Reported Speech – Rules, Examples & Worksheet

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| Candace Osmond

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Candace Osmond

Candace Osmond studied Advanced Writing & Editing Essentials at MHC. She’s been an International and USA TODAY Bestselling Author for over a decade. And she’s worked as an Editor for several mid-sized publications. Candace has a keen eye for content editing and a high degree of expertise in Fiction.

They say gossip is a natural part of human life. That’s why language has evolved to develop grammatical rules about the “he said” and “she said” statements. We call them reported speech.

Every time we use reported speech in English, we are talking about something said by someone else in the past. Thinking about it brings me back to high school, when reported speech was the main form of language!

Learn all about the definition, rules, and examples of reported speech as I go over everything. I also included a worksheet at the end of the article so you can test your knowledge of the topic.

What Does Reported Speech Mean?

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Reported speech is a term we use when telling someone what another person said. You can do this while speaking or writing.

There are two kinds of reported speech you can use: direct speech and indirect speech. I’ll break each down for you.

A direct speech sentence mentions the exact words the other person said. For example:

  • Kryz said, “These are all my necklaces.”

Indirect speech changes the original speaker’s words. For example:

  • Kryz said those were all her necklaces.

When we tell someone what another individual said, we use reporting verbs like told, asked, convinced, persuaded, and said. We also change the first-person figure in the quotation into the third-person speaker.

Reported Speech Examples

We usually talk about the past every time we use reported speech. That’s because the time of speaking is already done. For example:

  • Direct speech: The employer asked me, “Do you have experience with people in the corporate setting?”

Indirect speech: The employer asked me if I had experience with people in the corporate setting.

  • Direct speech: “I’m working on my thesis,” I told James.

Indirect speech: I told James that I was working on my thesis.

Reported Speech Structure

A speech report has two parts: the reporting clause and the reported clause. Read the example below:

  • Harry said, “You need to help me.”

The reporting clause here is William said. Meanwhile, the reported clause is the 2nd clause, which is I need your help.

What are the 4 Types of Reported Speech?

Aside from direct and indirect, reported speech can also be divided into four. The four types of reported speech are similar to the kinds of sentences: imperative, interrogative, exclamatory, and declarative.

Reported Speech Rules

The rules for reported speech can be complex. But with enough practice, you’ll be able to master them all.

Choose Whether to Use That or If

The most common conjunction in reported speech is that. You can say, “My aunt says she’s outside,” or “My aunt says that she’s outside.”

Use if when you’re reporting a yes-no question. For example:

  • Direct speech: “Are you coming with us?”

Indirect speech: She asked if she was coming with them.

Verb Tense Changes

Change the reporting verb into its past form if the statement is irrelevant now. Remember that some of these words are irregular verbs, meaning they don’t follow the typical -d or -ed pattern. For example:

  • Direct speech: I dislike fried chicken.

Reported speech: She said she disliked fried chicken.

Note how the main verb in the reported statement is also in the past tense verb form.

Use the simple present tense in your indirect speech if the initial words remain relevant at the time of reporting. This verb tense also works if the report is something someone would repeat. For example:

  • Slater says they’re opening a restaurant soon.
  • Maya says she likes dogs.

This rule proves that the choice of verb tense is not a black-and-white question. The reporter needs to analyze the context of the action.

Move the tense backward when the reporting verb is in the past tense. That means:

  • Present simple becomes past simple.
  • Present perfect becomes past perfect.
  • Present continuous becomes past continuous.
  • Past simple becomes past perfect.
  • Past continuous becomes past perfect continuous.

Here are some examples:

  • The singer has left the building. (present perfect)

He said that the singers had left the building. (past perfect)

  • Her sister gave her new shows. (past simple)
  • She said that her sister had given her new shoes. (past perfect)

If the original speaker is discussing the future, change the tense of the reporting verb into the past form. There’ll also be a change in the auxiliary verbs.

  • Will or shall becomes would.
  • Will be becomes would be.
  • Will have been becomes would have been.
  • Will have becomes would have.

For example:

  • Direct speech: “I will be there in a moment.”

Indirect speech: She said that she would be there in a moment.

Do not change the verb tenses in indirect speech when the sentence has a time clause. This rule applies when the introductory verb is in the future, present, and present perfect. Here are other conditions where you must not change the tense:

  • If the sentence is a fact or generally true.
  • If the sentence’s verb is in the unreal past (using second or third conditional).
  • If the original speaker reports something right away.
  • Do not change had better, would, used to, could, might, etc.

Changes in Place and Time Reference

Changing the place and time adverb when using indirect speech is essential. For example, now becomes then and today becomes that day. Here are more transformations in adverbs of time and places.

  • This – that.
  • These – those.
  • Now – then.
  • Here – there.
  • Tomorrow – the next/following day.
  • Two weeks ago – two weeks before.
  • Yesterday – the day before.

Here are some examples.

  • Direct speech: “I am baking cookies now.”

Indirect speech: He said he was baking cookies then.

  • Direct speech: “Myra went here yesterday.”

Indirect speech: She said Myra went there the day before.

  • Direct speech: “I will go to the market tomorrow.”

Indirect speech: She said she would go to the market the next day.

Using Modals

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If the direct speech contains a modal verb, make sure to change them accordingly.

  • Will becomes would
  • Can becomes could
  • Shall becomes should or would.
  • Direct speech: “Will you come to the ball with me?”

Indirect speech: He asked if he would come to the ball with me.

  • Direct speech: “Gina can inspect the room tomorrow because she’s free.”

Indirect speech: He said Gina could inspect the room the next day because she’s free.

However, sometimes, the modal verb should does not change grammatically. For example:

  • Direct speech: “He should go to the park.”

Indirect speech: She said that he should go to the park.

Imperative Sentences

To change an imperative sentence into a reported indirect sentence, use to for imperative and not to for negative sentences. Never use the word that in your indirect speech. Another rule is to remove the word please . Instead, say request or say. For example:

  • “Please don’t interrupt the event,” said the host.

The host requested them not to interrupt the event.

  • Jonah told her, “Be careful.”
  • Jonah ordered her to be careful.

Reported Questions

When reporting a direct question, I would use verbs like inquire, wonder, ask, etc. Remember that we don’t use a question mark or exclamation mark for reports of questions. Below is an example I made of how to change question forms.

  • Incorrect: He asked me where I live?

Correct: He asked me where I live.

Here’s another example. The first sentence uses direct speech in a present simple question form, while the second is the reported speech.

  • Where do you live?

She asked me where I live.

