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Theses & dissertations: home, access to theses and dissertations from other institutions and from the university of cambridge.

theses

This guide provides information on searching for theses of Cambridge PhDs and for theses of UK universities and universities abroad. 

For information and guidance on depositing your thesis as a cambridge phd, visit the cambridge office of scholarly communication pages on theses here ., this guide gives essential information on how to obtain theses using the british library's ethos service. .

On the last weekend of October, the British Library became the victim of a major cyber-attack. Essential digital services including the BL catalogue, website and online learning resources went dark, with research services like the EThOS collection of more than 600,000 doctoral theses suddenly unavailable. The BL state that they anticipate restoring more services in the next few weeks, but disruption to certain services is now expected to persist for several months. For the latest news on the attack and information on the restoration of services, please follow the BL blog here:  Knowledge Matters blog  and access the LibGuide page here:  British Library Outage Update - Electronic Legal Deposit - LibGuides at University of Cambridge Subject Libraries

A full list of resources for searching theses online is provided by the Cambridge A-Z, available here .

University of Cambridge theses

Finding a cambridge phd thesis online via the institutional repository.

The University's institutional repository, Apollo , holds full-text digital versions of over 11,000 Cambridge PhD theses and is a rapidly growing collection deposited by Cambridge Ph.D. graduates. Theses in Apollo can be browsed via this link . More information on how to access theses by University of Cambridge students can be found on the access to Cambridge theses webpage.   The requirement for impending PhD graduates to deposit a digital version in order to graduate means the repository will be increasing at a rate of approximately 1,000 per year from this source.   About 200 theses are added annually through requests to make theses Open Access or via requests to digitize a thesis in printed format.

Locating and obtaining a copy of a Cambridge PhD thesis (not yet available via the repository)

Theses can be searched in iDiscover .  Guidance on searching for theses in iDiscover can be found here .   Requests for consultation of printed theses, not available online, should be made at the Manuscripts Reading Room (Email:  [email protected] Telephone: +44 (0)1223 333143).   Further information on the University Library's theses, dissertations and prize essays collections can be consulted at this link .

Researchers can order a copy of an unpublished thesis which was deposited in print form either through the Library’s  Digital Content Unit via the image request form , or, if the thesis has been digitised, it may be available in the Apollo repository. Copies of theses may be provided to researchers in accordance with the  law  and in a manner that is common across UK libraries.  The law allows us to provide whole copies of unpublished theses to individuals as long as they sign a declaration saying that it is for non-commercial research or private study.

How to make your thesis available online through Cambridge's institutional repository

Are you a Cambridge alumni and wish to make your Ph.D. thesis available online? You can do this by depositing it in Apollo the University's institutional repository. Click here for further information on how to proceed.    Current Ph.D students at the University of Cambridge can find further information about the requirements to deposit theses on the Office of Scholarly Communication theses webpages.

thesis cambridge dic

UK Theses and Dissertations

Electronic copies of Ph.D. theses submitted at over 100 UK universities are obtainable from EThOS , a service set up to provide access to all theses from participating institutions. It achieves this by harvesting e-theses from Institutional Repositories and by digitising print theses as they are ordered by researchers using the system. Over 250,000 theses are already available in this way. Please note that it does not supply theses submitted at the universities of Cambridge or Oxford although they are listed on EThOS.

Registration with EThOS is not required to search for a thesis but is necessary to download or order one unless it is stored in the university repository rather than the British Library (in which case a link to the repository will be displayed). Many theses are available without charge on an Open Access basis but in all other cases, if you are requesting a thesis that has not yet been digitised you will be asked to meet the cost. Once a thesis has been digitised it is available for free download thereafter.

When you order a thesis it will either be immediately available for download or writing to hard copy or it will need to be digitised. If you order a thesis for digitisation, the system will manage the process and you will be informed when the thesis is available for download/preparation to hard copy.

thesis cambridge dic

See the Search results section of the  help page for full information on interpreting search results in EThOS.

EThOS is managed by the British Library and can be found at http://ethos.bl.uk . For more information see About EThOS .

World-wide (incl. UK) theses and dissertations

Electronic versions of non-UK theses may be available from the institution at which they were submitted, sometimes on an open access basis from the institutional repository. A good starting point for discovering freely available electronic theses and dissertations beyond the UK is the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD) , which facilitates searching across institutions. Information can also usually be found on the library web pages of the relevant institution.

