Formatting Requirements

Page layout, margins and numbering.

Your scholarly approach may call for a different presentational method. These are the requirements and recommendations for text-based theses.

For a text-based thesis, or the text portions of a thesis, the page size must be 8.5" x 11", and the text must be in a single, page-wide column. Do not use two or more columns in your thesis.

The text of the thesis is written in paragraph form.

  • the first line of each paragraph should be indented, OR
  • there should be a larger space between paragraphs than there is between lines.

Each chapter should generally start at the top of a new page.

Left: 1.25 inches (32 mm) is recommended if you intend to bind copies of your thesis; 1 inch minimum.

Right, top, and bottom: 1 inch recommended; 0.75 inches (19 mm) minimum

Page Numbering

Preliminary pages:.

  • must be numbered in lower case Roman numerals (ii, iii, iv, etc.)
  • the title page is "i" but this number must not appear on the page
  • numbering begins at "ii" on the committee page
  • the first page of the abstract is page iii

Body of thesis:

  • must be numbered in Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.)
  • the first page of the text is "1"
  • subsequent pages are numbered continuously throughout, including pages with tables and figures, bibliographies, appendices, and index

Whole thesis:

  • every page except the title page must have a number on it
  • there must be no blank pages in the thesis.

Page numberS:

  • must be placed at least .5 inches (12 mm) from the edge of the page
  • may be either in the lower centre or on the top or lower right of the page, when the page is viewed in portrait view. Lower right is preferred.

Landscape Pages

Landscape pages must be orientated in your PDF so that they are readable without rotation. You do not need to change the location or orientation of the page number, but may if you wish.

Facing Pages

Facing pages are not acceptable; you must use one-sided layout and pagination. If the caption for a figure, table, etc., cannot appear on the same page as its accompanying illustration, place the illustration on a separate page after the caption.

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13.1 Formatting a Research Paper

Learning objectives.

  • Identify the major components of a research paper written using American Psychological Association (APA) style.
  • Apply general APA style and formatting conventions in a research paper.

In this chapter, you will learn how to use APA style , the documentation and formatting style followed by the American Psychological Association, as well as MLA style , from the Modern Language Association. There are a few major formatting styles used in academic texts, including AMA, Chicago, and Turabian:

  • AMA (American Medical Association) for medicine, health, and biological sciences
  • APA (American Psychological Association) for education, psychology, and the social sciences
  • Chicago—a common style used in everyday publications like magazines, newspapers, and books
  • MLA (Modern Language Association) for English, literature, arts, and humanities
  • Turabian—another common style designed for its universal application across all subjects and disciplines

While all the formatting and citation styles have their own use and applications, in this chapter we focus our attention on the two styles you are most likely to use in your academic studies: APA and MLA.

If you find that the rules of proper source documentation are difficult to keep straight, you are not alone. Writing a good research paper is, in and of itself, a major intellectual challenge. Having to follow detailed citation and formatting guidelines as well may seem like just one more task to add to an already-too-long list of requirements.

Following these guidelines, however, serves several important purposes. First, it signals to your readers that your paper should be taken seriously as a student’s contribution to a given academic or professional field; it is the literary equivalent of wearing a tailored suit to a job interview. Second, it shows that you respect other people’s work enough to give them proper credit for it. Finally, it helps your reader find additional materials if he or she wishes to learn more about your topic.

Furthermore, producing a letter-perfect APA-style paper need not be burdensome. Yes, it requires careful attention to detail. However, you can simplify the process if you keep these broad guidelines in mind:

  • Work ahead whenever you can. Chapter 11 “Writing from Research: What Will I Learn?” includes tips for keeping track of your sources early in the research process, which will save time later on.
  • Get it right the first time. Apply APA guidelines as you write, so you will not have much to correct during the editing stage. Again, putting in a little extra time early on can save time later.
  • Use the resources available to you. In addition to the guidelines provided in this chapter, you may wish to consult the APA website at http://www.apa.org or the Purdue University Online Writing lab at http://owl.english.purdue.edu , which regularly updates its online style guidelines.

General Formatting Guidelines

This chapter provides detailed guidelines for using the citation and formatting conventions developed by the American Psychological Association, or APA. Writers in disciplines as diverse as astrophysics, biology, psychology, and education follow APA style. The major components of a paper written in APA style are listed in the following box.

These are the major components of an APA-style paper:

Body, which includes the following:

  • Headings and, if necessary, subheadings to organize the content
  • In-text citations of research sources
  • References page

All these components must be saved in one document, not as separate documents.

The title page of your paper includes the following information:

  • Title of the paper
  • Author’s name
  • Name of the institution with which the author is affiliated
  • Header at the top of the page with the paper title (in capital letters) and the page number (If the title is lengthy, you may use a shortened form of it in the header.)

List the first three elements in the order given in the previous list, centered about one third of the way down from the top of the page. Use the headers and footers tool of your word-processing program to add the header, with the title text at the left and the page number in the upper-right corner. Your title page should look like the following example.

Beyond the Hype: Evaluating Low-Carb Diets cover page

The next page of your paper provides an abstract , or brief summary of your findings. An abstract does not need to be provided in every paper, but an abstract should be used in papers that include a hypothesis. A good abstract is concise—about one hundred fifty to two hundred fifty words—and is written in an objective, impersonal style. Your writing voice will not be as apparent here as in the body of your paper. When writing the abstract, take a just-the-facts approach, and summarize your research question and your findings in a few sentences.

In Chapter 12 “Writing a Research Paper” , you read a paper written by a student named Jorge, who researched the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets. Read Jorge’s abstract. Note how it sums up the major ideas in his paper without going into excessive detail.

Beyond the Hype: Abstract

Write an abstract summarizing your paper. Briefly introduce the topic, state your findings, and sum up what conclusions you can draw from your research. Use the word count feature of your word-processing program to make sure your abstract does not exceed one hundred fifty words.

Depending on your field of study, you may sometimes write research papers that present extensive primary research, such as your own experiment or survey. In your abstract, summarize your research question and your findings, and briefly indicate how your study relates to prior research in the field.

Margins, Pagination, and Headings

APA style requirements also address specific formatting concerns, such as margins, pagination, and heading styles, within the body of the paper. Review the following APA guidelines.

Use these general guidelines to format the paper:

  • Set the top, bottom, and side margins of your paper at 1 inch.
  • Use double-spaced text throughout your paper.
  • Use a standard font, such as Times New Roman or Arial, in a legible size (10- to 12-point).
  • Use continuous pagination throughout the paper, including the title page and the references section. Page numbers appear flush right within your header.
  • Section headings and subsection headings within the body of your paper use different types of formatting depending on the level of information you are presenting. Additional details from Jorge’s paper are provided.

Cover Page

Begin formatting the final draft of your paper according to APA guidelines. You may work with an existing document or set up a new document if you choose. Include the following:

  • Your title page
  • The abstract you created in Note 13.8 “Exercise 1”
  • Correct headers and page numbers for your title page and abstract

APA style uses section headings to organize information, making it easy for the reader to follow the writer’s train of thought and to know immediately what major topics are covered. Depending on the length and complexity of the paper, its major sections may also be divided into subsections, sub-subsections, and so on. These smaller sections, in turn, use different heading styles to indicate different levels of information. In essence, you are using headings to create a hierarchy of information.

The following heading styles used in APA formatting are listed in order of greatest to least importance:

  • Section headings use centered, boldface type. Headings use title case, with important words in the heading capitalized.
  • Subsection headings use left-aligned, boldface type. Headings use title case.
  • The third level uses left-aligned, indented, boldface type. Headings use a capital letter only for the first word, and they end in a period.
  • The fourth level follows the same style used for the previous level, but the headings are boldfaced and italicized.
  • The fifth level follows the same style used for the previous level, but the headings are italicized and not boldfaced.

Visually, the hierarchy of information is organized as indicated in Table 13.1 “Section Headings” .

Table 13.1 Section Headings

A college research paper may not use all the heading levels shown in Table 13.1 “Section Headings” , but you are likely to encounter them in academic journal articles that use APA style. For a brief paper, you may find that level 1 headings suffice. Longer or more complex papers may need level 2 headings or other lower-level headings to organize information clearly. Use your outline to craft your major section headings and determine whether any subtopics are substantial enough to require additional levels of headings.

Working with the document you developed in Note 13.11 “Exercise 2” , begin setting up the heading structure of the final draft of your research paper according to APA guidelines. Include your title and at least two to three major section headings, and follow the formatting guidelines provided above. If your major sections should be broken into subsections, add those headings as well. Use your outline to help you.

Because Jorge used only level 1 headings, his Exercise 3 would look like the following:

Citation Guidelines

In-text citations.

Throughout the body of your paper, include a citation whenever you quote or paraphrase material from your research sources. As you learned in Chapter 11 “Writing from Research: What Will I Learn?” , the purpose of citations is twofold: to give credit to others for their ideas and to allow your reader to follow up and learn more about the topic if desired. Your in-text citations provide basic information about your source; each source you cite will have a longer entry in the references section that provides more detailed information.

In-text citations must provide the name of the author or authors and the year the source was published. (When a given source does not list an individual author, you may provide the source title or the name of the organization that published the material instead.) When directly quoting a source, it is also required that you include the page number where the quote appears in your citation.

This information may be included within the sentence or in a parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence, as in these examples.

Epstein (2010) points out that “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive” (p. 137).

Here, the writer names the source author when introducing the quote and provides the publication date in parentheses after the author’s name. The page number appears in parentheses after the closing quotation marks and before the period that ends the sentence.

Addiction researchers caution that “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive” (Epstein, 2010, p. 137).

Here, the writer provides a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence that includes the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number separated by commas. Again, the parenthetical citation is placed after the closing quotation marks and before the period at the end of the sentence.

As noted in the book Junk Food, Junk Science (Epstein, 2010, p. 137), “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive.”

Here, the writer chose to mention the source title in the sentence (an optional piece of information to include) and followed the title with a parenthetical citation. Note that the parenthetical citation is placed before the comma that signals the end of the introductory phrase.

David Epstein’s book Junk Food, Junk Science (2010) pointed out that “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive” (p. 137).

Another variation is to introduce the author and the source title in your sentence and include the publication date and page number in parentheses within the sentence or at the end of the sentence. As long as you have included the essential information, you can choose the option that works best for that particular sentence and source.

Citing a book with a single author is usually a straightforward task. Of course, your research may require that you cite many other types of sources, such as books or articles with more than one author or sources with no individual author listed. You may also need to cite sources available in both print and online and nonprint sources, such as websites and personal interviews. Chapter 13 “APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting” , Section 13.2 “Citing and Referencing Techniques” and Section 13.3 “Creating a References Section” provide extensive guidelines for citing a variety of source types.

