those who make maps. But, cartography is not just limited to maps, it is about a mixture of art , science , and technology. As a cartographer, not only you will create maps but use various geodetic surveys and remote sensing systems to measure, analyse, and create different maps for political, cultural or educational purposes.

Budget Analyst

Budget analysis, in a nutshell, entails thoroughly analyzing the details of a financial budget. The budget analysis aims to better understand and manage revenue. Budget analysts assist in the achievement of financial targets, the preservation of profitability, and the pursuit of long-term growth for a business. Budget analysts generally have a bachelor's degree in accounting, finance, economics, or a closely related field. Knowledge of Financial Management is of prime importance in this career.

Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  


An underwriter is a person who assesses and evaluates the risk of insurance in his or her field like mortgage, loan, health policy, investment, and so on and so forth. The underwriter career path does involve risks as analysing the risks means finding out if there is a way for the insurance underwriter jobs to recover the money from its clients. If the risk turns out to be too much for the company then in the future it is an underwriter who will be held accountable for it. Therefore, one must carry out his or her job with a lot of attention and diligence.

Finance Executive

Operations manager.

Individuals in the operations manager jobs are responsible for ensuring the efficiency of each department to acquire its optimal goal. They plan the use of resources and distribution of materials. The operations manager's job description includes managing budgets, negotiating contracts, and performing administrative tasks.

Bank Probationary Officer (PO)

Investment director.

An investment director is a person who helps corporations and individuals manage their finances. They can help them develop a strategy to achieve their goals, including paying off debts and investing in the future. In addition, he or she can help individuals make informed decisions.

Welding Engineer

Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues. 

Transportation Planner

A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

An expert in plumbing is aware of building regulations and safety standards and works to make sure these standards are upheld. Testing pipes for leakage using air pressure and other gauges, and also the ability to construct new pipe systems by cutting, fitting, measuring and threading pipes are some of the other more involved aspects of plumbing. Individuals in the plumber career path are self-employed or work for a small business employing less than ten people, though some might find working for larger entities or the government more desirable.

Construction Manager

Individuals who opt for a career as construction managers have a senior-level management role offered in construction firms. Responsibilities in the construction management career path are assigning tasks to workers, inspecting their work, and coordinating with other professionals including architects, subcontractors, and building services engineers.

Urban Planner

Urban Planning careers revolve around the idea of developing a plan to use the land optimally, without affecting the environment. Urban planning jobs are offered to those candidates who are skilled in making the right use of land to distribute the growing population, to create various communities. 

Urban planning careers come with the opportunity to make changes to the existing cities and towns. They identify various community needs and make short and long-term plans accordingly.

Highway Engineer

Highway Engineer Job Description:  A Highway Engineer is a civil engineer who specialises in planning and building thousands of miles of roads that support connectivity and allow transportation across the country. He or she ensures that traffic management schemes are effectively planned concerning economic sustainability and successful implementation.

Environmental Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as an environmental engineer are construction professionals who utilise the skills and knowledge of biology, soil science, chemistry and the concept of engineering to design and develop projects that serve as solutions to various environmental problems. 

Naval Architect

A Naval Architect is a professional who designs, produces and repairs safe and sea-worthy surfaces or underwater structures. A Naval Architect stays involved in creating and designing ships, ferries, submarines and yachts with implementation of various principles such as gravity, ideal hull form, buoyancy and stability. 

Orthotist and Prosthetist

Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

Veterinary Doctor


A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.

Speech Therapist


Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.


The audiologist career involves audiology professionals who are responsible to treat hearing loss and proactively preventing the relevant damage. Individuals who opt for a career as an audiologist use various testing strategies with the aim to determine if someone has a normal sensitivity to sounds or not. After the identification of hearing loss, a hearing doctor is required to determine which sections of the hearing are affected, to what extent they are affected, and where the wound causing the hearing loss is found. As soon as the hearing loss is identified, the patients are provided with recommendations for interventions and rehabilitation such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, and appropriate medical referrals. While audiology is a branch of science that studies and researches hearing, balance, and related disorders.

Hospital Administrator

The hospital Administrator is in charge of organising and supervising the daily operations of medical services and facilities. This organising includes managing of organisation’s staff and its members in service, budgets, service reports, departmental reporting and taking reminders of patient care and services.

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages.

Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.


The word “choreography" actually comes from Greek words that mean “dance writing." Individuals who opt for a career as a choreographer create and direct original dances, in addition to developing interpretations of existing dances. A Choreographer dances and utilises his or her creativity in other aspects of dance performance. For example, he or she may work with the music director to select music or collaborate with other famous choreographers to enhance such performance elements as lighting, costume and set design.


Multimedia specialist.

A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

Social Media Manager

A career as social media manager involves implementing the company’s or brand’s marketing plan across all social media channels. Social media managers help in building or improving a brand’s or a company’s website traffic, build brand awareness, create and implement marketing and brand strategy. Social media managers are key to important social communication as well.

Copy Writer

In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. 

Ever since internet costs got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, a career as a vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the Vlogger eligibility, roles and responsibilities then continue reading the article. 

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

Linguistic meaning is related to language or Linguistics which is the study of languages. A career as a linguistic meaning, a profession that is based on the scientific study of language, and it's a very broad field with many specialities. Famous linguists work in academia, researching and teaching different areas of language, such as phonetics (sounds), syntax (word order) and semantics (meaning). 

Other researchers focus on specialities like computational linguistics, which seeks to better match human and computer language capacities, or applied linguistics, which is concerned with improving language education. Still, others work as language experts for the government, advertising companies, dictionary publishers and various other private enterprises. Some might work from home as freelance linguists. Philologist, phonologist, and dialectician are some of Linguist synonym. Linguists can study French , German , Italian . 

Public Relation Executive

Travel journalist.

The career of a travel journalist is full of passion, excitement and responsibility. Journalism as a career could be challenging at times, but if you're someone who has been genuinely enthusiastic about all this, then it is the best decision for you. Travel journalism jobs are all about insightful, artfully written, informative narratives designed to cover the travel industry. Travel Journalist is someone who explores, gathers and presents information as a news article.

Quality Controller

A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

Production Manager


A QA Lead is in charge of the QA Team. The role of QA Lead comes with the responsibility of assessing services and products in order to determine that he or she meets the quality standards. He or she develops, implements and manages test plans. 

Metallurgical Engineer

A metallurgical engineer is a professional who studies and produces materials that bring power to our world. He or she extracts metals from ores and rocks and transforms them into alloys, high-purity metals and other materials used in developing infrastructure, transportation and healthcare equipment. 

Azure Administrator

An Azure Administrator is a professional responsible for implementing, monitoring, and maintaining Azure Solutions. He or she manages cloud infrastructure service instances and various cloud servers as well as sets up public and private cloud systems. 

AWS Solution Architect

An AWS Solution Architect is someone who specializes in developing and implementing cloud computing systems. He or she has a good understanding of the various aspects of cloud computing and can confidently deploy and manage their systems. He or she troubleshoots the issues and evaluates the risk from the third party. 

Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

ITSM Manager

Information security manager.

Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

Business Intelligence Developer

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War is generally defined as violent conflict between states or nations.

Social Studies, Civics

Tank in Iraq Invasion

A United States Army 3rd Infantry Division M1/A1 Abrahms tank during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. While the use of force was authorized by Congress, like many U.S. military conflicts, war was not declared.

Photograph by Scott Nelson/Getty Images

A United States Army 3rd Infantry Division M1/A1 Abrahms tank during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. While the use of force was authorized by Congress, like many U.S. military conflicts, war was not declared.

War is generally defined as violent conflict between states or nations. Nations go to war for a variety of reasons. It has been argued that a nation will go to war if the benefits of war are deemed to outweigh the disadvantages, and if there is a sense that there is not another mutually agreeable solution. More specifically, some have argued that wars are fought primarily for economic, religious, and political reasons. Others have claimed that most wars today are fought for ideological reasons. In the United States, the legal power to declare war is vested in Congress; however, the president is the commander-in-chief of the military, so he or she holds power to conduct a war once it has been declared. In many instances, the president has used military force without declaring war . Just War Theory In Western tradition, there is a sense that the reasons for war must be just. This idea dates back to ancient times, but is most clearly traced to the writings of St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas. They attempted to justify war, and reconcile it with the Christian belief that taking a human life is wrong. To Aquinas, a war must be just in both the reasons for going to war and how war is fought. Reasons for going to war— jus ad bellum —are just if (1) war is declared by an appropriate authority; (2) the war is waged for a just cause; and (3) the war is waged for just intentions. An appropriate authority is a proper, governing authority. A “just cause” may include self-defense or a response to injustice. “Just intentions” mean that it must not be fought for self-interest, but for justice or a common good. In addition, (4) there must be a reasonable chance of success; (5) the good that will be achieved must outweigh the bad; and (6) war must be a last resort. Once just reasons for going to war are satisfied, conduct in the war— jus in bello —must be just as well. Just conduct in a war means that it must be specific and proportional. That is, noncombatants and civilians must not be deliberately targeted. Further, only such force as is necessary must be used, and harms must be proportionate to the goal sought. Law of War Some of the just war theories have been adopted as parts of international agreements and incorporated into the law of war (i.e., international law) that regulates the resort to armed force, the conduct of hostilities, and the protection of war victims. The Geneva Conventions , for example, are a series of international treaties that are designed to protect noncombatants, civilians , and prisoners of war . The treaties were negotiated in Geneva, Switzerland, between 1864 and 1977. The First and Second Geneva Conventions apply to sick and wounded soldiers and sailors. They contain provisions related to protecting the wounded and sick, as well as medical personnel and transports. The Third Geneva Convention applies to prisoners of war , and the Fourth Geneva Convention applies to people in occupied territories. The Third Convention requires humane treatment of prisoners, including adequate food and water. The Fourth Convention includes provisions that forbid torture and the taking of hostages, as well as provisions related to medical care and hospitals.

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The Competitive Advantages and Risks of Alliances

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Oct 30, 2019 31 min read

The Competitive Advantages and Risks of Alliances

Kathleen J. McInnis, PhD 1

Winston Churchill once famously quipped, “There is only one thing worse than fighting with allies, and that is fighting without them.” So it goes for the complex web of security relationships that the United States maintains with states around the globe. Alliances and partnerships between sovereign states are often exasperatingly difficult to manage; domestic politics, burden sharing, and diverging strategic considerations create friction points that threaten to collapse them altogether. 2

Despite the enormous amount of time and attention that U.S. leaders devote to maintaining alliances, allies and partners often make policy choices that are at odds with U.S. foreign and national security priorities. Further, the Founders admonished us to beware of “entangling alliances” that could embroil the United States in conflicts and conflagrations that were not necessarily in our interest. 3 It is hardly surprising, therefore, that successive Administrations going back at least to 1949 have grumbled about equitable sharing of the security burden and have approached the topic of alliances overall with a note of ambivalence.

Yet since the end of World War II, successive Administrations have also determined that, despite these philosophical reservations and everyday frustrations, the contemporary system of U.S. alliances and cooperative security partnerships has conferred a number of strategic advantages that make the hassle worth its attendant risks. This “hub-and-spoke” alliance system is unique in human history; it has evolved into an unprecedented set of institutions and collaborative patterns that undergird a higher degree of global stability among sovereign states than history might otherwise have predicted. 4

Militarily, the system allows the United States to advance its interests, perform expeditionary operations, and “defend in depth” at considerably lower cost than would otherwise be possible. Economically, it has allowed the United States to set the rules of international trade and finance and, on balance, remain well positioned to reap the advantages of that system. In aggregate, the system of alliances and security partnerships that the United States currently leads has afforded enormous strategic advantages to both the U.S. and those states that participate in it.

