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  • Research Objectives | Definition & Examples

Research Objectives | Definition & Examples

Published on July 12, 2022 by Eoghan Ryan . Revised on November 20, 2023.

Research objectives describe what your research is trying to achieve and explain why you are pursuing it. They summarize the approach and purpose of your project and help to focus your research.

Your objectives should appear in the introduction of your research paper , at the end of your problem statement . They should:

  • Establish the scope and depth of your project
  • Contribute to your research design
  • Indicate how your project will contribute to existing knowledge

Table of contents

What is a research objective, why are research objectives important, how to write research aims and objectives, smart research objectives, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about research objectives.

Research objectives describe what your research project intends to accomplish. They should guide every step of the research process , including how you collect data , build your argument , and develop your conclusions .

Your research objectives may evolve slightly as your research progresses, but they should always line up with the research carried out and the actual content of your paper.

Research aims

A distinction is often made between research objectives and research aims.

A research aim typically refers to a broad statement indicating the general purpose of your research project. It should appear at the end of your problem statement, before your research objectives.

Your research objectives are more specific than your research aim and indicate the particular focus and approach of your project. Though you will only have one research aim, you will likely have several research objectives.

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Research objectives are important because they:

  • Establish the scope and depth of your project: This helps you avoid unnecessary research. It also means that your research methods and conclusions can easily be evaluated .
  • Contribute to your research design: When you know what your objectives are, you have a clearer idea of what methods are most appropriate for your research.
  • Indicate how your project will contribute to extant research: They allow you to display your knowledge of up-to-date research, employ or build on current research methods, and attempt to contribute to recent debates.

Once you’ve established a research problem you want to address, you need to decide how you will address it. This is where your research aim and objectives come in.

Step 1: Decide on a general aim

Your research aim should reflect your research problem and should be relatively broad.

Step 2: Decide on specific objectives

Break down your aim into a limited number of steps that will help you resolve your research problem. What specific aspects of the problem do you want to examine or understand?

Step 3: Formulate your aims and objectives

Once you’ve established your research aim and objectives, you need to explain them clearly and concisely to the reader.

You’ll lay out your aims and objectives at the end of your problem statement, which appears in your introduction. Frame them as clear declarative statements, and use appropriate verbs to accurately characterize the work that you will carry out.

The acronym “SMART” is commonly used in relation to research objectives. It states that your objectives should be:

  • Specific: Make sure your objectives aren’t overly vague. Your research needs to be clearly defined in order to get useful results.
  • Measurable: Know how you’ll measure whether your objectives have been achieved.
  • Achievable: Your objectives may be challenging, but they should be feasible. Make sure that relevant groundwork has been done on your topic or that relevant primary or secondary sources exist. Also ensure that you have access to relevant research facilities (labs, library resources , research databases , etc.).
  • Relevant: Make sure that they directly address the research problem you want to work on and that they contribute to the current state of research in your field.
  • Time-based: Set clear deadlines for objectives to ensure that the project stays on track.

If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

Methodology

  • Sampling methods
  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Likert scales
  • Reproducibility

 Statistics

  • Null hypothesis
  • Statistical power
  • Probability distribution
  • Effect size
  • Poisson distribution

Research bias

  • Optimism bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Implicit bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Anchoring bias
  • Explicit bias

Research objectives describe what you intend your research project to accomplish.

They summarize the approach and purpose of the project and help to focus your research.

Your objectives should appear in the introduction of your research paper , at the end of your problem statement .

Your research objectives indicate how you’ll try to address your research problem and should be specific:

Once you’ve decided on your research objectives , you need to explain them in your paper, at the end of your problem statement .

Keep your research objectives clear and concise, and use appropriate verbs to accurately convey the work that you will carry out for each one.

I will compare …

A research aim is a broad statement indicating the general purpose of your research project. It should appear in your introduction at the end of your problem statement , before your research objectives.

Research objectives are more specific than your research aim. They indicate the specific ways you’ll address the overarching aim.

Scope of research is determined at the beginning of your research process , prior to the data collection stage. Sometimes called “scope of study,” your scope delineates what will and will not be covered in your project. It helps you focus your work and your time, ensuring that you’ll be able to achieve your goals and outcomes.

Defining a scope can be very useful in any research project, from a research proposal to a thesis or dissertation . A scope is needed for all types of research: quantitative , qualitative , and mixed methods .

To define your scope of research, consider the following:

  • Budget constraints or any specifics of grant funding
  • Your proposed timeline and duration
  • Specifics about your population of study, your proposed sample size , and the research methodology you’ll pursue
  • Any inclusion and exclusion criteria
  • Any anticipated control , extraneous , or confounding variables that could bias your research if not accounted for properly.

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Research Aims, Objectives & Questions

The “Golden Thread” Explained Simply (+ Examples)

By: David Phair (PhD) and Alexandra Shaeffer (PhD) | June 2022

The research aims , objectives and research questions (collectively called the “golden thread”) are arguably the most important thing you need to get right when you’re crafting a research proposal , dissertation or thesis . We receive questions almost every day about this “holy trinity” of research and there’s certainly a lot of confusion out there, so we’ve crafted this post to help you navigate your way through the fog.

Overview: The Golden Thread

  • What is the golden thread
  • What are research aims ( examples )
  • What are research objectives ( examples )
  • What are research questions ( examples )
  • The importance of alignment in the golden thread

What is the “golden thread”?  

The golden thread simply refers to the collective research aims , research objectives , and research questions for any given project (i.e., a dissertation, thesis, or research paper ). These three elements are bundled together because it’s extremely important that they align with each other, and that the entire research project aligns with them.

Importantly, the golden thread needs to weave its way through the entirety of any research project , from start to end. In other words, it needs to be very clearly defined right at the beginning of the project (the topic ideation and proposal stage) and it needs to inform almost every decision throughout the rest of the project. For example, your research design and methodology will be heavily influenced by the golden thread (we’ll explain this in more detail later), as well as your literature review.

The research aims, objectives and research questions (the golden thread) define the focus and scope ( the delimitations ) of your research project. In other words, they help ringfence your dissertation or thesis to a relatively narrow domain, so that you can “go deep” and really dig into a specific problem or opportunity. They also help keep you on track , as they act as a litmus test for relevance. In other words, if you’re ever unsure whether to include something in your document, simply ask yourself the question, “does this contribute toward my research aims, objectives or questions?”. If it doesn’t, chances are you can drop it.

Alright, enough of the fluffy, conceptual stuff. Let’s get down to business and look at what exactly the research aims, objectives and questions are and outline a few examples to bring these concepts to life.

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Research Aims: What are they?

Simply put, the research aim(s) is a statement that reflects the broad overarching goal (s) of the research project. Research aims are fairly high-level (low resolution) as they outline the general direction of the research and what it’s trying to achieve .

Research Aims: Examples  

True to the name, research aims usually start with the wording “this research aims to…”, “this research seeks to…”, and so on. For example:

“This research aims to explore employee experiences of digital transformation in retail HR.”   “This study sets out to assess the interaction between student support and self-care on well-being in engineering graduate students”  

As you can see, these research aims provide a high-level description of what the study is about and what it seeks to achieve. They’re not hyper-specific or action-oriented, but they’re clear about what the study’s focus is and what is being investigated.

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a research objective or aim

Research Objectives: What are they?

The research objectives take the research aims and make them more practical and actionable . In other words, the research objectives showcase the steps that the researcher will take to achieve the research aims.

The research objectives need to be far more specific (higher resolution) and actionable than the research aims. In fact, it’s always a good idea to craft your research objectives using the “SMART” criteria. In other words, they should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time-bound”.

Research Objectives: Examples  

Let’s look at two examples of research objectives. We’ll stick with the topic and research aims we mentioned previously.  

For the digital transformation topic:

To observe the retail HR employees throughout the digital transformation. To assess employee perceptions of digital transformation in retail HR. To identify the barriers and facilitators of digital transformation in retail HR.

And for the student wellness topic:

To determine whether student self-care predicts the well-being score of engineering graduate students. To determine whether student support predicts the well-being score of engineering students. To assess the interaction between student self-care and student support when predicting well-being in engineering graduate students.

  As you can see, these research objectives clearly align with the previously mentioned research aims and effectively translate the low-resolution aims into (comparatively) higher-resolution objectives and action points . They give the research project a clear focus and present something that resembles a research-based “to-do” list.

The research objectives detail the specific steps that you, as the researcher, will take to achieve the research aims you laid out.

Research Questions: What are they?

Finally, we arrive at the all-important research questions. The research questions are, as the name suggests, the key questions that your study will seek to answer . Simply put, they are the core purpose of your dissertation, thesis, or research project. You’ll present them at the beginning of your document (either in the introduction chapter or literature review chapter) and you’ll answer them at the end of your document (typically in the discussion and conclusion chapters).  

The research questions will be the driving force throughout the research process. For example, in the literature review chapter, you’ll assess the relevance of any given resource based on whether it helps you move towards answering your research questions. Similarly, your methodology and research design will be heavily influenced by the nature of your research questions. For instance, research questions that are exploratory in nature will usually make use of a qualitative approach, whereas questions that relate to measurement or relationship testing will make use of a quantitative approach.  

Let’s look at some examples of research questions to make this more tangible.

Research Questions: Examples  

Again, we’ll stick with the research aims and research objectives we mentioned previously.  

For the digital transformation topic (which would be qualitative in nature):

How do employees perceive digital transformation in retail HR? What are the barriers and facilitators of digital transformation in retail HR?  

And for the student wellness topic (which would be quantitative in nature):

Does student self-care predict the well-being scores of engineering graduate students? Does student support predict the well-being scores of engineering students? Do student self-care and student support interact when predicting well-being in engineering graduate students?  

You’ll probably notice that there’s quite a formulaic approach to this. In other words, the research questions are basically the research objectives “converted” into question format. While that is true most of the time, it’s not always the case. For example, the first research objective for the digital transformation topic was more or less a step on the path toward the other objectives, and as such, it didn’t warrant its own research question.  

So, don’t rush your research questions and sloppily reword your objectives as questions. Carefully think about what exactly you’re trying to achieve (i.e. your research aim) and the objectives you’ve set out, then craft a set of well-aligned research questions . Also, keep in mind that this can be a somewhat iterative process , where you go back and tweak research objectives and aims to ensure tight alignment throughout the golden thread.

The importance of strong alignment 

Alignment is the keyword here and we have to stress its importance . Simply put, you need to make sure that there is a very tight alignment between all three pieces of the golden thread. If your research aims and research questions don’t align, for example, your project will be pulling in different directions and will lack focus . This is a common problem students face and can cause many headaches (and tears), so be warned.

Take the time to carefully craft your research aims, objectives and research questions before you run off down the research path. Ideally, get your research supervisor/advisor to review and comment on your golden thread before you invest significant time into your project, and certainly before you start collecting data .  

Recap: The golden thread

In this post, we unpacked the golden thread of research, consisting of the research aims , research objectives and research questions . You can jump back to any section using the links below.

As always, feel free to leave a comment below – we always love to hear from you. Also, if you’re interested in 1-on-1 support, take a look at our private coaching service here.

a research objective or aim

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This post is part of our dissertation mini-course, which covers everything you need to get started with your dissertation, thesis or research project. 

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38 Comments

Isaac Levi

Thank you very much for your great effort put. As an Undergraduate taking Demographic Research & Methodology, I’ve been trying so hard to understand clearly what is a Research Question, Research Aim and the Objectives in a research and the relationship between them etc. But as for now I’m thankful that you’ve solved my problem.

Hatimu Bah

Well appreciated. This has helped me greatly in doing my dissertation.

Dr. Abdallah Kheri

An so delighted with this wonderful information thank you a lot.

so impressive i have benefited a lot looking forward to learn more on research.

Ekwunife, Chukwunonso Onyeka Steve

I am very happy to have carefully gone through this well researched article.

Infact,I used to be phobia about anything research, because of my poor understanding of the concepts.

Now,I get to know that my research question is the same as my research objective(s) rephrased in question format.

I please I would need a follow up on the subject,as I intends to join the team of researchers. Thanks once again.

Tosin

Thanks so much. This was really helpful.

Ishmael

I know you pepole have tried to break things into more understandable and easy format. And God bless you. Keep it up

sylas

i found this document so useful towards my study in research methods. thanks so much.

Michael L. Andrion

This is my 2nd read topic in your course and I should commend the simplified explanations of each part. I’m beginning to understand and absorb the use of each part of a dissertation/thesis. I’ll keep on reading your free course and might be able to avail the training course! Kudos!

Scarlett

Thank you! Better put that my lecture and helped to easily understand the basics which I feel often get brushed over when beginning dissertation work.

Enoch Tindiwegi

This is quite helpful. I like how the Golden thread has been explained and the needed alignment.

Sora Dido Boru

This is quite helpful. I really appreciate!

Chulyork

The article made it simple for researcher students to differentiate between three concepts.

Afowosire Wasiu Adekunle

Very innovative and educational in approach to conducting research.

Sàlihu Abubakar Dayyabu

I am very impressed with all these terminology, as I am a fresh student for post graduate, I am highly guided and I promised to continue making consultation when the need arise. Thanks a lot.

Mohammed Shamsudeen

A very helpful piece. thanks, I really appreciate it .

Sonam Jyrwa

Very well explained, and it might be helpful to many people like me.

JB

Wish i had found this (and other) resource(s) at the beginning of my PhD journey… not in my writing up year… 😩 Anyways… just a quick question as i’m having some issues ordering my “golden thread”…. does it matter in what order you mention them? i.e., is it always first aims, then objectives, and finally the questions? or can you first mention the research questions and then the aims and objectives?

UN

Thank you for a very simple explanation that builds upon the concepts in a very logical manner. Just prior to this, I read the research hypothesis article, which was equally very good. This met my primary objective.

My secondary objective was to understand the difference between research questions and research hypothesis, and in which context to use which one. However, I am still not clear on this. Can you kindly please guide?

Derek Jansen

In research, a research question is a clear and specific inquiry that the researcher wants to answer, while a research hypothesis is a tentative statement or prediction about the relationship between variables or the expected outcome of the study. Research questions are broader and guide the overall study, while hypotheses are specific and testable statements used in quantitative research. Research questions identify the problem, while hypotheses provide a focus for testing in the study.

Saen Fanai

Exactly what I need in this research journey, I look forward to more of your coaching videos.

Abubakar Rofiat Opeyemi

This helped a lot. Thanks so much for the effort put into explaining it.

Lamin Tarawally

What data source in writing dissertation/Thesis requires?

What is data source covers when writing dessertation/thesis

Latifat Muhammed

This is quite useful thanks

Yetunde

I’m excited and thankful. I got so much value which will help me progress in my thesis.

Amer Al-Rashid

where are the locations of the reserch statement, research objective and research question in a reserach paper? Can you write an ouline that defines their places in the researh paper?

Webby

Very helpful and important tips on Aims, Objectives and Questions.

Refiloe Raselane

Thank you so much for making research aim, research objectives and research question so clear. This will be helpful to me as i continue with my thesis.

Annabelle Roda-Dafielmoto

Thanks much for this content. I learned a lot. And I am inspired to learn more. I am still struggling with my preparation for dissertation outline/proposal. But I consistently follow contents and tutorials and the new FB of GRAD Coach. Hope to really become confident in writing my dissertation and successfully defend it.

Joe

As a researcher and lecturer, I find splitting research goals into research aims, objectives, and questions is unnecessarily bureaucratic and confusing for students. For most biomedical research projects, including ‘real research’, 1-3 research questions will suffice (numbers may differ by discipline).