Writing at Work

APA is just one of several different styles with its own guidelines for documentation, formatting, and language usage. Depending on your field of interest, you may be exposed to additional styles, such as the following:

  • MLA style. Determined by the Modern Languages Association and used for papers in literature, languages, and other disciplines in the humanities.
  • Chicago style. Outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style and sometimes used for papers in the humanities and the sciences; many professional organizations use this style for publications as well.
  • Associated Press (AP) style. Used by professional journalists.

References List

The brief citations included in the body of your paper correspond to the more detailed citations provided at the end of the paper in the references section. In-text citations provide basic information—the author’s name, the publication date, and the page number if necessary—while the references section provides more extensive bibliographical information. Again, this information allows your reader to follow up on the sources you cited and do additional reading about the topic if desired.

The specific format of entries in the list of references varies slightly for different source types, but the entries generally include the following information:

  • The name(s) of the author(s) or institution that wrote the source
  • The year of publication and, where applicable, the exact date of publication
  • The full title of the source
  • For books, the city of publication
  • For articles or essays, the name of the periodical or book in which the article or essay appears
  • For magazine and journal articles, the volume number, issue number, and pages where the article appears
  • For sources on the web, the URL where the source is located

The references page is double spaced and lists entries in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. If an entry continues for more than one line, the second line and each subsequent line are indented five spaces. Review the following example. ( Chapter 13 “APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting” , Section 13.3 “Creating a References Section” provides extensive guidelines for formatting reference entries for different types of sources.)

References Section

In APA style, book and article titles are formatted in sentence case, not title case. Sentence case means that only the first word is capitalized, along with any proper nouns.

Key Takeaways

  • Following proper citation and formatting guidelines helps writers ensure that their work will be taken seriously, give proper credit to other authors for their work, and provide valuable information to readers.
  • Working ahead and taking care to cite sources correctly the first time are ways writers can save time during the editing stage of writing a research paper.
  • APA papers usually include an abstract that concisely summarizes the paper.
  • APA papers use a specific headings structure to provide a clear hierarchy of information.
  • In APA papers, in-text citations usually include the name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication.
  • In-text citations correspond to entries in the references section, which provide detailed bibliographical information about a source.

Writing for Success Copyright © 2015 by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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APA 7th ed. Style Guide

  • Formatting Your Paper
  • In-text Citations
  • Textual Works
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Formatting guidelines and sample papers are found in chapter 2 of the APA 7th edition Publication Manual

Sample papers.

You can find sample papers from Purdue OWL's website, APA 7th edition Publication Manual, or APA style website.

  • APA Style Student Paper with Annotations in the Comments A Word Document featuring an APA 7th edition Style Student Paper that includes annotations as comments.
  • APA Style Professional Paper with Annotations in Comments A Word Document featuring an APA 7th edition Style Professional Paper that includes annotations as comments.
  • Purdue OWL Sample Papers

General Formatting Guidelines

Follow these guidelines throughout your paper:

  • Double space text
  • Header for student and professional papers includes the page number in the upper right hand corner
  • Single space after ending punctuation
  • Font size and style: Times New Roman 12 pt, Arial 11 pt, Calibri 11 pt, or Georgia 11 pt
  • Use the same font type and size throughout the paper (exceptions for figure images, computer code, and footnotes - see 2.19 in APA Manual)
  • Margins: 1 inch on all sides
  • Left align paragraphs and leave ragged (uneven) margins on the right
  • Indention: use 0.5 inch indention for the first line of every paragraph (use tab key for consistency)

Formatting Title Page

The 7th edition Publication Manual for APA introduced the student and professional papers. The major difference between these two types of papers is found on the title page. Please, see the guidelines below for formatting the title page of your document. Also note, follow your professors' guidelines for formatting the title page.

General Title Page Guidelines:

  • Double space
  • The title should summarize the main idea and be focused/succinct (avoid unnecessary words)
  • Title written in title case (the first letter of each word is capitalized), bold, centered, and positioned in the upper half of the title page
  • Use the author(s) first name, middle initial, and last name as the author's byline

Student Papers:

  • title of the paper
  • name of the author(s)
  • author affiliation (department and institution name)
  • course number and name 
  • instructor name
  • assignment due date (i.e. November 4, 2020)
  • page number (in the header)

Professional Papers:

  • author affiliation
  • author note
  • running head (abbreviated title) - Flush with left margin and written in all capital letters

Formatting Headings

Follow this format for headings (see 2.27 of the Publication Manual for additional details):

Level 1 headings are written in bold title case and aligned to the center. The text begins as a new paragraph.

Level 2 headings are written in bold title case and aligned flush to the left. The text begins as a new paragraph.

Level 3 headings are written in bold, italicized title case, and aligned flush to the left. The text begins as a new paragraph.

Level 4 headings are written in bold title case, indented from the left, and end with a period. The text begins after the period and continues like a regular paragraph.

Level 5 headings are written in bold, italicized title case, indented from the left, and end with a period. The text begins after the period and continues like a regular paragraph.

Formatting Reference List

The following are guidelines for formatting your reference list:

  • Start on a new page after the last page of text
  • Label the page Reference(s) with a capitalized R, written in bold and centered
  • Double space all entries
  • Use hanging indent for reference entries (first line of the reference is flush with left margin, subsequent lines are indented 0.5 inches)
  • Order alphabetically (see chapter 9 section 44-49 for additional instructions on entry order)
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On this site, you will find general information about MLA and APA format styles with specific requirements regarding title pages, headings, margins, and pagination. Regardless of the style manual you follow, use only standard fonts for your paper. Do not enlarge the font to make your paper appear longer; do not make the font smaller so you can fit your paper into the prescribed number of pages. Do not use a cursive or decorative font.

This site offers only examples of the more common citations students use. For a wider range of topics, you need to consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers or the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Both style books are available in the bookstore and at the library.

MLA Formats:

General format and title page: Your research paper needs to be typed and double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5 X 11 inches). Use one-inch margins on all four sides of each page. Unless your professor specifically calls for one, a title page is unnecessary. In place of a title page, MLA style requires a heading on the first page of your paper. The heading appears in the top, left corner of the first page, double-spaced. The heading includes your name, your professor's name, the course you are taking, and the date. Center your title one line below the heading. Double-space the title if it extends past the first line. Write your title in capital and lower-case letters. Do not underline your title or put it in quotation marks. The page number preceded by your last name should appear in the upper right corner one-half inch from the top. Do not use a hyphen, period, or any other punctuation with the page number. Use this example as a guide:

Headings: If your paper is long you may divide it into sections (for example, "Literature Review," "Research Method and Results," and "Discussion"). In some cases, you may divide one or more of those sections into other sections (for example, you might divide the second section listed above into "Participants," "Interview Protocol," and "Caveats"). Your purpose would be to improve clarity. Divisions might help a reader better follow a discussion that extends for twenty-five written pages. Consistently using the same style of heading for each level informs the reader whether the upcoming topic is a subtopic of the previous discussion or another central issue. Select a form for each level of division (for example, you might write Level 1 centered, caps and lower case; Level 2 flush left, lower case only, etc.); use the same form for the same level your paper. Regardless of the system you choose, the title on the title page should conform to MLA standards.

Margins and spacing: All margins should measure one inch. Page numbers will appear within the top margin, but no other text should extend past the one-inch margins. Indent five spaces to begin paragraphs. Double-space the text of your paper.

Pagination: Number all pages of your paper in the upper right corner, one-half inch from the top. Do not write -2- or p. 2. The number should appear by itself with no punctuation.

APA Formats

General format and title page: Your research paper needs to be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5 X 11 inches). Use one to one-and-a-half inch margins on all four sides of each page. APA (American Psychological Association) calls for a title page. A running head on this page is not necessary unless you are submitting your paper for publication. At the top of your title page, flush right and one-half inch from the top edge of the paper (inside your top margin), you will write what is called a "manuscript header." A manuscript header consists of one or two key words from you title followed by the page number (see example). Your title will appear centered on this page, written in capital and lower-case letters. If your title extends past one line, double-space between lines. Your name will appear centered and in capital and lower-case letters one double-spaced line below your title. Your university name (Oregon State University) will be placed one double-spaced line below your name. If you are a communication major, you also will include below the institution's name the title of your department. For example:

The pages of your manuscript should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page, as part of the manuscript header in the upper right corner of each page. Your references should begin on a separate page from the text of the paper under the label "References" (with no quotation marks, underlining, etc.), centered at the top of the page. Appendices and notes should be formatted similarly.

Headings: APA style prescribes five heading levels, but they vary according to the length of your paper. If you are writing a formal piece to be submitted to an undergraduate conference, closely consult the APA style book. For class papers, ask for your professor's preference. If no preference is given, follow the suggestions written in this section under MLA.

Margins and spacing: Leave margins of at least one inch on all sides of your paper. Page numbers will appear within the top margin, but no other text should extend into the margins. Indent five to seven spaces to begin paragraphs. Double-space the text of your paper.

Pagination: Page numbers should be placed in the top margin one inch from the right side of the paper. The number should appear by itself with no punctuation.

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APA 7th Edition Guide

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Components of an APA Paper

  • Getting Started: Formatting Rules
  • Body of Paper
  • Reference List

Setting Up Your Paper: Formatting Rules

APA Style has specific rules about the format of your paper.  Be sure to select one of the six approved font styles, and set margins and line spacing as follows:

  • Calibri, 11 point
  • Arial, 11 point
  • Lucida Sans Unicode, 10 point
  • Times New Roman, 12 point
  • Georgia, 11 point
  • Computer Modern, 10 point
  • ​ Double space entire document including cover page and References list
  • ​ One inch margins at top, bottom, left, and right of page (Word default setting)
  • First line in paragraphs indented 1/2 inch (one stroke of the tab key)
  • ​ Pages are numbered in the header, flush right, beginning with the title page

APA Paper Template

Download a copy of the pre-formatted APA paper template to use for all of your APA assignments. Watch the companion video!

  • APA 7th Edition Paper Template in Word
  • How to Use the APA 7th Edition Paper Template View this short video demonstration of how to add your content to the APA paper template.

Order of Pages

Pages of an APA paper appear in the following order:

  • Abstract 
  • Text of paper
  • Reference list
  • Tables 
  • Figures 

NOTE:  Sections appearing in  bold font  are always included in an APA paper; other sections are included if needed.