Evolution of the U.S.-Led International Security System

To understand alliances today, we need first to understand how we got here. Thucydides tells us that alliances have been an enduring feature of war and conflict for thousands of years. 5 Multilateral military arrangements allow states (and their historical analogues) to aggregate their capabilities and collaborate on common security challenges.

Since the signing of the Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal in 1494—an event that some strategic scholars point to as the beginning of the modern global system 6 —alliances have been formed between nation-states and their proxies in order to wage war against common adversaries. Alliances at that time were essentially agreements by European empires to combine military and economic assets in pursuit of political objectives. The European continent was the stage for many of these conflicts between states. However, colonies provided both critical resources as well as logistical bases for European capitals, and as global empires gradually expanded and grew in strategic importance, European territories around the world were drawn into supporting these alliances and were themselves made the subject of imperial competition.

The world wars during the first half of the 20th century brought the imperial system of global order crashing down. The European colonial powers no longer had the wherewithal either to maintain their global possessions or to lead the international system. As the United States became the dominant global power in the wake of those wars, it shaped the global system in a manner more consistent with its own anti-imperial values. 7 It did this by building its security and strategic relationships in two primary ways: through formal strategic-political institutions such as the United Nations and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and by working with newly sovereign states rather than by taking over the possession of colonial territories.

In the aftermath of World War II and as the Cold War with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) took shape, the U.S. and its security partners decided to integrate economic instruments into their security calculations. 8 As the theory went, doing so would make states more resilient against the specter of Communism and Soviet expansionism. Hence, European reconstruction was accompanied by the Marshall Plan and NATO. NATO itself was designed with the economic and social policy compatibility of its member states in mind.

Globally, the Bretton-Woods system, including the World Bank Group and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), would help to reconstruct European economies, facilitate trade among free-market economies, and, when possible, help newly independent states transform themselves from colonial territories to full-fledged participants in the international economy. 9 Security relationships with the United States, including the U.S. extended nuclear deterrence umbrella, helped to make allies in Europe and Asia capable of withstanding Soviet influence operations. 10

The design of an international system that benefited a wide variety of stakeholders was not an entirely altruistic calculation by U.S. post–World War II leaders. The war and the nuclear age that followed it underscored the fact that the continental United States was no longer protected by the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

Looking to the experience of Europe and Asia during the war and anxious to avoid a conflict that would comparably damage the American homeland, defense planners pursued a strategy of “defense in depth.” 11 By positioning U.S. forces and capabilities forward in territories closer to adversaries, conflicts could be fought and won without directly affecting the continental United States. Basing agreements and alliance commitments, enabled in part by friendly economic relations and a common desire to contain the spread of Communism, were reached between the United States and a variety of countries in order to implement this defense-in-depth strategy. By the end of the Cold War, the United States had constructed a network of security relationships with sovereign states that was generally supportive of U.S. leadership of that system.

The end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet threat around which the U.S. security system was organized led to a degree of soul-searching among scholars and policymakers: Why maintain these alliances and security relationships absent the threat they were designed to counter? 12 These concerns proved short-lived, however, as allies and partners began to organize their security relationships and priorities around the collective management of regional crises and threats, particularly in the Middle East, Africa, and Southeastern Europe.

The United States used its existing alliance and security partnerships to adopt an expeditionary defense posture, retaining some key sites abroad that were critical for force projection (such as Ramstein Air Force Base in Germany) while closing bases and infrastructure that were no longer deemed necessary. (Such overseas bases have also been critical to managing regional “rogue” states such as Iraq, North Korea, and Iran—the latter two primarily through deterrence and forward-stationed troops and the former through active containment measures such as no-fly zones.)

The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, brought home the fact that there were key threats to the U.S. homeland that were not state-based: Ungoverned spaces provided the terrain for violent extremist groups to organize and metastasize into threats with a global reach. As the United States, in response, began to wage campaigns in Afghanistan, Iraq, and eventually Syria, the Department of Defense (DOD) subsequently expanded its programs to “build partner capacity” by working with fragile states in order to help them expand their capacity to govern and also, critically, their ability to eliminate threats posed by violent extremist organizations within their territory. As then-Secretary of Defense Robert Gates noted:

Building the governance and security capacity of other countries was a critical element of our strategy in the Cold War…. But it is even more urgent in a global security environment where, unlike the Cold War, the most likely and lethal threats—an American city poisoned or reduced to rubble—will likely emanate from fractured or failing states, rather than aggressor states. 13

The American expeditionary military posture, including key staging and logistical sites, has remained critical to enabling U.S. counterterrorism and capacity-building operations in theaters around the world. The security networks that the United States constructed as part of this strategic shift have also helped the U.S. to achieve other transnational security objectives, including nuclear counterproliferation.

The Russian annexation of Ukraine’s Crimean Peninsula in 2014, along with near-simultaneous island building by China in the South China Sea, led U.S. policymakers to conclude that these powers are willing to use military tools to advance their strategic objectives and, in the process, damage the interests of the United States and its allies and partners. This emerging “strategic competition” with other powers has added to the scope and scale of the challenges with which the U.S.-led security order—already busy managing North Korea and Iran and countering violent extremists—must grapple. As the 2017 National Security Strategy notes:

China and Russia challenge American power, influence, and interests, attempting to erode American security and prosperity. They are determined to make economies less free and less fair, to grow their militaries, and to control information and data to repress their societies and expand their influence. At the same time, the dictatorships of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and the Islamic Republic of Iran are determined to destabilize regions, threaten Americans and our allies, and brutalize their own people. Transnational threat groups, from jihadist terrorists to transnational criminal organizations, are actively trying to harm Americans. While these challenges differ in nature and magnitude, they are fundamentally contests between those who value human dignity and freedom and those who oppress individuals and enforce uniformity. 14

This has led to a hybrid of the defense in depth and expeditionary military postures. The European Deterrence Initiative (EDI), for example, is a U.S.-led effort to:

  • Continue to enhance our deterrent and defense posture throughout the theater by positioning the right capabilities in key locations in order to respond to adversarial threats in a timely manner.
  • Assure our NATO allies and partners of the United States’ commitment to Article 5 and the territorial integrity of all NATO nations.
  • Increase the capability and readiness of U.S. Forces, NATO allies, and regional partners, allowing for a faster response in the event of any aggression by an adversary against the sovereign territory of NATO nations. 15

Simultaneously, the U.S. has conducted counterterrorism and capacity-building operations in Afghanistan, in Iraq, and to some extent in Syria, using logistical infrastructure in Europe and the Middle East. None of this would be possible were it not for robust U.S. strategic and security relationships with allies around the world.

In summary, since the end of World War II, the United States—in contrast to the global powers that preceded America’s rise—has worked to establish an international security system of sovereign states and international institutions rooted in relatively advantageous economic relationships. After the end of the Cold War, that system adapted to perform crisis management tasks. In the wake of the September 11 attacks, the system broadened still further as the United States partnered with fragile, weak, and failing states to improve the capacity of their security institutions to manage threats emanating from their territories before they could become global threats. In this network of formal and informal security relationships, the U.S. serves as the central foundation (the hub) for a global defense and military architecture (the spokes) that manages regional and international security challenges. 16

Defining Alliances

Given the centrality of alliances to United States defense and security planning, as well as to grand strategy in general, it is somewhat surprising that contemporary examples of alliances remain rather poorly understood. Part of the confusion stems from the variety of ways in which scholars define the term “alliances.” 17 Insofar as there is consensus, it is generally held that alliances are some sort of agreements between states to render military support against an external threat under predetermined conditions. 18 It is also generally understood that states make alliances in order to aggregate their military capabilities relative to external threats.

All of this makes sense to some degree: The overwhelming bulk of analyses of alliance structures, processes, formation, and so on have been derived primarily from cases involving Western European states, their empires, 19 or both and often focus on historical periods up to the end of the Cold War, with comparatively little attention paid to alliances in the period following the Cold War. 20

Thus, confusion surrounding the definition of “alliances,” coupled with a lack of analysis of military alliances in the post–Cold War era, has limited our understanding of contemporary multilateral military alignments, contributing to an overall confusion about the utility and risks of the U.S.-led global security system. For example, up until the end of World War II, the terms “alliance” and “coalition” were interchangeable, as both referred to acts by states to prosecute military operations jointly against a common threat. 21

Parsing out coalitions from alliances has not always been a terribly important distinction to make: Alliances were often formed with the specific intention of prosecuting immediate or prospective coalition warfare or to prepare for the eventuality that warfare might occur. Furthermore, alliances, particularly during the Cold War, had a sense of unanimity to them; it was unthinkable that not all NATO allies might respond to an incursion by the Warsaw Pact, vagaries in Article V notwithstanding.

This is not generally the case today. Contemporary international organizations and alliances are often formed without the specific goal of collaboratively conducting military operations, and when international organizations or other institutions do decide to undertake multilateral military operations, they often do so utilizing a subset of their membership. Not all NATO members have participated in all of NATO’s post–Cold War operations.

Today, this U.S.-led hub-and-spoke system includes a variety of different strategic arrangements, most of which do not fit commonly accepted definitions of alliances. These arrangements include:

  • International institutions, such as the United Nations Security Council and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), to contend with security challenges;
  • Multilateral military organizations like the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) alliance itself;
  • Explicit agreements between states, such as the mutual defense pact between the United States and the Republic of Korea, to provide mutual military support in times of crisis;
  • Participation by states, such as those that contributed to the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan, in military coalitions;
  • Strategic alignments between states, such as the U.S. relationship with Israel, that are not underpinned by a treaty arrangement; and
  • Bilateral, informal partnerships with other states.

It is difficult to determine the utility of these multilateral alignments without an appreciation of their various forms and how they contribute overall to U.S. and global security. In the first instance, motivations for different states’ participation in this system vary, which is why these relationships range from highly formalized treaty-established agreements on the one end to informal security cooperative arrangements on the other. Some are designed to assist states as they grapple with internal security challenges. Others are focused on deterring and, if necessary, defeating an external threat.

Some states with adversarial relationships join multilateral security institutions at least in part in order to tether (and be tethered to) their adversaries, thereby (counterintuitively) advancing their own national security interests. The involvement of Greece and Turkey in NATO is one such example. 22 Some states choose to participate in multinational military coalitions in order to advance interests that have little to do with the mission or operation in question. 23 A variety of states participating in the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan, for example, did so in order to affirm their solidarity with other NATO countries or their bilateral relationships with the United States. 24

From a policymaking standpoint, understanding this wide variety of motivations is critical. Without an appreciation for why and how states join these arrangements in the first place, it is difficult to make policy judgements about the level of risk they might be willing to shoulder in the event of multilateral military operations or other activities—or, indeed, for what type of security challenges they would consider employing military force at all.

Our standard conception of alliances and their de facto focus on military aspects of statecraft are becoming dangerously outdated, in part because they are rooted in realpolitik -inspired notions of military strength and capability aggregation. While these are, of course, essential aspects of alliances, they by no means capture the sum total of the role alliances play in contemporary international relations and strategic policymaking. As noted, more often than not, formal alliances are undergirded by close economic and political ties that serve as a key way to ensure the continued harmonization of the signatory parties’ overall political and strategic views. The more formal the alliance arrangement is, the more likely it is to be complemented by a trade agreement or close economic ties, many of which arguably benefit the United States. 25 While most NATO-watchers are well versed in that alliance’s Article 4 (crisis planning) or Article 5 (collective defense) Treaty of Washington provisions, Article 2 has been all but forgotten:

The Parties will contribute toward the further development of peaceful and friendly international relations by strengthening their free institutions, by bringing about a better understanding of the principles upon which these institutions are founded, and by promoting conditions of stability and well-being. They will seek to eliminate conflict in their international economic policies and will encourage economic collaboration between any or all of them . 26

This logic—that economic interdependence must underpin security institutions for them to be successful in the long term—is arguably why the U.S. sought the development of trade relationships among postwar democracies. 27 It is also why global economic institutions such as the World Bank and IMF were established alongside the United Nations Security Council. 28 Less formal security arrangements are generally accompanied by sales of U.S. defense equipment and other matériel to partner countries; in fact, foreign military sales were at one time a gauge by which U.S. versus Soviet global influence was measured. 29

This aspect of international relations does not always function perfectly (hence the trade wars with Japan in the late 20th century), but on balance, it has served to create an interdependent group of states, led by the United States, that resolve issues among each other in a peaceful manner. It has also created a series of relationships that, although challenging to manage on a day-to-day basis, are surprisingly durable in the long run. Whether this will continue to be the case in the future is a major question among strategists today.