Wrapping Up Reported Speech

My guide has shown you an explanation of reported statements in English. Do you have a better grasp on how to use it now?

Reported speech refers to something that someone else said. It contains a subject, reporting verb, and a reported cause.

Don’t forget my rules for using reported speech. Practice the correct verb tense, modal verbs, time expressions, and place references.

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reported speech all rules pdf

Reported Speech: Rules, Examples, Exceptions

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👉 Quiz 1 / Quiz 2

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What is reported speech?

“Reported speech” is when we talk about what somebody else said – for example:

  • Direct Speech: “I’ve been to London three times.”
  • Reported Speech: She said she’d been to London three times.

There are a lot of tricky little details to remember, but don’t worry, I’ll explain them and we’ll see lots of examples. The lesson will have three parts – we’ll start by looking at statements in reported speech, and then we’ll learn about some exceptions to the rules, and finally we’ll cover reported questions, requests, and commands.

Reported Speech: Rules, Examples, Exceptions Espresso English

So much of English grammar – like this topic, reported speech – can be confusing, hard to understand, and even harder to use correctly. I can help you learn grammar easily and use it confidently inside my Advanced English Grammar Course.

In this course, I will make even the most difficult parts of English grammar clear to you – and there are lots of opportunities for you to practice!

Reported Speech: Rules, Examples, Exceptions Espresso English

Backshift of Verb Tenses in Reported Speech

When we use reported speech, we often change the verb tense backwards in time. This can be called “backshift.”

Here are some examples in different verb tenses:

Reported Speech (Part 1) Quiz

Exceptions to backshift in reported speech.

Now that you know some of the reported speech rules about backshift, let’s learn some exceptions.

There are two situations in which we do NOT need to change the verb tense.

No backshift needed when the situation is still true

For example, if someone says “I have three children” (direct speech) then we would say “He said he has three children” because the situation continues to be true.

If I tell you “I live in the United States” (direct speech) then you could tell someone else “She said she lives in the United States” (that’s reported speech) because it is still true.

When the situation is still true, then we don’t need to backshift the verb.

Reported Speech: Rules, Examples, Exceptions Espresso English

He said he HAS three children

But when the situation is NOT still true, then we DO need to backshift the verb.

Imagine your friend says, “I have a headache.”

  • If you immediately go and talk to another friend, you could say, “She said she has a headache,” because the situation is still true
  • If you’re talking about that conversation a month after it happened, then you would say, “She said she had a headache,” because it’s no longer true.

No backshift needed when the situation is still in the future

We also don’t need to backshift to the verb when somebody said something about the future, and the event is still in the future.

Here’s an example:

  • On Monday, my friend said, “I ‘ll call you on Friday .”
  • “She said she ‘ll call me on Friday”, because Friday is still in the future from now.
  • It is also possible to say, “She said she ‘d (she would) call me on Friday.”
  • Both of them are correct, so the backshift in this case is optional.

Let’s look at a different situation:

  • On Monday, my friend said, “I ‘ll call you on Tuesday .”
  • “She said she ‘d  call me on Tuesday.” I must backshift because the event is NOT still in the future.

Reported Speech: Rules, Examples, Exceptions Espresso English

Review: Reported Speech, Backshift, & Exceptions

Quick review:

  • Normally in reported speech we backshift the verb, we put it in a verb tense that’s a little bit further in the past.
  • when the situation is still true
  • when the situation is still in the future

Reported Requests, Orders, and Questions

Those were the rules for reported statements, just regular sentences.

What about reported speech for questions, requests, and orders?

For reported requests, we use “asked (someone) to do something”:

  • “Please make a copy of this report.” (direct speech)
  • She asked me to make a copy of the report. (reported speech)

For reported orders, we use “told (someone) to do something:”

  • “Go to the bank.” (direct speech)
  • “He told me to go to the bank.” (reported speech)

The main verb stays in the infinitive with “to”:

  • She asked me to make a copy of the report. She asked me  make  a copy of the report.
  • He told me to go to the bank. He told me  go  to the bank.

For yes/no questions, we use “asked if” and “wanted to know if” in reported speech.

  • “Are you coming to the party?” (direct)
  • He asked if I was coming to the party. (reported)
  • “Did you turn off the TV?” (direct)
  • She wanted to know if I had turned off the TV.” (reported)

The main verb changes and back shifts according to the rules and exceptions we learned earlier.

Notice that we don’t use do/does/did in the reported question:

  • She wanted to know did I turn off the TV.
  • She wanted to know if I had turned off the TV.

For other questions that are not yes/no questions, we use asked/wanted to know (without “if”):

  • “When was the company founded?” (direct)
  • She asked when the company was founded.” (reported)
  • “What kind of car do you drive?” (direct)
  • He wanted to know what kind of car I drive. (reported)

Again, notice that we don’t use do/does/did in reported questions:

  • “Where does he work?”
  • She wanted to know  where does he work.
  • She wanted to know where he works.

Also, in questions with the verb “to be,” the word order changes in the reported question:

  • “Where were you born?” ([to be] + subject)
  • He asked where I was born. (subject + [to be])
  • He asked where was I born.

Reported Speech: Rules, Examples, Exceptions Espresso English

Reported Speech (Part 2) Quiz

Learn more about reported speech:

  • Reported speech: Perfect English Grammar
  • Reported speech: BJYU’s

If you want to take your English grammar to the next level, then my Advanced English Grammar Course is for you! It will help you master the details of the English language, with clear explanations of essential grammar topics, and lots of practice. I hope to see you inside!

I’ve got one last little exercise for you, and that is to write sentences using reported speech. Think about a conversation you’ve had in the past, and write about it – let’s see you put this into practice right away.

Master the details of English grammar:

Reported Speech: Rules, Examples, Exceptions Espresso English

More Espresso English Lessons:

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Reported Speech with Examples and Test (PDF)

Reported speech is used when we want to convey what someone else has said to us or to another person. It involves paraphrasing or summarising what has been said , often changing verb tenses , pronouns and other elements to suit the context of the report.

*doesn’t change

Formula of Reported Speech

The formula for reported speech involves transforming direct speech into an indirect form while maintaining the meaning of the original statement. In general, the formula includes:

  • Choosing an appropriate reporting verb (e.g., say, tell, mention, explain).
  • Changing pronouns and time expressions if necessary.
  • Shifting the tense of the verb back if the reporting verb is in the past tense.
  • Using reporting clauses like “that” or appropriate conjunctions.
  • Adjusting word order and punctuation to fit the structure of the reported speech.