Abdella

Awesome! Very important resources and presented in an informative way to easily understand the golden thread. Indeed, thank you so much.

Sheikh

Well explained

New Growth Care Group

The blog article on research aims, objectives, and questions by Grad Coach is a clear and insightful guide that aligns with my experiences in academic research. The article effectively breaks down the often complex concepts of research aims and objectives, providing a straightforward and accessible explanation. Drawing from my own research endeavors, I appreciate the practical tips offered, such as the need for specificity and clarity when formulating research questions. The article serves as a valuable resource for students and researchers, offering a concise roadmap for crafting well-defined research goals and objectives. Whether you’re a novice or an experienced researcher, this article provides practical insights that contribute to the foundational aspects of a successful research endeavor.

yaikobe

A great thanks for you. it is really amazing explanation. I grasp a lot and one step up to research knowledge.

UMAR SALEH

I really found these tips helpful. Thank you very much Grad Coach.

Rahma D.

I found this article helpful. Thanks for sharing this.

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a research objective or aim

  • Aims and Objectives – A Guide for Academic Writing
  • Doing a PhD

One of the most important aspects of a thesis, dissertation or research paper is the correct formulation of the aims and objectives. This is because your aims and objectives will establish the scope, depth and direction that your research will ultimately take. An effective set of aims and objectives will give your research focus and your reader clarity, with your aims indicating what is to be achieved, and your objectives indicating how it will be achieved.

Introduction

There is no getting away from the importance of the aims and objectives in determining the success of your research project. Unfortunately, however, it is an aspect that many students struggle with, and ultimately end up doing poorly. Given their importance, if you suspect that there is even the smallest possibility that you belong to this group of students, we strongly recommend you read this page in full.

This page describes what research aims and objectives are, how they differ from each other, how to write them correctly, and the common mistakes students make and how to avoid them. An example of a good aim and objectives from a past thesis has also been deconstructed to help your understanding.

What Are Aims and Objectives?

Research aims.

A research aim describes the main goal or the overarching purpose of your research project.

In doing so, it acts as a focal point for your research and provides your readers with clarity as to what your study is all about. Because of this, research aims are almost always located within its own subsection under the introduction section of a research document, regardless of whether it’s a thesis , a dissertation, or a research paper .

A research aim is usually formulated as a broad statement of the main goal of the research and can range in length from a single sentence to a short paragraph. Although the exact format may vary according to preference, they should all describe why your research is needed (i.e. the context), what it sets out to accomplish (the actual aim) and, briefly, how it intends to accomplish it (overview of your objectives).

To give an example, we have extracted the following research aim from a real PhD thesis:

Example of a Research Aim

The role of diametrical cup deformation as a factor to unsatisfactory implant performance has not been widely reported. The aim of this thesis was to gain an understanding of the diametrical deformation behaviour of acetabular cups and shells following impaction into the reamed acetabulum. The influence of a range of factors on deformation was investigated to ascertain if cup and shell deformation may be high enough to potentially contribute to early failure and high wear rates in metal-on-metal implants.

Note: Extracted with permission from thesis titled “T he Impact And Deformation Of Press-Fit Metal Acetabular Components ” produced by Dr H Hothi of previously Queen Mary University of London.

Research Objectives

Where a research aim specifies what your study will answer, research objectives specify how your study will answer it.

They divide your research aim into several smaller parts, each of which represents a key section of your research project. As a result, almost all research objectives take the form of a numbered list, with each item usually receiving its own chapter in a dissertation or thesis.

Following the example of the research aim shared above, here are it’s real research objectives as an example:

Example of a Research Objective

  • Develop finite element models using explicit dynamics to mimic mallet blows during cup/shell insertion, initially using simplified experimentally validated foam models to represent the acetabulum.
  • Investigate the number, velocity and position of impacts needed to insert a cup.
  • Determine the relationship between the size of interference between the cup and cavity and deformation for different cup types.
  • Investigate the influence of non-uniform cup support and varying the orientation of the component in the cavity on deformation.
  • Examine the influence of errors during reaming of the acetabulum which introduce ovality to the cavity.
  • Determine the relationship between changes in the geometry of the component and deformation for different cup designs.
  • Develop three dimensional pelvis models with non-uniform bone material properties from a range of patients with varying bone quality.
  • Use the key parameters that influence deformation, as identified in the foam models to determine the range of deformations that may occur clinically using the anatomic models and if these deformations are clinically significant.

It’s worth noting that researchers sometimes use research questions instead of research objectives, or in other cases both. From a high-level perspective, research questions and research objectives make the same statements, but just in different formats.

Taking the first three research objectives as an example, they can be restructured into research questions as follows:

Restructuring Research Objectives as Research Questions

  • Can finite element models using simplified experimentally validated foam models to represent the acetabulum together with explicit dynamics be used to mimic mallet blows during cup/shell insertion?
  • What is the number, velocity and position of impacts needed to insert a cup?
  • What is the relationship between the size of interference between the cup and cavity and deformation for different cup types?

Difference Between Aims and Objectives

Hopefully the above explanations make clear the differences between aims and objectives, but to clarify:

  • The research aim focus on what the research project is intended to achieve; research objectives focus on how the aim will be achieved.
  • Research aims are relatively broad; research objectives are specific.
  • Research aims focus on a project’s long-term outcomes; research objectives focus on its immediate, short-term outcomes.
  • A research aim can be written in a single sentence or short paragraph; research objectives should be written as a numbered list.

How to Write Aims and Objectives

Before we discuss how to write a clear set of research aims and objectives, we should make it clear that there is no single way they must be written. Each researcher will approach their aims and objectives slightly differently, and often your supervisor will influence the formulation of yours on the basis of their own preferences.

Regardless, there are some basic principles that you should observe for good practice; these principles are described below.

Your aim should be made up of three parts that answer the below questions:

  • Why is this research required?
  • What is this research about?
  • How are you going to do it?

The easiest way to achieve this would be to address each question in its own sentence, although it does not matter whether you combine them or write multiple sentences for each, the key is to address each one.

The first question, why , provides context to your research project, the second question, what , describes the aim of your research, and the last question, how , acts as an introduction to your objectives which will immediately follow.

Scroll through the image set below to see the ‘why, what and how’ associated with our research aim example.

Explaining aims vs objectives

Note: Your research aims need not be limited to one. Some individuals per to define one broad ‘overarching aim’ of a project and then adopt two or three specific research aims for their thesis or dissertation. Remember, however, that in order for your assessors to consider your research project complete, you will need to prove you have fulfilled all of the aims you set out to achieve. Therefore, while having more than one research aim is not necessarily disadvantageous, consider whether a single overarching one will do.

Research Objectives

Each of your research objectives should be SMART :

  • Specific – is there any ambiguity in the action you are going to undertake, or is it focused and well-defined?
  • Measurable – how will you measure progress and determine when you have achieved the action?
  • Achievable – do you have the support, resources and facilities required to carry out the action?
  • Relevant – is the action essential to the achievement of your research aim?
  • Timebound – can you realistically complete the action in the available time alongside your other research tasks?

In addition to being SMART, your research objectives should start with a verb that helps communicate your intent. Common research verbs include:

Table of Research Verbs to Use in Aims and Objectives

Last, format your objectives into a numbered list. This is because when you write your thesis or dissertation, you will at times need to make reference to a specific research objective; structuring your research objectives in a numbered list will provide a clear way of doing this.

To bring all this together, let’s compare the first research objective in the previous example with the above guidance:

Checking Research Objective Example Against Recommended Approach

Research Objective:

1. Develop finite element models using explicit dynamics to mimic mallet blows during cup/shell insertion, initially using simplified experimentally validated foam models to represent the acetabulum.

Checking Against Recommended Approach:

Q: Is it specific? A: Yes, it is clear what the student intends to do (produce a finite element model), why they intend to do it (mimic cup/shell blows) and their parameters have been well-defined ( using simplified experimentally validated foam models to represent the acetabulum ).

Q: Is it measurable? A: Yes, it is clear that the research objective will be achieved once the finite element model is complete.

Q: Is it achievable? A: Yes, provided the student has access to a computer lab, modelling software and laboratory data.

Q: Is it relevant? A: Yes, mimicking impacts to a cup/shell is fundamental to the overall aim of understanding how they deform when impacted upon.

Q: Is it timebound? A: Yes, it is possible to create a limited-scope finite element model in a relatively short time, especially if you already have experience in modelling.

Q: Does it start with a verb? A: Yes, it starts with ‘develop’, which makes the intent of the objective immediately clear.

Q: Is it a numbered list? A: Yes, it is the first research objective in a list of eight.

Mistakes in Writing Research Aims and Objectives

1. making your research aim too broad.

Having a research aim too broad becomes very difficult to achieve. Normally, this occurs when a student develops their research aim before they have a good understanding of what they want to research. Remember that at the end of your project and during your viva defence , you will have to prove that you have achieved your research aims; if they are too broad, this will be an almost impossible task. In the early stages of your research project, your priority should be to narrow your study to a specific area. A good way to do this is to take the time to study existing literature, question their current approaches, findings and limitations, and consider whether there are any recurring gaps that could be investigated .

Note: Achieving a set of aims does not necessarily mean proving or disproving a theory or hypothesis, even if your research aim was to, but having done enough work to provide a useful and original insight into the principles that underlie your research aim.

2. Making Your Research Objectives Too Ambitious

Be realistic about what you can achieve in the time you have available. It is natural to want to set ambitious research objectives that require sophisticated data collection and analysis, but only completing this with six months before the end of your PhD registration period is not a worthwhile trade-off.

3. Formulating Repetitive Research Objectives

Each research objective should have its own purpose and distinct measurable outcome. To this effect, a common mistake is to form research objectives which have large amounts of overlap. This makes it difficult to determine when an objective is truly complete, and also presents challenges in estimating the duration of objectives when creating your project timeline. It also makes it difficult to structure your thesis into unique chapters, making it more challenging for you to write and for your audience to read.

Fortunately, this oversight can be easily avoided by using SMART objectives.

Hopefully, you now have a good idea of how to create an effective set of aims and objectives for your research project, whether it be a thesis, dissertation or research paper. While it may be tempting to dive directly into your research, spending time on getting your aims and objectives right will give your research clear direction. This won’t only reduce the likelihood of problems arising later down the line, but will also lead to a more thorough and coherent research project.

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Home » Research Objectives – Types, Examples and Writing Guide

Research Objectives – Types, Examples and Writing Guide

Table of Contents

Research Objectives

Research Objectives

Research objectives refer to the specific goals or aims of a research study. They provide a clear and concise description of what the researcher hopes to achieve by conducting the research . The objectives are typically based on the research questions and hypotheses formulated at the beginning of the study and are used to guide the research process.

Types of Research Objectives

Here are the different types of research objectives in research:

  • Exploratory Objectives: These objectives are used to explore a topic, issue, or phenomenon that has not been studied in-depth before. The aim of exploratory research is to gain a better understanding of the subject matter and generate new ideas and hypotheses .
  • Descriptive Objectives: These objectives aim to describe the characteristics, features, or attributes of a particular population, group, or phenomenon. Descriptive research answers the “what” questions and provides a snapshot of the subject matter.
  • Explanatory Objectives : These objectives aim to explain the relationships between variables or factors. Explanatory research seeks to identify the cause-and-effect relationships between different phenomena.
  • Predictive Objectives: These objectives aim to predict future events or outcomes based on existing data or trends. Predictive research uses statistical models to forecast future trends or outcomes.
  • Evaluative Objectives : These objectives aim to evaluate the effectiveness or impact of a program, intervention, or policy. Evaluative research seeks to assess the outcomes or results of a particular intervention or program.
  • Prescriptive Objectives: These objectives aim to provide recommendations or solutions to a particular problem or issue. Prescriptive research identifies the best course of action based on the results of the study.
  • Diagnostic Objectives : These objectives aim to identify the causes or factors contributing to a particular problem or issue. Diagnostic research seeks to uncover the underlying reasons for a particular phenomenon.
  • Comparative Objectives: These objectives aim to compare two or more groups, populations, or phenomena to identify similarities and differences. Comparative research is used to determine which group or approach is more effective or has better outcomes.
  • Historical Objectives: These objectives aim to examine past events, trends, or phenomena to gain a better understanding of their significance and impact. Historical research uses archival data, documents, and records to study past events.
  • Ethnographic Objectives : These objectives aim to understand the culture, beliefs, and practices of a particular group or community. Ethnographic research involves immersive fieldwork and observation to gain an insider’s perspective of the group being studied.
  • Action-oriented Objectives: These objectives aim to bring about social or organizational change. Action-oriented research seeks to identify practical solutions to social problems and to promote positive change in society.
  • Conceptual Objectives: These objectives aim to develop new theories, models, or frameworks to explain a particular phenomenon or set of phenomena. Conceptual research seeks to provide a deeper understanding of the subject matter by developing new theoretical perspectives.
  • Methodological Objectives: These objectives aim to develop and improve research methods and techniques. Methodological research seeks to advance the field of research by improving the validity, reliability, and accuracy of research methods and tools.
  • Theoretical Objectives : These objectives aim to test and refine existing theories or to develop new theoretical perspectives. Theoretical research seeks to advance the field of knowledge by testing and refining existing theories or by developing new theoretical frameworks.
  • Measurement Objectives : These objectives aim to develop and validate measurement instruments, such as surveys, questionnaires, and tests. Measurement research seeks to improve the quality and reliability of data collection and analysis by developing and testing new measurement tools.
  • Design Objectives : These objectives aim to develop and refine research designs, such as experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational designs. Design research seeks to improve the quality and validity of research by developing and testing new research designs.
  • Sampling Objectives: These objectives aim to develop and refine sampling techniques, such as probability and non-probability sampling methods. Sampling research seeks to improve the representativeness and generalizability of research findings by developing and testing new sampling techniques.

How to Write Research Objectives

Writing clear and concise research objectives is an important part of any research project, as it helps to guide the study and ensure that it is focused and relevant. Here are some steps to follow when writing research objectives:

  • Identify the research problem : Before you can write research objectives, you need to identify the research problem you are trying to address. This should be a clear and specific problem that can be addressed through research.
  • Define the research questions : Based on the research problem, define the research questions you want to answer. These questions should be specific and should guide the research process.
  • Identify the variables : Identify the key variables that you will be studying in your research. These are the factors that you will be measuring, manipulating, or analyzing to answer your research questions.
  • Write specific objectives: Write specific, measurable objectives that will help you answer your research questions. These objectives should be clear and concise and should indicate what you hope to achieve through your research.
  • Use the SMART criteria: To ensure that your research objectives are well-defined and achievable, use the SMART criteria. This means that your objectives should be Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-bound.
  • Revise and refine: Once you have written your research objectives, revise and refine them to ensure that they are clear, concise, and achievable. Make sure that they align with your research questions and variables, and that they will help you answer your research problem.

Example of Research Objectives

Examples of research objectives Could be:

Research Objectives for the topic of “The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Employment”:

  • To investigate the effects of the adoption of AI on employment trends across various industries and occupations.
  • To explore the potential for AI to create new job opportunities and transform existing roles in the workforce.
  • To examine the social and economic implications of the widespread use of AI for employment, including issues such as income inequality and access to education and training.
  • To identify the skills and competencies that will be required for individuals to thrive in an AI-driven workplace, and to explore the role of education and training in developing these skills.
  • To evaluate the ethical and legal considerations surrounding the use of AI for employment, including issues such as bias, privacy, and the responsibility of employers and policymakers to protect workers’ rights.