The DART Europe etheses portal lists several thousand full-text theses from a group of European universities.

The University Library subscribes to the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses  (PQDT) database which from August 31 2023 is accessed on the Web of Science platform.  To search this index select it from the Web of Science "Search in" drop-down list of databases (available on the Documents tab on WoS home page)

PQDT includes 2.4 million dissertation and theses citations, representing 700 leading academic institutions worldwide from 1861 to the present day. The database offers full text for most of the dissertations added since 1997 and strong retrospective full text coverage for older graduate works. Each dissertation published since July 1980 includes a 350-word abstract written by the author. Master's theses published since 1988 include 150-word abstracts.

IMPORTANT NOTE: The University Library only subscribes to the abstracting & indexing version of the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database and NOT the full text version.  A fee is payable for ordering a dissertation from this source.   To obtain the full text of a dissertation as a downloadable PDF you can submit your request via the University Library Inter-Library Loans department (see contact details below). NB this service is only available to full and current members of the University of Cambridge.

Alternatively you can pay yourself for the dissertation PDF on the PQDT platform. Link from Web of Science record display of any thesis to PQDT by clicking on "View Details on ProQuest".  On the "Preview" page you will see an option "Order a copy" top right.  This will allow you to order your own copy from ProQuest directly.

Dissertations and theses submitted at non-UK universities may also be requested on Inter-Library Loan through the Inter-Library Loans department (01223 333039 or 333080, [email protected] )

  • Last Updated: Dec 20, 2023 9:47 AM
  • URL: https://libguides.cam.ac.uk/theses

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Submitting your thesis for examination (PhD, EdD, MD, BusD, MLitt, MSc)

Format of the thesis, the thesis must:.

be written in British English, apart from quotations and recognised technical formulae

be in A4 portrait format

use one-and-a-half spaced type

include any photographs or other illustrations scanned into the text

be saved in the electronic format and naming style specified by your Degree Committee

Examiners are not expected to edit work. They will deal with errors of fact and typographical errors that affect the meaning of your work, as well as larger structural issues. The extent to which the text has or has not been properly prepared may influence their recommendation concerning the award of the degree. You are therefore advised to check your thesis thoroughly prior to submission to ensure clear, formal British English has been used throughout and that there are minimal typing and/or spelling mistakes.

How and when to present the thesis for examination

You must submit an electronic copy of your thesis for examination, and any required accompanying documents, to your Degree Committee by your submission deadline (which can be found under 'Thesis Submission details' on the Academic tile in your CamSIS self-service). You are required to submit your thesis for examination by your deadline even if the date falls over a weekend or holiday period.

Your Degree Committee should provide you with guidance for electronic submission; please contact them directly if you require any assistance.

The thesis you submit to your Degree Committee will be the thesis forwarded to the examiners for examination. It is not possible to 'retract submission' or to send a revised copy directly to your examiners. Therefore you should carefully check the file(s) you upload when submitting your thesis.

Postgraduate students must keep a minimum number of terms of research before they can submit (for example, 9 for the full-time PhD or 15 for the part-time PhD or EdD) unless they have been granted an allowance or exemption of terms . If you attempt to submit too early and have not had an allowance or exemption of terms approved, your thesis submission will not be accepted or will be kept on hold and not forwarded to your examiners until the first day of your 9th (full-time) or 15th (part-time) term.

Requirements

You must include the following bound inside your thesis:

1. A title page displaying:

the full title of the thesis

your full legal name (as it appears on your passport, marriage certificate or deed poll)

your college

the date of submission (month and year)

a declaration stating: "This thesis is submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy/Doctor of Education/Doctor of Business/Doctor of Medicine/Master of Science/Master of Letters (as appropriate)."

2. A declaration in the preface stating:

This thesis is the result of my own work and includes nothing which is the outcome of work done in collaboration except as declared in the preface and specified in the text.

It is not substantially the same as any work that has already been submitted before for any degree or other qualification except as declared in the preface and specified in the text.