Here’s a simplified formula:

Reporting Verb + Indirect Object + Conjunction + Reported Clause

For example:

  • She said (reporting verb) to me (indirect object) that (conjunction) she liked ice cream (reported clause).

reported speech all rules pdf

Here’s how we use reported speech:

Reporting Verbs: We use verbs like ‘say’ or ‘tell’ to introduce reported speech. If the reporting verb is in the present tense, the tense of the reported speech generally remains the same.

If the reporting verb is in the past tense , the tense of the reported speech often shifts back in time.

Tense Changes: Tense changes are common in reported speech. For example, present simple may change to past simple, present continuous to past continuous, etc. However, some verbs like ‘would’, ‘could’, ‘should’, ‘might’, ‘must’, and ‘ought to’ generally don’t change.

Reported Questions: When reporting questions, we often change them into statements while preserving the meaning. Question words are retained, and the tense of the verbs may change.

Reported Requests and Orders: Requests and orders are reported similarly to statements. Reported requests often use ‘asked me to’ + infinitive, while reported orders use ‘told me to’ + infinitive.

Time Expressions: Time expressions may need to change depending on when the reported speech occurred in relation to the reporting moment. For instance, ‘today’ may become ‘that day’ or ‘yesterday’, ‘yesterday’ might become ‘the day before’, and so forth.

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  Reported Speech A2 – B1 Test – download

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  • Learn how to change tenses, pronouns, expressions of time and place in the reported speech.

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  • Practise the difference between the direct and indirect speech in questions, commands and requests.

Online exercises with answers:

Direct - indirect speech exercise 1 Rewrite sentences in the reported speech.

Direct - indirect speech exercise 2 Report a short dialogue in the reported speech.

Direct - indirect speech exercise 3 Find and correct mistakes in the reported speech.

Direct - indirect speech exercise 4 Choose correct answers in a multiple choice test.

Indirect - direct speech exercise 5 Rewrite sentences from the reported speech to direct speech.

Reported questions, commands and requests:

Reported questions exercise 6 Change the reported questions and orders into direct questions and orders.

Reported questions exercise 7 Change direct questions into reported questions.

Reported commands exercise 8 Make reported commands and requests.

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Reported speech rules PDF Changes of tenses, pronouns, time and place in reported statements, questions and commands.

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Direct + indirect speech

See also: Reported questions + commands

The direct and indirect speech are used to say what other people said, thought or felt. "I like it," he said. - He said that he liked it. "Dan will come," she hoped. - She hoped Dan would come.

The reported (indirect) speech is typically introduced by verbs such as say, tell, admit, complain, explain, remind, reply, think, hope, offer, refuse etc. in the past tense. He said (that) he didn't want it. She explained that she had been at the seaside.

If these verbs are in the past tense, we change the following: a) verb tenses and verb forms b) pronouns c) the adverbs of time and place

A) Verb tenses

We change the tenses in the following way:

  • Present - past "I never understand you," she told me. - She told me she never understood me. "We are doing exercises," he explained. - He explained that they were doing exercises.
  • Present perfect - past perfect "I have broken the window," he admitted. - He admitted that he had broken the window. "I have been waiting since the morning," he complained. - He complained that he had been waiting since the morning.
  • Past - past perfect "She went to Rome," I thought. - I thought that she had gone to Rome. "He was thinking of buying a new car," she said. - She said he had been thinking of buying a new car.
  • Will - conditional Will changes into the conditional. I will come on Sunday," he reminded me. - He reminded me that he would come on Sunday.

As you can see, both the past tense and the present perfect change into the past perfect.

Notes 1. I shall, we shall usually become would . "I shall appreciate it," he said. - He said he would appreciate it. 2. I should, we should usually change into would . "We should be really glad," she told us. - She told us they would be really glad. 3. May becomes might . "I may write to him," she promised. - She promised that she might write to him.

The verb forms remain the same in the following cases:

  • If we use the past perfect tense. Eva: "I had never seen him." - Eva claimed that she had never seen him.
  • If the reporting verb is in the present tense. Bill: "I am enjoying my holiday." - Bill says he is enjoying his holiday. Sandy: "I will never go to work." - Sandy says she will never go to work.
  • When we report something that is still true. Dan: "Asia is the largest continent." - Dan said Asia is the largest continent. Emma: "People in Africa are starving." - Emma said people in Africa are starving.
  • When a sentence is made and reported at the same time and the fact is still true. Michael: "I am thirsty." - Michael said he is thirsty.
  • With modal verbs would, might, could, should, ought to, used to. George: "I would try it." - George said he would try it. Mimi: "I might come." - Mimi said she might come. Steve: "I could fail." - Steve said he could fail. Linda: "He should/ought to stay in bed." - Linda said he should/ought to stay in bed. Mel: "I used to have a car." - Mel said he used to have a car.
  • After wish, would rather, had better, it is time. Margo: "I wish they were in Greece." - Margo said she wished they were in Greece. Matt: "I would rather fly." - Matt said he would rather fly. Betty: "They had better go." - Betty said they had better go. Paul: "It is time I got up." - Paul said it was time he got up.
  • In if-clauses. Martha: "If I tidied my room, my dad would be happy." - Martha said that if she tidied her room, her dad would be happy.
  • In time clauses. Joe: "When I was staying in Madrid I met my best friend." - He said that when he was staying in Madrid he met his best friend.
  • We do not change the past tense in spoken English if it is clear from the situation when the action happened. "She did it on Sunday," I said. - I said she did it on Sunday. We must change it, however, in the following sentence, otherwise it will not be clear whether we are talking about the present or past feelings. "I hated her," he said. - He said he had hated her.
  • We do not usually change the modal verbs must and needn't . But must can become had to or would have to and needn't can become didn't have to or wouldn't have to if we want to express an obligation. Would/wouldn't have to are used to talk about future obligations. "I must wash up." - He said he must wash up/he had to wash up. "I needn't be at school today." - He said he needn't be/didn't have to be at school that day. "We must do it in June." - He said they would have to do it in June. If the modal verb must does not express obligation, we do not change it. "We must relax for a while." (suggestion) - He said they must relax for a while. "You must be tired after such a trip." (certainty) - He said we must be tired after such a trip.

B) Pronouns

We have to change the pronouns to keep the same meaning of a sentence. "We are the best students," he said. - He said they were the best students. "They called us," he said. - He said they had called them. "I like your jeans," she said. - She said she liked my jeans. "I can lend you my car," he said. - He said he could lend me his car.