When to Write Research Objectives

  • At the beginning of a research project : Research objectives should be identified and written down before starting a research project. This helps to ensure that the project is focused and that data collection and analysis efforts are aligned with the intended purpose of the research.
  • When refining research questions: Writing research objectives can help to clarify and refine research questions. Objectives provide a more concrete and specific framework for addressing research questions, which can improve the overall quality and direction of a research project.
  • After conducting a literature review : Conducting a literature review can help to identify gaps in knowledge and areas that require further research. Writing research objectives can help to define and focus the research effort in these areas.
  • When developing a research proposal: Research objectives are an important component of a research proposal. They help to articulate the purpose and scope of the research, and provide a clear and concise summary of the expected outcomes and contributions of the research.
  • When seeking funding for research: Funding agencies often require a detailed description of research objectives as part of a funding proposal. Writing clear and specific research objectives can help to demonstrate the significance and potential impact of a research project, and increase the chances of securing funding.
  • When designing a research study : Research objectives guide the design and implementation of a research study. They help to identify the appropriate research methods, sampling strategies, data collection and analysis techniques, and other relevant aspects of the study design.
  • When communicating research findings: Research objectives provide a clear and concise summary of the main research questions and outcomes. They are often included in research reports and publications, and can help to ensure that the research findings are communicated effectively and accurately to a wide range of audiences.
  • When evaluating research outcomes : Research objectives provide a basis for evaluating the success of a research project. They help to measure the degree to which research questions have been answered and the extent to which research outcomes have been achieved.
  • When conducting research in a team : Writing research objectives can facilitate communication and collaboration within a research team. Objectives provide a shared understanding of the research purpose and goals, and can help to ensure that team members are working towards a common objective.

Purpose of Research Objectives

Some of the main purposes of research objectives include:

  • To clarify the research question or problem : Research objectives help to define the specific aspects of the research question or problem that the study aims to address. This makes it easier to design a study that is focused and relevant.
  • To guide the research design: Research objectives help to determine the research design, including the research methods, data collection techniques, and sampling strategy. This ensures that the study is structured and efficient.
  • To measure progress : Research objectives provide a way to measure progress throughout the research process. They help the researcher to evaluate whether they are on track and meeting their goals.
  • To communicate the research goals : Research objectives provide a clear and concise description of the research goals. This helps to communicate the purpose of the study to other researchers, stakeholders, and the general public.

Advantages of Research Objectives

Here are some advantages of having well-defined research objectives:

  • Focus : Research objectives help to focus the research effort on specific areas of inquiry. By identifying clear research questions, the researcher can narrow down the scope of the study and avoid getting sidetracked by irrelevant information.
  • Clarity : Clearly stated research objectives provide a roadmap for the research study. They provide a clear direction for the research, making it easier for the researcher to stay on track and achieve their goals.
  • Measurability : Well-defined research objectives provide measurable outcomes that can be used to evaluate the success of the research project. This helps to ensure that the research is effective and that the research goals are achieved.
  • Feasibility : Research objectives help to ensure that the research project is feasible. By clearly defining the research goals, the researcher can identify the resources required to achieve those goals and determine whether those resources are available.
  • Relevance : Research objectives help to ensure that the research study is relevant and meaningful. By identifying specific research questions, the researcher can ensure that the study addresses important issues and contributes to the existing body of knowledge.

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A Complete Guide to Write Research Aims and Objectives

The importance of making a good quality aim and objectives of a research is paramount in the success of the research.

In this post, you will learn:

  • What is research aim?
  • What are research objectives?
  • How to differentiate between research aim and research objective
  • Examples of research aims and objectives
  • Key points to remember while writing research aim and objectives
  • Do’s and Don’ts

What Is Research Aim?

The research aim is the primary focus of the research and determines what the research serves to do. It defines the purpose of the research and tells the audience what the research aims to achieve.

Because research aims are so important for the study, a sun heading in the introductory chapter is usually dedicated to them. They are written in a paragraph form and define the main purpose of conducting the research on a topic.

Example of a good quality research aim

Research about the effects of climate change on the mental health of young adults can be worded as follows:

“The effects of climate change information on the minds of young adults are under researched. This research aims to find the effects that climate change information has on the mental health of young adults. By studying the effects of the intensity and frequency of the consumption of climate change news and forecasts among young adults, this study aims to see how climate change information is influencing their mental health.”

The above research aim is focused and clear and presents the reader with a clear understanding of the purpose of the research.

What Is Research Objective?

Research aims are related to research objectives. The research aim determines the overall purpose of the study, and the objectives determine in what ways that purpose will be achieved. The purpose of the research aim is separated into subsections. However, If any you need to order IT Research Paper help services then you have to take a survey on the net. These subsections are smaller steps that define the objectives of the research.

Research objectives are usually written in the form of a list. These small bits of steps can be checked off as the research progresses. They are written in chronological order, starting with the first objective that needs to be achieved and ending with the final one.

Example of research objectives

Taking the example of the research aim above, we can divide it into smaller sections to create specific aims of the research.

  • Understand the concepts of climate change and mental health
  • Understand the relationship between climate change and mental health
  • Determine the frequency and intensity of climate change news consumption among young adults
  • Determine the frequency and intensity of news affects the mental health of young adults
  • Develop recommendations for clinical practice in the field

From this example, you can see how the research aim was broken down into smaller, specific objectives that were then listed down.

Differentiate Research Between Aims & Objectives

Although the two concepts are related, they are not the same. The differences between research aim and research objectives are:

  • The way they are worded are different: Research aim is worded in a wide scoped way, while research objectives are worded as specific, narrowed down tasks.
  • The focus of the two are different: research aim focuses on the overall purpose while research objectives focus on how to achieve that purpose.
  • The purpose of the two are different: research aims are concerned with the overall findings of a research, which are long-term, while research objectives serve to define the short term aims of the research.
  • The way they are presented are different: research aims are written in a small paragraph form while the objectives are written in the form of a list.

3 Key Points To Remember While Drafting Research Aim

The ways of writing a research aim varies with the researcher, but there are certain points to keep in mind to write a good quality research aim:

1. Answer the “why” question of the research: A research aim needs to provide an answer for why the study is being conducted. It needs to describe, in a small sentence or phares, why the research is important to conduct.

Taking the example of the research aim above, we can see that it answers the why question:

“The effects of climate change information on the minds of young adults are under researched”.

2. Answer the “what” question of the research: this is the main purpose of the research aim, as it signifies the main aim of the research.

From the example above, the “what” question is answered as follows:

“This research aims to find the effects that climate change information has on the mental health of young adults.”

3. Lastly, the research aim needs to answer the “how” question. In a simple sentence or a few phrases, it should outline the main way in which you are planning to achieve the aim.

From the example above, the “how” question is answered as follows:

“By studying the effects of the intensity and frequency of the consumption of climate change news and forecasts among young adults, this study aims to see how climate change information is influencing their mental health.”

Checklist of research aim:

  • Tells the purpose of research
  • Tells why the research is important
  • Tells how the aim will be achieved
  • Is clear and concise

5 Key Points To Remember While Drafting Research Objective

An easy way to determine the quality of your research objectives is to apply the SMART method to them:

  • You need to make sure that the objectives are worded as specific tasks you need to achieve. They should not be vague.
  • You should ensure that the objectives are measurable, meaning that they allow you to see how much of them have been achieved and how much are left to work on.
  • The objectives need to be achievable, meaning you should have the resources to work on them.
  • They need to be relevant to getting to your research aim.
  • They need to be achievable in the time you have available for your research project.

In the example above the objectives follow the above mentioned criteria. While making your own objectives, make sure to evaluate them using the points above to ensure your objectives are good quality.

Checklist of research objectives

Do’s and Don’ts of research aims and objectives

What to do and what to avoid in writing aims and objectives

The Takeaway

  • The research aim is the primary focus of the research.
  • Research aims are related to research objectives
  • The objectives determine in what ways that purpose will be achieved.
  • Research aim needs to answer the “what”, “why” and “how” questions of the research.
  • Research objectives need to be SMART.

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How to Write the Dissertation Aims and Objectives – Guide & Examples

Published by Grace Graffin at January 27th, 2023 , Revised On October 9, 2023

Aims and objectives are among the essential aspects of a dissertation. If you write aims and objectives effectively, they can act as a foundation to give your research clarity and focus.

This article will provide you with all the necessary information regarding aims and objectives, their differences, writing tips , and the common mistakes you should avoid while writing them.

The aim is often a single sentence or a short paragraph that describes your dissertation’s main goal and intent. It tells what you hope to achieve at the end. You should write the aim so that it becomes identifiable when it is achieved with the completion of your dissertation .

The aim is written in a subsection of the introduction to clarify the overall purpose of the dissertation .

Example: It is often observed that employees in culturally diverse workplaces struggle to work effectively in a team. A probable cause of this issue is bullying at the workplace. This research investigates the impact of bullying on employee job satisfaction at culturally diverse workplaces and the resulting loss of employee productivity. This research will use surveys and case study analysis to analyze the impact of bullying on employees.

The objectives in a dissertation describe the ways through which you intend to achieve the research aim. They are specific statements that break down the aim into several smaller key sections of the overall research. Suitable objectives can help you stay focused and conduct research in the direction of your aim.

The number of objectives should be realistic; usually, between three to six, and each one should be possible to achieve. The following example shows the objectives for the previously-mentioned dissertation aim.

1. identification of the behaviors that are considered as bullying 2. exploring the factors that cause bullying at a culturally diverse workplace 3. analyzing the relationship between bullying and job satisfaction of employees 4. providing suitable recommendations on minimizing the bullying at the workplace

The objectives of a dissertation should be SMART.

  • Specific: should be precise, focused, and well-defined
  • Measurable: the progress should be measurable, and you should be able to determine when you have achieved an objective.
  • Achievable: you should be able to carry out the required action within your available resources
  • Relevant: should be related to the dissertation aim
  • Time-bound: should be possible within the available time

Differences between aims and objectives

Aims and objectives are often mixed, but there are clear differences between them.

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How to write aims and objectives?

There is no particular way or standard to write the aims and objectives. Different researchers have different writing styles, and often it can be influenced by your research supervisor. However, you should follow certain basic principles while writing aims and objectives in a dissertation.

Writing the aim statement

The aim statement should cover the following essential elements.

  • Why is the research necessary? (covers the underlying problem on which the study is to be conducted)
  • What is the research about? (description of the research title)
  • How are you going to conduct it? (a brief statement of intended research methods)

An appropriate aim clearly defines the research purpose without confusing the reader. If you struggle to explain your research and its importance in simpler terms, you should consider refining your research to clarify it further.

Writing objectives

The objectives describe how you would achieve your research aim. You can do this through the following steps,

  • The first one to two objectives can be applied to the literature review . (Verbs to be used: investigate, examine, study)
  • One objective can be applied to the methodology portion. (Verbs to be used: collect, select, demonstrate, estimate)
  • Two to three objectives can cover the critical evaluation or discussion chapters (Verbs to be used: analyze, compare, evaluate)
  • The final objective will cover the conclusion or recommendation portion. (Verbs to be used: conclude, recommend)

Instead of writing like a paragraph, the objectives should be written as a numbered list to give them more clarity.

How many aims and objectives should be there?

It depends upon the topic of your research and mainly upon your supervisor’s requirements. Generally, a dissertation has a single broad statement as the research aim. However, it is acceptable to include a main aim along with two to three subsidiary aims.

Similarly, the number of objectives should be realistic and sufficient to measure the progress regarding the achievement of the research aim. Their number can generally vary from three to six depending upon the aim.

Common mistakes to avoid while writing research aims and objectives

  • Writing a broad research aim

Writing a broad research aim is a common mistake, and it often becomes difficult to achieve. It may create a problem when you are asked to prove how you have achieved your aims during your  viva defense . It would be best to narrow your study to a specific area in the early stages of the dissertation.

  • Formulating overlapping research objectives

The objectives should be written such that they are measurable and distinct from each other. If they overlap, it makes it difficult to structure your dissertation properly in specific chapters.

  • Setting unrealistic aims

Students often get over-ambitious while describing the research aim and face problems afterward in achieving those aims. You should avoid this mistake and be realistic about what you can achieve in the available time and resources.

Aims and objectives are the sections that require significant time and attention to avoid future hassles while conducting research and writing your dissertation.

Frequently Asked Questions

How to set dissertation aims and objectives.

To set dissertation aims and objectives, define your research goals clearly. Aims state what you want to achieve, while objectives outline specific, measurable steps to reach those goals. Ensure they align with your research question and contribute to your study’s significance.

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Research-Methodology

Formulating Research Aims and Objectives

Formulating research aim and objectives in an appropriate manner is one of the most important aspects of your thesis. This is because research aim and objectives determine the scope, depth and the overall direction of the research. Research question is the central question of the study that has to be answered on the basis of research findings.

Research aim emphasizes what needs to be achieved within the scope of the research, by the end of the research process. Achievement of research aim provides answer to the research question.

Research objectives divide research aim into several parts and address each part separately. Research aim specifies WHAT needs to be studied and research objectives comprise a number of steps that address HOW research aim will be achieved.

As a rule of dumb, there would be one research aim and several research objectives. Achievement of each research objective will lead to the achievement of the research aim.

Consider the following as an example:

Research title: Effects of organizational culture on business profitability: a case study of Virgin Atlantic

Research aim: To assess the effects of Virgin Atlantic organizational culture on business profitability

Following research objectives would facilitate the achievement of this aim:

  • Analyzing the nature of organizational culture at Virgin Atlantic by September 1, 2022
  • Identifying factors impacting Virgin Atlantic organizational culture by September 16, 2022
  • Analyzing impacts of Virgin Atlantic organizational culture on employee performances by September 30, 2022
  • Providing recommendations to Virgin Atlantic strategic level management in terms of increasing the level of effectiveness of organizational culture by October 5, 2022

Figure below illustrates additional examples in formulating research aims and objectives:

Formulating Research Aims and Objectives

Formulation of research question, aim and objectives

Common mistakes in the formulation of research aim relate to the following:

1. Choosing the topic too broadly . This is the most common mistake. For example, a research title of “an analysis of leadership practices” can be classified as too broad because the title fails to answer the following questions:

a) Which aspects of leadership practices? Leadership has many aspects such as employee motivation, ethical behaviour, strategic planning, change management etc. An attempt to cover all of these aspects of organizational leadership within a single research will result in an unfocused and poor work.

b) An analysis of leadership practices in which country? Leadership practices tend to be different in various countries due to cross-cultural differences, legislations and a range of other region-specific factors. Therefore, a study of leadership practices needs to be country-specific.

c) Analysis of leadership practices in which company or industry? Similar to the point above, analysis of leadership practices needs to take into account industry-specific and/or company-specific differences, and there is no way to conduct a leadership research that relates to all industries and organizations in an equal manner.

Accordingly, as an example “a study into the impacts of ethical behaviour of a leader on the level of employee motivation in US healthcare sector” would be a more appropriate title than simply “An analysis of leadership practices”.

2. Setting an unrealistic aim . Formulation of a research aim that involves in-depth interviews with Apple strategic level management by an undergraduate level student can be specified as a bit over-ambitious. This is because securing an interview with Apple CEO Tim Cook or members of Apple Board of Directors might not be easy. This is an extreme example of course, but you got the idea. Instead, you may aim to interview the manager of your local Apple store and adopt a more feasible strategy to get your dissertation completed.

3. Choosing research methods incompatible with the timeframe available . Conducting interviews with 20 sample group members and collecting primary data through 2 focus groups when only three months left until submission of your dissertation can be very difficult, if not impossible. Accordingly, timeframe available need to be taken into account when formulating research aims and objectives and selecting research methods.