View this helpful guide created by the APA Style Experts to help you set up your paper:

  • APA 7th Edition Setting Up Your Paper Student Guide

The title page of a student paper includes the page number in header and lists the following information centered in the top half of the page:

  • Title of Paper, bolded
  • Student Name
  • Course Number: Course Title
  • Instructor's Name
  • Assignment Due Date   ( Note: For CBE courses, please use the assignment submission date .)

Note that there is a blank double-spaced line between the title and student's name.

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  • APA Style: Title Page Set-Up according to APA 7th edition Provides helpful information to set up the title page for a student paper.
  • APA 7th Edition - Student Title Page Guide This two-page handout provides the APA 7th Edition guidelines for creating a student paper cover page..

Body of the Paper

Formatting basics.

  • Title centered and bolded at top of page
  • One inch margins (Word default margins)
  • Text double spaced
  • Paragraphs begin with 1/2 inch indent (one stroke of the tab key)
  • One space between sentences

Components of a Research Paper

  • ​ Introduces the topic covered in the paper 
  • States the thesis  or position to be supported   in the body of the paper
  • Usually one or two paragraphs in length
  • ​ Main part of paper
  • Points presented in logical order to support thesis, one point per paragraph
  • length of this section varies; usually a minimum of three paragraphs
  • ​ Restates the thesis 
  • Reinforces major points ma de in the body of the paper

One of the goals of the APA Style is to present information in a clear, concise, and logical manner.  One way to achieve this is by organizing content through the use of  Headings .  APA utilizes five levels of headings within the text of the paper:

  • APA 7th Edition Student Paper Heading Levels Template View this APA 7th Edition sample paper for a visual demonstration of how various levels of headings are formatted.

The References List

In academic writing, resources found through the research process are used to support positions, claims, and points made in a paper or essay.  All sources cited within the text of the paper are listed alphabetically in the reference list.  References provide the reader with information needed to access the source material.  The reference list is its own page and appears at the end of the paper.   

An APA reference is composed of four elements:

Author. (Date). Title.   Source Information.

View example references on the Reference page in this Guide.

Reference List Example

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  • APA 7th Edition Quick References Guide This two-page handout provides a visual guide demonstrating how journal and book references are created.
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APA Page Format

  • Finding and Evaluating Sources (Critical Analysis)
  • Synthesizing Information from Sources
  • MLA Documentation
  • APA In-Text Citations
  • Writing a Research Paper
  • APA Handout
  • Acceptable fonts and sizes: Size 12-point Times New Roman;11-point Arial, Calibri, and Georgia; or 10-point Lucida.
  • Body of paper is aligned left
  • Running head (by instructor preference) in header, left aligned
  • Page number in header right aligned
  • Line Spacing – double throughout
  • Tab in the first line of a paragraph ½” or .5
  • Title is bolded, centered with proper capitalization
  • Level 1 heading on 2nd page of paper, centered and bolded and is usually the title of the paper, never the word Introduction.
  • References is the last page of the paper
  • 1” margins – top, bottom, left, right.
  • Word margins are set in Layout or in File/Page Setup/Margins.
  • Acceptable fonts and sizes: Size 12-point Times New Roman; 11-point Arial, Calibri, and Georgia;10-point Lucida; or other legible font as approved by instructor.
  • Font and font size are important for readability.
  • Do not use bold except for section headings if section headings are used.
  • Do not use all caps except for the title of the paper in the Header or an acronym (NATO, AIDS).
  • Do not use italics or underlining unless there is a rule that says to use them.
  • Left align – this is the usual default setting.
  • Do not block or justify where the right margin is uneven.
  • Alignment can be set in the Paragraph box if the icon is not visible.

Line Spacing

  • Double space –throughout the entire document.
  • Check default settings in the Paragraph box and reset per instructions under Paragraph setting (see below).

Paragraph Settings

Some programs such as Word 2007 and later have defaults in the Paragraph box which interferes with proper double spacing. The settings in the Paragraph dialogue box should be as follows to have proper double spacing.

  • Indentation (on top) should be set at 0 left and 0 right.
  • Spacing (on the lower left) should be set to 0 Before and 0 After.
  • Line Spacing (on the lower right) should be set to double.
  • Check the box that says “Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style.”
  • Click Default (at the bottom) and select Yes to change defaults.

In Google docs , you can change Paragraph settings under Spacing to 0 next to Before and 0 next to After by going into the double spacing tool and clicking Custom Settings.  You will have to select (highlight) the entire paper including the heading in the upper left before making the change once the paper is typed.

In Pages , you can change the Paragraph settings by clicking on Format on the top navigation bar and then Paragraph. Remember that you have to highlight (select) the entire paper including the heading in the upper left before making change in Paragraph once the paper is typed.

First Line of a Paragraph

  • Indent the first word of a paragraph 1/2” or .5 from the left margin.
  • The Tab default is usually at this setting.  If not, reset defaults.

Spacing after a Period or Other End Punctuation

In the 7th edition of APA, only one space is used after the end of a sentence.

Page Number and Running Head

  • In Word, click on the Insert tab and then click on Page Number in the menu bar. It will give you the option of where to insert the page number.
  • Choose to insert the page number at the top of the page, right aligned.
  • The page number appears on every page of the document, including the title page.
  • Place the cursor left of the number and type in the running head.
  • Total length of the running head is 50 characters and spaces.
  • The running head is in all caps.
  • After you typed click tab until the running head is left aligned in the header.
  • Use a plain header format.
  • Do not use bold, underlining, quotation marks, or a different font or color for the title.
  • Do not use the word page or any abbreviation of the word page such as pg. or p. between the running head and the actual page number.

Heading Levels

There are five possible heading levels in APA style.

  • Level 1 headings are used for top-level or main sections – they are bolded and in the center of the page.
  • Level 2 and Level 3 headings are subsections of Level 1 – they are also bolded, but they are left aligned.
  • Levels 4 and 5 headings are bolded, italicized, indented, and followed by a period.

APA does not use the word Introduction. The Level 1 heading at the beginning of an APA paper is the bolded and centered title of the paper, typed on the first page of the paper after the title page.

See pages 47 - 49 in the APA Publication Manual for more detailed information.

The student paper must include a title page. The following items are included on the student title page unless otherwise indicated by the instructor:

  • The running head is an abbreviation of the title, written in all-caps, left aligned in the header up to 50 character and spaces long (if less than 50 character and spaces long then the entire title can be in the header)
  • Page number is right aligned in the header
  • The running head and page numbers appear on every page of the paper.
  • All the text on the title page is centered and double spaced with proper capitalization (except for the header)
  • Title is a maximum of three to four spaces below the header
  • Directly below the title is the student author’s first and last name
  • On the next line is the college/institution’s name, fully spelled out with proper capitalization
  • Below the institution name is the course number and course name, ex:  COU 1234: Introduction to APA Usage
  • On the next line is the instructor name, ex: Prof. I. Knowalot
  • On the last line is the assignment due date, ex: February 29, 2028

If you are asked to prepare an abstract for your research paper, click Insert/Page Break to get to the top of a new page, and center the word Abstract in bold on the first line. Abstracts are typically no more than 250 words. They are usually a single paragraph with no indentation at the start of the paragraph. Otherwise, they follow the same formatting rules including double spacing.

Reference Page

  • After the last section of your paper insert a page break.
  • Type the word References, bolded, centered with proper capitalization
  • The References page is double spaced.
  • Each reference entry is left-aligned and formatted with a hanging indent.
  • To create the hanging indent, highlight the reference entries and go into the Paragraph box.
  • Under Special, select Hanging from the drop down menu. Once selected, the default under By should be .5’.
  • Remember that your list has to be alphabetized by author. If there is no author or group author, use the title.
  • There are no extra spaces in between entries.
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Thesis / dissertation formatting manual (2024).

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Every page in your manuscript (except the Title and Copyright pages) must be numbered.

All page numbers should be centered at the bottom of each manuscript page.

See specific Pagination guidelines for the Preliminary Pages and the Text and Reference (Body) Pages .

Page Size and Margins

The final version of your thesis/dissertation must be on an  8.5" x 11" (letter size)  page.

All manuscript text, excluding manuscript page numbers, must fit within these specified margin requirements:

Minimum 1-inch margins  from the top, left, right, and bottom edges of each page

Tables, figures, graphs, photographs, and appendices are also included in these margin requirements. Materials may be reduced or enlarged, if necessary, to fit within the required margins. Pages may be rotated to landscape orientation to accommodate tables or illustrations .

Your manuscript must be  double-spaced,  with the exception of footnotes/endnotes, bibliographic entries, long quotations, data in lists and tables, lists in appendices and figure/table captions, all of which should be single-spaced.

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AMA Citation Guide: Format Your Paper

  • Format Your Paper
  • In-text Citations
  • Audio/Visual
  • Gray Literature
  • For Authors

Setting Up Your Paper

Margins : Use one inch margins on all pages.

Line Spacing :

  • All sections of the paper are single-spaced.
  • Double-space between paragraphs and sections.
  • A serif (e.g., Times New Roman ) 10pt - 12pt font is used for all sections of the paper.
  • In diagrams and charts, a sans serif font is used (e.g., Arial ).

Indents : Use a 1/2 inch indent.

Page Numbering :

  • Each page, beginning with the title page, should be numbered consecutively.
  • Page numbers are usually placed in the upper, right corner.

Page Headers : Short title headers are placed at the top of the page, aligned with the page number.

Reference List :

  • Number the references in the order that they were cited in the text .
  • Single-space within the citation and double-space between citations .
  • There are no hanging indents as seen in other citation styles.

Be sure to ask your instructor or the publisher to whom you're submitting the paper for more specific formatting rules.

Structured Abstracts

Some publishers require a structured abstract depending on the type of research paper submitted. Be sure to check what the publisher's requirements are.

Basic format for structured abstracts can be seen in PubMed: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/policy/structured_abstracts.html .

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MLA 9th Edition : Research Paper Formatting

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About Research Paper Formatting in MLA 9th ed.

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Resources for faculty & staff, help & tutorials, research paper format: summary of notable mla 9th ed. changes.

What has changed from the 8th ed. to the new MLA 9th ed? Not much! The good news is that the  format for both in-text and Works Cited citations remains the same through this update.  The 9th ed. includes expanded lists of examples, more in-depth guidance on using the MLA template, and recommendations for using inclusive language in your research papers. 