The Contemporary Hub-and-Spoke Security System: Risks and Advantages

The alliance system that the U.S. began to construct at the end of World War II is unique in human history and has afforded the United States a number of important strategic and economic advantages. If today’s world is characterized by strategic competitions with other great powers, however, as the 2017 U.S. National Security Strategy suggests, the question becomes whether the U.S. will continue to find that the advantages of the hub-and-spoke system are enough to justify its perpetuation.

The hub-and-spoke system possesses both risks and advantages to the United States that policymakers must consider as they evaluate its contemporary and future utility. The key risks include:

  • Burden-sharing. Questions about whether allies are truly shouldering their collective security responsibilities are perennial in alliance management. In a NATO context, such questions have been raised since the founding of the alliance in 1949. Very few states today spend as much on their defense programs as the United States does, and many NATO allies struggle to meet an agreed-upon goal of 2 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) on defense. 30
  • Some would ask what use an alliance is if other states do not have sufficient military capabilities to advance common objectives? Others contend, however, that earlier NATO discussions of burden sharing included the moral dimensions of allied solidarity in the face of an existential expansive Communist threat. According to this view, today’s debates would therefore be better characterized as debates about cost sharing rather than burden sharing. In any event, debates swirl around whether allies are paying their fair share.
  • Entanglement. Within asymmetric alliances, most allies are fearful that the United States will either abandon them in a crisis (abandonment) or involve them in a crisis in a manner that they would not otherwise choose (entrapment). As the Founders warned, entanglement in the affairs of other states and their security challenges is a concern for the United States as well. To what extent are U.S. views of strategy and foreign policy choices influenced by allies and partners? Might we have the same perception of the Russian or Iranian threat were it not for our close allies in those regions? What are the risks of being drawn into a conflict that might prompt nuclear escalation?
  • Inappropriate Security Partnerships. As the hub-and-spoke network of security relationships has expanded in order to prosecute counterterrorism and capacity-building strategies since September 11, 2001, questions have arisen regarding the efficacy of many of these partnerships. At the heart of the issue is whether building security forces in states with fragile governments—by, for example, providing training, equipment, and institutional support—might actually make the United States less secure in the long term.
  • For one thing, partners on the ground may have short-term and long-term interests that are very different from those of the United States and may use their enhanced military capabilities to go beyond the objectives for which the assistance was intended. U.S. security assistance to Mali led to the provision of professional military education and training. A separatist rebellion launched in late 2011 by members of the minority ethnic Tuareg community aggravated intramilitary and political tensions in the country, leading to a military coup by junior officers in March 2012 that was spearheaded by Captain Amadou Sonogo, who had been a recipient of that training, 31
  • Strategic Insolvency. Some observers of U.S. defense policy are increasingly concerned that the gap between America’s defense spending and its global responsibilities is widening. According to this view, budget unpredictability exacerbated by the 2011 Budget Control Act (“sequestration”), along with readiness issues, nearly two decades of war, personnel retention, and other factors, has left the DOD ill prepared to meet its own goals as articulated in the 2018 National Defense Strategy. Elements of this argument can be found in theories of imperial overstretch; 32 the National Defense Strategy Commission (NDSC) calls it a possibility of “strategic insolvency.” 33 Within the foreseeable future, the U.S. may no longer have the capabilities to defend its allies in more than one theater without significantly reinvesting in its defense program, significantly scaling back its level of ambition, or both. 34

The principal advantages of the hub-and-spoke system include:

  • Global Reach. One of the key reasons for building the U.S.-led defense architecture in the first place was to be able to fight the nation’s wars far away from the American homeland. This rationale still holds. The United States would not have been able to plan and execute operations around the world like its move into Afghanistan, which occurred within a month after the September 11 terrorist attacks, were it not for its network of military bases and access agreements in the U.S. European Command and U.S. Central Command areas of responsibility. 35
  • Lower Costs. Despite the considerable amount of political hay being made from burden-sharing issues, the financial costs that the U.S. would have to shoulder to accomplish its strategic objectives absent its hub-and-spoke system would likely be significantly higher. Allies often facilitate the presence of U.S. forces stationed on their soil through in-kind payments. South Korea, for example, contributed the lion’s share of the costs associated with building Camp Humphreys ($9.7 billion of a $10.8 billion project) and annually pays approximately 50 percent of the nonpersonnel costs for the stationing of U.S. troops. 36 Further, historically speaking, imperial predecessors appear to have spent a considerably larger share of their annual budgets on the maintenance of their global military posture.
  • While not a perfect comparison, it is still worth observing that by some estimates, the United Kingdom spent upwards of 37 percent of its annual governmental budget on its military between 1860 and 1914. 37 During the same period, the majority of Western European countries, Russia, the U.S., and Japan spent, on average, 32 percent of their annual governmental budgets on their militaries. 38 In other words, “[t]axes collected by the British government were used basically to defray military expenditure and to pay interest on a national debt which had accumulated as a consequence of past wars fought to acquire and defend the empire.” 39 By comparison, the U.S. spent 14.75 percent of its annual budget (both mandatory and discretionary) on the defense program in 2017. 40
  • Exercises and Interoperability. The hub-and-spoke system has created a wide variety of opportunities for U.S. servicemembers to engage with their foreign counterparts to advance strategic, operational, and tactical interests collectively and ensure that servicemembers from different countries can fight together effectively. NATO, for example, has the International Military Staff (IMS) and a series of standardization agreements and exercises that help to improve interoperability among member states and partners. These preparations during peacetime help to build meaningful capabilities that can be drawn upon during crises and conflict.
  • Even though Operation Iraqi Freedom was an ad-hoc coalition, for example, most experts agree that it would not have been possible to operate coherently were it not for NATO’s decades of efforts to improve interoperability among its members, many of which participated in that coalition. Also, many multilateral military exercises occur outside of U.S. territories, which has the additional advantage of giving U.S. servicemembers key opportunities to understand the contours of a theater or battlespace before conflict occurs, which in turn enables better planning and preparation for an outbreak of hostilities.
  • Coalition Participants. Another proven benefit of the hub-and-spoke system has been the willingness of other states to contribute troops, financial resources, or both to U.S.-led military coalitions. At the height of the Afghanistan campaign, 50 nations contributed troops to the International Security Assistance Force. 41 Similarly, allies and partners have contributed to U.S.-led wars and operations in Korea, Vietnam, the Persian Gulf, Somalia, the Balkans, Libya, Iraq, and Syria. In addition to defraying the costs in terms of both blood and treasure that are associated with prosecuting these missions, these contributions have also served to underscore their international legitimacy. 42

Given this balance sheet of risks and advantages, successive U.S. Administrations have determined that reinvesting in this hub-and-spoke system continues to benefit American interests. The amount of time and attention that day-to-day management of this system entails—on any given day, dozens of tactical-level and strategic-level issues between sovereign states must be juggled based on shifting notions of security and defense that change over time along with strategic circumstances—might suggest to a casual observer that these relationships are fragile, but the historical track record suggests the opposite. The dissolution of the Soviet Union actually led to an expansion of the hub-and-spoke system and has enabled the United States to prosecute expeditionary operations alongside a wide variety of coalition partners.

Looking to the future, however, there are reasons for concern. The U.S.’s key competitors have studied America’s defense strategy or approach to waging war and appear to have concluded that fighting the United States conventionally is a losing proposition. Instead, Russia and China appear to be using a combination of military and nonmilitary tools (such as, for example, Moscow’s seizure of the Crimean Peninsula and Beijing’s assertion of a claim to the nine-dash line territories in the South China Sea) to achieve their objectives.

Another key tactic that these adversaries appear to be using is an attempt to disrupt the U.S.-led hub-and-spoke security network. Due to China’s coercive economic policies, combined with its military reforms and expeditionary presence, some of America’s allies such as Australia are facing a stark strategic choice: whether to invest in a relationship with China or with the United States. 43 Others, such as Italy, have determined that no apparent conflict exists between embracing Chinese Belt and Road investments and observing their obligations to the European Union (EU) and NATO. 44 Likewise, Russia’s disinformation operations appear to be designed, among other things, to sow doubt in European capitals as to the utility of the institutions that the U.S. has helped to create since World War II, including NATO and the EU. 45

Complicating matters, Moscow and Beijing appear to be collaborating to achieve their shared objective of displacing the United States as the center of the hub-and-spoke system. As the 2019 Worldwide Threat Assessment released by the Director of National Intelligence notes, “Russia and China seek to shape the international system and regional security dynamics and exert influence over the politics and economies of states in all regions of the world and especially in their respective backyards.” 46

Their apparent objective in doing so is to advance an authoritarian vision of governance and world order. 47 This stands in stark contrast to the international order that the United States has fought hard to achieve over the past 70 years and that, on balance, takes human freedom and individual liberty as a starting point for political organization. From this perspective, the strategic stakes could hardly be higher.

Both nature and power abhor a vacuum, and both Beijing and Moscow appear to be happy to fill any space created by a U.S. retrenchment—perceived or actual—from the hub-and-spoke system. The United States therefore appears to be at a crossroads. It can either continue to view its complex network of security relationships through a transactional, cost-sharing lens, or it can instead reconsider the broader strategic value of the hub-and-spoke network as the key mechanism through which Washington can counter its great-power competitors.

Indeed, allies contribute to the U.S. and the furtherance of its interests in any number of ways, and their contributions go beyond mere dollars and cents. Regional access, prepositioning of forces and supplies, political-strategic relationships, and interoperable forces together create a “warm start” in the event of a crisis. Further, the U.S. gains intelligence and situational awareness from its global security relationships that it would not otherwise have.

Perhaps most important, however, by reinvesting in its global web of security relationships, the U.S. simultaneously is sending a message to its competitors that they will not be able to pursue their own arguably coercive agendas unchallenged. Should the U.S. let the hub-and-spoke system languish, the costs of acting alone—in diplomatic, military, and economic terms—are likely to be prohibitive. Compounding the problem, adversaries would likely take advantage of an erosion of U.S. security relations to strengthen their positions at America’s expense.

Despite the hub-and-spoke network’s advantages, just as questions about the appropriate U.S. role in the world remain up in the air, so too does the question of retrenchment from this system versus reinvigoration of it also remain unsettled. At least for now, however, the hub-and-spoke system will undoubtedly remain a foundational element of American strategy—if we choose to keep it.