Moreover, research objectives need to be formulated according to SMART principle,

 where the abbreviation stands for specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-bound.

Examples of SMART research objectives

At the conclusion part of your research project you will need to reflect on the level of achievement of research aims and objectives. In case your research aims and objectives are not fully achieved by the end of the study, you will need to discuss the reasons. These may include initial inappropriate formulation of research aims and objectives, effects of other variables that were not considered at the beginning of the research or changes in some circumstances during the research process.

Research Aims and Objectives

John Dudovskiy

Enago Academy

Research Aims and Objectives: The dynamic duo for successful research

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Picture yourself on a road trip without a destination in mind — driving aimlessly, not knowing where you’re headed or how to get there. Similarly, your research is navigated by well-defined research aims and objectives. Research aims and objectives are the foundation of any research project. They provide a clear direction and purpose for the study, ensuring that you stay focused and on track throughout the process. They are your trusted navigational tools, leading you to success.

Understanding the relationship between research objectives and aims is crucial to any research project’s success, and we’re here to break it down for you in this article. Here, we’ll explore the importance of research aims and objectives, understand their differences, and delve into the impact they have on the quality of research.

Understanding the Difference between Research Aims and Objectives

In research, aims and objectives are two important components but are often used interchangeably. Though they may sound similar, they are distinct and serve different purposes.

Research Aims:

Research aims are broad statements that describe the overall purpose of your study. They provide a general direction for your study and indicate the intended achievements of your research. Aims are usually written in a general and abstract manner describing the ultimate goal of the research.

Research Objectives:

Research objectives are specific, measurable, and achievable goals that you aim to accomplish within a specified timeframe. They break down the research aims into smaller, more manageable components and provide a clear picture of what you want to achieve and how you plan to achieve it.

a research objective or aim

In the example, the objectives provide specific targets that must be achieved to reach the aim. Essentially, aims provide the overall direction for the research while objectives provide specific targets that must be achieved to accomplish the aims. Aims provide a broad context for the research, while the objectives provide smaller steps that the researcher must take to accomplish the overall research goals. To illustrate, when planning a road trip, your research aim is the destination you want to reach, and your research objectives are the specific routes you need to take to get there.

Aims and objectives are interconnected. Objectives play a key role in defining the research methodology, providing a roadmap for how you’ll collect and analyze data, while aim is the final destination, which represents the ultimate goal of your research. By setting specific goals, you’ll be able to design a research plan that helps you achieve your objectives and, ultimately, your research aim.

Importance of Well-defined Aims and Objectives

The impact of clear research aims and objectives on the quality of research cannot be understated. But it’s not enough to simply have aims and objectives. Well-defined research aims and objectives are important for several reasons:

  • Provides direction: Clear aims and well-defined objectives provide a specific direction for your research study, ensuring that the research stays focused on a specific topic or problem. This helps to prevent the research from becoming too broad or unfocused, and ensures that the study remains relevant and meaningful.
  • Guides research design: The research aim and objectives help guide the research design and methodology, ensuring that your study is designed in a way that will answer the research questions and achieve the research objectives.
  • Helps with resource allocation: Clear research aims and objectives helps you to allocate resources effectively , including time, financial resources, human resources, and other required materials. With a well-defined aim and objectives, you can identify the resources required to conduct the research, and allocate them in a way that maximizes efficiency and productivity.
  • Assists in evaluation: Clearly specified research aims and objectives allow for effective evaluation of your research project’s success. You can assess whether the research has achieved its objectives, and whether the aim has been met. This evaluation process can help to identify areas of the research project that may require further attention or modification.
  • Enhances communication: Well-defined research aims and objectives help to enhance communication among the research team, stakeholders, funding agencies, and other interested parties. Clear aims and objectives ensure that everyone involved in your research project understands the purpose and goals of the study. This can help to foster collaboration and ensure that everyone is working towards the same end goal.

How to Formulate Research Aims and Objectives

Formulating effective research aims and objectives involves a systematic process to ensure that they are clear, specific, achievable, and relevant. Start by asking yourself what you want to achieve through your research. What impact do you want your research to have? Once you have a clear understanding of your aims, you can then break them down into specific, achievable objectives. Here are some steps you can follow when developing research aims and objectives:

  • Identify the research question : Clearly identify the questions you want to answer through your research. This will help you define the scope of your research. Understanding the characteristics of a good research question will help you generate clearer aims and objectives.
  • Conduct literature review : When defining your research aim and objectives, it’s important to conduct a literature review to identify key concepts, theories, and methods related to your research problem or question. Conducting a thorough literature review can help you understand what research has been done in the area and what gaps exist in the literature.
  • Identify the research aim: Develop a research aim that summarizes the overarching goal of your research. The research aim should be broad and concise.
  • Develop research objectives: Based on your research questions and research aim, develop specific research objectives that outline what you intend to achieve through your research. These objectives should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART).
  • Use action verbs: Use action verbs such as “investigate,” “examine,” “analyze,” and “compare” to describe your research aims and objectives. This makes them more specific and measurable.
  • Ensure alignment with research question: Ensure that the research aim and objectives are aligned with the research question. This helps to ensure that the research remains focused and that the objectives are specific enough to answer your research question.
  • Refine and revise: Once the research aim and objectives have been developed, refine and revise them as needed. Seek feedback from your colleagues, mentors, or supervisors to ensure that they are clear, concise, and achievable within the given resources and timeframe.
  • Communicate: After finalizing the research aim and objectives, they should be communicated to the research team, stakeholders, and other interested parties. This helps to ensure that everyone is working towards the same end goal and understands the purpose of the study.

Common Pitfalls to Avoid While Formulating Aims and Objectives

There are several common mistakes that researchers can make when writing research aims and objectives. These include:

  • Being too broad or vague: Aims and objectives that are too general or unclear can lead to confusion and lack of focus. It is important to ensure that the aims and objectives are concise and clear.
  • Being too narrow or specific: On the other hand, aims and objectives that are too narrow or specific may limit the scope of the research and make it difficult to draw meaningful conclusions or implications.
  • Being too ambitious: While it is important to aim high, being too ambitious with the aims and objectives can lead to unrealistic expectations and can be difficult to achieve within the constraints of the research project.
  • Lack of alignment: The aims and objectives should be directly linked to the research questions being investigated. Otherwise, this will lead to a lack of coherence in the research project.
  • Lack of feasibility: The aims and objectives should be achievable within the constraints of the research project, including time, budget, and resources. Failing to consider feasibility may cause compromise of the research quality.
  • Failing to consider ethical considerations: The aims and objectives should take into account any ethical considerations, such as ensuring the safety and well-being of study participants.
  • Failing to involve all stakeholders: It’s important to involve all relevant stakeholders, such as participants, supervisors, and funding agencies, in the development of the aims and objectives to ensure they are appropriate and relevant.

To avoid these common pitfalls, it is important to be specific, clear, relevant, and realistic when writing research aims and objectives. Seek feedback from colleagues or supervisors to ensure that the aims and objectives are aligned with the research problem , questions, and methodology, and are achievable within the constraints of the research project. It’s important to continually refine your aims and objectives as you go. As you progress in your research, it’s not uncommon for research aims and objectives to evolve slightly, but it’s important that they remain consistent with the study conducted and the research topic.

In summary, research aims and objectives are the backbone of any successful research project. They give you the ability to cut through the noise and hone in on what really matters. By setting clear goals and aligning them with your research questions and methodology, you can ensure that your research is relevant, impactful, and of the highest quality. So, before you hit the road on your research journey, make sure you have a clear destination and steps to get there. Let us know in the comments section below the challenges you faced and the strategies you followed while fomulating research aims and objectives! Also, feel free to reach out to us at any stage of your research or publication by using #AskEnago  and tagging @EnagoAcademy on Twitter , Facebook , and Quora . Happy researching!

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21 Research Objectives Examples (Copy and Paste)

research aim and research objectives, explained below

Research objectives refer to the definitive statements made by researchers at the beginning of a research project detailing exactly what a research project aims to achieve.

These objectives are explicit goals clearly and concisely projected by the researcher to present a clear intention or course of action for his or her qualitative or quantitative study. 

Research objectives are typically nested under one overarching research aim. The objectives are the steps you’ll need to take in order to achieve the aim (see the examples below, for example, which demonstrate an aim followed by 3 objectives, which is what I recommend to my research students).

Research Objectives vs Research Aims

Research aim and research objectives are fundamental constituents of any study, fitting together like two pieces of the same puzzle.

The ‘research aim’ describes the overarching goal or purpose of the study (Kumar, 2019). This is usually a broad, high-level purpose statement, summing up the central question that the research intends to answer.

Example of an Overarching Research Aim:

“The aim of this study is to explore the impact of climate change on crop productivity.” 

Comparatively, ‘research objectives’ are concrete goals that underpin the research aim, providing stepwise actions to achieve the aim.

Objectives break the primary aim into manageable, focused pieces, and are usually characterized as being more specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART).

Examples of Specific Research Objectives:

1. “To examine the effects of rising temperatures on the yield of rice crops during the upcoming growth season.” 2. “To assess changes in rainfall patterns in major agricultural regions over the first decade of the twenty-first century (2000-2010).” 3. “To analyze the impact of changing weather patterns on crop diseases within the same timeframe.”

The distinction between these two terms, though subtle, is significant for successfully conducting a study. The research aim provides the study with direction, while the research objectives set the path to achieving this aim, thereby ensuring the study’s efficiency and effectiveness.

How to Write Research Objectives

I usually recommend to my students that they use the SMART framework to create their research objectives.

SMART is an acronym standing for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-bound. It provides a clear method of defining solid research objectives and helps students know where to start in writing their objectives (Locke & Latham, 2013).

Each element of this acronym adds a distinct dimension to the framework, aiding in the creation of comprehensive, well-delineated objectives.

Here is each step:

  • Specific : We need to avoid ambiguity in our objectives. They need to be clear and precise (Doran, 1981). For instance, rather than stating the objective as “to study the effects of social media,” a more focused detail would be “to examine the effects of social media use (Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter) on the academic performance of college students.”
  • Measurable: The measurable attribute provides a clear criterion to determine if the objective has been met (Locke & Latham, 2013). A quantifiable element, such as a percentage or a number, adds a measurable quality. For example, “to increase response rate to the annual customer survey by 10%,” makes it easier to ascertain achievement.
  • Achievable: The achievable aspect encourages researchers to craft realistic objectives, resembling a self-check mechanism to ensure the objectives align with the scope and resources at disposal (Doran, 1981). For example, “to interview 25 participants selected randomly from a population of 100” is an attainable objective as long as the researcher has access to these participants.
  • Relevance : Relevance, the fourth element, compels the researcher to tailor the objectives in alignment with overarching goals of the study (Locke & Latham, 2013). This is extremely important – each objective must help you meet your overall one-sentence ‘aim’ in your study.
  • Time-Bound: Lastly, the time-bound element fosters a sense of urgency and prioritization, preventing procrastination and enhancing productivity (Doran, 1981). “To analyze the effect of laptop use in lectures on student engagement over the course of two semesters this year” expresses a clear deadline, thus serving as a motivator for timely completion.

You’re not expected to fit every single element of the SMART framework in one objective, but across your objectives, try to touch on each of the five components.

Research Objectives Examples

1. Field: Psychology

Aim: To explore the impact of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance in college students.

  • Objective 1: To compare cognitive test scores of students with less than six hours of sleep and those with 8 or more hours of sleep.
  • Objective 2: To investigate the relationship between class grades and reported sleep duration.
  • Objective 3: To survey student perceptions and experiences on how sleep deprivation affects their cognitive capabilities.

2. Field: Environmental Science

Aim: To understand the effects of urban green spaces on human well-being in a metropolitan city.

  • Objective 1: To assess the physical and mental health benefits of regular exposure to urban green spaces.
  • Objective 2: To evaluate the social impacts of urban green spaces on community interactions.
  • Objective 3: To examine patterns of use for different types of urban green spaces. 

3. Field: Technology

Aim: To investigate the influence of using social media on productivity in the workplace.

  • Objective 1: To measure the amount of time spent on social media during work hours.
  • Objective 2: To evaluate the perceived impact of social media use on task completion and work efficiency.
  • Objective 3: To explore whether company policies on social media usage correlate with different patterns of productivity.

4. Field: Education

Aim: To examine the effectiveness of online vs traditional face-to-face learning on student engagement and achievement.

  • Objective 1: To compare student grades between the groups exposed to online and traditional face-to-face learning.
  • Objective 2: To assess student engagement levels in both learning environments.
  • Objective 3: To collate student perceptions and preferences regarding both learning methods.

5. Field: Health

Aim: To determine the impact of a Mediterranean diet on cardiac health among adults over 50.

  • Objective 1: To assess changes in cardiovascular health metrics after following a Mediterranean diet for six months.
  • Objective 2: To compare these health metrics with a similar group who follow their regular diet.
  • Objective 3: To document participants’ experiences and adherence to the Mediterranean diet.

6. Field: Environmental Science

Aim: To analyze the impact of urban farming on community sustainability.

  • Objective 1: To document the types and quantity of food produced through urban farming initiatives.
  • Objective 2: To assess the effect of urban farming on local communities’ access to fresh produce.
  • Objective 3: To examine the social dynamics and cooperative relationships in the creating and maintaining of urban farms.

7. Field: Sociology

Aim: To investigate the influence of home offices on work-life balance during remote work.

  • Objective 1: To survey remote workers on their perceptions of work-life balance since setting up home offices.
  • Objective 2: To conduct an observational study of daily work routines and family interactions in a home office setting.
  • Objective 3: To assess the correlation, if any, between physical boundaries of workspaces and mental boundaries for work in the home setting.

8. Field: Economics

Aim: To evaluate the effects of minimum wage increases on small businesses.

  • Objective 1: To analyze cost structures, pricing changes, and profitability of small businesses before and after minimum wage increases.
  • Objective 2: To survey small business owners on the strategies they employ to navigate minimum wage increases.
  • Objective 3: To examine employment trends in small businesses in response to wage increase legislation.

9. Field: Education

Aim: To explore the role of extracurricular activities in promoting soft skills among high school students.

  • Objective 1: To assess the variety of soft skills developed through different types of extracurricular activities.
  • Objective 2: To compare self-reported soft skills between students who participate in extracurricular activities and those who do not.
  • Objective 3: To investigate the teachers’ perspectives on the contribution of extracurricular activities to students’ skill development.

10. Field: Technology

Aim: To assess the impact of virtual reality (VR) technology on the tourism industry.

  • Objective 1: To document the types and popularity of VR experiences available in the tourism market.
  • Objective 2: To survey tourists on their interest levels and satisfaction rates with VR tourism experiences.
  • Objective 3: To determine whether VR tourism experiences correlate with increased interest in real-life travel to the simulated destinations.

11. Field: Biochemistry

Aim: To examine the role of antioxidants in preventing cellular damage.

  • Objective 1: To identify the types and quantities of antioxidants in common fruits and vegetables.
  • Objective 2: To determine the effects of various antioxidants on free radical neutralization in controlled lab tests.
  • Objective 3: To investigate potential beneficial impacts of antioxidant-rich diets on long-term cellular health.

12. Field: Linguistics

Aim: To determine the influence of early exposure to multiple languages on cognitive development in children.

  • Objective 1: To assess cognitive development milestones in monolingual and multilingual children.
  • Objective 2: To document the number and intensity of language exposures for each group in the study.
  • Objective 3: To investigate the specific cognitive advantages, if any, enjoyed by multilingual children.