MLA 9 Research Paper Formatting

The basics for an MLA 9th ed. formatted research paper are:

  • Margins: 1-inch margins on all sides
  • Font: use an easily readable font (Times New Roman for example) between 11-13 point font. Always follow instructor guidelines. 
  • Spacing: double-spacing throughout
  • Running Header: Surname and page number, right justified 
  • Names and class information: on just the top of the first page, left justified, type your first and last name, the instructor's name, the course name and number, and the date on separate double-spaced lines.
  • Title: place the title of the paper below the date, centered, in upper and lower case letters, unbolded. 
  • Body: indent the first line of each paragraph half an inch from the left margin.
  • Use only one space after a period in the body of the paper.
  • MLA 9th ed. Research Paper Format

Details for formatting your paper in MLA Style (9th Edition). 

Additional information:

MLA 9 Templates & Guide

  • MLA 9th ed. Word Template Save this template to your desktop or flash drive and then adapt it for your paper. Margins, font, spacing, header with page numbers, title page, and works cited page are preset to meet MLA 9th edition.
  • MLA 9th ed. Google Docs Template MAKE SURE YOU ARE LOGGED INTO GOOGLE DOCS (OR GMAIL) before accessing this link. Select the link, select "Use Template," and then adapt it for your paper. Margins, font, spacing, headers, page numbers, title page, and works cited page are preset to meet MLA 9 specifications.

Sample MLA 9th ed. Papers

  • MLA Style Sample Papers (9th ed.) Several sample papers from the Modern Language Association (MLA).
  • MLA Style Student Research Paper Sample
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Margin (Composition Format) Definition

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The part of a page that's outside the main body of text  is a margin .  Word processors let us set margins so that they're either aligned ( justified ) or ragged ( unjustified ). For most school or college writing assignments (including articles , essays , and reports ), only the left-hand margin should be justified. (This glossary entry, for instance, is left justified only.)

As a general rule, margins of at least one inch should appear on all four sides of a hard copy. The specific guidelines below have been drawn from the most commonly used style guides . Also, see:

  • Block Quotation
  • Indentation
  • Justification

From the Latin, "border"

  • APA Guidelines on Margins "Leave uniform margins of at least 1 in. (2.54 cm) at the top, bottom, left, and right of every page. Combined with a uniform typeface and font size, uniform margins enhance readability and provide a consistent gauge for estimating article length." ( Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6th ed. APA. 2010)
  • MLA Guidelines on Margins "Except for page numbers, leave margins  of one inch at the top and bottom and on both sides of the text. . . . If you lack 8½-by-11-inch paper and use a larger size, do not print the text in an area greater than 6½ by 9 inches. Indent the first word of a paragraph one-half inch from the left margin. Indent set-off quotations one inch from the left margin." ( MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers , 7th ed. The Modern Language Association of America, 2009)
  • Turabian's Chicago-Style Guidelines on Margins "Nearly all papers in the United States are produced on standard pages of 8½ x 11 inches. Leave a margin of at least one inch on all four edges of the page. For a thesis or dissertation intended to be bound, you may need to leave a bigger margin on the left side--usually 1½ inches. "Be sure that any material placed in headers or footers, including page numbers and other identifiers . . ., falls within the margins specified in your local guidelines." (Kate L. Turabian et al., A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers , 8th ed. University of Chicago Press, 2013)
  • Guidelines on Margins in Business Letters and Reports "Use a 2-inch top margin for the first page of a business letter printed on letterhead stationery. Any second and succeeding pages of a business letter have 1-inch top margins. Use left justification. "Select the side margins according to the number of words in the letter and the size of the font used to prepare the letter. Set the margins after keying the letter and using the word count feature of your word processing program. . . . " Reports and manuscripts may be prepared with either 1.25-inch left and right margins or 1-inch left and right margins, depending upon the preference of the originator. If the report or manuscript is to be bound on the left, allow an additional 0.25 inch for the left margin. "The first page of major parts (title page, table of contents, bibliography, etc.) and the opening page of sections or chapters require a 2-inch top margin, 2.25 inches for top-bound documents." (James L. Clark and Lyn R. Clark, How 10: A Handbook for Office Workers , 10th ed. Thomson/South-Western, 2003)
  • The New Typography "In the New Typography margins often almost entirely disappear. Of course, type cannot in most cases be set right up to the edge of the paper, which would hinder legibility. In small items of printed matter, 12 to 24 points are the minimum margin required; in posters 48 points. On the other hand, borders of solid red or black can be taken right up to the edge, since unlike type they do not require a white margin to achieve their best effect." (Jan Tschichold, "The Principles of the New Typography," in Texts on Type: Critical Writings on Typography , ed. by Steven Heller and Philip B. Meggs. Allworth Communications, 2001)

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  • Research Paper Basics

How to Format a Research Paper

The work that goes into publishing a research paper spans across multiple requirements. Together with producing sound research material being an intellectual challenge in itself, the detailed and strict citation and formatting guidelines also needs to be taken into consideration by writers.

Writers and academics need to be privy towards the list of formatting requirements that abide by professional research paper publication standards. These includes elements such as font size, line-spacing, page numbering, titling, font or typeface, headers, foot noted, endnotes, cover page, contents page, appendix, bibliography and resources, and so on.

Why is Formatting Important?

Adhering to formatting guidelines has multiple purposes. First and foremost, it reflects a standard of professionalism, and compels readers to take your work seriously; for academics and scholars publishing articles and research papers for other academics in the field and for students to use in their research and school material, and for students for submission and school requirements. These works are also a part of the knowledge contribution to academic and research fields, making it vital that they follow a quality and standard guideline.

It also reflects that you respect other individuals' work and that you hold them in high regard. This is especially prevalent if time is taken to properly credit other writers and their work in your references or bibliography sections. This in turn also helps your readers find more material through your work if they wish to read more.

Producing a research paper may be tedious, but it does not need to be burdensome. Keeping these formatting guidelines in mind while you work on your paper, and after, will aid you in successfully paying attention to the details and producing high quality work.

Types of Formatting

There are a handful of ways you can go about the documentation and formatting of your research papers. These formatting and citation styles have their specific uses and application methods. Amongst all, some of the major formatting styles that are commonly used in academic journals and research papers include the following :

APA - American Psychological Association, a format mostly adhered to for papers on Education, Psychology, and Social Science fields

MLA - Modern Language Association, for the fields of Literature, Arts, and Humanities

AMA - American Medical Association, a formatting guideline that research papers in the field of Biological sciences, and Medicine and Health

Other formatting guidelines that are prevalent outside of academic papers include :

Chicago - Commonly seen in everyday publications such as newspapers and books or novels

Turabian - Universally applied across multiple fields, writing, and publications

The two formatting guidelines that are mostly adhered to in research papers for publication purposes are the APA and MLA formats. The following outline some general rules that should be adhered to all research papers, and is not specific to any set of guidelines :

Sufficient margins ensure readability ad organization on your pages. Leave margins of 1 inch or 2.5 cm at the top, bottom, left and right sides of each page. As a rough gauge, a 1″ inch margin is roughly 10 typed spaces.

  • Page and paragraph numbers

Numbering should be done consecutively and consistently throughout your paper. Page numbers are to be placed 1/2 an inch, or 1.25 cm, from the top upper-right hand corner, and flushed to the right margin.

Page numbers are often written in Arabic numerals. Take note to not stylize or precede it with other symbols to your page number, such as hyphens, asterisks, or a period. If you were to follow the MLA guidelines, it requires writers to include their last name right before the page number

  • Line-spacing

Your work should be double-spaced between lines. This ensures readability and flow for your readers.

  • Section Headings

Main sections in your paper should be indicated with clear section headings. Each main section of your paper begins with a heading that is to be capitalized, aligned to the center, and double spaced from lines both above and below it.

  • Sub-headings

Sub-headings are equally as important as your main headings as they add to the organization and clarity of your paper. The first letter of each word in the sub-headings are to be capitalized, with the entirety of the heading justified to the left. You can choose to bold, italicize, or underline these.

Your title should effectively and concisely describes the main crux and contents of your paper. Before drafting this, think about some descriptive words that you can strongly associate with the subject matter of your paper. Other academics and readers would most likely come across your work through e-database searches, making crafting your title important. If you have effective and accurate words in your titling, search engines should be able to pick up on this and display them for readers to click on and read.

Your title page should include the following key information :

Title of the paper

Author’s full name

Name of institution with which the author is affiliated, or other institutional affiliations

Header (containing the paper title in capitalized letters)

An effective abstract explains and summarizes the predominant subject matter and aspects of your paper. Some of the things an abstract should have include :

Your investigative question

The purpose of your investigation

Any experimental or research design you may have employed

Information on the basic methodology used

Key findings : These could be in the form of quantitative results or trends

A detailed, but relatively brief summary of your interpretations and conclusions

Implications of your results

While your title is a simple, all-encompassing statement about your main investigation or research, the abstract gives you the space to delve into more detail and to elaborate on the main aspects of your paper. Your abstract should not exceed 200 to 300 words. The succinct length allows readers to skim through this section and decide if they would like to continue reading the entire paper.

Embarking on a full-fledged research paper as a student, academic or scholar requires your fullest attention and energy. Apart from the research and writing aspects, these starting guidelines on how to format your paper will guide you through the intricacies of the required formatting , but will also help you to create finished paper that not only reads like it was professionally written – but also looks like it.

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Research Design in Business and Management pp 53–84 Cite as

Writing up a Research Report

  • Stefan Hunziker 3 &
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A research report is one big argument about how and why you came up with your conclusions. To make it a convincing argument, a typical guiding structure has developed. In the different chapters, there are distinct issues that need to be addressed to explain to the reader why your conclusions are valid. The governing principle for writing the report is full disclosure: to explain everything and ensure replicability by another researcher.

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Field, A. (2016). An adventure in statistics. The reality enigma . SAGE.

Field, A. (2020). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics (5th ed.). SAGE.

Früh, M., Keimer, I., & Blankenagel, M. (2019). The impact of Balanced Scorecard excellence on shareholder returns. IFZ Working Paper No. 0003/2019. https://zenodo.org/record/2571603#.YMDUafkzZaQ . Accessed: 9 June 2021.

Pearl, J., & Mackenzie, D. (2018). The book of why: The new science of cause and effect. Basic Books.

Yin, R. K. (2013). Case study research: Design and methods (5th ed.). SAGE.

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Hunziker, S., Blankenagel, M. (2024). Writing up a Research Report. In: Research Design in Business and Management. Springer Gabler, Wiesbaden. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-42739-9_4

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Turabian Paper Examples

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Formatting Guidelines

Margins (a.1.1).

  • Paper size - 8 1/2 x 11 inches
  • 1 inch at top, bottom, and both sides

Font (A.1.2)

  • Use easy to read font, such as Times New Roman
  • 12-point font size

Spacing and Indentation (A.1.3)

  • Block quotations
  • Table elements (titles and captions)
  • Lists in appendixes
  • Footnotes/endnotes and bibliography lists are single-spaced but with a blank line between items.