  • Any views expressed in this article are strictly those of the author and do not represent the views of any organization with which she is affiliated.
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe (New York: Doubleday, 1948), p. 4, as quoted in Robert H. Scales, Jr., “Trust, Not Technology, Sustains Coalitions,” Parameters , Vol. 28, No. 4 (Winter 1998–99), https://ssi.armywarcollege.edu/pubs/parameters/articles/98winter/scales1.htm (accessed July 13, 2019).
  • David Fromkin, “Entangling Alliances,” Foreign Affairs , Vol. 48, No. 4 (July 1970), pp. 688–700, https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/1970-07-01/entangling-alliances (accessed July 13, 2019).
  • “Hub-and-spoke” is often used to describe the U.S. system of bilateral alliances in Asia, while NATO is referred to as a “multilateral” system. These terms generally refer to formal alliance relationships; as this essay considers the totality of U.S. global security arrangements and how they have evolved over time, “hub-and-spoke” is an appropriate metaphor to describe this complex network of security relationships that has the United States at its center.
  • Thucydides, The History of the Peloponnesian War , trans. Richard Crawley (London: J.M. Dent, 1910).
  • George Modelski, “The Long Cycle of Global Politics and the Nation State,” Comparative Studies in Society and History , Vol. 20, No. 2 (April 1978), pp. 214–235.
  • Kori Schake, Safe Passage: The Transition from British to American Hegemony (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2017), esp. Chapter One. The United States has, of course, been imperfect in its application of these values and principles; the U.S. annexed Hawaii, for example.
  • “It is imperative that [there be] a much more rapid and concerted build-up of the actual strength of both the United States and the other nations of the free world. ¶ The execution of such a build-up, however, requires that the United States have an affirmative program beyond the solely defensive one of countering the threat posed by the Soviet Union. This program must light the path to peace and order among nations in a system based on freedom and justice…. Further, it must envisage the political and economic measures with which and the military shield behind which the free world can work to frustrate the Kremlin design by the strategy of the cold war…. The only sure victory lies in the frustration of the Kremlin design by the steady development of the moral and material strength of the free world and its projection into the Soviet world in such a way as to bring about an internal change in the Soviet system…. ¶ In summary, we must, by means of a rapid and sustained build-up of the political, economic and military strength of the free world, and by means of an affirmative program intended to wrest the initiative from the Soviet Union, confront it with convincing evidence of the determination and ability of the free world to frustrate the Kremlin design of a world dominated by its will….” Conclusions and Recommendations” in NSC 68: United States Objectives and Programs for National Security (April 14, 1950): A Report to the President Pursuant to the President’s Directive of January 31, 1950 , National Security Council, April 7, 1950, https://fas.org/irp/offdocs/nsc-hst/nsc-68.htm (accessed July 15, 2019).
  • World Bank, “History,” http://www.worldbank.org/en/about/archives/history (accessed July 15, 2019), and International Monetary Fund, “History: Cooperation and Reconstruction (1944–71), https://www.imf.org/external/about/histcoop.htm (accessed July 15, 2019).
  • NSC 68: United States Objectives and Programs for National Security , p. 68.
  • Stacie L. Pettyjohn, U.S. Global Defense Posture, 1783–2011 (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2012), pp. 49–96, https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2012/RAND_MG1244.pdf (accessed July 15, 2019). Prepared for the U.S. Air Force by RAND Project Air Force.
  • Wallace J. Thies, Why NATO Endures (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009).
  • U.S. Department of Defense, “Remarks as Delivered by Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates, The Nixon Center, Washington, D.C., Wednesday, February 24, 2010,” http://archive.defense.gov/speeches/speech.aspx?speechid=1425 (accessed June 17, 2019).
  • National Security Strategy of the United States of America , The White House, December 2017, pp. 2–3, https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/NSS-Final-12-18-2017-0905.pdf (accessed July 15, 2019).
  • U.S. Department of Defense, Office of the Undersecretary of Defense (Comptroller), Department of Defense Budget Fiscal Year (FY) 2020: European Deterrence Initiative , March 2019, p. 1, https://comptroller.defense.gov/Portals/45/Documents/defbudget/fy2020/fy2020_EDI_JBook.pdf (accessed June 17, 2019).
  • See note 4, supra .
  • Compounding the confusion, different scholars have sought to categorize them in different, often overlapping ways. Bruce Russett captures this ambiguity well when he lays out how different scholars—Hans Morgenthau and Kalevi J. Holsti—approach the topic of alliances. He explains that Morgenthau categorizes alliances according to whether they are (1) mutual or unilateral; (2) temporary or permanent; (3) operative or inoperative, depending on their ability to coordinate members’ policies; (4) general or limited in their distribution of benefits; and (5) complementary, identical, or ideological in their scope of interest. Holsti, by contrast, organizes alliances along the following lines: (1) the situation in which commitments are to become operational, (2) the type of commitments undertaken, (3) the degree of military cooperation or integration, and (4) the geographic scope of the treaty. Bruce M. Russett, “An Empirical Typology of International Military Alliances,” Midwest Journal of Political Science , Vol. 15, No. 2 (May 1971), p. 264.
  • Stephen M. Walt, The Origin of Alliances (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1987), pp. 12–13, and Glenn H. Snyder, Alliance Politics (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2007), p. 4. In Walt’s conception, they can be formal or informal; in Snyder’s, they are formal arrangements.
  • The major exception to this is Walt’s The Origin of Alliances , which looks at alliance formation in the Middle East from 1955–1979.
  • There is, of course, an enormous body of post–Cold War work exploring the particular policy and strategic dimensions of key alliance relationships, such as NATO or U.S. bilateral defense relationships in Asia. Yet the insights and assumptions regarding the formation and maintenance of those alliances are often informed by studies of alliances that predate the end of the Cold War (or, in the case of constructivism, very shortly thereafter).
  • Brett Ashley Leeds, Jeffrey M. Ritter, Sara McLaughlin Mitchell, and Andrew G. Long, “Alliance Treaty Obligations and Provisions, 1815–1944,” International Interactions , Vol. 28, No. 3 (July 2002), pp. 237–260, (accessed July 15, 2019).
  • Patricia Weitsman, Dangerous Alliances: Proponents of Peace, Weapons of War (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004).
  • Kathleen J. McInnis, How and Why States Defect from Contemporary Military Coalitions (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019).
  • Glenn Snyder refers to this as the “political penumbra” of alliances. Further, a RAND study notes, “In our analysis of aggregate U.S. bilateral trade, we find solid evidence that U.S. security commitments have significantly positive effects on U.S. bilateral trade. For example…a doubling of U.S. personnel commitments overseas could increase U.S. bilateral trade by as much as 15 percent, depending on the service, while a doubling of treaties could expand U.S. bilateral trade by 34 percent overall.” Daniel Engel, Adam R. Grissom, John P. Godges, Jennifer Kavanagh, and Howard J. Schatz, Estimating the Value of Overseas Security Commitments (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2016), p. x, https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR500/RR518/RAND_RR518.pdf (accessed July 15, 2019).
  • North Atlantic Treaty, Article 2, April 4, 1949, last updated April 10, 2019, https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/official_texts_17120.htm (accessed July 15, 2019). Emphasis added.
  • G. John Ikenberry, After Victory: Institutions, Strategic Restraint, and the Rebuilding of Order After Major Wars (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001) pp. 162–214.
  • Ibid. See also I. M. Destler, “America’s Uneasy Relationship with Free Trade,” Harvard Business Review , April 28, 2016, https://hbr.org/2016/04/americas-uneasy-history-with-free-trade (accessed June 18, 2019).
  • Robert E. Harkavy, Bases Abroad: The Global Foreign Military Presence (Stockholm: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 1989), p. 5.
  • Press release, “Wales Summit Declaration Issued by the Heads of State and Government Participating in the Meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Wales,” North Atlantic Treaty Organization, September 5, 2014, https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_112964.htm#def-exp (accessed June 18, 2019).
  • Martin Vogl, “Mali Coup Leaders Partially Reopen Airport,” Associated Press, March 26, 2012, http://archive.boston.com/news/world/africa/articles/2012/03/26/mali_protesters_seek_return_to_order_after_coup/ (accessed July 15, 2019), and Simon J. Powelson, Enduring Engagement Yes, Episodic Engagement No: Lessons for SOF from Mali , Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, December 2013, p. 56, https://calhoun.nps.edu/bitstream/handle/10945/38996/13Dec_Powelson_Simon.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (accessed June 18, 2019).
  • Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers (New York: Random House, 1987).
  • National Defense Strategy Commission, Providing for the Common Defense: The Assessment and Recommendations of the National Defense Strategy Commission , released November 14, 2018, p. xii, https://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/2018-11/providing-for-the-common-defense.pdf (accessed July 15, 2019).
  • Rick Berger and Mackenzie Eaglen, “‘Hard Choices’ and Strategic Insolvency: Where the National Defense Strategy Falls Short,” War on the Rocks, May 16, 2019. https://warontherocks.com/2019/05/hard-choices-and-strategic-insolvency-where-the-national-defense-strategy-falls-short/ (accessed July 15, 2019).
  • Council on Foreign Relations, “The U.S. War in Afghanistan: 1999–2019,” CFR Timeline , https://www.cfr.org/timeline/us-war-afghanistan (accessed July 15, 2019).
  • Mark E. Manyin, Emma Chanlett-Avery, and Brock R. Williams, “South Korea: Background and U.S. Relations,” Congressional Research Service In Focus No. 10165, updated May 20, 2019, https://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/IF10165.pdf (accessed June 18, 2019), and Christine Kim, “US Forces Chief Says South Korea Paid for 90 Percent of Biggest Overseas Base,” Reuters, June 28, 2018, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-southkorea-base/u-s-forces-chief-says-south-korea-paid-for-90-percent-of-biggest-overseas-base-idUSKBN1JP09X (accessed June 18, 2019).
  • Patrick K. O’Brien, “The Costs and Benefits of British Imperialism 1846–1914,” Past & Present , Vol. 120, No. 1 (August 1988), p. 187.
  • Congressional Budget Office, “The Federal Budget in 2017: An Infographic,” March 2018, https://www.cbo.gov/publication/53624 (accessed July 13, 2019). Figure derived from calculating the amount of defense spending in 2017 ($590 billion) as a percentage of an overall federal budget of $4 trillion.
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization, International Security Assistance Force, “International Security Assistance Force (ISAF): Key Facts and Figures,” October 8, 2012, https://www.nato.int/isaf/placemats_archive/2012-10-08-ISAF-Placemat.pdf (accessed June 18, 2019).
  • Olivier Schmitt refers to this as “legitimacy aggregation.” Olivier Schmitt, Allies that Count: Junior Partners in Coalition Warfare (Washington: Georgetown University Press, 2011).
  • Neil Irwin, “Australia and the U.S. Are Old Allies. China’s Rise Changes the Equation,” The New York Times , May 11, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/11/upshot/australia-relationship-china-us-trade.html (accessed July 15, 2019).
  • Andrew Chatzky, “China’s Belt and Road Gets a Win in Italy,” Council on Foreign Relations, March 27, 2019, https://www.cfr.org/article/chinas-belt-and-road-gets-win-italy (accessed July 15, 2019).
  • Daniel R. Coats, Director of National Intelligence, “Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community,” statement before the Select Committee on Intelligence, U.S. Senate, January 29, 2019, pp. 5–6, https://www.dni.gov/files/ODNI/documents/2019-ATA-SFR---SSCI.pdf (accessed July 15, 2019). See also Todd C. Helmus, Elizabeth Bodine-Baron, Andrew Radin, Madeline Magnuson, Joshua Mendelsohn, William Marcellino, Andriy Bega, and Zev Winkelman, Russian Social Media Influence: Understanding Russian Propaganda in Eastern Europe (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2018), https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR2200/RR2237/RAND_RR2237.pdf (accessed July 15, 2019).
  • Coats, “Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community,” p. 4.
  • Ibid., pp. 4 and 25.

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Essay on Disadvantages of War

Students are often asked to write an essay on Disadvantages of War in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

100 Words Essay on Disadvantages of War

Loss of human lives.

War often results in a high number of casualties. Soldiers and civilians alike lose their lives, causing immense grief to families and communities.

Damage to Infrastructure

War leads to destruction of infrastructure like homes, schools, and hospitals. This leaves people homeless and disrupts basic services.

Economic Impact

War can devastate a country’s economy. It often leads to increased spending on military, causing a rise in debt and economic instability.

Psychological Effects

People exposed to war suffer from mental health issues such as post-traumatic stress disorder. The psychological impact of war can last for generations.