13. Field: Art History

Aim: To explore the impact of the Renaissance period on modern-day art trends.

  • Objective 1: To identify key characteristics and styles of Renaissance art.
  • Objective 2: To analyze modern art pieces for the influence of the Renaissance style.
  • Objective 3: To survey modern-day artists for their inspirations and the influence of historical art movements on their work.

14. Field: Cybersecurity

Aim: To assess the effectiveness of two-factor authentication (2FA) in preventing unauthorized system access.

  • Objective 1: To measure the frequency of unauthorized access attempts before and after the introduction of 2FA.
  • Objective 2: To survey users about their experiences and challenges with 2FA implementation.
  • Objective 3: To evaluate the efficacy of different types of 2FA (SMS-based, authenticator apps, biometrics, etc.).

15. Field: Cultural Studies

Aim: To analyze the role of music in cultural identity formation among ethnic minorities.

  • Objective 1: To document the types and frequency of traditional music practices within selected ethnic minority communities.
  • Objective 2: To survey community members on the role of music in their personal and communal identity.
  • Objective 3: To explore the resilience and transmission of traditional music practices in contemporary society.

16. Field: Astronomy

Aim: To explore the impact of solar activity on satellite communication.

  • Objective 1: To categorize different types of solar activities and their frequencies of occurrence.
  • Objective 2: To ascertain how variations in solar activity may influence satellite communication.
  • Objective 3: To investigate preventative and damage-control measures currently in place during periods of high solar activity.

17. Field: Literature

Aim: To examine narrative techniques in contemporary graphic novels.

  • Objective 1: To identify a range of narrative techniques employed in this genre.
  • Objective 2: To analyze the ways in which these narrative techniques engage readers and affect story interpretation.
  • Objective 3: To compare narrative techniques in graphic novels to those found in traditional printed novels.

18. Field: Renewable Energy

Aim: To investigate the feasibility of solar energy as a primary renewable resource within urban areas.

  • Objective 1: To quantify the average sunlight hours across urban areas in different climatic zones. 
  • Objective 2: To calculate the potential solar energy that could be harnessed within these areas.
  • Objective 3: To identify barriers or challenges to widespread solar energy implementation in urban settings and potential solutions.

19. Field: Sports Science

Aim: To evaluate the role of pre-game rituals in athlete performance.

  • Objective 1: To identify the variety and frequency of pre-game rituals among professional athletes in several sports.
  • Objective 2: To measure the impact of pre-game rituals on individual athletes’ performance metrics.
  • Objective 3: To examine the psychological mechanisms that might explain the effects (if any) of pre-game ritual on performance.

20. Field: Ecology

Aim: To investigate the effects of urban noise pollution on bird populations.

  • Objective 1: To record and quantify urban noise levels in various bird habitats.
  • Objective 2: To measure bird population densities in relation to noise levels.
  • Objective 3: To determine any changes in bird behavior or vocalization linked to noise levels.

21. Field: Food Science

Aim: To examine the influence of cooking methods on the nutritional value of vegetables.

  • Objective 1: To identify the nutrient content of various vegetables both raw and after different cooking processes.
  • Objective 2: To compare the effect of various cooking methods on the nutrient retention of these vegetables.
  • Objective 3: To propose cooking strategies that optimize nutrient retention.

The Importance of Research Objectives

The importance of research objectives cannot be overstated. In essence, these guideposts articulate what the researcher aims to discover, understand, or examine (Kothari, 2014).

When drafting research objectives, it’s essential to make them simple and comprehensible, specific to the point of being quantifiable where possible, achievable in a practical sense, relevant to the chosen research question, and time-constrained to ensure efficient progress (Kumar, 2019). 

Remember that a good research objective is integral to the success of your project, offering a clear path forward for setting out a research design , and serving as the bedrock of your study plan. Each objective must distinctly address a different dimension of your research question or problem (Kothari, 2014). Always bear in mind that the ultimate purpose of your research objectives is to succinctly encapsulate your aims in the clearest way possible, facilitating a coherent, comprehensive and rational approach to your planned study, and furnishing a scientific roadmap for your journey into the depths of knowledge and research (Kumar, 2019). 

Kothari, C.R (2014). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques . New Delhi: New Age International.

Kumar, R. (2019). Research Methodology: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners .New York: SAGE Publications.

Doran, G. T. (1981). There’s a S.M.A.R.T. way to write management’s goals and objectives. Management review, 70 (11), 35-36.

Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2013). New Developments in Goal Setting and Task Performance . New York: Routledge.

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a research objective or aim

Difference between Aim and Objectives of a Research Study

a research objective or aim

In research, aim and objective are two important terms that are often used interchangeably. However, there is a fundamental difference between them. Aim refers to the overall goal or purpose of a research study, while objectives are specific statements that describe the steps or actions needed to achieve the aim.

What Is the Aim of a Research?

The aim of a research study is a broad statement that defines the overall purpose of the study. It answers the question of why the study is being conducted and what the researcher hopes to achieve. It provides a general idea of the scope and direction of the research. It also helps to guide the research process and provide a clear focus for the study.

What Are the Objectives of a Research ?

Objectives are specific statements that describe the steps or actions that are needed to achieve the aim of the study. They are more specific and measurable than the aim, and they provide a clear roadmap for the research. Objectives help to clarify the research question, identify the key variables, and outline the research methodology.

Objectives are often used to break down the aim of the research into smaller, more manageable tasks. They help to provide structure and direction to the research and ensure that the researcher stays on track. They are often S pecific, M easurable, A chievable, R elevant, and T ime-bound (acronymed as SMART). This means that they should be clear and concise, include metrics to measure progress and success, be achievable within the timeframe of the research, be relevant to the overall aim of the study, and have a deadline for completion.

To better understand the difference between aim and objectives, here are some examples.

Aim: To investigate the relationship between physical activity and mental health.

Objectives:

  • To review the existing literature on the relationship between physical activity and mental health.
  • To collect data on the physical activity levels and mental health of a sample population.
  • To analyze the data to determine the relationship between physical activity and mental health.
  • To draw conclusions and make recommendations based on the findings of the study.

In this example, the aim is to investigate the relationship between physical activity and mental health. The objectives break down the aim into specific tasks, such as reviewing the literature, collecting data, analyzing the data, and drawing conclusions.

Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of a new teaching method for improving student performance in mathematics.

  • To identify the key components of the new teaching method.
  • To implement the new teaching method in a sample of classrooms.
  • To collect data on the performance of students in the sample classrooms.
  • To analyze the data to determine the effectiveness of the new teaching method.
  • To make recommendations for the implementation of the new teaching method.

In this example, the aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of a new teaching method for improving student performance in mathematics. The objectives break down the aim into specific tasks, such as identifying the key components of the new teaching method, implementing the method in classrooms, collecting data, analyzing the data, and making recommendations.

In conclusion, aim and objective are two important terms in research. The aim is the overall goal or purpose of the study, while objectives are specific statements that describe the steps or actions needed to achieve the aim. Objectives provide a clear roadmap for the research, help to clarify the research question, and ensure that the researcher stays on track. When writing a research paper, it is important to clearly define the aim and objectives of the study to provide a clear focus and direction for the research.

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Research questions, hypotheses and objectives

Patricia farrugia.

* Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, the

Bradley A. Petrisor

† Division of Orthopaedic Surgery and the

Forough Farrokhyar

‡ Departments of Surgery and

§ Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont

Mohit Bhandari

There is an increasing familiarity with the principles of evidence-based medicine in the surgical community. As surgeons become more aware of the hierarchy of evidence, grades of recommendations and the principles of critical appraisal, they develop an increasing familiarity with research design. Surgeons and clinicians are looking more and more to the literature and clinical trials to guide their practice; as such, it is becoming a responsibility of the clinical research community to attempt to answer questions that are not only well thought out but also clinically relevant. The development of the research question, including a supportive hypothesis and objectives, is a necessary key step in producing clinically relevant results to be used in evidence-based practice. A well-defined and specific research question is more likely to help guide us in making decisions about study design and population and subsequently what data will be collected and analyzed. 1

Objectives of this article

In this article, we discuss important considerations in the development of a research question and hypothesis and in defining objectives for research. By the end of this article, the reader will be able to appreciate the significance of constructing a good research question and developing hypotheses and research objectives for the successful design of a research study. The following article is divided into 3 sections: research question, research hypothesis and research objectives.

Research question

Interest in a particular topic usually begins the research process, but it is the familiarity with the subject that helps define an appropriate research question for a study. 1 Questions then arise out of a perceived knowledge deficit within a subject area or field of study. 2 Indeed, Haynes suggests that it is important to know “where the boundary between current knowledge and ignorance lies.” 1 The challenge in developing an appropriate research question is in determining which clinical uncertainties could or should be studied and also rationalizing the need for their investigation.

Increasing one’s knowledge about the subject of interest can be accomplished in many ways. Appropriate methods include systematically searching the literature, in-depth interviews and focus groups with patients (and proxies) and interviews with experts in the field. In addition, awareness of current trends and technological advances can assist with the development of research questions. 2 It is imperative to understand what has been studied about a topic to date in order to further the knowledge that has been previously gathered on a topic. Indeed, some granting institutions (e.g., Canadian Institute for Health Research) encourage applicants to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence if a recent review does not already exist and preferably a pilot or feasibility study before applying for a grant for a full trial.

In-depth knowledge about a subject may generate a number of questions. It then becomes necessary to ask whether these questions can be answered through one study or if more than one study needed. 1 Additional research questions can be developed, but several basic principles should be taken into consideration. 1 All questions, primary and secondary, should be developed at the beginning and planning stages of a study. Any additional questions should never compromise the primary question because it is the primary research question that forms the basis of the hypothesis and study objectives. It must be kept in mind that within the scope of one study, the presence of a number of research questions will affect and potentially increase the complexity of both the study design and subsequent statistical analyses, not to mention the actual feasibility of answering every question. 1 A sensible strategy is to establish a single primary research question around which to focus the study plan. 3 In a study, the primary research question should be clearly stated at the end of the introduction of the grant proposal, and it usually specifies the population to be studied, the intervention to be implemented and other circumstantial factors. 4

Hulley and colleagues 2 have suggested the use of the FINER criteria in the development of a good research question ( Box 1 ). The FINER criteria highlight useful points that may increase the chances of developing a successful research project. A good research question should specify the population of interest, be of interest to the scientific community and potentially to the public, have clinical relevance and further current knowledge in the field (and of course be compliant with the standards of ethical boards and national research standards).

FINER criteria for a good research question

Adapted with permission from Wolters Kluwer Health. 2

Whereas the FINER criteria outline the important aspects of the question in general, a useful format to use in the development of a specific research question is the PICO format — consider the population (P) of interest, the intervention (I) being studied, the comparison (C) group (or to what is the intervention being compared) and the outcome of interest (O). 3 , 5 , 6 Often timing (T) is added to PICO ( Box 2 ) — that is, “Over what time frame will the study take place?” 1 The PICOT approach helps generate a question that aids in constructing the framework of the study and subsequently in protocol development by alluding to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and identifying the groups of patients to be included. Knowing the specific population of interest, intervention (and comparator) and outcome of interest may also help the researcher identify an appropriate outcome measurement tool. 7 The more defined the population of interest, and thus the more stringent the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the greater the effect on the interpretation and subsequent applicability and generalizability of the research findings. 1 , 2 A restricted study population (and exclusion criteria) may limit bias and increase the internal validity of the study; however, this approach will limit external validity of the study and, thus, the generalizability of the findings to the practical clinical setting. Conversely, a broadly defined study population and inclusion criteria may be representative of practical clinical practice but may increase bias and reduce the internal validity of the study.

PICOT criteria 1

A poorly devised research question may affect the choice of study design, potentially lead to futile situations and, thus, hamper the chance of determining anything of clinical significance, which will then affect the potential for publication. Without devoting appropriate resources to developing the research question, the quality of the study and subsequent results may be compromised. During the initial stages of any research study, it is therefore imperative to formulate a research question that is both clinically relevant and answerable.

Research hypothesis

The primary research question should be driven by the hypothesis rather than the data. 1 , 2 That is, the research question and hypothesis should be developed before the start of the study. This sounds intuitive; however, if we take, for example, a database of information, it is potentially possible to perform multiple statistical comparisons of groups within the database to find a statistically significant association. This could then lead one to work backward from the data and develop the “question.” This is counterintuitive to the process because the question is asked specifically to then find the answer, thus collecting data along the way (i.e., in a prospective manner). Multiple statistical testing of associations from data previously collected could potentially lead to spuriously positive findings of association through chance alone. 2 Therefore, a good hypothesis must be based on a good research question at the start of a trial and, indeed, drive data collection for the study.

The research or clinical hypothesis is developed from the research question and then the main elements of the study — sampling strategy, intervention (if applicable), comparison and outcome variables — are summarized in a form that establishes the basis for testing, statistical and ultimately clinical significance. 3 For example, in a research study comparing computer-assisted acetabular component insertion versus freehand acetabular component placement in patients in need of total hip arthroplasty, the experimental group would be computer-assisted insertion and the control/conventional group would be free-hand placement. The investigative team would first state a research hypothesis. This could be expressed as a single outcome (e.g., computer-assisted acetabular component placement leads to improved functional outcome) or potentially as a complex/composite outcome; that is, more than one outcome (e.g., computer-assisted acetabular component placement leads to both improved radiographic cup placement and improved functional outcome).

However, when formally testing statistical significance, the hypothesis should be stated as a “null” hypothesis. 2 The purpose of hypothesis testing is to make an inference about the population of interest on the basis of a random sample taken from that population. The null hypothesis for the preceding research hypothesis then would be that there is no difference in mean functional outcome between the computer-assisted insertion and free-hand placement techniques. After forming the null hypothesis, the researchers would form an alternate hypothesis stating the nature of the difference, if it should appear. The alternate hypothesis would be that there is a difference in mean functional outcome between these techniques. At the end of the study, the null hypothesis is then tested statistically. If the findings of the study are not statistically significant (i.e., there is no difference in functional outcome between the groups in a statistical sense), we cannot reject the null hypothesis, whereas if the findings were significant, we can reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternate hypothesis (i.e., there is a difference in mean functional outcome between the study groups), errors in testing notwithstanding. In other words, hypothesis testing confirms or refutes the statement that the observed findings did not occur by chance alone but rather occurred because there was a true difference in outcomes between these surgical procedures. The concept of statistical hypothesis testing is complex, and the details are beyond the scope of this article.

Another important concept inherent in hypothesis testing is whether the hypotheses will be 1-sided or 2-sided. A 2-sided hypothesis states that there is a difference between the experimental group and the control group, but it does not specify in advance the expected direction of the difference. For example, we asked whether there is there an improvement in outcomes with computer-assisted surgery or whether the outcomes worse with computer-assisted surgery. We presented a 2-sided test in the above example because we did not specify the direction of the difference. A 1-sided hypothesis states a specific direction (e.g., there is an improvement in outcomes with computer-assisted surgery). A 2-sided hypothesis should be used unless there is a good justification for using a 1-sided hypothesis. As Bland and Atlman 8 stated, “One-sided hypothesis testing should never be used as a device to make a conventionally nonsignificant difference significant.”