Pagination  (A.1.4)

  • Do not number the title page
  • Page numbers start on the first page of the text using arabic numbers
  • Can be placed in the center or right side of top or bottom of the paper

Title Page (A.1.5)

  • Center all elements on the page
  • Font size can increase slightly for the title.
  • Preferred format is  boldface  for  title          
  • Title placed approximately 1/3 down page.
  • Two-thirds down page place name, class title, and date

Text  (A.2.2)

  • Align the text to the left with a 1/2-inch left indent
  • Double-space
  • Include sections:  introduction, chapters/sections , and conclusion
  • Spell out long organization names and add the abbreviation in parenthesis, then just use the abbreviation
  • Write out numbers up to nine and use a number for 10 or more
  • Use a number for units of measurement, in tables, to represent statistical or math functions, and dates or times
  • Capitalize major words in the titles of books and articles

Bibliography  (A.2.3.5)

Begins on a new page following the text of your paper and includes complete citations for the resources you've used in your writing.

  • Center "Bibliography" at the top of the new page, leaving two spaces between title and first entry
  • Single-space and use hanging indents (where the first line is on the left margin and the following lines are indented a half inch from the left)
  • List authors' last name first followed by the first and middle initials (ex. Skinner, B.F.) t
  • Alphabetize the list by the first author's last name of of each citation, hen alphabetically by title if you list multiple works by one author. 
  • Add full-sentence annotations on a new line indented from the left margin.
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  • IEEE Paper Format | Template & Guidelines

IEEE Paper Format | Template & Guidelines

Published on August 24, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on April 6, 2023.

IEEE provides guidelines for formatting your paper. These guidelines must be followed when you’re submitting a manuscript for publication in an IEEE journal. Some of the key guidelines are:

  • Formatting the text as two columns, in Times New Roman, 10 pt.
  • Including a byline, an abstract , and a set of keywords at the start of the research paper
  • Placing any figures, tables, and equations at the top or bottom of a column, not in the middle
  • Following the appropriate heading styles for any headings you use
  • Including a full list of IEEE references at the end
  • Not including page numbers

IEEE example paper

To learn more about the specifics of IEEE paper format, check out the free template below. Note that you may not need to follow these rules if you’ve only been told to use IEEE citation format for a student paper. But you do need to follow them to submit to IEEE publications.

Table of contents

Ieee format template, ieee heading styles, frequently asked questions about ieee.

The template below can be used to make sure that your paper follows IEEE format. It’s set up with custom Word styles for all the different parts of the text, with the right fonts and formatting and with further explanation of key points.

Make sure to remove all the explanatory text in the template when you insert your own.

Download IEEE paper format template

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IEEE recommends specific heading styles to distinguish the title and different levels of heading in your paper from each other. Styles for each of these are built into the template.

The paper title is written in 24 pt. Times New Roman, centered at the top of the first page. Other headings are all written in 10 pt. Times New Roman:

  • Level 1 text headings begin with a roman numeral followed by a period. They are written in small caps, in title case, and centered.
  • Level 2 text headings begin with a capital letter followed by a period. They are italicized, left-aligned, and written in title case.
  • Level 3 text headings begin with a number followed by a closing parenthesis . They are italicized, written in sentence case, and indented like a regular paragraph. The text of the section follows the heading immediately, after a colon .
  • Level 4 text headings begin with a lowercase letter followed by a closing parenthesis. They are italicized, written in sentence case, and indented slightly further than a normal paragraph. The text of the section follows the heading immediately, after a colon.
  • Component headings are used for the different components of your paper outside of the main text, such as the acknowledgments and references. They are written in small caps, in title case, centered, and without any numbering.

IEEE heading styles

You should use 10 pt. Times New Roman font in your IEEE format paper .

For the paper title, 26 pt. Times New Roman is used. For some other paper elements like table footnotes, the font can be slightly smaller. All the correct stylings are available in our free IEEE format template .

No, page numbers are not included in an IEEE format paper . If you’re submitting to an IEEE publication, page numbers will be added in the final publication but aren’t needed in the manuscript.

IEEE paper format requires you to include an abstract summarizing the content of your paper. It appears at the start of the paper, right after you list your name and affiliation.

The abstract begins with the word “Abstract,” italicized and followed by an em dash. The abstract itself follows immediately on the same line. The entire section is written in bold font. For example: “ Abstract —This paper discusses … ”

You can find the correct format for your IEEE abstract and other parts of the paper in our free IEEE paper format template .

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2023, April 06). IEEE Paper Format | Template & Guidelines. Scribbr. Retrieved February 22, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/ieee/ieee-paper-format/

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  • A Research Guide
  • Research Paper Guide
  • Research Paper Format
  • Short overview of style formats

Page setup and margins format

Font type and size format.

  • Line and word spacing
  • Numbering pages
  • Title page format
  • Table of contents format
  • Abstract format

Body text formatting

  • Titles of sources format

Bibliography formatting

Supplementary materials formatting.

  • Outline for your paper
  • A final note

Research Paper Format

Short overview of style formats and research paper setup

  • Title page;
  • Headings and subheadings of sections (in each of them, the citation norms must be observed);
  • List of literature.

How do you style and format a research paper?

Line and word spacing and paragraph indentation formatting.

  • If a handwritten research paper is acceptable to your teacher, double-space all lines, and begin each paragraph with an indentation of 1″ from the left margin. Use the width of your thumb as a rough guide.
  • If you use a typewriter or a word processor on a computer, indent 5 spaces or 1/2″ at the beginning of each paragraph. Indent set-off quotations 10 spaces or 1″ from the left margin.
  • If you are NOT indenting, you will start each paragraph flush to the left margin. It is essential that you double-space between lines and quadruple-space between paragraphs.

Numbering pages of the research paper

Title page research essay format.

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Table of contents

Science paper formatting of the abstract, titles of books, magazines, newspapers, or journals.

  • The name of the author or group of authors who wrote the text of the book or source;
  • Date of publication or year of publication;
  • The full title of the book, article, or another source;
  • City of publication of the source;
  • Issue number and page where you got the information from;
  • Site URL if you used internet sources.
  • Text format: TXT, DOC, DOCX, or PDF
  • Image format: JPG, TIF, PNG, GIF, PDF, PS, EPS or BMP
  • Video format: MP4, MOV, WMV or AVI
  • Audio format: MP3, AIFF, MOV (Quicktime Audio), RA (Real Audio), or WAV (Windows Audio)

Keeping essay together

How do you create an outline for your paper, how to write an outline for a research paper.

  • The Introduction .
  • The Conclusion .

A final note on your paper

Introduction.

  • A quick overview or introduction of the topic or issue.
  • The methodology being used.
  • The thesis statement.
  • A full review of every source used and the corresponding literature.
  • A brief explanation of the relevance of the research.
  • Detailed and thorough information about the main points of the argument.
  • Use as many paragraphs as necessary. Each paragraph should represent a different point.
  • Brief summary of the main points or facts mentioned in the body.
  • Reiteration of the thesis statement.
  • Closing remark or thought.

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  • Writing a Research Paper
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  • AMA Style Research Paper
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  • APA Style Research Paper
  • Research Paper Structure
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  • Research Paper Introduction
  • Research Paper Body Paragraph
  • Research Paper Literature Review
  • Research Paper Background
  • Research Paper Methods Section
  • Research Paper Results Section
  • Research Paper Discussion Section
  • Research Paper Conclusion
  • Research Paper Appendix
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APA Research Paper Margins, Spacing and Typing Guide

Knowing the secrets of writing apa research papers.

An APA style research paper (American Psychological Association) is the most prevalently used format for writing research papers and is approved by most institutions. However there are various details which writers need to keep in mind while writing a paper in this particular format, the APA research paper margins , spacing and typing play an essential role in the proper formulation of such a paper and is also important in the final presentation of the paper.

The custom essay writers of ProfEssays.com have mentioned below the specifications of the APA research paper margins and certain other essential points for writing a good research paper in this style.

1. APA research paper margins

  • a. Writers require keeping a 1 inch margin on all the 4 corners of the paper.
  • b. The uniformity of the margin has to be maintained throughout the paper
  • c. The header and footer of an APA format research paper ought to have a ½ inch margin from all corners.

2. Typing and Spacing specifications

  • a. A font size of 10 or 12 requires being used for scripting of the entire paper.
  • b. The text of an APA style paper needs to have double spacing.
  • c. A consistent font size has to be used for writing the entire paper.
  • d. A maximum of 27 lines of text should be contained on each page of the paper.

3. Page numbers

  • a. Every page of the APA paper has to be numbered including the title page of the paper.
  • b. The pages should be numbered on the top right hand corner and should contain a margin of 1 inch from right hand edge of the paper.

4. The main contents of an APA style paper should contain

  • a. An Introduction of the paper
  • b. A research paper abstract, of about 120 words
  • c. The contents page
  • d. The main body of the paper
  • e. The research paper conclusion
  • f. And a research paper bibliography page.

These are the basic essentials of an APA research paper margins , spacing and typing, one requires to closely follow all of these mentioned specifications for the flawless scripting of a paper in this style.

In addition to providing writers with these specifications the custom essay writers of ProfEssays.com can also assist students and researchers in writing of a research paper.

ProfEssays.com has a team of expert and experienced academic writers who have the skill and ability to write on various types of essays and papers ranging from medical research papers, literature papers to IT research papers.

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Looking for an exceptional company to do some custom writing for you? Look no further than ProfEssays.com! You simply place an order with the writing instructions you have been given, and before you know it, your essay or term paper, completely finished and unique, will be completed and sent back to you. At ProfEssays.com, we have over 500 highly educated, professional writers standing by waiting to help you with any writing needs you may have! We understand students have plenty on their plates, which is why we love to help them out. Let us do the work for you, so you have time to do what you want to do!

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Artificial Intelligence Computing Leadership from NVIDIA

Press Release Details

Nvidia announces financial results for fourth quarter and fiscal 2024.

  • Record quarterly revenue of $22.1 billion, up 22% from Q3, up 265% from year ago 
  • Record quarterly Data Center revenue of $18.4 billion, up 27% from Q3, up 409% from year ago
  • Record full-year revenue of $60.9 billion, up 126%

SANTA CLARA, Calif., Feb. 21, 2024 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- NVIDIA (NASDAQ: NVDA) today reported revenue for the fourth quarter ended January 28, 2024, of $22.1 billion, up 22% from the previous quarter and up 265% from a year ago.