Sometimes we have to use a noun instead of a pronoun, otherwise the new sentence is confusing. "He killed them," Kevin said. - Kevin said that the man had killed them. If we only make mechanical changes (Kevin said he had killed them) , the new sentence can have a different meaning - Kevin himself killed them.

This and these are usually substituted. "They will finish it this year," he said. - He said they would finish it that year. "I brought you this book," she said. - She said she had brought me the book. "We want these flowers," they said. - They said they wanted the flowers.

C) Time and place

Let's suppose that we talked to our friend Mary on Friday. And she said: "Greg came yesterday."  It means that Greg came on Thursday. If we report Mary's sentence on Sunday, we have to do the following: Mary: "Greg came yesterday." - Mary said that Greg had come the day before. If we say: Mary said Greg had come yesterday , it is not correct, because it means that he came on Saturday.

The time expressions change as follows. now - then, today - that day, tomorrow - the next day/the following day, the day after tomorrow - in two days' time, yesterday - the day before, the day before yesterday - two days before, next week/month - the following week/month, last week/month - the previous week/month, a year ago - a year before/the previous year

Bill: "She will leave tomorrow." - Bill said she would leave the next day. Sam: "She arrived last week." - Sam said she had arrived the previous week. Julie: "He moved a year ago." - Julie said he had moved a year before.

Note If something is said and reported at the same time, the time expressions can remain the same. "I will go on holiday tomorrow," he told me today. - He told me today he would go on holiday tomorrow. "We painted the hall last weekend," she told me this week. - She told me this week they had painted the hall last weekend. On the other hand, if something is reported later, the time expressions are different in the indirect speech. Last week Jim said: "I'm playing next week." If we say his sentence a week later, we will say: Jim said he was playing this week.

Here usually becomes there . But sometimes we make different adjustments. At school: "I'll be here at 10 o'clock," he said. - He said he would be there at 10 o'clock. In Baker Street: "We'll meet here." - He said they would meet in Baker Street.

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Reported speech

Reported speech is how we represent the speech of other people or what we ourselves say. There are two main types of reported speech: direct speech and indirect speech.

Direct speech repeats the exact words the person used, or how we remember their words:

Barbara said, “I didn’t realise it was midnight.”

In indirect speech, the original speaker’s words are changed.

Barbara said she hadn’t realised it was midnight .

In this example, I becomes she and the verb tense reflects the fact that time has passed since the words were spoken: didn’t realise becomes hadn’t realised .

Indirect speech focuses more on the content of what someone said rather than their exact words:

“I’m sorry,” said Mark. (direct)
Mark apologised . (indirect: report of a speech act)

In a similar way, we can report what people wrote or thought:

‘I will love you forever,’ he wrote, and then posted the note through Alice’s door. (direct report of what someone wrote)
He wrote that he would love her forever , and then posted the note through Alice’s door. (indirect report of what someone wrote)
I need a new direction in life , she thought. (direct report of someone’s thoughts)
She thought that she needed a new direction in life . (indirect report of someone’s thoughts)

Reported speech: direct speech

Reported speech: indirect speech

Reported speech: reporting and reported clauses

Speech reports consist of two parts: the reporting clause and the reported clause. The reporting clause includes a verb such as say, tell, ask, reply, shout , usually in the past simple, and the reported clause includes what the original speaker said.

Reported speech: punctuation

Direct speech.

In direct speech we usually put a comma between the reporting clause and the reported clause. The words of the original speaker are enclosed in inverted commas, either single (‘…’) or double (“…”). If the reported clause comes first, we put the comma inside the inverted commas:

“ I couldn’t sleep last night, ” he said.
Rita said, ‘ I don’t need you any more. ’

If the direct speech is a question or exclamation, we use a question mark or exclamation mark, not a comma:

‘Is there a reason for this ? ’ she asked.
“I hate you ! ” he shouted.

We sometimes use a colon (:) between the reporting clause and the reported clause when the reporting clause is first:

The officer replied: ‘It is not possible to see the General. He’s busy.’


Indirect speech

In indirect speech it is more common for the reporting clause to come first. When the reporting clause is first, we don’t put a comma between the reporting clause and the reported clause. When the reporting clause comes after the reported clause, we use a comma to separate the two parts:

She told me they had left her without any money.
Not: She told me, they had left her without any money .
Nobody had gone in or out during the previous hour, he informed us.

We don’t use question marks or exclamation marks in indirect reports of questions and exclamations:

He asked me why I was so upset.
Not: He asked me why I was so upset?

Reported speech: reporting verbs

Say and tell.

We can use say and tell to report statements in direct speech, but say is more common. We don’t always mention the person being spoken to with say , but if we do mention them, we use a prepositional phrase with to ( to me, to Lorna ):

‘I’ll give you a ring tomorrow,’ she said .
‘Try to stay calm,’ she said to us in a low voice.
Not: ‘Try to stay calm,’ she said us in a low voice .

With tell , we always mention the person being spoken to; we use an indirect object (underlined):

‘Enjoy yourselves,’ he told them .
Not: ‘Enjoy yourselves,’ he told .

In indirect speech, say and tell are both common as reporting verbs. We don’t use an indirect object with say , but we always use an indirect object (underlined) with tell :

He said he was moving to New Zealand.
Not: He said me he was moving to New Zealand .
He told me he was moving to New Zealand.
Not: He told he was moving to New Zealand .

We use say , but not tell , to report questions:

‘Are you going now?’ she said .
Not: ‘Are you going now?’ she told me .

We use say , not tell , to report greetings, congratulations and other wishes:

‘Happy birthday!’ she said .
Not: Happy birthday!’ she told me .
Everyone said good luck to me as I went into the interview.
Not: Everyone told me good luck …

Say or tell ?

Other reporting verbs

The reporting verbs in this list are more common in indirect reports, in both speaking and writing:

Simon admitted that he had forgotten to email Andrea.
Louis always maintains that there is royal blood in his family.
The builder pointed out that the roof was in very poor condition.

Most of the verbs in the list are used in direct speech reports in written texts such as novels and newspaper reports. In ordinary conversation, we don’t use them in direct speech. The reporting clause usually comes second, but can sometimes come first:

‘Who is that person?’ she asked .
‘It was my fault,’ he confessed .
‘There is no cause for alarm,’ the Minister insisted .

Verb patterns: verb + that -clause


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Reported speech - 1

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Worksheets - handouts

Reported speech

Worksheets - pdf exercises.