250 Words Essay on Disadvantages of War


War, as an instrument of national policy, has been universally denounced due to its devastating impact on humanity. Despite the occasional arguments in favor of war as a means of resolving disputes, the disadvantages overwhelmingly outweigh the benefits.

The most immediate and visible disadvantage of war is the human cost. Lives are lost, families are torn apart, and communities are destroyed. The psychological trauma inflicted on soldiers and civilians alike can last for generations, leading to a cycle of violence and despair.

War also has a profound economic impact. The cost of weaponry, logistics, and reconstruction after the devastation can cripple a nation’s economy for decades. It diverts resources from more productive uses, such as education and healthcare, exacerbating poverty and inequality.

Political Consequences

Politically, war can destabilize governments, leading to power vacuums and enabling the rise of extremist groups. It can also strain international relations, leading to a breakdown of global cooperation and peacekeeping efforts.

Environmental Damage

Lastly, the environmental damage caused by war is often overlooked. Bombings and other military activities can cause long-term damage to ecosystems, contributing to climate change and loss of biodiversity.

In conclusion, war presents numerous disadvantages that far outweigh any potential benefits. It inflicts immeasurable human suffering, disrupts economies, destabilizes politics, and harms the environment. As such, diplomatic and peaceful means of resolving disputes should always be prioritized over warfare.

500 Words Essay on Disadvantages of War

War, a state of armed conflict between different nations or states, has been a constant part of human history. Despite its common occurrence, it is a practice that yields numerous disadvantages. This essay delves into the multifaceted disadvantages of war, including the human cost, economic implications, environmental impact, and societal disruptions.

The Human Cost of War

One of the most immediate and devastating disadvantages of war is the human cost. War leads to the loss of human lives on a large scale, causing immeasurable grief and pain to the families of those who perish. Beyond the battlefield, civilians often bear the brunt of the conflict, with widespread displacement, injury, and death resulting from bombings, starvation, and disease. The psychological trauma inflicted on survivors can also lead to long-term mental health issues, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Economic Implications

War also has severe economic implications. The cost of warfare is astronomical, with funds being diverted from essential sectors like education, health, and infrastructure to fuel the war machine. This diversion of resources not only stunts national development but also leads to economic instability. Post-war economies often face inflation, unemployment, and debt, which can take generations to overcome.

Environmental Impact

The environmental impact of war is another significant disadvantage. Modern warfare methods cause extensive damage to the environment, from deforestation and soil erosion to chemical pollution and biodiversity loss. These environmental damages have long-term effects on the ecosystem, affecting the livelihoods of communities and contributing to global environmental issues like climate change.

Societal Disruptions

Lastly, war disrupts societal structures and norms. It leads to the breakdown of law and order, promoting violence, crime, and human rights abuses. War can also lead to the displacement of large populations, causing refugee crises that strain international relations and resources. Additionally, war can deepen social divisions and breed hatred and mistrust among different ethnic, religious, or political groups, making post-war reconciliation and peacebuilding a daunting task.

In conclusion, war carries with it numerous disadvantages that far outweigh any perceived benefits. The human cost, economic implications, environmental impact, and societal disruptions caused by war make it a destructive and undesirable practice. It is crucial for nations and states to invest in peaceful conflict resolution methods and diplomacy to prevent the unnecessary suffering and devastation that war brings.

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The Objectives of War: Glory and Justice, Advantage or Annihilation?

Cassowary Colorizations/Flickr

The Cold war is a defining war as it ostensibly birthed a new and enhanced peaceful international system. As a result, the post-Cold War world created is depicted as a nonviolent and prosperous environment due to the culmination of fighting and the territorial expansion of liberalism. With the promotion of democracy and the rise of multilateral international institutions across nations, many predicted a change in warfare due to the evolution of arms control constraint during the Cold War or the obsolescence of war itself due to rising nuclear disarmament in the new unipolar world (Cox, 2011). While the 21st Century has not become the peaceful era many foretold, and the nature of warfare has significantly changed, the goals which actors seek to achieve or preserve continue to remain constant. According to Hans Speier (1941), three types of war exist: absolute war, instrumental war, and agnostic fighting, which are orientated respectively toward the objectives of annihilation, advantage, glory, and justice. Thus, in this essay, I argue that while the modes of warfare and actors involved have evolved in the post-Cold War world, the critical military objectives of war Speier’s identified have remained the same. A critical examination of the prevalence of the annihilation and absolute war follows, followed by advantage and instrumental wars, and finally glory and justice in agnostic fighting.


The first section of this essay will examine the objective of annihilation, which is the primary intention of ‘absolute war’. Absolute war is waged without rules in which the absolute enemy is a symbol of ‘strangeness, evil and danger to the community as a whole’ (Speier, 1941:445). This lack of social homogeneity results in a war waged without a sense of mutual obligation, and instead, all available means of violence are enforced. The historical types of war in which restrictions are abandoned are those against ‘barbarians, savages and infidels’. For instance, the Crusades were a series of ruthless religious wars between Christians and Muslims in the Middle Ages. At that time, the use of weapons in wars was prohibited among Christians, but an exception was allowed in fighting the Mohammedans, exhibiting the rejection of restrictions (Speier, 1941:446). In modern times, ideological wars fought in the name of strong political beliefs can be compared to those waged against unbelievers. For instance, the twentieth Century can be referred to as an ‘age of genocide’ as considering the wars in the last 100 years in which genocides have occurred, every situation has been one in which the war has provided the cover for genocide exhibiting the intention of annihilation. This has proceeded into the post-Cold war era through the Islamist uprising in Algeria 1991-2002, the war in Bosnia Herzegovina 1992-1995, and the Second Congo War 1998-2003, which all produced mass fatalities (Bartrop, 2002: 525).

However, the literature on whether absolute war may be a trend in the post-Cold War world contradicts this. While the collapse of the Cold War may have decreased the dominance of capitalist-communist identities, they have been replaced by increased religious, ethnic, or regional identities. As a result, these changes have resulted in a growth of available identities and hubs seeking to deploy them, instigating ‘new wars’ in the future (Maynard, 2015:42; Kaldor, 2013). According to Kaldor (2002), these ‘new wars’ will be fought by state and nonstate actors, and instead of seizing territory through military means, battles will be rare and violence is directed principally against civilians as a method of commanding territory rather than against adversary forces. Thus, genocidal tendencies have come to dominate contemporary war as increasingly states go to war because of uncertainty in their control over ‘their’ territory. These wars are mainly directed against civilian populations aided by technological revolutionised uses of airpower (Kaldor, 2013; Shaw, 2000).

However, in contrary to Kaldor’s ‘new wars’ thesis, there has been a steady decrease in the number of civil wars since 1989 as economic development is increasingly dependent on intellectual capital that must be enticed rather than coerced; hence, the incentives for governments to limit conflicts is more persuading in the post-Cold War period. (Melander et al., 2009). Likewise, due to the rise of multilateral organisations and international institutions such as the United Nations and NATO, wars among powers are rarely allowed to run their natural course due to foreign intervention to prevent mass fatalities since ‘the greater the humanitarian crisis generated by a conflict, the greater the pressure to meddle’ (Freedman, 1998: 49). However, Luttwak (1999) argues this is problematic as it causes war to become an endemic conflict because the outside intervention blocks the transformative effects of decisive victory and exhaustion; therefore, peace cannot ensue, resulting in eventual annihilation.

Nonetheless, the increase in technological military weapons, including nuclear weapons and missile systems that have expanded the means of destruction and human cost of war, indicates that the objective of annihilation remains constant in modern warfare. Together these studies indicate that if a major war were to erupt between the nuclear powers, annihilation would undoubtedly be achieved; thus, while the modes of warfare and actors involved have changed from in the post-Cold War world, the objective of annihilation remains constant.

The second section of this essay will examine Speier’s (1941) concept of instrumental wars that seek to achieve ‘advantage’ by attaining values that the enemy controls, most notably economic values. As a result, ‘war assumes the form of robbery in which the death of the victim may constitute murder but does not mean waste’ as the victor is likely to gain highly valuable strategic and economic benefits (Spier, 1941: 449). Colonial campaigns conducted by western states and the wars fought to prevent the liberation of the colonies are critical examples of instrumental war. For instance, the Battle of Plassey (1757) helped establish British imperialism over India, gaining access to the country’s commodities, including Indian spices, textiles, precious stones, opium, and control over trading routes. Overall, territory has been a powerful influence on conflict throughout history as a recent reanalysis of the Correlates of War (COW) data suggests that of the 79 interstate wars between 1816 and 1997, 43 (54%) should be classified as territorial, suggesting that explicitly territorial issues are more likely to lead to war, recurring conflict, and result in high fatalities should war occur (Vasquez and Valeriano, 2010).

In the post-Cold War world, strong international concern to preserve existing state boundaries is evidence of the significant role of territoriality. The evolution of international institutions and international law to protect these boundaries has benefited many states, protecting their most critical territorial possessions and reducing the threat of predation from other states (Johnson and Toft, 2014:33). Although the territorial integrity norm is primarily a western phenomenon, interstate conflict over territory continues, from Kashmir and Israel/Palestine to the South China Sea. For instance, the Israel and Palestine conflict is one of the world’s longest-running conflicts between two movements that both lay claim to the same territory in Israel since an initial United Nations proposal to distribute each group part of the land failed; thus, Israel and the encompassing Arab nations have fought several wars over the territory since (BBC, 2021).

Additionally, a considerable amount of literature has been published on future ‘resource wars.’ Contemporary conflicts would be categorised by a new violent scramble for resources among local warlords, regional hegemons, and international powers due to the combination of population and economic growth leading to a relentless expansion in demand for raw materials. For instance, global climate change could multiply strains on natural resources and trigger water wars, catalyse the spread of disease or induce mass migrations stimulating further armed conflicts (Klare, 2001; Victor, 2007).

However, critics argue that future resource wars are unlikely and rarely occur since resource money may magnify and prolong some conflicts as well as, the root causes of those hostilities usually lie elsewhere. Furthermore, there has been a steady decline in conquest wars since the Cold War from more than half to less than 30% (Holsti, 2010). Liberals assert this is due to conquest wars becoming unprofitable due to economic globalisation, such as increases in international trade, expanding overseas investment, and the high international costs since the international community condemns the use of force in all territorial disagreements, including those where political authority is ambiguous (Meierding, 2016).

Therefore, only in civil wars does the question of resources such as oil, diamonds, minerals, and territory play a significant role; this was especially true as Cold War superpowers halted their financial support to local actors. Hence, the abundance of resources, not their scarcity, fuels such conflicts, such as the current tensions between North and South Sudan over oil, which are remnants of civil war and a failed secession process, not a desire to control new resources (Tertrais, 2012:16; Meierding, 2016; 261). However, modern nationalist movements are frequently linked to concepts of territory, especially homeland, for a specific, often ethnic group; therefore, as established in the previous section, identity conflicts remain prevalent in modern society. Consequently, while instrumental wars are likely to be contained to intrastate conflicts rather than interstate, they remain prevalent; hence, the objective of advantage remains constant in the post-Cold world (Le Billon, 2007).

Glory and Justice

Finally, in the last section of this essay, I will explore the prevalence of the ‘agnostic fight’ in which victory is a symbolic revelation of ‘glory and justice’ provided that shared rules and norms are meticulously respected. Violence throughout history in both inter and intrastate conflicts has been glorified and sanctified through defending national ‘honour’, values, and security to either maintain or alter the status quo. For instance, historical societies such as the Roman Empire, Vikings, Malorian knights, Shaolin monks, the Samurai and Zulus were built on the demand for glory achieved in a battle to prove an individual’s self-worth (French, 2016). However, over time due to the construction of sovereign states and the ‘humanitarian revolution’ as coined by Pinker, war has no longer come to be associated with personal achievement or heroism; instead, we are experiencing ‘war fatigue’ (Mueller, 1989) and ‘debellicization’ (Mandelbaum, 2002). In developed countries from the last 20th Century, each element that built a war-friendly mentality such as nationalism, territorial ambition, an international culture of honour and indifference to human casualties has become outdated, resulting in an overall decline in global violence (Tertrais, 2012; Pinker, 2011: 283).