It does not exceed the prescribed word limit for the [insert relevant] Degree Committee. (For more information on the word limits for the respective Degree Committees see Word Limits and Requirements of your Degree Committee )

3. An abstract/summary of your thesis

4. [if applicable] the list of additional materials that were approved for submission alongside the thesis

You must also submit the following documents (not included inside the thesis):

Required: One declaration form

Optional: Research Impact Statement If pandemic, war/conflict, or natural disaster have significantly impacted on your research, you are invited to submit a Research Impact Statement with your thesis using the template provided. The purpose of the statement is for you to describe any restrictions or difficulties experienced in undertaking your research as a result of pandemic, war/conflict, or natural disaster, and to provide details of any alternative arrangements made to complete the work for your thesis. Further details for students and supervisors can be found in the Research Impact Statement guidance  and the Research Impact Statement form can be downloaded here . 

Inclusion of additional materials

Students other than those in the Faculty of Music must seek permission through their  CamSIS Self Service page if they wish to submit additional materials for examination alongside their thesis. Additional materials are integral to the thesis but in a format that cannot be easily included in the main body of the thesis (for example, 3D graphics). You should refer to the ' Policy on the inclusion of additional materials with a thesis ' before making an application to include additional materials. This process should be initiated prior to the thesis submission. If a thesis is submitted with additional materials and without permission to include them, it will be held by the Degree Committee until approval is confirmed.

Please bear in mind that if you are granted permission to submit additional materials, you are required to upload the same materials to the University repository, Apollo , when you submit your approved thesis  post-examination (doctoral candidates only). Therefore, the inclusion of additional material that contains uncleared third-party copyright or sensitive material may affect the access level that is most appropriate for your thesis.

Submitting a revised thesis

If you are resubmitting your thesis following a viva outcome of being allowed to revise and resubmit the thesis for examination for a doctoral degree, you need to follow the same procedure as for the original thesis submission .

What happens following submission of the thesis for examination 

When you submit your thesis for examination the Degree Committee will check the submission, acknowledge receipt, and inform Student Registry you have submitted. The Student Registry will update your CamSIS record.

The Degree Committee will forward your thesis to your examiners. If you have not received confirmation of the date of your viva (oral examination) within six weeks of submitting your thesis, or if you have any questions with regard to your thesis at this stage, you should contact your Degree Committee. 

Your Examiners should not ask you for a printed copy of your thesis or other material in advance of your viva (oral examination). If they do, please seek advice from your Degree Committee.

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Access to Cambridge theses

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How do I find a Cambridge thesis?

Ph.D., M.Litt., M.Sc., and Divinity M.Phil. theses approved after 1970 are catalogued in iDiscover, as are M.D. and M.Chir. theses approved after May 2006. Earlier theses are listed in a card catalogue in the Manuscripts Reading Room and are gradually being added to iDiscover.

Since 1 October 2017, all PhD theses are being deposited in electronic form to the University repository Apollo . Many earlier theses are also in the repository, but if they are not yet in digital form it is possible to request access to these theses. There is more information on how to request a copy of a printed thesis further down this page.

Gaining access to electronic copies of theses

The author of a given thesis in Apollo can choose whether their thesis is available to be downloaded, available on request or unavailable. While many of the theses in Apollo are openly available for download, s ome theses in the repository are not open access because they have either been embargoed by the author or because they are unable to be made openly available for copyright or other r easo ns.   For an explanation of the different theses access levels,  see this page .

Open Access theses

Theses that have been made available Open Access can be downloaded from Apollo as a PDF file without any restrictions other than the license under which they have been made available . Just click on the document file in the thesis record to download a copy.

Embargoed theses

Theses with an embargo are shown in Apollo with a padlock icon over the PDF file are not open access but can be requested. If you wish to access the full thesis, click on the padlock icon on the PDF and you will be redirected to the repository’s ‘ Request a Copy ’ function. Requests for embargoed theses will be passed on to the author so they can choose to grant or refuse the request at their discretion.

Controlled theses

Theses under controlled access remain unpublished because they are not made available on the internet via the Apollo repository and as such, the rules for unpublished works in UK copyright law will apply to these theses. Controlled access theses are provided by the University Library in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents act 1998. Theses under controlled access are shown in Apollo with a padlock icon over the PDF file are not open access but can be requested. If you wish to access the full thesis, click on the padlock icon on the PDF and you will be redirected to the repository’s ‘ Request a Copy ’ function. For further information on copying by librarians or archivists see: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1988/48/section/43

If a thesis has been digitised by the Digital Content Unit's image request service in the library it will be deposited in Apollo under controlled access and can be requested via the thesis record in Apollo.