For the quarter, GAAP earnings per diluted share was $4.93, up 33% from the previous quarter and up 765% from a year ago. Non-GAAP earnings per diluted share was $5.16, up 28% from the previous quarter and up 486% from a year ago.

For fiscal 2024, revenue was up 126% to $60.9 billion. GAAP earnings per diluted share was $11.93, up 586% from a year ago. Non-GAAP earnings per diluted share was $12.96, up 288% from a year ago.

“Accelerated computing and generative AI have hit the tipping point. Demand is surging worldwide across companies, industries and nations,” said Jensen Huang, founder and CEO of NVIDIA.

“Our Data Center platform is powered by increasingly diverse drivers — demand for data processing, training and inference from large cloud-service providers and GPU-specialized ones, as well as from enterprise software and consumer internet companies. Vertical industries — led by auto, financial services and healthcare — are now at a multibillion-dollar level.

“NVIDIA RTX, introduced less than six years ago, is now a massive PC platform for generative AI, enjoyed by 100 million gamers and creators. The year ahead will bring major new product cycles with exceptional innovations to help propel our industry forward. Come join us at next month’s GTC, where we and our rich ecosystem will reveal the exciting future ahead,” he said.

NVIDIA will pay its next quarterly cash dividend of $0.04 per share on March 27, 2024, to all shareholders of record on March 6, 2024.

Q4 Fiscal 2024 Summary

Fiscal 2024 Summary

Outlook NVIDIA’s outlook for the first quarter of fiscal 2025 is as follows:

  • Revenue is expected to be $24.0 billion, plus or minus 2%.
  • GAAP and non-GAAP gross margins are expected to be 76.3% and 77.0%, respectively, plus or minus 50 basis points.
  • GAAP and non-GAAP operating expenses are expected to be approximately $3.5 billion and $2.5 billion, respectively.
  • GAAP and non-GAAP other income and expense are expected to be an income of approximately $250 million, excluding gains and losses from non-affiliated investments.
  • GAAP and non-GAAP tax rates are expected to be 17.0%, plus or minus 1%, excluding any discrete items.

NVIDIA achieved progress since its previous earnings announcement in these areas: 

Data Center

  • Fourth-quarter revenue was a record $18.4 billion, up 27% from the previous quarter and up 409% from a year ago. Full-year revenue rose 217% to a record $47.5 billion.
  • Launched, in collaboration with Google, optimizations across NVIDIA’s data center and PC AI platforms for Gemma , Google’s groundbreaking open language models.
  • Expanded its strategic collaboration with Amazon Web Services to host NVIDIA ® DGX™ Cloud on AWS.
  • Announced that Amgen will use the NVIDIA DGX SuperPOD ™ to power insights into drug discovery, diagnostics and precision medicine.
  • Announced  NVIDIA NeMo™ Retriever , a generative AI microservice that lets enterprises connect custom large language models with enterprise data to deliver highly accurate responses for AI applications. 
  • Introduced NVIDIA MONAI™ cloud APIs to help developers and platform providers integrate AI into their medical-imaging offerings. 
  • Announced that Singtel will bring generative AI services to Singapore through energy-efficient data centers that the telco is building with NVIDIA Hopper™ architecture GPUs.
  • Introduced plans with Cisco to help enterprises quickly and easily deploy and manage secure AI infrastructure.
  • Supported the National Artificial Intelligence Research Resource pilot program , a major step by the U.S. government toward a shared national research infrastructure.
  • Fourth-quarter revenue was $2.9 billion, flat from the previous quarter and up 56% from a year ago. Full-year revenue rose 15% to $10.4 billion.
  • Launched GeForce RTX™ 40 SUPER Series GPUs , starting at $599, which support the latest NVIDIA RTX™ technologies, including DLSS 3.5 Ray Reconstruction and NVIDIA Reflex.
  • Announced generative AI capabilities for its installed base of over 100 million RTX AI PCs, including Tensor-RT™ LLM to accelerate inference on large language models, and Chat with RTX, a tech demo that lets users personalize a chatbot with their own content.
  • Introduced microservices for the NVIDIA Avatar Cloud Engine , allowing game and application developers to integrate state-of-the-art generative AI models into non-playable characters.
  • Reached the milestone of 500 AI-powered RTX games and applications utilizing NVIDIA DLSS, ray tracing and other NVIDIA RTX technologies.

Professional Visualization

  • Fourth-quarter revenue was $463 million, up 11% from the previous quarter and up 105% from a year ago. Full-year revenue rose 1% to $1.6 billion.
  • Announced adoption of NVIDIA Omniverse ™ by the global automotive-configurator ecosystem.
  • Announced the NVIDIA RTX 2000 Ada Generation GPU , bringing the latest AI, graphics and compute technology to compact workstations.
  • Fourth-quarter revenue was $281 million, up 8% from the previous quarter and down 4% from a year ago. Full-year revenue rose 21% to $1.1 billion.
  • Announced further adoption of its NVIDIA DRIVE ® platform , with Great Wall Motors, ZEEKR and Xiaomi using DRIVE Orin™ to power intelligent automated-driving systems and Li Auto selecting DRIVE Thor™ as its centralized car computer.

CFO Commentary Commentary on the quarter by Colette Kress, NVIDIA’s executive vice president and chief financial officer, is available at https://investor.nvidia.com .

Conference Call and Webcast Information NVIDIA will conduct a conference call with analysts and investors to discuss its fourth quarter and fiscal 2024 financial results and current financial prospects today at 2 p.m. Pacific time (5 p.m. Eastern time). A live webcast (listen-only mode) of the conference call will be accessible at NVIDIA’s investor relations website, https://investor.nvidia.com . The webcast will be recorded and available for replay until NVIDIA’s conference call to discuss its financial results for its first quarter of fiscal 2025.

Non-GAAP Measures To supplement NVIDIA’s condensed consolidated financial statements presented in accordance with GAAP, the company uses non-GAAP measures of certain components of financial performance. These non-GAAP measures include non-GAAP gross profit, non-GAAP gross margin, non-GAAP operating expenses, non-GAAP income from operations, non-GAAP other income (expense), net, non-GAAP net income, non-GAAP net income, or earnings, per diluted share, and free cash flow. For NVIDIA’s investors to be better able to compare its current results with those of previous periods, the company has shown a reconciliation of GAAP to non-GAAP financial measures. These reconciliations adjust the related GAAP financial measures to exclude acquisition termination costs, stock-based compensation expense, acquisition-related and other costs, IP-related costs, other, gains and losses from non-affiliated investments, interest expense related to amortization of debt discount, and the associated tax impact of these items where applicable. Free cash flow is calculated as GAAP net cash provided by operating activities less both purchases related to property and equipment and intangible assets and principal payments on property and equipment and intangible assets. NVIDIA believes the presentation of its non-GAAP financial measures enhances the user’s overall understanding of the company’s historical financial performance. The presentation of the company’s non-GAAP financial measures is not meant to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for the company’s financial results prepared in accordance with GAAP, and the company’s non-GAAP measures may be different from non-GAAP measures used by other companies.

About NVIDIA Since its founding in 1993, NVIDIA (NASDAQ: NVDA) has been a pioneer in accelerated computing. The company’s invention of the GPU in 1999 sparked the growth of the PC gaming market, redefined computer graphics, ignited the era of modern AI and is fueling industrial digitalization across markets. NVIDIA is now a full-stack computing infrastructure company with data-center-scale offerings that are reshaping industry. More information at https://nvidianews.nvidia.com/ .

Certain statements in this press release including, but not limited to, statements as to: demand for accelerated computing and generative AI surging worldwide across companies, industries and nations; our Data Center platform being powered by increasingly diverse drivers, including demand for data processing, training and inference from large cloud-service providers and GPU-specialized ones, as well as from enterprise software and consumer internet companies; vertical industries led by auto, financial, services and healthcare now at a multibillion-dollar level; NVIDIA RTX becoming a massive PC platform for generative AI enjoyed by 100 million gamers and creators; the year ahead bringing major new product cycles with exceptional innovations to help propel our industry forward; our upcoming conference at GTC, where we and our rich ecosystem will reveal the exciting future ahead; NVIDIA’s next quarterly cash dividend; NVIDIA’s financial outlook and expected tax rates for the first quarter of fiscal 2025; the benefits, impact, performance, features and availability of NVIDIA’s products and technologies, including NVIDIA AI platforms, NVIDIA DGX Cloud, NVIDIA DGX SuperPOD, NVIDIA NeMo Retriever, NVIDIA MONAI cloud APIs, NVIDIA Hopper architecture GPUs, NVIDIA GeForce RTX 40 SUPER Series GPUs, NVIDIA DLSS 3.5 Ray Reconstruction, NVIDIA Reflex, NVIDIA TensorRT-LLM, Chat with RTX, microservices for the NVIDIA Avatar Cloud Engine, NVIDIA DLSS, ray tracing and other NVIDIA RTX technologies, NVIDIA Omniverse, NVIDIA RTX 2000 Ada Generation GPU, NVIDIA DRIVE platform, NVIDIA DRIVE Orin and NVIDIA DRIVE Thor; and our collaborations with third parties are forward-looking statements that are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause results to be materially different than expectations. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially include: global economic conditions; our reliance on third parties to manufacture, assemble, package and test our products; the impact of technological development and competition; development of new products and technologies or enhancements to our existing product and technologies; market acceptance of our products or our partners’ products; design, manufacturing or software defects; changes in consumer preferences or demands; changes in industry standards and interfaces; and unexpected loss of performance of our products or technologies when integrated into systems, as well as other factors detailed from time to time in the most recent reports NVIDIA files with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, including, but not limited to, its annual report on Form 10-K and quarterly reports on Form 10-Q. Copies of reports filed with the SEC are posted on the company’s website and are available from NVIDIA without charge. These forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and speak only as of the date hereof, and, except as required by law, NVIDIA disclaims any obligation to update these forward-looking statements to reflect future events or circumstances.

© 2024 NVIDIA Corporation. All rights reserved. NVIDIA, the NVIDIA logo, GeForce, GeForce RTX, NVIDIA DGX, NVIDIA DGX SuperPOD, NVIDIA DRIVE, NVIDIA DRIVE Orin, NVIDIA DRIVE Thor, NVIDIA Hopper, NVIDIA MONAI, NVIDIA NeMo, NVIDIA Omniverse, NVIDIA RTX and TensorRT are trademarks and/or registered trademarks of NVIDIA Corporation in the U.S. and/or other countries. Other company and product names may be trademarks of the respective companies with which they are associated. Features, pricing, availability and specifications are subject to change without notice.