  • Reported statements - worksheet
  • Worksheet - reported questions
  • Reported yes/no questions
  • Worksheet - reported speech
  • Reported speech - exercises pdf
  • Indirect speech - exercises
  • Reported speech - exercises
  • Mixed reported speech 1
  • Mixed reported speech 2
  • Reported speech 1 
  • Reported speech 2  
  • Reported speech 3 
  • Reported speech 4
  • Reported speech 5
  • Reported wh- questions
  • Reported speech - worksheet 
  • Reported commands
  • Reported questions
  • Reported speech 1
  • Reported speech 2
  • Reported requests and orders
  • Reported speech exercise
  • Reported questions - worksheet
  • Indirect speech - worksheet
  • Worksheets pdf - print
  • Grammar worksheets - handouts

Grammar - lessons

  • Reported speech - grammar notes
  • How to use reported speech - lesson
  • Tense changes - grammar

Reported Speech Exercises

Perfect english grammar.

reported speech all rules pdf

Here's a list of all the reported speech exercises on this site:

( Click here to read the explanations about reported speech )

Reported Statements:

  • Present Simple Reported Statement Exercise (quite easy) (in PDF here)
  • Present Continuous Reported Statement Exercise (quite easy) (in PDF here)
  • Past Simple Reported Statement Exercise (quite easy) (in PDF here)
  • Present Perfect Reported Statement Exercise (quite easy) (in PDF here)
  • Future Simple Reported Statement Exercise (quite easy) (in PDF here)
  • Mixed Tense Reported Statement Exercise (intermediate) (in PDF here)
  • 'Say' and 'Tell' (quite easy) (in PDF here)

Reported Questions:

  • Present Simple Reported Yes/No Question Exercise (intermediate) (in PDF here)
  • Present Simple Reported Wh Question Exercise (intermediate) (in PDF here)
  • Mixed Tense Reported Question Exercise (intermediate) (in PDF here)

Reported Orders and Requests:

  • Reported Requests and Orders Exercise (intermediate) (in PDF here)
  • Reported Speech Mixed Exercise 1 (difficult) (in PDF here)
  • Reported Speech Mixed Exercise 2 (difficult) (in PDF here)

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At a Dinner, Trump Assailed Climate Rules and Asked $1 Billion From Big Oil

At a private meeting at Mar-a-Lago, the former president said fossil fuel companies should donate to help him beat President Biden.

  • Share full article

Donald Trump, in a blue suit, white shirt and red tie, walking along what appears to be a garden pathway.

By Lisa Friedman ,  Coral Davenport ,  Jonathan Swan and Maggie Haberman

Former President Donald J. Trump told a group of oil executives and lobbyists gathered at a dinner at his Mar-a-Lago resort last month that they should donate $1 billion to his presidential campaign because, if elected, he would roll back environmental rules that he said hampered their industry, according to two people who were there.

About 20 people attended an April 11 event billed as an “energy round table” at Mr. Trump’s private club, according to those people, who asked not to be identified in order to discuss the private event. Attendees included executives from ExxonMobil, EQT Corporation and the American Petroleum Institute, which lobbies for the oil industry.

The event was organized by the oil billionaire Harold Hamm, who has for years helped to shape Republican energy policies. It was first reported by The Washington Post.

Mr. Trump has publicly railed for months against President Biden’s energy and environmental agenda, as Mr. Biden has raced to restore and strengthen dozens of climate and conservation rules that Mr. Trump had weakened or erased while in office. In particular, Mr. Trump has promised to eliminate Mr. Biden’s new climate rules intended to accelerate the nation’s transition to electric vehicles, and to push a “drill, baby, drill” agenda aimed at opening up more public lands to oil and gas exploration.

Mr. Biden has called climate change an existential threat and has moved to cut the pollution that is dangerously heating the planet and supercharging storms, heat waves and drought.

Over a dinner of chopped steak, Mr. Trump repeated his public promises to delete Mr. Biden’s pollution controls, telling the attendees that they should donate heavily to help him beat Mr. Biden because his policies would help their industries.

“That has been his pitch to everybody,” said Michael McKenna, who worked in the Trump White House but did not attend the event in Florida.

Mr. McKenna said the former president’s appeal to the fossil fuel industry could be summed up as: “Look, you want me to win. You might not even like me, but your other choice is four more years of these guys,” referring to the Biden administration. He added, “The uniform sentiment of guys in the business community is ‘We don’t want four more years of Team Biden.’”

Karoline Leavitt, a spokeswoman for the Trump campaign, did not address the specifics of what Mr. Trump was described as saying at the dinner. In a statement, she attacked President Biden as controlled “by environmental extremists who are trying to implement the most radical energy agenda in history and force Americans to purchase electric vehicles they can’t afford,” and that Mr. Trump is “supported by people who share his vision of American energy dominance to protect our national security and bring down the cost of living for all Americans.”

Mr. Biden’s presidential campaign on Thursday accused Mr. Trump of “straight up selling out working families for campaign donations from oil barons.”

Mr. Biden has frustrated the fossil fuel industry by pursuing the most ambitious climate agenda in the nation’s history. He has signed a sweeping law that pumps $370 billion into incentives for clean energy and electric vehicles and has enacted a suite of tough regulations designed to sharply reduce emissions from the burning of oil, gas and coal.

This year, the Biden administration paused the permitting process for new facilities that export liquefied natural gas in order to study their impact on climate change, the economy and national security.

But the fossil fuel industry has also enjoyed record profits under the Biden administration. Last year, the United States produced record amounts of oil . And even with the pause in new permits for gas export terminals, the United States is the world’s leading exporter of natural gas and is still on track to nearly double its export capacity by 2027 because of projects already permitted and under construction.

Mr. Biden has also approved several oil and gas projects sought by the fossil fuel industry.

He has authorized an enormous $8 billion oil development in Alaska known as the Willow project. He also granted a crucial permit for the Mountain Valley Pipeline, a project championed by Senator Joe Manchin III, a West Virginia Democrat, despite opposition from climate experts and environmental groups. Last month, undeterred by opposition from climate activists, the Biden administration also gave approval for an oil export project in Texas known as the Sea Port Oil Terminal.

Some oil and gas executives have said that they would prefer some of Mr. Biden’s regulations to remain, such as a rule requiring companies to detect and stop methane leaks from oil and gas wells. They said they wanted consistency rather than an endless pattern of regulatory whiplash in which rules are enacted by one administration, repealed by the next and restored by the one after that.

Many, however, have attacked Mr. Biden’s policies, and the industry has contributed heavily to Mr. Trump’s presidential campaign.