The research hypothesis should be stated at the beginning of the study to guide the objectives for research. Whereas the investigators may state the hypothesis as being 1-sided (there is an improvement with treatment), the study and investigators must adhere to the concept of clinical equipoise. According to this principle, a clinical (or surgical) trial is ethical only if the expert community is uncertain about the relative therapeutic merits of the experimental and control groups being evaluated. 9 It means there must exist an honest and professional disagreement among expert clinicians about the preferred treatment. 9

Designing a research hypothesis is supported by a good research question and will influence the type of research design for the study. Acting on the principles of appropriate hypothesis development, the study can then confidently proceed to the development of the research objective.

Research objective

The primary objective should be coupled with the hypothesis of the study. Study objectives define the specific aims of the study and should be clearly stated in the introduction of the research protocol. 7 From our previous example and using the investigative hypothesis that there is a difference in functional outcomes between computer-assisted acetabular component placement and free-hand placement, the primary objective can be stated as follows: this study will compare the functional outcomes of computer-assisted acetabular component insertion versus free-hand placement in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. Note that the study objective is an active statement about how the study is going to answer the specific research question. Objectives can (and often do) state exactly which outcome measures are going to be used within their statements. They are important because they not only help guide the development of the protocol and design of study but also play a role in sample size calculations and determining the power of the study. 7 These concepts will be discussed in other articles in this series.

From the surgeon’s point of view, it is important for the study objectives to be focused on outcomes that are important to patients and clinically relevant. For example, the most methodologically sound randomized controlled trial comparing 2 techniques of distal radial fixation would have little or no clinical impact if the primary objective was to determine the effect of treatment A as compared to treatment B on intraoperative fluoroscopy time. However, if the objective was to determine the effect of treatment A as compared to treatment B on patient functional outcome at 1 year, this would have a much more significant impact on clinical decision-making. Second, more meaningful surgeon–patient discussions could ensue, incorporating patient values and preferences with the results from this study. 6 , 7 It is the precise objective and what the investigator is trying to measure that is of clinical relevance in the practical setting.

The following is an example from the literature about the relation between the research question, hypothesis and study objectives:

Study: Warden SJ, Metcalf BR, Kiss ZS, et al. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound for chronic patellar tendinopathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Rheumatology 2008;47:467–71.

Research question: How does low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) compare with a placebo device in managing the symptoms of skeletally mature patients with patellar tendinopathy?

Research hypothesis: Pain levels are reduced in patients who receive daily active-LIPUS (treatment) for 12 weeks compared with individuals who receive inactive-LIPUS (placebo).

Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy of LIPUS in the management of patellar tendinopathy symptoms.

The development of the research question is the most important aspect of a research project. A research project can fail if the objectives and hypothesis are poorly focused and underdeveloped. Useful tips for surgical researchers are provided in Box 3 . Designing and developing an appropriate and relevant research question, hypothesis and objectives can be a difficult task. The critical appraisal of the research question used in a study is vital to the application of the findings to clinical practice. Focusing resources, time and dedication to these 3 very important tasks will help to guide a successful research project, influence interpretation of the results and affect future publication efforts.

Tips for developing research questions, hypotheses and objectives for research studies

  • Perform a systematic literature review (if one has not been done) to increase knowledge and familiarity with the topic and to assist with research development.
  • Learn about current trends and technological advances on the topic.
  • Seek careful input from experts, mentors, colleagues and collaborators to refine your research question as this will aid in developing the research question and guide the research study.
  • Use the FINER criteria in the development of the research question.
  • Ensure that the research question follows PICOT format.
  • Develop a research hypothesis from the research question.
  • Develop clear and well-defined primary and secondary (if needed) objectives.
  • Ensure that the research question and objectives are answerable, feasible and clinically relevant.

FINER = feasible, interesting, novel, ethical, relevant; PICOT = population (patients), intervention (for intervention studies only), comparison group, outcome of interest, time.

Competing interests: No funding was received in preparation of this paper. Dr. Bhandari was funded, in part, by a Canada Research Chair, McMaster University.

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Devika is an Agentic AI Software Engineer that can understand high-level human instructions, break them down into steps, research relevant information, and write code to achieve the given objective. Devika aims to be a competitive open-source alternative to Devin by Cognition AI.

stitionai/devika

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Devika Logo

🚀 Devika - Agentic AI Software Engineer 👩‍💻

devika screenshot

This project is currently in a very early development/experimental stage. There are a lot of unimplemented/broken features at the moment. Contributions are welcome to help out with the progress!

Table of Contents

Key features, system architecture, quick start, installation, getting started, configuration, ai planning and reasoning, keyword extraction, browser interaction, code writing, community discord server, contributing.

Devika is an advanced AI software engineer that can understand high-level human instructions, break them down into steps, research relevant information, and write code to achieve the given objective. Devika utilizes large language models, planning and reasoning algorithms, and web browsing abilities to intelligently develop software.

Devika aims to revolutionize the way we build software by providing an AI pair programmer who can take on complex coding tasks with minimal human guidance. Whether you need to create a new feature, fix a bug, or develop an entire project from scratch, Devika is here to assist you.

Devika is modeled after Devin by Cognition AI. This project aims to be an open-source alternative to Devin with an "overly ambitious" goal to meet the same score as Devin in the SWE-bench Benchmarks... and eventually beat it?

  • 🤖 Supports Claude 3 , GPT-4 , GPT-3.5 , and Local LLMs via Ollama . For optimal performance: Use the Claude 3 family of models.
  • 🧠 Advanced AI planning and reasoning capabilities
  • 🔍 Contextual keyword extraction for focused research
  • 🌐 Seamless web browsing and information gathering
  • 💻 Code writing in multiple programming languages
  • 📊 Dynamic agent state tracking and visualization
  • 💬 Natural language interaction via chat interface
  • 📂 Project-based organization and management
  • 🔌 Extensible architecture for adding new features and integrations

Devika's system architecture consists of the following key components:

  • User Interface : A web-based chat interface for interacting with Devika, viewing project files, and monitoring the agent's state.
  • Agent Core : The central component that orchestrates the AI planning, reasoning, and execution process. It communicates with various sub-agents and modules to accomplish tasks.
  • Large Language Models : Devika leverages state-of-the-art language models like Claude , GPT-4 , and Local LLMs via Ollama for natural language understanding, generation, and reasoning.
  • Planning and Reasoning Engine : Responsible for breaking down high-level objectives into actionable steps and making decisions based on the current context.
  • Research Module : Utilizes keyword extraction and web browsing capabilities to gather relevant information for the task at hand.
  • Code Writing Module : Generates code based on the plan, research findings, and user requirements. Supports multiple programming languages.
  • Browser Interaction Module : Enables Devika to navigate websites, extract information, and interact with web elements as needed.
  • Knowledge Base : Stores and retrieves project-specific information, code snippets, and learned knowledge for efficient access.
  • Database : Persists project data, agent states, and configuration settings.

Read ARCHITECTURE.md for the detailed documentation.

The easiest way to run the project locally:

  • Install uv - Python Package manager ( https://github.com/astral-sh/uv )
  • Install bun - JavaScript runtime ( https://bun.sh/docs/installation )
  • Install and setup Ollama ( https://ollama.com/ ) (if you want don't want to use the local models then you can skip this step)

For ollama you need to install the models For API models, configure the API keys via setting page in UI.

Then execute the following set of command:

Docker images will be released soon. 🙌

Devika requires the following things as dependencies:

  • Ollama (follow the instructions here to install it: https://ollama.com/ )
  • Bun (follow the instructions here to install it: https://bun.sh/ )

To install Devika, follow these steps:

  • Clone the Devika repository: git clone https://github.com/stitionai/devika.git
  • Navigate to the project directory: cd devika
  • Create a virtual environment and install the required dependencies: uv venv uv pip install -r requirements.txt
  • Install the required dependencies: pip install -r requirements.txt playwright install --with-deps # installs browsers in playwright (and their deps) if required
  • Set up the necessary API keys and Configuration
  • Start the Devika server: python devika.py
  • Compile and run the UI server: cd ui/ bun install bun run dev
  • Access the Devika web interface by opening a browser and navigating to http://127.0.0.1:3000 .

To start using Devika, follow these steps:

  • Open the Devika web interface in your browser.
  • Create a new project by clicking on the "New Project" button and providing a name for your project.
  • Select the desired programming language and model configuration for your project.
  • In the chat interface, provide a high-level objective or task description for Devika to work on.
  • Devika will process your request, break it down into steps, and start working on the task.
  • Monitor Devika's progress, view generated code, and provide additional guidance or feedback as needed.
  • Once Devika completes the task, review the generated code and project files.
  • Iterate and refine the project as desired by providing further instructions or modifications.

Devika requires certain configuration settings and API keys to function properly:

when you first time run Devika, it will create a config.toml file for you in the root directory. You can configure the following settings in the settings page via UI:

  • SQLITE_DB : The path to the SQLite database file for storing Devika's data.
  • SCREENSHOTS_DIR : The directory where screenshots captured by Devika will be stored.
  • PDFS_DIR : The directory where PDF files processed by Devika will be stored.
  • PROJECTS_DIR : The directory where Devika's projects will be stored.
  • LOGS_DIR : The directory where Devika's logs will be stored.
  • REPOS_DIR : The directory where Git repositories cloned by Devika will be stored.
  • WEB_SEARCH : This determines the default web search method for browsing the web. Accepted values are: google, bing, or ddgs.
  • BING : Your Bing Search API key for web searching capabilities.
  • GOOGLE_SEARCH : Your Google Search API key for web searching capabilities.
  • GOOGLE_SEARCH_ENGINE_ID : Your Google Search Engine Id for web searching using google.
  • OPENAI : Your OpenAI API key for accessing GPT models.
  • GEMINI : Your Gemini API key for accessing Gemini models.
  • CLAUDE : Your Anthropic API key for accessing Claude models.
  • MISTRAL : Your Mistral API key for accessing Mistral models.
  • GROQ : Your Groq API key for accessing Groq models.
  • NETLIFY : Your Netlify API key for deploying and managing web projects.

Make sure to keep your API keys secure and do not share them publicly.

Configuring web search method

Devika currently supports Bing, Google, and DuckDuckGo for web searches. You can configure the web search method via UI.

Under The Hood

Let's dive deeper into some of the key components and techniques used in Devika:

Devika employs advanced AI planning and reasoning algorithms to break down high-level objectives into actionable steps. The planning process involves the following stages:

  • Objective Understanding : Devika analyzes the given objective or task description to understand the user's intent and requirements.
  • Context Gathering : Relevant context is collected from the conversation history, project files, and knowledge base to inform the planning process.
  • Step Generation : Based on the objective and context, Devika generates a sequence of high-level steps to accomplish the task.
  • Refinement and Validation : The generated steps are refined and validated to ensure their feasibility and alignment with the objective.
  • Execution : Devika executes each step in the plan, utilizing various sub-agents and modules as needed.

The reasoning engine constantly evaluates the progress and makes adjustments to the plan based on new information or feedback received during execution.

To enable focused research and information gathering, Devika employs keyword extraction techniques. The process involves the following steps:

  • Preprocessing : The input text (objective, conversation history, or project files) is preprocessed by removing stop words, tokenizing, and normalizing the text.
  • Keyword Identification : Devika uses the BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers) model to identify important keywords and phrases from the preprocessed text. BERT's pre-training on a large corpus allows it to capture semantic relationships and understand the significance of words in the given context.
  • Keyword Ranking : The identified keywords are ranked based on their relevance and importance to the task at hand. Techniques like TF-IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency) and TextRank are used to assign scores to each keyword.
  • Keyword Selection : The top-ranked keywords are selected as the most relevant and informative for the current context. These keywords are used to guide the research and information gathering process.

By extracting contextually relevant keywords, Devika can focus its research efforts and retrieve pertinent information to assist in the task completion.

Devika incorporates browser interaction capabilities to navigate websites, extract information, and interact with web elements. The browser interaction module leverages the Playwright library to automate web interactions. The process involves the following steps:

  • Navigation : Devika uses Playwright to navigate to specific URLs or perform searches based on the keywords or requirements provided.
  • Element Interaction : Playwright allows Devika to interact with web elements such as clicking buttons, filling forms, and extracting text from specific elements.
  • Page Parsing : Devika parses the HTML structure of the web pages visited to extract relevant information. It uses techniques like CSS selectors and XPath to locate and extract specific data points.
  • JavaScript Execution : Playwright enables Devika to execute JavaScript code within the browser context, allowing for dynamic interactions and data retrieval.
  • Screenshot Capture : Devika can capture screenshots of the web pages visited, which can be useful for visual reference or debugging purposes.

The browser interaction module empowers Devika to gather information from the web, interact with online resources, and incorporate real-time data into its decision-making and code generation processes.

Devika's code writing module generates code based on the plan, research findings, and user requirements. The process involves the following steps:

  • Language Selection : Devika identifies the programming language specified by the user or infers it based on the project context.
  • Code Structure Generation : Based on the plan and language-specific patterns, Devika generates the high-level structure of the code, including classes, functions, and modules.
  • Code Population : Devika fills in the code structure with specific logic, algorithms, and data manipulation statements. It leverages the research findings, code snippets from the knowledge base, and its own understanding of programming concepts to generate meaningful code.
  • Code Formatting : The generated code is formatted according to the language-specific conventions and best practices to ensure readability and maintainability.
  • Code Review and Refinement : Devika reviews the generated code for syntax errors, logical inconsistencies, and potential improvements. It iteratively refines the code based on its own analysis and any feedback provided by the user.

Devika's code writing capabilities enable it to generate functional and efficient code in various programming languages, taking into account the specific requirements and context of each project.

We have a Discord server for the Devika community, where you can connect with other users, share your experiences, ask questions, and collaborate on the project. To join the server, please follow these guidelines:

  • Be respectful: Treat all members of the community with kindness and respect. Harassment, hate speech, and other forms of inappropriate behavior will not be tolerated.
  • Contribute positively: Share your ideas, insights, and feedback to help improve Devika. Offer assistance to other community members when possible.
  • Maintain privacy: Respect the privacy of others and do not share personal information without their consent.

To join the Devika community Discord server, click here .

We welcome contributions to enhance Devika's capabilities and improve its performance. To contribute, please see the CONTRIBUTING.md file for steps.

Devika is released under the MIT License . See the LICENSE file for more information.

Star History

Star History Chart

We hope you find Devika to be a valuable tool in your software development journey. If you have any questions, feedback, or suggestions, please don't hesitate to reach out. Happy coding with Devika!

Contributors 29

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  • Jinja 11.3%
  • JavaScript 3.5%
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New biomarker tests could point prostate cancers that will progress.

Cancer signs could be spotted years before symptoms, says new research institute

Tests that can identify early changes in cells would give doctors more time to offer treatment, say Cambridge researchers

Scientists at a recently opened cancer institute at Cambridge University have begun work that is pinpointing changes in cells many years before they develop into tumours. The research should help design radically new ways to treat cancer, they say.

The Early Cancer Institute – which has just received £11m from an anonymous donor – is focused on finding ways to tackle tumours before they produce symptoms. The research will exploit recent discoveries which have shown that many people develop precancerous conditions that lie in abeyance for long periods.

“The latency for a cancer to develop can go on for years, sometimes for a decade or two, before the condition abruptly manifests itself to patients,” said Prof Rebecca Fitzgerald, the institute’s director.

“Then doctors find they are struggling to treat a tumour which, by then, has spread through a patient’s body. We need a different approach, one that can detect a person at risk of cancer early on using tests that can be given to large numbers of people.”

One example of this is the cytosponge – a sponge on a string – which has been developed by Fitzgerald and her team. It is swallowed like a pill, expands in the stomach into a sponge and is then pulled up the gullet collecting oesophagus cells on the way. Those cells that contain a protein, called TFF3 – which is found only in precancerous cells – then provide an early warning that a patient is at risk of oesophageal cancer and needs to be monitored. Crucially, this test can be administered simply and on a wide scale.