Requesting a copy of a printed thesis

Researchers can order a copy of an unpublished thesis which was deposited in print form through the Library’s  Digital Content Unit via the image request form . Copies of theses may be provided to researchers in accordance with the  law  and in a manner that is common across UK libraries.The law allows us to provide whole copies of unpublished theses to individuals as long as they sign a declaration saying that it is for non-commercial research or private study. The agreement used for access to theses at Cambridge has been drafted using the guidance by the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP).

Theses are not available for borrowing or inter library loan. The copyright of theses remains with the author. The law does not allow us to provide a copy for inclusion in a general library collection or for wider distribution beyond the individual receiving the copy, without the explicit permission of the author or copyright holder. Where someone approaches us asking for a copy for their library or wider distribution, they must obtain the explicit permission of the author or copyright owner.

Please note any periods of access restriction requested by the author apply to both electronic and print copies.

Open Research Newsletter sign-up

Please contact us at  [email protected]   to be added to the mailing list to receive our quarterly e-Newsletter.

The Office of Scholarly Communication sends this Newsletter to its subscribers in order to disseminate information relevant to open access, research data management, scholarly communication and open research topics. For details on how the personal information you enter here is used, please see our  privacy policy . 

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The University does not require electronic copies of Masters Theses to be deposited in Apollo, which means that the Thesis team does not deposit individual Masters Theses via Symplectic Elements.

However, there is a batch upload arrangement in place for faculties/departments who wish to deposit their Masters Theses in Apollo. Interested faculties/departments should contact the Thesis team for further information ( [email protected]).

Key features of the batch upload arrangement

  • All Theses deposited via the batch upload will be made immediately open access in Apollo;
  • Faculties/departments will be provided with a shared drive, which they will use to provide electronic copies of Theses, Deposit Licence Agreements and metadata;
  • Faculties/departments create their own local policies to determine the number and frequency of their uploads to their shared drive;
  • Batch uploads are run once per term, at the end of each term by Repository staff.

Guidelines for faculties/departments

As all Theses that are deposited into Apollo via the batch upload arrangement will be immediately available (open access) in Apollo, it is only suitable for Theses that do not contain:

  • uncleared copyrighted material and/or
  • unauthorised confidential/sensitive information.

However, Faculties/departments may instead opt provide a redacted version of any Theses that do contain such content. If this option is chosen, Faculties/departments should deposit the original, unredacted Thesis and a redacted version. We have further information on our website about redacting material from theses.

It is important that these issues are resolved in advance of uploading the thesis to their shared drive, because depositing these items into Apollo may breach copyright or GDPR laws. If in doubt about a thesis, faculties/departments are advised not to include it in the batch upload request.

Should a Thesis have supplementary data files, the data should be uploaded separately via Symplectic Elements by the faculty/departmental administrator.

Third party copyright

Copyright held by someone other than the author is known as third party copyright. If an author has used third party copyright material, they should ascertain whether or not they need permission to use it in their thesis.

We recommend that authors obtain permission to include material as they are researching. Clearing permission can take a long time, so unless a redacted version is supplied, it is not appropriate to include Theses for batch upload where permissions have been sought but are still outstanding. It is also not appropriate to include theses where permission has not been sought, or where permission has been denied.

Please be aware that different copyright rules apply to the hardbound copy that is deposited in the library for reference and the electronic version that is deposited in the repository. This is because the hardbound copy is considered unpublished and the electronic version, if made available as open access, is considered published. The thesis must credit the copyright holder(s) and source(s) of all third party copyright material.

There is  more information on third party copyright on our website .

Sensitive information

Sensitive information is data that must be protected for the privacy or security of an individual, group, or organisation. The kinds of sensitive information most likely to be included in theses are:

  • Commercial (trade secrets or information which could damage commercial interests)
  • Health and safety (information which could damage the health and/or safety of an individual)
  • Information provided in confidence Personal (as defined by the  Data Protection Act 2018  - GDPR)
  • Culturally sensitive material (information or arguments which some cultural groups might find offensive or upsetting)
  • Content referring to legal cases

The  Freedom of Information Act 2000  sets out the types of sensitive information to which legally enforceable restrictions may be applied. The University of Cambridge is bound by this Act. It may decide to apply restrictions to other types of information, including theses deposited in the University Library or Departmental and Faculty libraries, but they are not legally binding if not falling under the Act.