Although attendees were told that Mr. Trump’s event was an energy round table, waiting on the chairs of executives and lobbyists at Mar-a-Lago were printouts of PowerPoint slides about migrants at the southern border.

Part of the meeting dwelled on migration, and Mr. Trump declared he wanted separate divisions of Ultimate Fighting Championship fighters: one designated for immigrants who came across the border illegally, and the other for “Americans.”

The room was filled predominantly with oil and gas executives, including Mike Sabel, the chief executive and founder of Venture Global LNG; Toby Rice, the president and chief executive of EQT Corporation; Jack Fusco, the chief executive of Cheniere Energy; and Nick Dell’Osso, the president of Chesapeake Energy.

Also in the room were Doug Burgum, the governor of North Dakota and a former Republican presidential candidate who has been acting as Mr. Trump’s point man on energy issues; and Mr. Hamm, the billionaire executive chairman of Continental Resources, which is among the biggest oil and gas drilling companies in Oklahoma and North Dakota.

Accompanied by Susie Wiles, his top political adviser; Taylor Budowich, a former aide; and Meredith O’Rourke, a fund-raiser, Mr. Trump asked the executives to detail their concerns on energy issues, according to the two attendees.

The American Petroleum Institute, the nation’s top fossil fuel industry group, is running an eight-figure national advertising campaign to promote fossil fuels and “dismantle policy threats,” Mike Sommers, the chief executive of the trade group, has said. Separately, the American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers, which represents petroleum refiners, has started to buy ads in nine battleground states urging Americans to fight Mr. Biden’s regulation on tailpipe emissions.

And states with Republican attorneys general have filed legal challenges against most if not all of Mr. Biden’s regulations, including a suit announced on Thursday by 27 states arguing that the administration overstepped its authority in cracking down on smokestack pollution from power plants.

But Mr. Trump told executives they were not fighting hard enough. He also went on a rant about windmills, the attendees said. Mr. Trump has falsely claimed that wind turbines cause cancer and that offshore wind farms are “driving whales crazy .”

Mr. Trump did not request money in exchange for killing Mr. Biden’s climate regulations, the two people in the room maintained. Rather, the former president told executives that he was determined to squash what he considered anti-business policies, and that the oil industry should therefore want him to win and should raise $1 billion to ensure his success.

He told the executives that the amount of money they would save in taxes and legal expenses after he repealed regulations would more than cover a billion dollar contribution, the people said.

Mr. Hamm has had Mr. Trump’s ear on energy issues dating back to the former president’s 2016 campaign and pushed him to appoint Scott Pruitt to run the Environmental Protection Agency, where Mr. Pruitt denied the established science of climate change and unraveled environmental protections.

After Mr. Trump lost the 2020 election, Mr. Hamm briefly supported some of the former president’s rivals, including Gov. Ron DeSantis of Florida and former United Nations Ambassador Nikki Haley. But the oil tycoon appeared to have had a change of heart. Mr. Hamm donated $3,300 to Mr. Trump’s campaign last year, the maximum allowed for a primary contribution, and another $3,300 in March, according to campaign filings.

Mr. Hamm did not immediately respond to a request for comment. Mr. McKenna said Mr. Hamm continued to play an outsize role in Mr. Trump’s energy policy. “If Harold has an idea, the rest of us have to chase it around,” he said. “Harold Hamm wants that L.N.G. pause gone, he wants the California waiver and the tailpipe rule gone.”

California has for decades received waivers under the Clean Air Act that authorize it to set environmental rules that are tougher than federal regulations. To do business in California, automakers and other industries must comply with its rules. Mr. Trump has promised to revoke California’s waivers.

An earlier version of a picture caption with this article misstated the location of Mar-a-Lago. It is in Palm Beach, Fla., not West Palm Beach.

How we handle corrections

Lisa Friedman is a Times reporter who writes about how governments are addressing climate change and the effects of those policies on communities. More about Lisa Friedman

Coral Davenport covers energy and environment policy, with a focus on climate change, for The Times. More about Coral Davenport

Jonathan Swan is a political reporter covering the 2024 presidential election and Donald Trump’s campaign. More about Jonathan Swan

Maggie Haberman is a senior political correspondent reporting on the 2024 presidential campaign, down ballot races across the country and the investigations into former President Donald J. Trump. More about Maggie Haberman

Our Coverage of the 2024 Election

Presidential Race

Donald Trump leads President Biden in five crucial battleground states, a new set of polls shows , as young and nonwhite voters express discontent with the president over the economy and the war in Gaza.

Biden’s campaign brushed off the findings of the new polls , dismissing their significance and arguing that the president still has six months left before Election Day to persuade voters to support him.

The new polls showed that Robert F. Kennedy Jr. is polling stronger than any third-party candidate has in decades , sapping support from both Biden and Trump.

Trade War With China:  Biden ran for the White House as a sharp critic of Trump’s crackdown on trade with China. In office, though, he has escalated Trump’s trade war  with Beijing, albeit with a very different aim .

A Return to Normal?:  Biden has argued for years that he is the politician to restore normalcy to American politics. But a subset of American voters, have argued that they do not want his version of it .

Trump’s Exaggerated   Emails:  Trump’s campaign has sent supporters a steady stream of fund-raising solicitations that depict a highly dramatized account of his actions at his criminal trial .

Split Over Israel:  Democrats’ divisions over the war in Gaza flared in New York as a tense debate between Representative Jamaal Bowman and his primary opponent, George Latimer, exposed sharp divisions in their party .

What Trump promised oil CEOs as he asked them to steer $1 billion to his campaign

Donald Trump has pledged to scrap President Biden’s policies on electric vehicles and wind energy, as well as other initiatives opposed by the fossil fuel industry.

As Donald Trump sat with some of the country’s top oil executives at his Mar-a-Lago Club last month, one executive complained about how they continued to face burdensome environmental regulations despite spending $400 million to lobby the Biden administration in the last year.

Trump’s response stunned several of the executives in the room overlooking the ocean: You all are wealthy enough, he said, that you should raise $1 billion to return me to the White House. At the dinner, he vowed to immediately reverse dozens of President Biden ’s environmental rules and policies and stop new ones from being enacted, according to people with knowledge of the meeting, who spoke on the condition of anonymity to describe a private conversation.

Giving $1 billion would be a “deal,” Trump said, because of the taxation and regulation they would avoid thanks to him, according to the people.