This contrasts with current approaches to other cancers, added Fitzgerald. “At present, we are detecting many cancers late and are having to come up with medicines, which have become incrementally more expensive. We are often extending life by a few weeks at a cost of tens of thousands of pounds. We need to look at this from a different perspective.”

One approach being taken by the institute – which is to be renamed the Li Ka-shing Early Cancer Institute after the Hong Kong philanthropist who has supported other Cambridge cancer research – focuses on blood samples. Provided by women as part of past screening services for ovarian cancer and kept in special stores, these samples have now been repurposed by the institute. “We have around 200,000 such samples and they are a goldmine,” said Jamie Blundell, a research group leader at the institute.

Using these samples, researchers have identified changes that differentiate those donors who have subsequently been diagnosed with a blood cancer 10 or even 20 years after they provided samples, with those who did not develop such conditions.

“We are finding that there are clear genetic changes in a person’s blood more than a decade before they start to display symptoms of leukaemia,” said Blundell. “That shows there is a long window of opportunity that you could use to intervene and give treatments that will reduce the odds of going on to get cancer.”

Cancers grow in stages and by spotting those with cells that have taken an early step on this ladder, it should be possible to block or hamper further developments. The crucial point is that at this early stage there is time for doctors to take action and avoid them having to deal with a cancer at a late stage when it has spread.

A similar strategy is being taken by Harveer Dev, another group leader, who has investigated men who have had their prostates removed. His team are now developing biomarkers that will provide better ways to pinpoint those who are likely to suffer poor outcomes from prostate cancer, one of the most common tumours in the UK.

“Our pilot data suggests that these tests may be much better than existing PSA tests and will be crucial in spotting those who with prostate cancer that is likely to progress,” said Dev.

Pinpointing those at risk of cancer – for example, people from families who have an inherited predisposition to tumours – will form a key part of the institute’s strategy. In addition, it will focus on finding ways to reduce cancer risks, as well as ensuring treatments can be widely administered.

A woman had, in her 80s, decided to leave the university £1m for cancer research, Fitzgerald said. “However, she lived until she was over 100 and only died recently, so we only just got that donation. We want to understand what makes some live into very old age while others get cancer, so more people can live as long as she did.”

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What if AI produces code not just quickly but also, dunno, securely, DARPA wonders

As 70% of boffinry nerve center's projects involve machine learning.

A DARPA leader has revealed that around 70 percent of the US government agency's programs involve AI in some shape or form, and those projects could have serious ramifications for the future of jobs in software development.

Speaking at a Center for Strategic and International Studies event last week, Dr Matt Turek, deputy director of DARPA's Information Innovation Office (I2O), talked about a wide array of AI projects DARPA is working on and the overwhelming dominance of this technology within the agency currently.

"There is really broad penetration across the agency," Turek said . "From an I2O perspective we're really looking to try and advance, you know, how do we get to highly trustworthy AI – AI that we can bet our lives on – and that not be a foolish thing to do."

The I2O currently has four research thrusts : Proficient AI; resilient, adaptable and secure systems; advantage in cyber operations; and confidence in the information domain. Only one of those four thrusts directly mentions AI, but that doesn't mean it isn't involved in all of them.

a research objective or aim

"There's a lot of synergies across those thrust areas," Turek stated. "We have efforts that are blending both advancing AI and advancing the state of capability in cyber … I think it's worth saying that AI and autonomy is really being used broadly across the agency now."

Robot on road photo via Shutterstock

ChatGPT creates mostly insecure code, but won't tell you unless you ask

While many of the AI projects at DARPA are focused on how the technology can benefit the Department of Defense, that's hardly the only focus area, nor is I2O limiting its research to staying ahead of the US's military adversaries. 

"It's not just [the] US government that needs to have these capabilities. The attack surface is broad," Turek said. 

Citing the importance of commercial industries like scientific research, critical infrastructure and even online commerce to national security, Turek said I2O wants to "create commercial industry in this space" through its research. 

One of the key ways to do that, according to Turek, is developing artificial intelligence that can not only write code, but do it in a secure and "provably correct" manner. We all know today's LLMs have a habit of inventing bad or insecure code.

"There's really interesting use cases that our commercial industry is pursuing now around using LLMs to help with the code generation process," Turek said. "But what if we could make it so that they produce not just code more quickly, but secure code?"

"That would allow us to scale out, you know, robust, secure software development processes," Turek said, noting it's a critical concept for the Department of Defense, but a concept area, not an actual area of investment – yet. 

  • Simon Willison interview: AI software still needs the human touch
  • If you use AI to teach you how to code, remember you still need to think for yourself
  • How DARPA wants to rethink the fundamentals of AI to include trust
  • Mamas, don't let your babies grow up to be coders, Jensen Huang warns

While AI isn't writing secure code for DARPA or commercial industries yet, the agency is seeking solutions to turn it toward examining existing software for vulnerabilities. That initiative, the AI Cyber Challenge, was discussed last year at Black Hat, and Turek mentioned it last week as well, saying it's looking for vulnerabilities in critical infrastructure software and open source projects . 

Developers aren't the only category of tech professionals that DARPA's AI initiatives could endanger, though. During his talk, Turek also mentioned the CASTLE program , an I2O initiative training autonomous AI agents to handle network security. At the outside end of the program, Turek said CASTLE AI agents would ideally be able to prevent the need to rebuild networks during an APT compromise, which he noted often results in the need to "start from scratch and rebuild." 

"CASTLE is really focused on trying to build those sorts of automated defensive agents that, again, can preserve some level of critical network functions," Turek said. 

Another program, PROVERS , is seeking to use AI to guide software development toward the development of "proof-friendly" systems.

All of this relies on developing AI that is itself understandable in its processes – something that Turek admits isn't quite there yet.

"Modern statistical machine learning approaches oftentimes are opaque and they're not introspectable," Turek said. "I still feel like there's a lot of work that needs to be done."

So don't worry about an AI taking your software development job yet – we've seen plenty of examples of AI developing lousy code, but that doesn't mean the tech won't be pawned off on developers anyways. It's just a matter of time . ®

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  • Closing at: Apr 16 2024 at 23:55 CDT

Job Summary:

The Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology (GI) is seeking a Research Specialist to provide comprehensive project support services to faculty conducting clinical research. This position will work closely with investigators, clinical research coordinators, industry sponsors, contract research organizations and others to ensure research activities align with objectives and sponsor timelines. The GI Division is within the Department of Medicine (DOM), in the School of Medicine and Public Health. Under the direction of the Principal Investigator (Dr. Freddy Caldera), the incumbent will work with research teams (faculty, clinical research coordinators, research administrators, collaborating sites, sponsors, etc.) to manage task timelines, participant recruitment, data collection/management, produce project communication materials, draft research reports, engage in study planning, purchase project materials, and troubleshooting project obstacles. This position will serve as the primary contact for regulatory and fiscal personnel, sponsors, and additional study team members. Candidates must feel comfortable in a timeline driven role, be self-motivated and be highly detailed-oriented with excellent organizational skills. This position interacts with many different teams and customers and assists in identifying and implementing quality improvements to ensure that processes are efficient and timely. Attention to detail, time management and excellent organization will be critical to the success of this position. The incumbent is expected to follow the policies, procedures, guidelines for excellence and professionalism established by the Department of Medicine, SMPH Clinical Trials Institute and the University of Wisconsin. Additionally, this position will ensure that all clinical research activities adhere to Federal, State, and University policies, procedures, and requirements.

Responsibilities:

  • 10% Conducts research experiments according to established research protocols with moderate impact to the project(s). Collects data and monitors test results
  • 10% Operates, cleans, and maintains organization of research equipment and research area. Tracks inventory levels and places replenishment orders
  • 10% Reviews, analyzes, and interprets data and/or documents results for presentations and/or reporting to internal and external audiences
  • 15% Participates in the development, interpretation, and implementation of research methodology and materials
  • 20% Provides operational guidance on day-to-day activities of unit or program staff and/or student workers
  • 15% Performs literature reviews and writes reports
  • 10% Assists with proofreading, editing, and uploading manuscripts
  • 10% Plans, develops, and implements processes and protocols to support research aims. Attends research meetings as needed/assigned.

Institutional Statement on Diversity:

Diversity is a source of strength, creativity, and innovation for UW-Madison. We value the contributions of each person and respect the profound ways their identity, culture, background, experience, status, abilities, and opinion enrich the university community. We commit ourselves to the pursuit of excellence in teaching, research, outreach, and diversity as inextricably linked goals. The University of Wisconsin-Madison fulfills its public mission by creating a welcoming and inclusive community for people from every background - people who as students, faculty, and staff serve Wisconsin and the world. For more information on diversity and inclusion on campus, please visit: Diversity and Inclusion

Preferred Bachelor's Degree or equivalent experience 

Qualifications:

Required: - One or more years of experience working in a clinical health setting and/or one or more years of experience in clinical, health services, or social sciences research environment - Reading and understanding of research principles and methodology and ability to apply that knowledge to a clinical research environment. - Ability to listen, understand and communicate information and ideas effectively in writing, over the phone or in person. - Excellent time management skills. Ability to work independently or collaboratively, and manage multiple projects despite interruptions, while closely tracking details and looking for ways to improve processes. Preferred: - Work experience in human research, patient care, or a clinical research environment. - Experience in coordinating clinical research studies from various departments and sources. - Demonstrated experience in scheduling, coordinating, and conducting visits and study meetings. - Experience with research data collection and management; including use of REDCap data collection software.

License/Certification:

Preferred Drivers License - Valid Travel is required. Must provide a valid driver's license. Employees may use their own transportation or receive approval for University Car Fleet usage. Employment is conditional pending the results of a Pre-hire Driver Authorization Check. See https://businessservices.wisc.edu/managing-risk/driver-authorization-and-insurance/driver-authorization/#become-authorized-driver  (click on "Become an authorized driver"; then click on "Required criteria").

Full Time: 100% This position may require some work to be performed in-person, onsite, at a designated campus work location. Some work may be performed remotely, at an offsite, non-campus work location.

Appointment Type, Duration:

Ongoing/Renewable

Minimum $45,500 ANNUAL (12 months) Depending on Qualifications The expected salary range for this position is $45,500 up to $65,000 for highly experienced candidates. Actual pay will depend on experience and qualifications. Employees in this position can expect to receive benefits such as generous vacation, holidays, and sick leave; competitive insurances and savings accounts; retirement benefits. Benefits information can be found at ( https://hr.wisc.edu/benefits/ ).

Additional Information:

University sponsorship is not available for this position. The selected applicant will be responsible for ensuring their continuous eligibility for employment in the United States on or before the effective date of the appointment. UW-Madison is not an E-Verify employer, and therefore, is not eligible to employ F1-OPT STEM Extension participants. This position has been identified as a position of trust with access to vulnerable populations. The selected candidate will be required to pass an initial caregiver check to be eligible for employment under the Wisconsin Caregiver Law and every four years. TB testing will be required at the time of employment.

How to Apply:

To apply for this position, please click on the "Apply Now" button. You will be asked to upload a current resume/CV and a cover letter briefly describing your qualifications and experience. You will also be asked to provide contact information for three (3) references, including your current/most recent supervisor during the application process. References will not be contacted without prior notice.

Emily Zentz [email protected] 608-265-3399 Relay Access (WTRS): 7-1-1. See RELAY_SERVICE for further information.

Official Title:

Research Specialist(RE047)

Department(s):

A53-MEDICAL SCHOOL/MEDICINE/GASTROENT

Employment Class:

Academic Staff-Renewable

Job Number:

The university of wisconsin-madison is an equal opportunity and affirmative action employer..

You will be redirected to the application to launch your career momentarily. Thank you!

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a research objective or aim

Lawmakers aim to pioneer AI research as state budget talks continue

  • April 2, 2024 5:54 AM / Updated: April 2, 2024 5:55 AM

Staff Report

In the midst of critical state budget negotiations, New York lawmakers are set to address the establishment of an “Empire AI Consortium,” a groundbreaking initiative spearheaded by Governor Kathy Hochul.

a research objective or aim

This consortium aims to position the state at the forefront of artificial intelligence (AI) research, leveraging a collaboration between eight leading universities and nearly $400 million in combined private and public funding. As discussions continue, there’s an emphasis on expanding New York’s AI capabilities not only through academia but also by involving the nonprofit sector, which could offer more agile research solutions to immediate and future AI challenges.

Concerns over the ethical implications and transparency of AI investments loom large in these discussions, with proposals suggesting the formation of a planning council to oversee the responsible development and application of AI technologies. This council would focus on ethical research practices, data protection, and workforce development amidst the rapid evolution of AI.

Additionally, the state is considering measures to combat misinformation, particularly in the context of election security, highlighting the broader societal impacts of advancing AI technology. As New York navigates these complex issues, the outcome could significantly influence both the state’s technological landscape and its economic future.

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News and views for the UB community

  • Stories >

UB awarded $1.25 million to create clean energy research hub

research news

Concept of renewable energy featuring hydrogen fuel and solar energy.

The new Center for Accelerated Innovation through Materials (AIM) will help lead the state's and nation's transition to a clean energy economy.

By CORY NEALON

Published April 2, 2024

Krishna Rajan.

Developing critical infrastructure for the emerging hydrogen fuel economy. Building energy-efficient microelectronics. Reducing the steel industry’s carbon footprint. Manufacturing the next generation of sustainable solar panels.

All are ambitious projects that UB researchers and partner organizations will advance thanks to a new $1.25 million grant from the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

UB will use the award, which was championed by U.S. Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer and U.S. Sen. Kirsten Gillibrand, to establish a research center that taps into the university’s expertise in materials science, advanced manufacturing, artificial intelligence and other fields.

The center will leverage partnerships with IBM, Linde, National Fuel and other firms — all in an effort to discover new materials that support upstate New York’s transition to an economy focused on clean energy, semiconductor research and manufacturing, artificial intelligence and other industries.

“On behalf of UB, I would like to thank Sen. Schumer for his support for federally funded academic research, including this $1.25 million, congressionally directed spending request,” President Satish K. Tripathi says. “With Sen. Schumer’s support, this new Center for Accelerated Innovation through Materials will establish a materials innovation hub that will help UB lead the state’s and nation’s transition to a clean energy economy.”

The Center for Accelerated Innovation through Materials (AIM) will be led by Krishna Rajan, Erich Bloch Chair of the Department of Materials Design and Innovation.

“With this funding, UB will establish a materials science research hub that connects industry, educational, workforce and community partners to state-of-the-art equipment and faculty expertise that accelerates the transition of cutting-edge technology into goods and services that benefit the American consumer,” says Rajan, who is a SUNY Distinguished Professor and SUNY Empire Innovation Professor.

UB will use the grant to purchase equipment — microscopes, spectrometers and more — to study in real time the behavior of materials when exposed to gases and other environmental conditions. It will also fund the studies of graduate students and support workforce training programs.

Initially, the center will target several areas of research, including developing infrastructure for hydrogen-based fuels, which are a green energy alternative that has the potential to supplant fossil fuels that power stations, vehicles, buildings and other systems use.

Researchers will work with industry to explore new materials that can be used in pipelines to safely and effectively transport hydrogen fuels, which degrade when exposed to stainless steel and other materials commonly used for natural gas transport.

Another area of research will be microelectronics. The growing demand for computing power, including supercomputing facilities that support AI systems, is taxing the nation’s energy grid. AIM researchers will explore new materials for chips and other electronic components that more efficiently use power.