Unless a redacted version is supplied, it is also not appropriate to include theses for batch upload that contain sensitive/confidential information without authorisation from whom the information relates.

There is  more information about sensitive material on our website

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About Words – Cambridge Dictionary blog

Commenting on developments in the English language

thesis cambridge dic

New words – 19 February 2024

a young woman holding her hand to her chin and glancing sideways with a suspicious expression, illustrating the concept of a super distruster

super distruster noun [C] UK /ˈsuː.pə dɪˌstrʌs.təʳ/ US /ˈsuː.pɚ dɪˌstrʌs.tɚ/ someone who thinks their country has many serious problems caused by politicians and other people in a position of power, and that these people should not be trusted at all

Almost a third of adults may be “super distrusters” who regard the system as broken and are highly suspicious of those they hold responsible, according to research. They defy traditional and demographic categorisation and are likely to opt out of supporting the main parties or voting at all. [The Sunday Times, 17 September 2023]

vibecession noun [C] /ˌvaɪbˈseʃ.ᵊn/ a period during which people feel very worried and pessimistic about the economy when in fact it is in a strong position

Oddly, surveys have consistently shown most Americans feeling pretty good about their own financial situation. But they insisted that bad things were happening to the economy — that is, other people. The commentator Kyla Scanlon coined the term “vibecession,” now widely used to mean a situation in which negative views about the economy don’t seem to match up with the data. [nytimes.com, 22 January 2024]

p(doom) noun [U] /ˌpiːˈduːm/ a humorous way, based on a scientific formula (where p = probability), of describing the chances that AI will kill all humans

The term that began as a half-serious inside joke on tech message boards to describe the odds that AI destroys humankind, has broken into the mainstream. The buzzword is p(doom), and it provides both AI experts and average know-nothings a common scale to describe where they stand on the question of whether AI is going to kill us. [fastcompany.com, 7 December 2023]

About new words

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Cambridge Dictionary

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Meaning of homophony in English

Homophony noun [u] ( music ).

  • Each part is so busy with different rhythmic movements that the simple directness of homophony is lost .
  • Slight differences in note-lengths give an illusion of a richer polyphonic texture and relieve the sameness of homophony.
  • It is often sufficient to break the homophony in one voice , only to give this added touch of interest .
  • ambient music
  • drum and bass
  • early music
  • easy listening
  • Latinization
  • melodically
  • symphonically

homophony noun [U] ( LANGUAGE )

  • The company name , Joost, is pronounced like "juiced" - I do not know whether the homophony is deliberate .
  • The poet uses rhyme , alliteration , and homophony to good effect .
  • The word " gofer " for an assistant , originally based on the command "go for this, go for that," becomes more amusing because of its homophony with " gopher ," a small busy rodent .
  • abbreviated form
  • accommodation
  • Americanism
  • homographic
  • productively
  • receptively

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hide-and-seek

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a children's game in which a group of children hide in secret places and then one child has to go to look for them

Infinitive or -ing verb? Avoiding common mistakes with verb patterns (1)

Infinitive or -ing verb? Avoiding common mistakes with verb patterns (1)

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COMMENTS

  1. THESIS

    the main idea, opinion, or theory of a person, group, piece of writing, or speech: Their main thesis was that war was inevitable. Fewer examples I wrote my thesis on literacy strategies for boys. Her main thesis is that children need a lot of verbal stimulation. SMART Vocabulary: related words and phrases

  2. thesis

    a theory that is suggested and can then be argued with or agreed with: That is the central thesis of the book. (Definition of thesis from the Cambridge Learner's Dictionary © Cambridge University Press) Translations of thesis in Chinese (Traditional) 論文, 論題,命題, 論點… See more in Chinese (Simplified) 论文, 论题,命题, 论点… See more in Spanish tesis… See more

  3. Theses & Dissertations: Home

    Home Theses & Dissertations: Home Access to theses and dissertations from other institutions and from the University of Cambridge This guide provides information on searching for theses of Cambridge PhDs and for theses of UK universities and universities abroad.