However, there are some specific cases in which ‘glory and justice’ remain prevalent. Great power states treasure their status in the international order and consider war to preserve their prestige despite the political and military consequences, as per the British intervention in the Falklands (1982) to re-establish their sovereignty. The re-conquering of the Falklands demonstrated Britain’s capability to project its hard power far away and display its financial capacity to do so. As the UK’s reputation was stained from its failure in the 1956 Suez Crisis, a victory in the Falklands would be considered an astonishing achievement and restore the image of a strong and victorious United Kingdom, thus achieving merited glory and justice (Grandpierron, 2017).

Despite this, the post-Cold War era has seen frequent military expeditions to be authorised on humanitarian concerns to ‘preserve the peace’; the 21st Century is now witnessing a legitimisation of warfare where it has become the weapon of choice for powerful state actors. The ‘War on Terror’ initiated by the Bush administration in 2001 illustrates this clearly. From the beginning, the war was presented as a legally acceptable act of self-defence that adhered to the ‘just war’ principles; therefore, labelling the acts of terrorism as an act of war provided Washington with a just cause. Additionally, it was constructed as a war of last resort with no diplomatic options available in order to combat the evil of terrorism; combined with the Christianity of the Bush administration, the war has been portrayed as a crusade for freedom fought in defence of liberty and is comparable to the Second World War, or “the ultimate good war” (Dexter, 2008: 66). As previously mentioned, great powers will go to great lengths to maintain their prestigious status. 9/11 shattered the perceptions of invulnerability the US projected as a global leader; hence, the war provided a stage to reassert Washington’s power.

Conversely, Fletcher (2002) argues that war and justice are not synonymous. Justice is about restoring moral order in the universe, whereas war pursues interests that can only be achieved through death and destruction and compartmentalise the two risks imitating the holy mission of the enemy. Therefore, if the War on Terror was indeed in the pursuit of justice, the provisions of the Bill of Rights bearing on a fair trial should apply in Guantanamo as they do in the United States (ibid:7). Many Islamic fundamentalists perceived American bases in Saudi Arabia as an invasion of Dar el Islam, thus justified attack. However, as the law of war has evolved, religion is no longer a ‘just cause’, only self-defence against aggression has been normalized as such. As a result, despite a normative shift occurring in which people in the developed world perceive war as ‘disgusting, ridiculous and unwise’, it has now been repackaged as legitimised self-defence. Hence, the objectives of glory and justice continue to be achieved through the evolution of the actors and modes involved in warfare (Mueller, 1990:326).

In conclusion, despite the birth of a new international system that aided the development of international institutions and liberal norms after the Cold War, war and its fundamental objectives continue to endure in contemporary society. With the invention of new technological military weapons, actors with a persistent aspiration to attain control over resources in inter-state conflicts and the desire for great power states to assert their dominance in the international order through acts of self-defence, absolute and instrumental wars and agnostic fights continue to ensue. However, the rise of foreign liberal intervention to interrupt the natural courses of war to save civilians prevents decisive victories and obstructs the intended objectives resulting in endemic conflicts such as the Israel and Palestine dispute. As a result, more actors are often involved today, and eventual annihilation becomes an ever-increasing likely conclusion. Therefore, by analysing the three objectives: annihilation; advantage and glory; and justice, this essay has shown that while the modes of warfare and actors involved have evolved in the post-Cold War world, the critical military objectives of war Speier identified have remained apparent.

Reference List

Bartrop, P. (2002). “The Relationship Between War and Genocide in the Twentieth Century: A Consideration”. Journal of Genocide Research , 4(4), pp.519–532.

BBC (2021). “Israel-Gaza violence: The Conflict Explained”. BBC News . [online] 21 May. Available at: h ttps://www.bbc.co.uk/news/newsbeat-44124396 [Accessed 26 May 2021].

Cox, M. (2011). “The Uses and Abuses of history: The end of the Cold War and Soviet Collapse”. International Politics , 48(4-5), pp.627–646.

Dexter, H. (2008). “The ‘New War’ on Terror, Cosmopolitanism and the ‘Just War’ Revival”. Government and Opposition , 43(1), pp.55–78.

Fletcher, G.P. (2002). Romantics at War: Glory and Guilt in the Age of Terrorism . Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Freedman, L. (1998). The Changing Forms of Military Conflict . Survival, 40(4), pp.39–56.

French, S.E. (2016). The Code of the Warrior: Exploring Warrior Values Past and Present . Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.

Grandpierron, M. (2017). Preserving “Great Power Status”: The Complex Case of the British Intervention in the Falklands (1982). Croatian International Relations Review , 23(79), pp.127– 156.

Holsti, K.J. (1998). Peace and War: Armed Conflicts and International Order 1648-1989. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Johnson, D.D.P. and Toft, M.D. (2014). “Grounds for War: The Evolution of Territorial Conflict”. International Security , 38(3), pp.7–38. 

Kaldor, M. (2013). In Defence of New Wars. Stability: International Journal of Security and Development , 2(1).

Klare, M.T. and Holt, H. (2001). Resource War: The New Landscape of Global Conflict. New York: Henry Holt And Company.

Le Billon, P. (2007). “Geographies of War: Perspectives on ‘Resource Wars’.” Geography Compass , 1(2), pp.163–182.

Luttwak, E.N. (1999). “Give War a Chance”. Foreign Affairs , [online] 78(4), pp.36–44. Available at: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/1999-07-01/give-war-chance [Accessed 26 May 2021].

Mandelbaum, M. (2002). The Ideas that Conquered the World: Peace, Democracy, and Free Markets in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: Public Affairs.

Maynard, J.L. (2015). “Identity and Ideology in Political Violence and Conflict”. St Antony’s International Review , [online] 10(2), pp.18–52. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/26229187 [Accessed 26 May 2021].

Meierding, E. (2016). “Dismantling the Oil Wars Myth”. Security Studies , 25(2), pp.258–288.

Melander, E., Öberg, M. and Hall, J. (2009). “Are ‘New Wars’ More Atrocious? Battle Severity, Civilians Killed and Forced Migration Before and After the End of the Cold War”. European Journal of International Relations , 15(3), pp.505–536.

Mueller, J. (1990). “The Obsolescence of Major War”. Bulletin of Peace Proposals , [online] 21(3), pp.321–328. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/44481533 .

Pinker, S. (2011). The Better Angels of our Nature: The Decline of Violence in History and its Causes . London: Allen Lane.

Shaw, M. (2000). “The Contemporary Mode of Warfare? Mary Kaldor’s Theory of New Wars”. Review of International Political Economy , [online] 7(1), pp.171–180. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4177336 [Accessed 26 May 2021].

Speier, H. (1941). “The Social Types of War”. American Journal of Sociology , 46(4), pp.445– 454.

Tertrais, B. (2012). “The Demise of Ares: The End of War as We Know It?”. The Washington Quarterly , 35(3), pp.7–22.

Vasquez, J.A. and Valeriano, B. (2010). “Classification of Interstate Wars”. The Journal of Politics , 72(2), pp.292–309.

Victor, D.G. (2007). “What Resource Wars?”. The National Interest , [online] 92(), pp.48–55. Available at: https://www.jstor.org/stable/42896095 [Accessed 26 May 2021].

Further Reading on E-International Relations

  • The Angolan Civil War: Conflict Economics or the Divine Right of Kings?
  • Restorative Justice as a Response to Atrocity: Profound or Merely Pragmatic?
  • No Peace Without Justice: The Denial of Transitional Justice in Post-2001 Afghanistan
  • Were Fukuyama, Mearsheimer or Huntington Right about the Post-Cold War Era?
  • Transitional Justice in Colombia: Between Retributive and Restorative Justice
  • Misreading Clausewitz: The Enduring Relevance of On War

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essay on advantages and disadvantages of war

essay on advantages and disadvantages of war

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Should the U.S. Have Entered World War I?

By: Christopher Klein

Updated: March 27, 2023 | Original: April 5, 2017

essay on advantages and disadvantages of war

The Case for U.S. Entry Into World War I

Woodrow Wilson asking Congress to declare war on Germany.

On January 22, 1917, President Woodrow Wilson told a joint session of Congress that the United States must remain neutral in World War I to ensure “peace without victory.” Eleven weeks later, he returned to Congress to request a declaration of war against Germany.

The rapid turn of events was brought on by a series of German actions that some historians believe left Wilson with little choice but to finally enter the war in Europe. Scores of American civilians had already been killed by German U-boats since the beginning of the war, including 128 in the 1915 sinking of RMS Lusitania . The following year German saboteurs detonated the Black Tom munitions depot in Jersey City, New Jersey, killing seven people and strafing the Statue of Liberty with shrapnel.

For two years, Wilson repeatedly warned the Germans against a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, which he considered a violation of international law and a pretext for a break in diplomatic relations. “Germany made the decision for reasons dealing with internal politics in January 1917 to go to unrestricted submarine warfare in defiance of the threats,” says historian Ross Kennedy, a professor at Illinois State University and author of “ The Will to Believe: Woodrow Wilson, World War I, and America’s Strategy for Peace and Security. ” “Wilson had no choice but to break relations or he would have lost diplomatic credibility.”

Even after announcing the diplomatic break on February 3, 1917, Wilson still signaled that the United States would stay out of the war as long as the Germans did not target American vessels. Then came the publication of the Zimmerman Telegram in which Germany proposed secret military and financial support for a Mexican attack on the United States, should it enter the war, and in exchange, Mexico would be free to annex “lost territory in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona.” Kennedy says the Zimmerman Telegram caused a stir but the major precipitating event for the declaration of war occurred in mid-March when “the Germans sank three American merchant ships in rapid succession—American ships under American flags with American crews—a direct attack on American sovereignty.”

“Given the U.S. policy and German actions, it’s hard to see any president not doing what Wilson did at that point,” Kennedy says. “He has to follow through and go for the war declaration given the earlier policy. Wilson’s whole credibility and the credibility of the country is on the line.” Kennedy points out that by drawing red lines earlier in the war, Wilson had put himself in a box where war was nearly unavoidable by April 1917.

Kennedy says that most historians agree that American entry into World War I tipped the scales against Germany and that without the participation of the United States the Allies would have lost, “defined as having to make a compromise peace with the Germans largely on German terms.” Things weren’t going well for the Allies by the spring of 1917. They had suffered a big setback in Italy, the French army faced a serious mutiny problem and Russia was teetering after the overthrow of the tsar, which would lead to the eventual loss of the Eastern Front.

The Allies were not only exhausted emotionally and militarily—but financially as well. “They were in serious financial trouble in early 1917,” Kennedy says. “They depended heavily on American banks to finance their purchases of war supplies, and their ability to get those loans was becoming harder and harder. One of the immediate benefits after the United States enters is that Wilson gets Congress to pass legislation to allow the U.S. government to loan money to the Allies. Those government-to-government loans give them the money to fund their purchases of crucial supplies.”

A military parade with crowds of excited spectators along 5th Avenue, in celebration of Armistice day and peace in Europe following World War One, New York, 1918. (Photo by Paul Thompson/FPG/Getty Images)

“Even with the U.S. entry,” Kennedy says, “the British in late 1917 were seriously contemplating peace feelers from the Germans under which the Germans would have kept all their gains on the Eastern Front and pulled back in the west. If the Americans hadn’t entered the war, the British would have done that deal.”

There are some historians who make the case that Imperial Germany would eventually have become an American menace had it emerged victorious as a result of the United States remaining on the sidelines, though certainly not to the extent of the Third Reich. So what terms would have the Germans dictated as victors? They may not have been as punitive as those eventually enacted by the Allies, but the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk that Germany negotiated with the new Bolshevik government of Russia in 1918 took a hard line.