AIM also will work with the iron and steel industries, which account for 7% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions, according to the Department of Energy. These industries could greatly reduce their emissions by transitioning from fossil fuels to hydrogen fuels when converting iron ore to iron. AIM will work on new materials and processes for this transition.

A unique aspect of AIM, Rajan says, is that it integrates its experimental infrastructure with materials informatics, AI and high-performance computing to accelerate innovation in discovery and design of materials to establish a clean energy economy.

China aims to break chokehold of US chipmaking sanctions — Naura Technology to develop lithography tools for the first time

More efforts by China to develop domestic solutions.

SMEE

China has a grand plan to become completely self-sufficient for chip production. This will require the domestic companies to build their own wafer fab tools. While there are rather successful tool manufacturers in China for etching and deposition — Advanced Micro-Fabrication Equipment Inc. China (AMEC) and  Naura Technology  — there is only one notable manufacturer of lithography tools, Shanghai Micro Electronics Equipment Group (SMEE). That's arguably not enough, and it looks like Naura is now going to enter this market as well, according to the  South China Morning Post . Naura Technology is already a successful manufacturer of etching and chemical vapor deposition tools. Now it has started its initial research into developing lithography systems, the report says. The dedicated program was initiated back in December 2023, and as of March the company has assembled a small group of engineers to to explore lithography systems. This is an area that extends beyond its conventional focus on etching and film deposition, SCMP reports, citing sources familiar with the matter. These R&D efforts are being carried out with utmost secrecy to prevent additional sanctions from the U.S., which perceives them as attempts to bypass existing export controls. A representative from Naura told SCMP on Monday that the reported information was not accurate, but did not provide further details. Although there is no guarantee that Naura's lithography research initiatives will become successful, they reflect the determination of China's chip industry to overcome sanctions imposed by the U.S. The sanctions aim to restrict China's progress in chip manufacturing, AI, and HPC, citing national security concerns. According to  Bloomberg , the U.S. government is considering adding several Chinese semiconductor companies associated with Huawei Technologies to its Entity List, after Huawei and SMIC managed to build a smartphone processor on SMIC's second generation 7nm-class process technology. Among the potential targets is SiCarrier, a government-supported chip tool manufacturer collaborating with Huawei, which received a patent related to quadruple patterning. G. Dan Hutcheson, vice-chairman of U.S.-based IC research company TechInsights, said China’s SAQP research is likely to involve companies like Naura and SMEE. SMEE is China's most successful manufacturer of lithography tools, and it has developed a 28nm-capable scanner . Hutcheson says that SiCarrier's technology substitutes steps in optical lithography with etching and deposition steps, which reduces reliance on advanced lithography tools produced by ASML. This gives Chinese companies an opportunity to produce chips on advanced nodes without using the latest machines from American, European, or Japanese companies.

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TSMC is on a hiring spree to recruit 23,000 employees — comes amid explosive multi-continent expansion

China's president says it doesn't need ASML — tells Dutch PM it will continue with advanced technological progress regardless

Taiwan hit with 7.4 earthquake, endangering tech supply chain

  • bluvg It's not hard to imagine that China will have superior solutions in the not-too-distant future. China would never prevent the US and other countries from buying, now would they? Reply
  • gg83 All a ploy to get foreign cash back into the country. Reply
  • The Historical Fidelity Wow, the economics of SMIC 7 & 5nm keep getting worse as more articles come out about it. So not only are they quad patterning (which requires 4x the time, 4x the power, and 4x the masks), but by using etching and deposition to overcome DUV limitations, they are introducing processes that significantly increase defect rates (much harder to control for incomplete, under, and over-etching) as well as consumption of masks due to mask erosion as the etch chemical also acts on the mask material to a lesser extent. Reply
The Historical Fidelity said: Wow, the economics of SMIC 7 & 5nm keep getting worse as more articles come out about it. So not only are they quad patterning (which requires 4x the time, 4x the power, and 4x the masks), but by using etching and deposition to overcome DUV limitations, they are introducing processes that significantly increase defect rates (much harder to control for incomplete, under, and over-etching) as well as consumption of masks due to mask erosion as the etch chemical also acts on the mask material to a lesser extent.
zsydeepsky said: the economics is that Huawei is using that 7 & 5 nm node earning billions with their phones and Ascend AI cards. you know, normally they won't be able to earn so much profit with outdated tech like this. but alas, the US government has very successfully eliminated all competitors for them, they literally handed over the entire Chinese market on a silver plate. In my honest opinion, even the Chinese government can't support China's native semiconductor industry better than this.
The Historical Fidelity said: Uhh, no, Apple just opened their 57th store in China and consumers came out in droves to buy new Apple products. Even when a grandma yelling “Apple is foreigner, don’t buy, go to huawei store” she got booed out of there lol.
zsydeepsky said: Ah, fine. here's one news from March: Apple's iPhone sales in China plunge 24% as Huawei's popularity surgeshttps://www.reuters.com/technology/apples-china-iphone-sales-plunge-24-first-six-weeks-2024-report-says-2024-03-05
The Historical Fidelity said: Yeah, there is a big push in China to support domestic companies regardless of quality. Does it mean Huawei can compete tech for tech with Apple? No, absolutely not.
zsydeepsky said: As long as you have enough way to cope, you can always resort to one of them. It's fine, I never intended to persuade you. So we can all just wait and see how it unfolds. Yet, I had a quick search and found the toms hardware news back in 2022 about "Huawei might be able to make sub-7nm chips soon" with your comments. You were pretty confident that won't happen. https://www.tomshardware.com/news/huawe-euv-scanner
The Historical Fidelity said: I’m still confident, 7nm SMIC is an unsanctioned copy of TSMC (confirmed via scanning electron microscopy) with yields of 15% which would be labeled a failure in the west. https://www.edn.com/the-truth-about-smics-7-nm-chip-fabrication-ordeal/SMIC 5nm has not been physically verified so for all we know it’s either an optimized SMIC 7nm with slightly better density and power consumption and no where near the improvements found in full node shrinkage. And if SMIC 7nm yields are 15%, then 5nm yields will be at most <15% and probably in the 5-8% range. The only reason these nodes are being used is due to massive government subsidies. Or the other option is that SMIC is just using stockpiled TSMC 5nm chips from 2020 like their Kirin 9006C. https://m.gsmarena.com/huaweis_5nm_kirin_9006c_is_manufactured_by_tsmc_after_all-news-61132.php You aren’t going to convince me because I’m not misled by propaganda.
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IMAGES

  1. Difference Between Aim and Objective

    a research objective or aim

  2. Difference between Aim and Objectives of a Research Study

    a research objective or aim

  3. 21 Research Objectives Examples (Copy and Paste)

    a research objective or aim

  4. Research Objectives

    a research objective or aim

  5. How to write Research Aim, Objectives, Questions and hypotheses

    a research objective or aim

  6. How to define Research Objectives?

    a research objective or aim

VIDEO

  1. Research Aims, Objectives & Research Questions (The Golden Thread)

  2. 1.7 Research Aim, Questions and Objectives

  3. How to Write Research Aims and Objectives?

  4. How To Write Aims And Objectives For Your Research Project, Dissertation or Thesis

  5. Research Design: Defining Your Research Aims and Approach

  6. How to write research objectives

COMMENTS

  1. Research Objectives

    Example: Research aim. To examine contributory factors to muscle retention in a group of elderly people. Example: Research objectives. To assess the relationship between sedentary habits and muscle atrophy among the participants. To determine the impact of dietary factors, particularly protein consumption, on the muscular health of the ...

  2. Research Questions, Objectives & Aims (+ Examples)

    The research aims, objectives and research questions (collectively called the "golden thread") are arguably the most important thing you need to get right when you're crafting a research proposal, dissertation or thesis.We receive questions almost every day about this "holy trinity" of research and there's certainly a lot of confusion out there, so we've crafted this post to help ...

  3. What Are Research Objectives and How to Write Them (with Examples)

    Among the many sections that constitute a research paper, the introduction plays a key role in providing a background and setting the context. 1 Research objectives, which define the aims of the study, are usually stated in the introduction. Every study has a research question that the authors are trying to answer, and the objective is an ...

  4. Aims and Objectives

    The research aim focus on what the research project is intended to achieve; research objectives focus on how the aim will be achieved. Research aims are relatively broad; research objectives are specific. Research aims focus on a project's long-term outcomes; research objectives focus on its immediate, short-term outcomes.

  5. Research Objectives

    Research Objectives. Research objectives refer to the specific goals or aims of a research study. They provide a clear and concise description of what the researcher hopes to achieve by conducting the research.The objectives are typically based on the research questions and hypotheses formulated at the beginning of the study and are used to guide the research process.

  6. Research Questions, Objectives & Aims (+ Examples)

    The search aims, objectives and research questions (collectively called the "golden thread") are arguably the of important point you need to get right at you're crafting a research propose, dissertation or thesis.We receive questions almost every days about all "holy trinity" of find and there's certainly a lot of confusion out there, so we've designed the post to help your ...

  7. Research Aims and Objectives

    The differences between research aim and research objectives are: The way they are worded are different: Research aim is worded in a wide scoped way, while research objectives are worded as specific, narrowed down tasks. The focus of the two are different: research aim focuses on the overall purpose while research objectives focus on how to ...

  8. Writing Effective Research Aims and Objectives

    In order to write effective research aims and objectives, researchers should consider all aspects of their proposed work. For example, the sample(s) to be approached for participation in the primary data collection. Identifying research objectives that are SMART is key to ensuring key aspects of the work are considered prior to any data collection.

  9. How to Write the Aims and Objectives

    Writing objectives. The objectives describe how you would achieve your research aim. You can do this through the following steps, The first one to two objectives can be applied to the literature review. (Verbs to be used: investigate, examine, study) One objective can be applied to the methodology portion.

  10. Formulating Research Aims and Objectives

    Formulating research aim and objectives in an appropriate manner is one of the most important aspects of your thesis. This is because research aim and objectives determine the scope, depth and the overall direction of the research. Research question is the central question of the study that has to be answered on the basis of research findings.

  11. A Guide to Writing Research Objectives and Aims

    Aim focus on what a project proposes to achieve; objectives focus on how the project will achieve its goal. The research objectives are more specific than the research aims. Objectives focus on the short-term and immediate outcomes of a project while aim focus on its long-term outcomes. It would be best to write an objective as a numbered list ...

  12. What is a Research Objective? Definition, Types, Examples and Best

    A research objective is defined as a clear and concise statement of the specific goals and aims of a research study. It outlines what the researcher intends to accomplish and what they hope to learn or discover through their research. Research objectives are crucial for guiding the research process and ensuring that the study stays focused and ...

  13. Research Aims and Objectives: The dynamic duo for successful ...

    Research aims and objectives are the foundation of any research project. They provide a clear direction and purpose for the study, ensuring that you stay focused and on track throughout the process. They are your trusted navigational tools, leading you to success. Understanding the relationship between research objectives and aims is crucial to ...

  14. 21 Research Objectives Examples (Copy and Paste)

    Research Objectives vs Research Aims. Research aim and research objectives are fundamental constituents of any study, fitting together like two pieces of the same puzzle. The 'research aim' describes the overarching goal or purpose of the study (Kumar, 2019). This is usually a broad, high-level purpose statement, summing up the central ...

  15. Difference between Aim and Objectives of a Research Study

    Conclusion. In conclusion, aim and objective are two important terms in research. The aim is the overall goal or purpose of the study, while objectives are specific statements that describe the steps or actions needed to achieve the aim. Objectives provide a clear roadmap for the research, help to clarify the research question, and ensure that ...

  16. Research Questions, Objectives & Aims (+ Examples)

    The research aims, objectives and research questions (collectively called which "golden thread") represent arguably the most important thing you need to get right available you're crafting a research proposal, theses or thesis.We accept questions almost ever day with diese "holy trinity" are research and there's certainly a plot of bewilderment out on, so we've crafted is send to ...

  17. What is the difference between aims and objectives in a research proposal?

    Objective: Rebuild border wall; Your aim is "What do we overall want" -- the what, your objective is "What will do to achieve it" -- the how. Once all your objectives are complete, then you should have thus completed the aim. Objectives are also "whats" and so can be the "aims" for subobjectives. Eg. Objective: Increase garrison strength to 150 men

  18. Q: How do I write the aims and objectives of a research?

    The aim of the research is the overall purpose of conducting the research. It could be to add to the knowledge in the area, to address an existing gap in the knowledge, to devise and test a solution to an existing problem, and so on. Objectives are the specific outcomes you expect to achieve through your research and that will enable you to ...

  19. Research Objectives: Definition and How To Write Them

    Here are three simple steps that you can follow to identify and write your research objectives: 1. Pinpoint the major focus of your research. The first step to writing your research objectives is to pinpoint the major focus of your research project. In this step, make sure to clearly describe what you aim to achieve through your research.

  20. Develop the research objectives (Chapter 1)

    Summary. The importance of research aims and objectives cannot be over-stressed. It is vital to have a very clear understanding of what the research is about and what you are actually trying to achieve. You need to know this. And you need to be able to communicate it to others. Carrying out a research project is rather like going on a journey.

  21. Research questions, hypotheses and objectives

    Research objective. ... Study objectives define the specific aims of the study and should be clearly stated in the introduction of the research protocol. 7 From our previous example and using the investigative hypothesis that there is a difference in functional outcomes between computer-assisted acetabular component placement and free-hand ...

  22. Devika

    Devika is an Agentic AI Software Engineer that can understand high-level human instructions, break them down into steps, research relevant information, and write code to achieve the given objective. Devika aims to be a competitive open-source alternative to Devin by Cognition AI. - stitionai/devika

  23. PDF biolincc.nhlbi.nih.gov

    GROW Protocol 3/13/2012 1 . TABLE OF CONTENTS . 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMAR Y............................................................................................ 3 2 ...

  24. Cancer signs could be spotted years before symptoms, says new research

    The research should help design radically new ways to treat cancer, they say. The Early Cancer Institute - which has just received £11m from an anonymous donor - is focused on finding ways to ...

  25. DARPA looks to AI to produce code securely and quickly

    Tue 2 Apr 2024 // 19:00 UTC. A DARPA leader has revealed that around 70 percent of the US government agency's programs involve AI in some shape or form, and those projects could have serious ramifications for the future of jobs in software development. Speaking at a Center for Strategic and International Studies event last week, Dr Matt Turek ...

  26. Research Specialist

    Job Summary: The Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology (GI) is seeking a Research Specialist to provide comprehensive project support services to faculty conducting clinical research. This position will work closely with investigators, clinical research coordinators, industry sponsors, contract research organizations and others to ensure research activities align with objectives and ...

  27. Lawmakers aim to pioneer AI research as state budget talks continue

    In the midst of critical state budget negotiations, New York lawmakers are set to address the establishment of an "Empire AI Consortium," a groundbreaking initiative spearheaded by Governor Kathy Hochul. This consortium aims to position the state at the forefront of artificial intelligence (AI) research, leveraging a collaboration between ...

  28. UB awarded $1.25 million to create clean energy research hub

    The new Center for Accelerated Innovation through Materials (AIM) will help lead the state's and nation's transition to a clean energy economy. By CORY NEALON. Published April 2, 2024 . Share This Print "With this funding, UB will establish a materials science research hub that connects industry, educational, workforce and community partners ...

  29. China aims to break chokehold of US chipmaking sanctions

    the economics is that Huawei is using that 7 & 5 nm node earning billions with their phones and Ascend AI cards. you know, normally they won't be able to earn so much profit with outdated tech ...