Trump’s remarkably blunt and transactional pitch reveals how the former president is targeting the oil industry to finance his reelection bid. At the same time, he has turned to the industry to help shape his environmental agenda for a second term, including rollbacks of some of Biden’s signature achievements on clean energy and electric vehicles.

The contrast between the two candidates on climate policy could not be more stark. Biden has called global warming an “existential threat,” and over the last three years, his administration has finalized more than 100 new environmental regulations aimed at cutting air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, restricting toxic chemicals, and conserving public lands and waters. In comparison, Trump has called climate change a “hoax,” and his administration weakened or wiped out more than 125 environmental rules and policies over four years.

In recent months, the Biden administration has raced to overturn Trump’s environmental actions and issue new ones before the November election. So far, Biden officials have overturned 27 Trump actions affecting the fossil fuel industry and completed at least 24 new actions affecting the sector, according to a Washington Post analysis . The Interior Department, for instance, recently blocked future oil drilling across 13 million acres of the Alaskan Arctic .

Despite the oil industry’s complaints about Biden’s policies, the United States is now producing more oil than any country ever has , pumping nearly 13 million barrels per day on average last year. ExxonMobil and Chevron, the largest U.S. energy companies, reported their biggest annual profits in a decade last year.

Yet oil giants will see an even greater windfall — helped by new offshore drilling, speedier permits and other relaxed regulations — in a second Trump administration, the former president told the executives over the dinner of chopped steak at Mar-a-Lago.

Trump vowed at the dinner to immediately end the Biden administration’s freeze on permits for new liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports — a top priority for the executives, according to three people present. “You’ll get it on the first day,” Trump said, according to the recollection of an attendee.

The roughly two dozen executives invited included Mike Sabel, the CEO and founder of Venture Global, and Jack Fusco, the CEO of Cheniere Energy, whose proposed projects would directly benefit from lifting the pause on new LNG exports. Other attendees came from companies including Chevron, Continental Resources, Exxon and Occidental Petroleum, according to an attendance list obtained by The Post.

Trump told the executives that he would start auctioning off more leases for oil drilling in the Gulf of Mexico, a priority that several of the executives raised. He railed against wind power, as The Post previously reported. And he said he would reverse the restrictions on drilling in the Alaskan Arctic.

“You’ve been waiting on a permit for five years; you’ll get it on Day 1,” Trump told the executives, according to the recollection of the attendee.

At the dinner, Trump also promised that he would scrap Biden’s “mandate” on electric vehicles — mischaracterizing ambitious rules that the Environmental Protection Agency recently finalized , according to people who attended. The rules require automakers to reduce emissions from car tailpipes, but they don’t mandate a particular technology such as EVs. Trump called the rules “ridiculous” in the meeting with donors.

The fossil fuel industry has aggressively lobbied against the EPA’s tailpipe rules, which could eat into demand for its petroleum products. The American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers, an industry trade group, has launched a seven-figure campaign against what it calls a de facto “gas car ban.” The campaign includes ads in battleground states warning that the rule will restrict consumer choice.

“Clearly, if you are producing gasoline and diesel, you want to make sure that there’s enough market there,” said Stephen Brown, an energy consultant and a former lobbyist for Tesoro, an oil refining company. “I don’t know that the oil industry would walk in united with a set of asks for the Trump administration, but I think it’s important for this issue to get raised.”

Although the repeal of the EPA rule would benefit the fossil fuel industry, it would probably anger the auto industry, which has invested billions of dollars in the transition away from gasoline-powered cars. Many automakers are under increasing pressure to sell more EVs in Europe, which has tightened its own tailpipe emissions rules, and they are eager to avoid a patchwork of regulations around the globe.

“Automakers need some degree of regulatory certainty from government,” said John Bozzella, president and CEO of the Alliance for Automotive Innovation, which represents Ford, General Motors, Stellantis, Toyota and other car companies.

“What has emerged instead is a wholesale repeal … and then reinstatement … and then repeal again of regulations every four or eight years,” Bozzella said in an email.

Biden’s EV policies have also sparked opposition in Republican-led rural states such as North Dakota, where there are far more oil pump jacks than charging stations. A key figure leading the Trump campaign’s development of its energy policy is North Dakota Gov. Doug Burgum (R), who has been talking extensively to oil donors and CEOs.

At a fundraiser on Saturday in Palm Beach, Fla., Burgum told donors that Trump would halt Biden’s “attack” on fossil fuels, according to a recording of his remarks obtained by The Post.

“What would be the No. 1 thing that President Trump could do on Day 1? It’s stop the hostile attack against all American energy, and I mean all,” Burgum said. “Whether it’s baseload electricity, whether it’s oil, whether it’s gas, whether it’s ethanol, there is an attack on liquid fuels.”

Burgum also criticized the Biden administration’s policies on gas stoves and vehicles with internal combustion engines, claiming that they would prevent consumers from buying both technologies. While the Energy Department recently set new efficiency standards for gas stoves, they would not affect the stoves in people’s kitchens or those currently on the market.

“They’ve got some liberal idea about what products we need,” Burgum said. “You all need EV cars. You don’t need internal combustion. We’ll decide what kind of car you’re going to drive, and we’re going to regulate the other ones out of business. I mean, it’s just in every industry, not just in cars, not just in energy. They’re telling people what stoves you can buy. This is not America.”

The Biden campaign initially declined to comment for this article. After it was published, however, Biden campaign spokesman Ammar Moussa said in a statement that “Donald Trump is selling out working families to Big Oil for campaign checks. It’s that simple.”

“It doesn’t matter to Trump that oil and gas companies charge working families and middle-class Americans whatever they want while raking in record profits — if Donald can cash a check, he’ll do what they say,” Moussa added.

Burgum — a possible contender to lead the Energy Department in a second Trump term — has pushed harder to address climate change than many other Republicans. He set a goal in 2021 for North Dakota — the third-largest oil-producing state — to become carbon-neutral by 2030. He has stressed, however, that the goal won’t be achieved via government mandates or the elimination of fossil fuels, and he has cultivated deep support among oil donors.

Despite Trump’s huge fundraising ask, oil donors and their allies have yet to donate hundreds of millions to his campaign. They have contributed more than $6.4 million to Trump’s joint fundraising committee in the first three months of this year, according to an analysis by the advocacy group Climate Power. Oil billionaire Harold Hamm and others are scheduling a fundraiser for Trump later this year, advisers said, where they expect large checks to flow to his bid to return to office.

One person involved in the industry said many oil executives wanted Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis or another Republican to challenge Biden. But now that Trump is the nominee, this person said, they are going to embrace his policies and give.