Russia was forced to recognize the independence of Ukraine, Georgia and Finland and ceded Poland and the Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia to Germany and Austria-Hungary. In all, Russia lost 55 million people; gave up a majority of its coal, oil, and iron stores; and had its industry gutted under the agreement, which was annulled by the Armistice of November 11, 1918.

The Case Against U.S. Entry into World War I

“I think the United States should only go to war when it’s in our national interest, when we are really threatened, and when morally it could be defined as a ‘just war,’ and I don’t think any of those occurred in World War I,” says historian Michael Kazin, a professor at Georgetown University and author of “ War Against War: The American Fight for Peace 1914-1918 .”

Plenty of Americans shared the same sentiment in April 1917. The country was hardly united in the decision to declare war on Imperial Germany, as the 56 votes against the measure in Congress attested. Less than six weeks before the war declaration, anti-war senators had even led a successful filibuster to block a proposal to arm American merchant ships with U.S. naval personnel and equipment. A peace coalition of unprecedented size and diversity attempted to keep the United States from entering the battlefields. The strange bedfellows included progressive Republicans and Southern Democrats as well as socialist labor leaders such as Eugene V. Debs and business magnates such as Henry Ford . “They disagreed about many things,” Kazin says, “but they all agreed that militarizing American society would turn the United States into a very different country where the military would be calling the shots more.”

essay on advantages and disadvantages of war

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Kazin says there was no immediate threat to the security of the United States from Imperial Germany in 1917 because it was incapable of launching a trans-Atlantic attack. “Unlike in World War II when Hitler had long-range planes and a larger navy, there was no threat of Germany invading the United States,” he says.

Detractors of the American entry into World War I argue that by tipping the scales to the Allies, the United States didn’t hasten the end of the war but actually prolonged it by removing the incentive for the British and French to make a negotiated peace with Germany as the battle stalemated in 1917. The ensuing punitive peace also laid the groundwork for an even deadlier world war a generation later and the rise of the Nazis . “It was unclear that by supporting the Allies that the United States would be able to put together the ‘peace without victory’ that Wilson wanted,” Kazin says. “As the peace coalition predicted, after all those years of losing millions of people, the victorious powers were not going to be in a mood to be kind to those who lost.”

The decision to enter World War I led not only to the deaths of more than 116,000 Americans abroad but to the trampling of civil liberties at home. “If there should be disloyalty, it will be dealt with a firm hand of stern repression,” Wilson warned in his address to the joint session of Congress. It was. The Espionage Act of 1917 and Sedition Act of 1918 curtailed speech, vigilantes with the American Protective League physically assaulted anti-war activists, mail and newspapers were censored and radicals such as Emma Goldman were deported.

(GERMANY OUT) First World War trenches at Vimy Ridge National Historic Site of Canada, France.   (Photo by Forster/ullstein bild via Getty Images)

“In terms of free speech, it was the most repressive period in American history,” Kazin says.“It became potentially illegal to speak out against the war, disparage the president or try to organize people to restrict the draft. There was an atmosphere of fear. The socialist press was basically put out of business when the postmaster general denied second-class mailing privileges. Wilson made it very clear that he wasn’t going to allow any kind of dissent that went against the mission. Leaders of the left were put in jail. It had a chilling effect on other dissenters.”

Kazin argues that it was hardly a foregone conclusion that the Allies would have lost World War I had the United States not joined the fight. “The Germans were not doing well either in 1917. The most popular party in the Reichstag was already split, and there was a lot of disaffection among ordinary Germans. One reason the German military wanted to win quickly with unrestricted submarine warfare was they were worried about the country coming apart.”

Even had Germany won World War I if the United States stayed on the sidelines, Kazin says it still wouldn’t have posed an existential threat. “The political complexion would have been quite different than under the Third Reich. Germany might have evolved into more of the socially democratic society it is today. Certainly, Hitler ’s party was able to exploit Germany’s loss in the war, which was a major reason why Germany rearmed and World War II happened.”

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Disadvantage of Wars

Disadvantage of Wars

War is a conflict between two or more groups that attack each other. Although the meaning of wars has changed, their importance has not. Wars have many disadvantages, such as economic depression, environmental problems, and conflict in social structure. The cost of wars is high because guns and war machines are expensive and many of them are broken during the war, causing damage to cities and buildings. Lack of economic improvement also dramatically decreases production and investment, affecting domestic and foreign trade. War machines harm trees, animals, and people, resulting in epidemic disasters. War weakens democracy, limits freedom, and damages human rights. Social services, such as education, also suffer, resulting in a lack of basic needs. In conclusion, wars make the economy weaker, the environment dirtier, and social structure poorer. Without understanding the meaning of peace, wars will continue in the future.

War is an armed conflict between two or more groups which attack each other. Although the meaning of wars has changed, the importance of wars hasn’t changed. The wars have many disadvantages for people, such as, economic depression, environmental problems and conflict in social structure.

One of the main disadvantages of wars is economic depression. Cost of wars is very high because guns and war machines are very expensive. During the war a lot of guns and war machines are used and many of them are broken. Also, the city, which is in war, gets big damage. For instance, many buildings are destroyed by bombs. Not only cost of war is important but also lack of economic improvement is very important. Production and investment dramatically decrease. Thus, the trade of country, such as foreign trade and domestic trade, get nearly stopped. A second disadvantage of wars is environmental problems. Many war machines are

used in war. War machines also harm trees, animals and others. A lot of animals and people are died, so scattered bodies will be in everywhere such as near drinking water sources. After people drunk this water, they most probably are infected by epidemic disasters such as Phthisis and Yellowness. The final disadvantage of wars is conflict in social structure. While war is lasting, the democracy gets weak. People have limited freedom. Military juntas are very harmful for democracy. Also military junta damages human rights. Moreover, some social services become slower. For example, education gets very important damage at school and family. Wars result in lack of basic needs. In conclusion, wars make economy weaker, environment dirtier and social structure poorer. A war has many disadvantages, but in the history many wars were made by a lot of countries. In contrast, many wars are lasting at present. In my opinion, if we don’t understand meaning of peace, these wars will last in the future.

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IELTS Advantages and Disadvantages Essays 2024 – Samples, Model Essays and Topics


Updated On Mar 14, 2024

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IELTS Advantages and Disadvantages Essays 2024 – Samples, Model Essays and Topics

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In the writing task 2 advantage and disadvantages essay of IELTS, you will be asked to write the benefits and drawbacks of the topic given. Here, you have to be careful that you write the advantages and disadvantages of the topic given and NOT your opinion about the topic!

While explaining these kinds of essays, you can divide the content into 2 paragraphs.Paragraph 1 for Positive points and Paragraph 2 for negative points.

To help you understand this advantage and disadvantages essay of IELTS better, given below are some tips and a sample essay with a detailed outline. Along with this, there are numerous advantages and disadvantages of essays to help you practise during your preparation.

Tips to Crack Writing Task 2 Advantage and Disadvantages Essay of IELTS

Given below are some points which you can refer to master this question type!

  • When the topic statement is given, you need to spend at least 5-10 minutes in understanding the benefits and the drawbacks related to the topic.
  • Make sure that you have relevant points, supporting the topic. Do not deviate from the topic.
  • Make sure whatever you write is structured.
  • Put the advantages of the topic in one paragraph and the disadvantages in a separate paragraph.

Structure of an Advantage and Disadvantages Essay of IELTS 

The IELTS Writing Task 2 is considered one of the most dreaded tasks among all other tasks by IELTS aspirants. This task requires writing an essay encompassing various topics from all walks of life, from social issues to workplace issues. These essays are of various types, including opinion essays, discussion essays, advantage-disadvantage essays, etc.

Now, we will see the structure of advantage disadvantage essays and what should be the approach of writing one!


Now, the first thing that you have to do is to write an introduction. Your introduction should paraphrase the topic of the essay and try to use different vocabulary/synonyms for the words in the topic, wherever possible.

Then, give a brief idea about what could be expected in the essay, i.e. the advantages and the disadvantages of the concerned topic and state which side you think weighs the most (when asked for an opinion.)

Body paragraphs

Body paragraph 1:  This should state the advantages of the topic. This should be backed by practical points, and the examples would be even better. Day-to-day incidents and instances can be brought to notice.

Body paragraph 2:  This should state the disadvantages of the topic. This as well, should be supported by valid points, and the daily incidents and examples can be highlighted to back your points.

Conclusion:  Conclude the topic by providing a summary of the points put forth in the entire essay and how the advantages or disadvantages of the topic outweigh the other (if applicable).

Wondering the Trick to Score a Band 8 in Writing Task 2?  Know the Secret!

Advantages and Disadvantages IELTS Essay Questions and Sample Answers

Given below are some sample questions for the advantages and disadvantages type of essay and band 9 methodologies of answering them.

Sample Question 1

More and more students are choosing to study at colleges and universities in a foreign country. Do the benefits of studying abroad outweigh the drawbacks?

Given below is a brief outline of what to write in the essay after identifying the essay type.

Advantages and Disadvantages Essay

  • Paraphrase the topic of the essay
  • Mention the contents of the subsequent paragraphs

Body Paragraph 1

  • Foreign education has various advantages like better educational facilities, gaining valuable experience and international exposure. Studying abroad also opens up several high paying employment opportunities.

Body Paragraph 2

  • Travelling abroad for educational purposes also has some disadvantages like increased tuition fees and living expenses. Other disadvantages include learning to live in a foreign society and prolonged periods of time away from home.
  • Summarize the essay and mention the final view on the topic.

Sample Answer

Foreign education has become one of the most sought-after ventures in this day and age. A majority of students plan on pursuing higher education in a foreign nation, especially when it comes to a master’s degree. One of the reasons why studying abroad has become such a popular phenomenon is the relaxation of travel laws and procedures across the world. However, there are pros and cons to studying abroad and the following paragraphs, will explore the topic and elaborate on why the advantages outweigh the disadvantages.

One of the primary reasons for studying abroad is the presence of a more refined and sophisticated education system in several first-world countries. It is common for students from underdeveloped or developing countries like Brazil, China, India, Argentina and other countries to look for better opportunities than the ones available in their native country in terms of academics. Also, residing in a foreign country helps individuals to gain international exposure and also helps them develop social and interpersonal skills, which are extremely important for being eligible for lucrative job opportunities..

Nevertheless, there are numerous drawbacks to travelling abroad for education. First of all, from the beginning of applying to a foreign university to staying in the host country for the entire duration of your degree, it is an exorbitant affair. Such a costly endeavour is often unaffordable for the household of many people. That being said, becoming accustomed to the norms and conventions of an unfamiliar country can be a tough ordeal for many due to differences in culture and social traditions.

Finally, I would like to conclude by saying that foreign education can be a blessing if it is financially feasible for aspiring students. That being said, the benefits of studying abroad surpass the drawbacks for the same.

Sample Question 2

What are the advantages and disadvantages of globalization? Do the benefits outweigh the drawbacks?

  • Paraphrase the essay topic using synonyms for the words used in the question.
  • Mention the contents of the following paragraphs.
  • Globalisation has led to a lot of positive changes, especially in underdeveloped and developing countries. There has been an increase in employment opportunities, products and services are easily available to people around the world.
  • Globalisation also has various disadvantages like the exploitation of cheap labour from developing countries and also the decline in quality of products and services.
  • Summarize the topic and state the final view.

Globalisation has been one of the most significant phenomena in the last few decades, and it has changed several aspects of human society both economically and socially. There has been remarkable progress in terms of economic and financial development for developing countries due to the expansion of global organizations. However, there are several drawbacks to this rapid progress that need to be addressed. Evidently, globalization has more advantages than disadvantages and the following paragraphs, will elaborate on the topic and justify these views.