A photo accompanying this announcement is available at https://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/38343cb8-8bc8-42b0-aa76-e3d280ae5507

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Integer Holdings (ITGR) Q4 Earnings and Sales Beat, Margins Up

Integer Holdings Corporation   ( ITGR Quick Quote ITGR - Free Report ) delivered adjusted earnings per share (EPS) of $1.39 in the fourth quarter of 2023, which improved 25.2% year over year. The figure topped the Zacks Consensus Estimate by 3.7%.

The adjustments include expenses related to the amortization of intangible assets and restructuring and restructuring-related charges, among others.

GAAP EPS for the quarter was 78 cents, reflecting an improvement of 52.9% year over year.

Revenues in Detail

Integer Holdings registered revenues of $413.2 million in the fourth quarter, up 10.9% year over year. The figure surpassed the Zacks Consensus Estimate by 0.3%.

Organically, revenues increased 9.5%.

Robust Medical sales drove the company’s top line in the reported period.

Segmental Analysis

Integer Holdings operates through two segments — Medical Sales and Non-Medical Sales.

Medical Sales reported revenues of $404.1 million, up 13.3% year over year on a reported and 11.9% on an organic basis.

Medical Sales has three product lines — Advanced Surgical, Orthopedics & Portable Medical (AS&O); Cardio & Vascular; and Cardiac Rhythm Management (CRM) & Neuromodulation.

Integer Holdings’ AS&O revenues amounted to $28.6 million, up 0.7% year over year on a reported basis but down 9.1% organically.

Revenues at the Cardio & Vascular business totaled $222.6 million, up 19.9% from the prior-year quarter on a reported basis and up 16.9% organically. This business was driven by strong demand, acquisition performance and supply-chain improvements.

Revenues at the Cardiac Rhythm Management & Neuromodulation business were $152.8 million, up 7.1% year over year both on a reported and organic basis. The business was driven by double-digit CRM growth from strong customer demand, double-digit neuromodulation growth from emerging customers and supply-chain improvements.

Revenues in the Non-Medical segment totaled $9.1 million, down 41.9% year over year both on a reported and organic basis.

Margin Analysis

Integer Holdings generated a gross profit of $110.3 million in the fourth quarter, up 12.6% year over year. The gross margin in the reported quarter expanded 40 basis points (bps) to 26.7%.

Selling, general and administrative expenses were $45.8 million, up 11.6% year over year. Research, development and engineering costs were $13.3 million in the quarter, down 4.2% year over year. Operating expenses of $66.7 million increased 9.3% year over year.

Operating income totaled $43.5 million, reflecting an 18% uptick from the prior-year quarter. Operating margin in the fourth quarter expanded 60 bps to 10.5%.

Financial Position

Integer Holdings exited the fourth quarter of 2023 with cash and cash equivalents of $23.7 million compared with $32.1 million at the end of the third quarter. Total long-term debt at the end of fourth-quarter 2023 was $959.9 million compared with $941.4 million at the third-quarter end.

Cumulative net cash used by operating activities at the end of fourth-quarter 2023 was $180.2 million against cumulative net cash provided by operating activities of $116.5 million a year ago.

Full-Years Results

Integer Holdings recorded total revenues of $1.6 billion in 2023, up 16.0% year over year. Adjusted EPS for 2023 was $4.67 compared with $3.88 year over year.

2024 Guidance

Integer Holdings has issued its financial outlook for 2024.

For 2024, the company expects revenues in the range of $1.73 billion-$1.77 billion. The Zacks Consensus Estimate is pegged at $1.73 billion.

The company now expects full-year adjusted EPS in the band of $5.01-$5.43. The Zacks Consensus Estimate is pegged at $5.44.

Integer Holdings exited the fourth quarter of 2023 with earnings and revenues surpassing the respective consensus estimates by 3.7% and 0.3%, respectively.

The solid year-over-year top-line and bottom-line performances were impressive. Robust performances by the Medical segment and strength in the majority of its product lines were encouraging. The expansion of both margins bodes well for the stock.

In January 2023, Integer Holdings acquired Pulse Technologies for approximately $140 million to bring in differentiated complex machining and manufacturing capabilities as well as proprietary technologies.

However, the decline in Non-Medical revenues was discouraging.

Integer Holdings Corporation Price, Consensus and EPS Surprise

Integer Holdings Corporation Price, Consensus and EPS Surprise

Integer Holdings Corporation price-consensus-eps-surprise-chart | Integer Holdings Corporation Quote

Zacks Rank and Other Key Picks

Integer Holdings currently carries a Zacks Rank #2 (Buy).

Some other top-ranked stocks to consider in the broader medical space are Universal Health Services  ( UHS Quick Quote UHS - Free Report ) , Cardinal Health  ( CAH Quick Quote CAH - Free Report ) and Elevance Health, Inc  ( ELV Quick Quote ELV - Free Report ) .

Universal Health Services, carrying a Zacks Rank #2 at present, has an estimated growth rate of 4.4% for 2024. UHS’s earnings surpassed estimates in all the trailing four quarters, delivering an average surprise of 5.47%. You can see  the complete list of today’s Zacks #1 Rank (Strong Buy) stocks here.

UHS’s shares have gained 1.9% in the past six months against the  industry ’s 5% decline.

Cardinal Health reported second-quarter fiscal 2024 adjusted EPS of $1.82, beating the Zacks Consensus Estimate by 16.7%. Revenues of $57.45 billion surpassed the Zacks Consensus Estimate by 1.1%. It currently carries a Zacks Rank #2.

Cardinal Health has a long-term estimated growth rate of 15.2%. CAH’s earnings surpassed estimates in all the trailing four quarters, the average surprise being 15.6%.

Elevance Health, carrying a Zacks Rank of 2, reported fourth-quarter 2023 adjusted earnings per share of $5.62, beating the Zacks Consensus Estimate by 1.3%. Revenues of $42.45 billion outpaced the consensus mark by 1.5%.

Elevance Health has a long-term estimated growth rate of 12%. ELV’s earnings surpassed estimates in all the trailing four quarters, the average surprise being 3.1%.

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Stanford Medicine study identifies distinct brain organization patterns in women and men

Stanford Medicine researchers have developed a powerful new artificial intelligence model that can distinguish between male and female brains.

February 20, 2024

sex differences in brain

'A key motivation for this study is that sex plays a crucial role in human brain development, in aging, and in the manifestation of psychiatric and neurological disorders,' said Vinod Menon. clelia-clelia

A new study by Stanford Medicine investigators unveils a new artificial intelligence model that was more than 90% successful at determining whether scans of brain activity came from a woman or a man.

The findings, published Feb. 20 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, help resolve a long-term controversy about whether reliable sex differences exist in the human brain and suggest that understanding these differences may be critical to addressing neuropsychiatric conditions that affect women and men differently.

“A key motivation for this study is that sex plays a crucial role in human brain development, in aging, and in the manifestation of psychiatric and neurological disorders,” said Vinod Menon , PhD, professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences and director of the Stanford Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience Laboratory . “Identifying consistent and replicable sex differences in the healthy adult brain is a critical step toward a deeper understanding of sex-specific vulnerabilities in psychiatric and neurological disorders.”

Menon is the study’s senior author. The lead authors are senior research scientist Srikanth Ryali , PhD, and academic staff researcher Yuan Zhang , PhD.

“Hotspots” that most helped the model distinguish male brains from female ones include the default mode network, a brain system that helps us process self-referential information, and the striatum and limbic network, which are involved in learning and how we respond to rewards.

The investigators noted that this work does not weigh in on whether sex-related differences arise early in life or may be driven by hormonal differences or the different societal circumstances that men and women may be more likely to encounter.

Uncovering brain differences

The extent to which a person’s sex affects how their brain is organized and operates has long been a point of dispute among scientists. While we know the sex chromosomes we are born with help determine the cocktail of hormones our brains are exposed to — particularly during early development, puberty and aging — researchers have long struggled to connect sex to concrete differences in the human brain. Brain structures tend to look much the same in men and women, and previous research examining how brain regions work together has also largely failed to turn up consistent brain indicators of sex.

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Vinod Menon

In their current study, Menon and his team took advantage of recent advances in artificial intelligence, as well as access to multiple large datasets, to pursue a more powerful analysis than has previously been employed. First, they created a deep neural network model, which learns to classify brain imaging data: As the researchers showed brain scans to the model and told it that it was looking at a male or female brain, the model started to “notice” what subtle patterns could help it tell the difference.

This model demonstrated superior performance compared with those in previous studies, in part because it used a deep neural network that analyzes dynamic MRI scans. This approach captures the intricate interplay among different brain regions. When the researchers tested the model on around 1,500 brain scans, it could almost always tell if the scan came from a woman or a man.

The model’s success suggests that detectable sex differences do exist in the brain but just haven’t been picked up reliably before. The fact that it worked so well in different datasets, including brain scans from multiple sites in the U.S. and Europe, make the findings especially convincing as it controls for many confounds that can plague studies of this kind.

“This is a very strong piece of evidence that sex is a robust determinant of human brain organization,” Menon said.

Making predictions

Until recently, a model like the one Menon’s team employed would help researchers sort brains into different groups but wouldn’t provide information about how the sorting happened. Today, however, researchers have access to a tool called “explainable AI,” which can sift through vast amounts of data to explain how a model’s decisions are made.

Using explainable AI, Menon and his team identified the brain networks that were most important to the model’s judgment of whether a brain scan came from a man or a woman. They found the model was most often looking to the default mode network, striatum, and the limbic network to make the call.

The team then wondered if they could create another model that could predict how well participants would do on certain cognitive tasks based on functional brain features that differ between women and men. They developed sex-specific models of cognitive abilities: One model effectively predicted cognitive performance in men but not women, and another in women but not men. The findings indicate that functional brain characteristics varying between sexes have significant behavioral implications.

“These models worked really well because we successfully separated brain patterns between sexes,” Menon said. “That tells me that overlooking sex differences in brain organization could lead us to miss key factors underlying neuropsychiatric disorders.”

While the team applied their deep neural network model to questions about sex differences, Menon says the model can be applied to answer questions regarding how just about any aspect of brain connectivity might relate to any kind of cognitive ability or behavior. He and his team plan to make their model publicly available for any researcher to use.

“Our AI models have very broad applicability,” Menon said. “A researcher could use our models to look for brain differences linked to learning impairments or social functioning differences, for instance — aspects we are keen to understand better to aid individuals in adapting to and surmounting these challenges.”

The research was sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (grants MH084164, EB022907, MH121069, K25HD074652 and AG072114), the Transdisciplinary Initiative, the Uytengsu-Hamilton 22q11 Programs, the Stanford Maternal and Child Health Research Institute, and the NARSAD Young Investigator Award.