  4. What are the best online English dictionaries for academic use?

    1 Recommendation. Mary Davies. University of Tasmania. The oxford online Dictionary is the best, both in it's electronic version and physical format. It gives both the English and American English ...

  5. How to cite a dictionary in APA Style

    To cite a dictionary definition in APA Style, start with the author of the dictionary (usually an organization), followed by the publication year, the word you're citing, the dictionary name, the publisher (if not already listed as author), and the URL. Our free APA Citation Generator can help you create accurate citations for dictionary entries.

  6. Submitting your thesis for examination (PhD, EdD ...

    The thesis you submit to your Degree Committee will be the thesis forwarded to the examiners for examination. It is not possible to 'retract submission' or to send a revised copy directly to your examiners. Therefore you should carefully check the file (s) you upload when submitting your thesis.

  7. Access to Cambridge theses

    How do I find a Cambridge thesis? Ph.D., M.Litt., M.Sc., and Divinity M.Phil. theses approved after 1970 are catalogued in iDiscover, as are M.D. and M.Chir. theses approved after May 2006. Earlier theses are listed in a card catalogue in the Manuscripts Reading Room and are gradually being added to iDiscover.

  8. Finding and accessing theses

    How do I find a Cambridge thesis? Ph.D., M.Litt., M.Sc., and Divinity M.Phil. theses approved after 1970 are catalogued in iDiscover, as are M.D. and M.Chir. theses approved after May 2006. Earlier theses are listed in a card catalogue in the Manuscripts Reading Room and are gradually being added to iDiscover.

  9. Masters theses

    Open Access. Theses. The University does not require electronic copies of Masters Theses to be deposited in Apollo, which means that the Thesis team does not deposit individual Masters Theses via Symplectic Elements. However, there is a batch upload arrangement in place for faculties/departments who wish to deposit their Masters Theses in Apollo.

  10. Infinitive or -ing verb?

    Avoiding common mistakes with verb patterns (1) I agreed to pay for the damage. He denied stealing the money. You will see that each sentence has two verbs, but that the form of the second verb is different. In the first sentence, it is an infinitive with to ( to pay ), and in the second, it has an -ing form ( stealing ).

  11. Dictionary

    Macmillan Education Limited, part of Springer Nature. Macmillan Campus, 4 Crinan Street, London N1 9XW. Contact us Contact us form. Telephone: +44 (0)207 014 6767

  12. What is a super distruster?

    super distruster noun [C] UK /ˈsuː.pə dɪˌstrʌs.təʳ/ US /ˈsuː.pɚ dɪˌstrʌs.tɚ/. someone who thinks their country has many serious problems caused by politicians and other people in a position of power, and that these people should not be trusted at all. Almost a third of adults may be "super distrusters" who regard the system ...

  13. Thesis Cambridge Dictionary

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  16. Cambridge Dictionary

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  20. thesis

    a theory that is suggested and can then be argued with or agreed with: That is the central thesis of the book. (Definition of thesis from the Cambridge Learner's Dictionary © Cambridge University Press) Translations of thesis in Chinese (Traditional) 論文, 論題,命題, 論點… See more in Chinese (Simplified) 论文, 论题,命题, 论点… See more in Spanish tesis… See more

  21. How to pronounce THESIS in English

    How to pronounce THESIS. How to say thesis. Listen to the audio pronunciation in the Cambridge English Dictionary. Learn more.

  22. Thesis Cambridge Dictionary

    Thesis Cambridge Dictionary: User ID: 302631. User ID: 102732. ABOUT US . Andersen, Jung & Co. is a San Francisco based, full-service real estate firm providing customized concierge-level services to its clients. We work to help our residential clients find their new home and our commercial clients to find and optimize each new investment ...

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  24. THESIS

    plural theses / ˈθiː·siːz/ /ˈθi·siz/ Add to word list Add to word list a long piece of writing that you do as part of an advanced university course أطروحة I'm writing my thesis on Spanish literature. (Translation of thesis from the Cambridge English-Arabic Dictionary © Cambridge University Press) Examples of thesis thesis

  25. HOMOPHONY

    HOMOPHONY meaning: 1. music in which only one tune or part is played or sung, or in which several parts are played or…. Learn more.