First of all, the most advantageous aspect of globalization is the advent of numerous international companies and franchises in developing countries. Ever since global brands and corporations have expanded their operations in countries such as India, China, Sri Lanka and many more, there has been a notable increase in employment in these countries. Additionally, due to the remarkable rise in the number of imports and exports, people from third world countries now have access to a vast catalogue of products and services that were previously unattainable.

That being said, there are drawbacks to globalization that create concerning issues for a sizeable portion of the global population. One of the most disturbing consequences faced is the exploitation of labour. Many corporations are known to outsource their operations to developing countries due to cheap labour costs. This enables them to accomplish their manufacturing operations without having to provide proper remuneration. Also, due to the use of inexpensive labour, the quality of products is diminished, and customers receive inferior products.

In conclusion, there is no doubt that the effects of globalization are not entirely positive or negative. Nonetheless, the benefits brought by this occupation outweigh the drawbacks.

Bonus Advantages and Disadvantages IELTS Essay Topics

  • Is it good for children to start using computers from an early age and spend long hours on them? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages.
  • What are the pros and cons for children of watching television? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant example from your knowledge or experience.
  • The internet has brought about many changes into our day-to-day life. Nowadays we are doing things such as mailing, contacting, banking and communication much faster. Do these developments have more advantages than disadvantages?
  • The development of tourism contributed to English becoming the most prominent language in the world. Some people think this will lead to English becoming the only language to be spoken globally. What are the advantages and disadvantages to having one language in the world?
  • At the present time, the population of some countries includes a relatively large number of young adults, compared with the number of older people. Do the advantages of this situation outweigh the disadvantages?
  • These days, many people have their own computer and telephone, so it is quite easy for them to do their job at home. Does working at home have more advantages or more disadvantages?
  • A lot of places in the world rely on tourism as a main source of income. Unfortunately, tourism can also be a source of problems if it is not managed correctly. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of tourism in the modern world. Do you think that benefits of tourism outweigh its drawbacks?
  • Tests and examinations are a central feature of school systems in many countries. Do you think the educational benefits of testing outweigh any disadvantages. Give reasons for your answer.
  • What do you think are the strengths and weakness of the education system in your country. Use your own experience to support your idea.
  • In the last decade, there has been a great increase in the number and variety of online courses available to adults. This has been welcomed as a great opportunity by many students, however, other students see these courses as less effective than classroom teaching. What are the advantages and disadvantages of studying an online course?
  • Some parents buy their children a large number of toys to play with. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the child of having a large number of toys?
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of mobile phones in our daily lives.
  • In some countries, more and more adults are living with their parents after graduating from college , University or even after finding a job. Do the advantages of this outweigh disadvantages?
  • Every year large numbers of people migrate from one country to another for different reasons. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of migration for the individual and for society as a whole.
  • Nowadays online shopping becomes more popular than in-store shopping. Is it a positive or a negative development? Give your reasons and examples.
  • Describe the advantages and disadvantages of living in a large city.
  • Some companies and organizations require their employees to wear uniform. What are the advantages and disadvantages of wearing uniform?

Do you have an essay on any of these topics? Post yours in the comment section so that, One of our expert IELTS trainers can evaluate it and reply!

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Frequently Asked Questions

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What is the structure of an advantage/disadvantage essay?

Is it mandatory to put advantages and disadvantages separately in two paragraphs or can I club them?

In case of questions where advantages outweigh disadvantages, I might have to write disadvantages first? Will it affect my score?

In the conclusion part of the advantage/disadvantage essay, is it ok to support one side?

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Janet had been an IELTS Trainer before she dived into the field of Content Writing. During her days of being a Trainer, Janet had written essays and sample answers which got her students an 8+ band in the IELTS Test. Her contributions to our articles have been engaging and simple to help the students understand and grasp the information with ease. Janet, born and brought up in California, had no idea about the IELTS until she moved to study in Canada. Her peers leaned to her for help as her first language was English.

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Post your Comments

essay on advantages and disadvantages of war

Ashlin Devi

Posted on Oct 5, 2023

Nowdays, technologies are in high demand. People are possessed with their own computers and cell phones, so it is quite easy for them to do their job at home. Even though it is acknowledged with several points that working from home is quite easier, the essay will argue that the drawbacks of working from home will outweigh its strength. The main disadvantages are ineffective communication and the relationship amongst people becoming distant. First of all, people need internet to communicate. The internet connectivity is very poor at times, especially in the remote areas. Furthermore, during virtual meetings, discussion gets difficult due to connection issues where meeting is not worthwhile since no voice or no video. Moreover, working from home gives distance amongst people where you will not be able to have interact with colleague. Face-to-face discussion is very important where you get to work more effectively and efficiently. On the other hand, working from home is indeed benefit. People do not have to travel to reach work. The time which are spend on travelling, can be utilized on other activities such as house cores, leisure activities or even can work extra hours to meet the given deadline. Furthermore, people get flexibility in working hours, since there are no superior workers supervising employee. To conclude, there are some strengths on working from home but drawbacks overweigh strengths since working from home is not as easy task as people think since ineffective communication and people interaction is very important.

ria mahajan

ria mahajan

Posted on Oct 6, 2023

Overall Band 5.5 Main ideas are relevant, but some are insufficiently developed and lack clarity, while some supporting arguments and evidences are missing for the question.Simple vocabulary is used accurately but the range does not permit much variation in expression.A mix of simple and complex sentence forms is used but flexibility is limited. For detailed analysis,you can avail a Free trial class Find the link below: https://ieltsmaterial.com/signup-1/ or you may reach out to us: +91 8929053019

essay on advantages and disadvantages of war

Posted on May 29, 2022

Nowadays, studying abroad is a new trend among students. Undoubtedly, there are positive and negative aspects of studying in a foreign country. However, the benefits of attending colleges and universities in a foreign country outweigh the drawbacks. The next couple of paragraphs will explain the topic and justify these viewpoints.

To begin with, studying abroad has several advantages for students. For instance, a student who is studying in a foreign country will probably improve language skills better than others. Learning a foreign language is extremely significant in a global environment. Moreover, living outside of a home country will enhance students’ worldview thanks to the culture of the host country. Therefore, it can be said that studying abroad paws the way for great career options.

However, there are undesired sides to education in a foreign state. One of them is education expenditure. Studying abroad might be expensive. Thus, it might lead to a huge economic burden for both student and his family. When a student moves to another country for education, he must face several challenges caused by living alone. For instance, some students might have some psychological problems during the first couple of weeks following their move. It can be claimed that being homesick is a common problem among young students.

In conclusion, having a graduate degree from a foreign country has both negative and positive sides. Although there are significant advantages, the benefits of studying abroad surpass the drawbacks for the same.


Posted on May 30, 2022

Band Score – 6

Concentrate on the correct usage of quantifiers and subject-verb agreement.

In some places words are used incorrectly, pay attention to them.

Use C2 level of words.

essay on advantages and disadvantages of war

Purnima Koli

Posted on Oct 25, 2021

Parents tend to give the children better resources as compared to their own childhood. This way they also feel compensated in the process while bringing up their own child. While having a huge collection of toys to play with is not all that bad, at the same time can lead to some issues.

Firstly, having a diversity in the range of toys have multiple benefits. The child can learn how to manage or organize better. Varied exposure to different themes of toys makes one more aware.

Secondly, sharing can also develop social skills among the child’s friend circle. To get hands-on-experience with toys such as Rubix’s cube, puzzles hone mental capacity of the kid. Similarly, educational and infotainment toys help shape likes and dislikes, opinions, communication skills. Thus, caters to holistic development which is often a cause of worry for parents.

On the other hand, if the child is given more and more, this may result in losing the value of individual toy. Not only is this expenditure wasteful but also teaching consumerist tendencies to the child. Perhaps unconsciously the child stops valuing his toys and takes them for granted in desire for more.

To have enough needs to be inculcated rather than frivolous costs being incurred. The parents need to be also mindful of teaching holistic habits like outdoor games, reading, painting apart from playing with toys for all round development.

Having many toys is also burdensome when it comes to maintenance. If that could be sorted then it’s much easier to assemble and play as per the child’s convenience. Gifting once in a while is a good option to keep the spirits of the child happy.


Posted on Nov 13, 2021

If you would have presented this same as a 4 paragraph structure and added the conclusion you would have score 7 easily.

Janice Thompson

Overall band: 5

Coherence: It is better to follow a 4 paragraph structure so that it is easy for the examiner to mark you for coherence. Conclusion is missing in your essay. Conclusion is where you sum up and restate points.

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  • / American History

Advantages/disadvantages of Rev. War

By: Jack   •  Essay  •  892 Words  •  December 3, 2009  •  4,525 Views

Essay title: Advantages/disadvantages of Rev. War

There are advantages and disadvantages in every war that can either be minute details or change the whole course of the war. In the Revolutionary war, there were many advantages and disadvantages of either side. America and Britain both had different things working for them or against them, many of these things were very significant by the end of the war. Although both sides had various advantages and disadvantages, America’s advantages outweighed those of the British.

In the war, America had many things working for them, including familiarity of the land, quick access to supply lines, aid from abroad, and the motivation of fighting for a cause. The Americans were extremely familiar with most of the lands that they fought on, giving them the strategical advantage. The supply lines in America were very important to the soldiers getting munitions, food, and medical supplies to armies quickly in order for them to be able to fight again fast. A major advantage the Americans had in the war was the help from the French, getting supplies and troops. The most important advantage for the Americans was having a cause to fight for. The idea of freedom from an oppressive king and freedom of government gave the Patriots a very deep sense of commitment to the cause, which helped them to fight better. Although the Americans had many advantages, they did have their share of disadvantages coming into the war. The Americans were extremely outnumbered by the British, having only 19,000 men. The Americans were also poorly trained and poorly armed, making it difficult to inflict many casualties on the British army.

Throughout the war, the British had more disadvantages then advantages. The war started out with many British advantages like a giant army, a navy, and many quick wins in the beginning of the war. The British army was composed of over 32,000 soldiers, nearly two times the size of the American’s army. The soldiers were also very well equipped and very well trained and disciplined. The British navy was also very big and was made up of hundreds of war ships and troopships. Another thing that gave the British some advantage was a quick sequence of victories, raising morale of the soldiers, and disheartening the American army. A little ways into the war, Britain had many disadvantages exposed to them, which ultimately lost them the war. Things such as having a bad commander, not taking the war seriously, guerilla band attacks, slow supply lines, and the French helping the Americans were all disadvantages for the British. The commander William Howe had many problems including bad judgement, alcoholism, sympathy for the Americans, and romantic attachment that all affected how he commanded and ultimately put the British armies at a disadvantage. Another problem the British found was that the soldiers did not take the war very seriously and thought that it would be won easily and they had no reason to fight their best. Regiments of guerilla soldier attacks on the British were devastating on the army, averagely taking three times the casualties of the guerillas. The slow supply lines for the British

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Why Females Should not Be Allowed in Combat

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Published: Jun 9, 2021

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Should follow an “upside down” triangle format, meaning, the writer should start off broad and introduce the text and author or topic being discussed, and then get more specific to the thesis statement.

Provides a foundational overview, outlining the historical context and introducing key information that will be further explored in the essay, setting the stage for the argument to follow.

Cornerstone of the essay, presenting the central argument that will be elaborated upon and supported with evidence and analysis throughout the rest of the paper.

The topic sentence serves as the main point or focus of a paragraph in an essay, summarizing the key idea that will be discussed in that paragraph.

The body of each paragraph builds an argument in support of the topic sentence, citing information from sources as evidence.

After each piece of evidence is provided, the author should explain HOW and WHY the evidence supports the claim.

Should follow a right side up triangle format, meaning, specifics should be mentioned first such as restating the thesis, and then get more broad about the topic at hand. Lastly, leave the reader with something to think about and ponder once they are done reading.

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