About Stanford Medicine

Stanford Medicine is an integrated academic health system comprising the Stanford School of Medicine and adult and pediatric health care delivery systems. Together, they harness the full potential of biomedicine through collaborative research, education and clinical care for patients. For more information, please visit med.stanford.edu .

Artificial intelligence

Exploring ways AI is applied to health care

Stanford Medicine Magazine: AI

Read our research on: Immigration & Migration | Podcasts | Election 2024

Regions & Countries

1. race and lgbtq issues in the classroom.

To understand how conversations about race and LGBTQ issues are playing out in schools, we asked public K-12 teachers who have been teaching more than one year how often these topics came up in their classroom in the last school year (2022-23).

A bar chart showing that topics related to racism or racial inequality come up in K-12 classrooms more often than LGBTQ issues.

  • A majority of teachers (56%) say topics related to racism and racial inequality came up at least sometimes.
  • 29% say the same about sexual orientation and gender identity.

By large margins, Democratic teachers are more likely than Republican teachers to say these topics came up at least sometimes in their classroom:

  • 67% of Democratic and Democratic-leaning teachers versus 43% of Republican and Republican-leaning teachers say this about topics related to racism or racial inequality.
  • 36% of Democratic teachers versus 21% of Republican teachers say this about sexual orientation and gender identity.

In addition, teachers in Democratic school districts (those where a majority of residents voted for Joe Biden in the 2020 election) are more likely than those in districts that voted for Donald Trump to say these topics came up in their classroom. Republican and Democratic teachers in Democratic school districts are more likely than their counterparts in Republican school districts to have these topics come up.

These topics are also more likely to come up in urban and suburban schools than rural schools, and in secondary schools than elementary schools. Secondary school teachers who teach English or social studies are the most likely to say these topics come up.

What teachers think students should learn about slavery and gender identity

The survey asked teachers what they think students should learn about slavery and gender identity in school. For these questions, we asked elementary, middle and high school teachers about elementary, middle and high school students, respectively.

The legacy of slavery

A diverging bar chart showing that about two-thirds of teachers say students should learn that the legacy of slavery still affects the position of Black people in American society today.

Most teachers (64%) say students should learn that the legacy of slavery still affects the position of Black people in American society today.

A much smaller share (23%) say students should learn that slavery is part of American history but does not affect the position of Black people in American society today.

Democratic teachers are much more likely than Republican teachers to say students should learn that slavery still affects the position of Black people today (85% vs 35%). Black teachers are more likely than White and Hispanic teachers to say this, and middle and high school teachers are more likely than elementary school teachers to say this.

Gender identity

A third of teachers say students should learn in school that whether someone is a boy or a girl can be different from the sex they were assigned at birth.

A diverging bar chart showing that half of teachers say students should not learn about gender identity in school.

A smaller share (14%) say students should learn that whether someone is a boy or a girl is determined by the sex they were assigned at birth.

Half of teachers say students should not learn about gender identity in school at all.

By a large margin, Democratic teachers are more likely than Republican teachers to say students should learn that someone’s gender can be different from their sex at birth (53% vs 5%). Most Republican teachers (69%) say students should not learn about this topic in school at all.

The majority of elementary school teachers (62%) say elementary school students should not learn about gender identity in school. Some 45% of middle school teachers say the same about middle school students, while 35% of high school teachers say high school students shouldn’t learn about this in school.

Still, more elementary, middle and high school teachers say students should learn that gender can be different from sex at birth than say students should learn that gender is determined by sex at birth.

We asked parents of K-12 students in fall 2022 what they thought their children should learn in school about the legacy of slavery and gender identity. On both topics, parents’ views were more evenly split than the views of teachers.

For teens’ views on what they should learn about these topics, read Chapter 3 of this report.

Should parents be able to opt their children out of learning about race and LGBTQ issues?

A bar chart showing that more teachers say parents should be able to opt their children out of learning about LGBTQ issues than about racism.

When asked if parents should be able to opt their children out of learning about certain topics, if the way they are taught conflicts with parents’ personal views or beliefs:

  • 48% of teachers say yes when it comes to sexual orientation or gender identity.
  • 25% say yes when it comes to topics related to racism or racial inequality.

On both topics, Republican teachers are more than twice as likely as Democratic teachers to say that parents should be able to opt their children out of learning about these topics.

And elementary and middle school teachers are more likely than high school teachers to say that parents should be able to opt their children out.

For the general public’s views on parents opting children out of learning about race and LGBTQ issues, read Chapter 4 of this report.

Social Trends Monthly Newsletter

Sign up to to receive a monthly digest of the Center's latest research on the attitudes and behaviors of Americans in key realms of daily life

Report Materials

Table of contents, ‘back to school’ means anytime from late july to after labor day, depending on where in the u.s. you live, among many u.s. children, reading for fun has become less common, federal data shows, most european students learn english in school, for u.s. teens today, summer means more schooling and less leisure time than in the past, about one-in-six u.s. teachers work second jobs – and not just in the summer, most popular.

About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts .

COMMENTS

  1. Margins

    Margins Use 1-inch margins on every side of the page for an APA Style paper. However, if you are writing a dissertation or thesis, your advisor or institution may specify different margins (e.g., a 1.5-inch left margin to accommodate binding). Learn more

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    On every page, in the upper right margin, 1/2" from the top and flush with the right margin put your last name followed by the page number. On every page (except Figures), in the upper right margin, 1/2" from the top and flush with the right margin, two or three words of the paper title (this is called the running head) appear five spaces to ...

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  6. Research Guides: APA 7th ed. Style Guide: Formatting Your Paper

    Margins: 1 inch on all sides Left align paragraphs and leave ragged (uneven) margins on the right Indention: use 0.5 inch indention for the first line of every paragraph (use tab key for consistency) Formatting Title Page The 7th edition Publication Manual for APA introduced the student and professional papers.

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  8. Title Pages, Headings, Margins, Pagination, and Fonts

    Use one-inch margins on all four sides of each page. Unless your professor specifically calls for one, a title page is unnecessary. In place of a title page, MLA style requires a heading on the first page of your paper. The heading appears in the top, left corner of the first page, double-spaced.

  9. RasGuides: APA 7th Edition Guide: Setting Up Your Paper

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  11. Pagination, Margins, Spacing

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  12. Research Guides: AMA Citation Guide: Format Your Paper

    Margins: Use one inch margins on all pages. Line Spacing: All sections of the paper are single-spaced. Double-space between paragraphs and sections. ... Some publishers require a structured abstract depending on the type of research paper submitted. Be sure to check what the publisher's requirements are.

  13. LibGuides: MLA 9th Edition : Research Paper Formatting

    Title: place the title of the paper below the date, centered, in upper and lower case letters, unbolded. Body: indent the first line of each paragraph half an inch from the left margin. Use only one space after a period in the body of the paper. Details for formatting your paper in MLA Style (9th Edition).

  14. Margins in Essays and Reports

    For a thesis or dissertation intended to be bound, you may need to leave a bigger margin on the left side--usually 1½ inches. "Be sure that any material placed in headers or footers, including page numbers and other identifiers . . ., falls within the margins specified in your local guidelines." (Kate L. Turabian et al.,

  15. Dissertation layout and formatting

    Revised on February 20, 2019. The layout requirements for a dissertation are often determined by your supervisor or department. However, there are certain guidelines that are common to almost every program, such as including page numbers and a table of contents. If you are writing a paper in the MLA citation style, you can use our MLA format guide.

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    IEEE Allowed paper sizes with margins, columns width, length and space between them Also indication on space not to be used, in order to allow printing in different paper size and labeling A4 Letter 12.925 mm = 0.509" 12.925 mm = 0.509" 0.625" = 15.875 mm 0.625" = 15.875 mm 1.69" = 43 mm

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    Use clean, good quality 8 1/2″ x 11″ white paper, one side only. Leave margins of your essay 1″ (2.5 cm) at the top, bottom, left and right sides of every page. 1″ is about 10 typed spaces. The exception is for page numbers placed 1/2″ (1.25 cm) from the top upper-right-hand corner, flushed to the right margin.

  22. APA Research Paper Margins, Spacing and Typing Guide

    1. APA research paper margins a. Writers require keeping a 1 inch margin on all the 4 corners of the paper. b. The uniformity of the margin has to be maintained throughout the paper c. The header and footer of an APA format research paper ought to have a ½ inch margin from all corners. 2. Typing and Spacing specifications a.

  23. NVIDIA Announces Financial Results for Fourth Quarter and Fiscal 2024

    Outlook NVIDIA's outlook for the first quarter of fiscal 2025 is as follows: Revenue is expected to be $24.0 billion, plus or minus 2%. GAAP and non-GAAP gross margins are expected to be 76.3% and 77.0%, respectively, plus or minus 50 basis points.

  24. Integer Holdings (ITGR) Q4 Earnings and Sales Beat, Margins Up

    Integer Holdings Corporation (ITGR Quick Quote ITGR - Free Report) delivered adjusted earnings per share (EPS) of $1.39 in the fourth quarter of 2023, which improved 25.2% year over year. The ...

  25. Cement Q3 Results Review

    DRChoksey Research Report The cement sector experienced healthy sales volume growth, propelled by government-supported infrastructure projects and housing segment expansion. However, compared to the previous quarter, demand faced challenges due to unseasonal rains, festive season impacts, labor shortages, and election-related factors.

  26. Stanford Medicine study identifies distinct brain organization patterns

    The research was sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (grants MH084164, EB022907, MH121069, K25HD074652 and AG072114), the Transdisciplinary Initiative, the Uytengsu-Hamilton 22q11 Programs, the Stanford Maternal and Child Health Research Institute, and the NARSAD Young Investigator Award.

  27. How Much Money Do Amazon Sellers Make?

    The higher the profit margin, the better. Small companies often struggle to achieve profitability in their first few years, but Amazon SMB sellers see healthy profit margins. Over half of sellers (57%) see profit margins higher than 10%. Better still, 28% see profit margins above 20%. On the other hand, 13% said their businesses are not yet ...

  28. MSU hits research milestone, breaking previous records for total

    Michigan State University had an exceptional year for research volume in 2023, breaking previous records by achieving $844 million in total research and development expenditures. ... Annual Safety Report; University Policy on Relationship Violence and Sexual Misconduct; Notice of Nondiscrimination, Anti-Harassment and Non-Retaliation;

  29. Race and LGBTQ issues in the classroom

    By large margins, Democratic teachers are more likely than Republican teachers to say these topics came up at least sometimes in their classroom: ... For teens' views on what they should learn about these topics, read Chapter 3 of this report. ... About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public ...