Dan Eberhart, chief executive of the oil-field services company Canary and a Trump donor, said the Republican onslaught of donations was not surprising.

“Biden constantly throws a wet blanket to the oil and gas industry,” Eberhart said. “Trump’s ‘drill, baby, drill’ philosophy aligns much better with the oil patch than Biden’s green-energy approach. It’s a no-brainer.”

Alex Witt, a senior adviser for oil and gas with Climate Power, said Trump’s promise is he will do whatever the oil industry wants if they support him. With Trump, Witt said, “everything has a price.”

“They got a great return on their investment during Trump’s first term, and Trump is making it crystal clear that they’re in for an even bigger payout if he’s reelected,” she said.

John Muyskens contributed to this report .

Election 2024

Get the latest news on the 2024 election from our reporters on the campaign trail and in Washington.

Who is running? President Biden and Donald Trump secured their parties’ nominations for the presidency . Here’s how we ended up with a Trump-Biden rematch again.

Key dates and events: From January to June, voters in all states and U.S. territories will pick their party’s nominee for president ahead of the summer conventions. Here are key dates and events on the 2024 election calendar .

Abortion and the election: Voters in about a dozen states could decide the fate of abortion rights with constitutional amendments on the ballot in a pivotal election year. Biden supports legal access to abortion , and he has encouraged Congress to pass a law that would codify abortion rights nationwide. After months of mixed signals about his position, Trump said the issue should be left to states . Here’s how Biden’s and Trump’s abortion stances have shifted over the years.

reported speech all rules pdf


  1. Reported Speech: How To Use Reported Speech

    reported speech all rules pdf

  2. Reported Speech (tables)

    reported speech all rules pdf

  3. Reported speech English as a Second Language (ESL) worksheet. This is

    reported speech all rules pdf

  4. reported speech rules table

    reported speech all rules pdf

  5. Tense Changes When Using Reported Speech in English

    reported speech all rules pdf

  6. Reported Speech Rules & Examples [English Grammar: Direct & Indirect

    reported speech all rules pdf


  1. Indirect Speech

  2. Reported speech. Statement

  3. Class 10 English Reported Speech I Grammar

  4. Unit 48. Reported speech, Косвенная речь. Особые случаи. Разница между say и tell. (урок 2)

  5. What is Direct Indirect Reported Speech? Basic Rules and Examples

  6. Reported Speech


  1. PDF Unit 12A Grammar: Reported Speech(1

    Reported Speech. Greg: "I am cooking dinner Maya.". Maya: "Greg said he was cooking dinner.". So most often, the reported speech is going to be in the past tense, because the original statement, will now be in the past! *We will learn about reporting verbs in part 2 of this lesson, but for now we will just use said/told.

  2. PDF Reported speech

    English grammar rules Reported speech Reported statements If we want to report what other people said, thought or felt, we can use the direct or indirect (reported) speech. The direct speech: "I like it," he said. "Irene is late," he thought. "I will pass the exam," she hoped. The indirect (reported) speech: He said he liked it. He thought that ...


    ENGLISH GRAMMAR Reported Speech 3 All those changes represent the distancing effect of the reported speech. Common sense, together with the time aspect from the speaker's point of view, are more important than the rules when making the usual changes. QUESTIONS IN INDIRECT SPEECH Direct question: He said, "Where is she going?"

  4. Reported Speech

    Watch my reported speech video: Here's how it works: We use a 'reporting verb' like 'say' or 'tell'. ( Click here for more about using 'say' and 'tell' .) If this verb is in the present tense, it's easy. We just put 'she says' and then the sentence: Direct speech: I like ice cream. Reported speech: She says (that) she likes ice cream.

  5. PDF Reported Speech

    reported speech." Richard said that he has had difficulty with reported speech. Richard said, "I lived in France for five years." Sandy said, "I am running to class, but I have forgotten my homework. " Richard said that he had lived in France for five years. Sandy said that she was running to class, but she had forgotten her homework. 2.

  6. Reported Speech

    To change an imperative sentence into a reported indirect sentence, use to for imperative and not to for negative sentences. Never use the word that in your indirect speech. Another rule is to remove the word please. Instead, say request or say. For example: "Please don't interrupt the event," said the host.

  7. PDF Perfect English Grammar

    We would like to show you a description here but the site won't allow us.

  8. Reported Speech: Rules, Examples, Exceptions

    When we use reported speech, we often change the verb tense backwards in time. This can be called "backshift.". Here are some examples in different verb tenses: "I want to go home.". She said she wanted to go home. "I 'm reading a good book.". She said she was reading a good book. "I ate pasta for dinner last night.".

  9. PDF Reported Speech (Intermediate ­ Advanced)

    disagreement with the new rules and stated that he would not accept the changes. Reported Speech (Intermediate ­ Advanced) Exercises and Practice A. Change each direct speech example into the reported speech . The first one has been done for you. 1.

  10. PDF Unit 12B Grammar: Reported Speech(2)

    Take note: All of the above listed reporting verbs can also fit into structure 1: rep. verb (+that) + clause Billy denied (that) he had stolen the bag. She admitted (that) she had left the freezer door open. 4B. Reporting verbs followed by a gerund: rep. verb + preposition + verb+ing. Reported Speech.

  11. PDF Lesson 9. Reported Speech

    Lesson 9. Reported Speech. Direct vs Reported Speech3. Reported speech is when you tell somebody else what you or a person said before. Distinction must be made between direct speech and reported speech. Direct speech vs Reported speech Direct speech Reported speech. She says: "I like tuna fish." She says that she likes tuna fish.

  12. Reported Speech: Important Grammar Rules and Examples • 7ESL

    Reported speech: He asked if he would see me later. In the direct speech example you can see the modal verb 'will' being used to ask a question. Notice how in reported speech the modal verb 'will' and the reporting verb 'ask' are both written in the past tense. So, 'will' becomes 'would' and 'ask' becomes 'asked'.


    4. Once all of the groups of students have been formed, have them read their card aloud to the rest of class. Have them begin with the verb tense, then the direct speech, and then the reported speech. 5. Once finished, have the students turn in their cards, mix them up and then play again.

  14. PDF Unit 9 Reported Speech A)

    Reported or indirect speech occurs when you tell somebody else what you or another person said before. Obviously, if you report what somebody else has said, you y do not normally use the speakers exact words (direct speech), but reported (indirect) speech. Therefore, you need to learn how to transform direct speech into reported speech.

  15. Reported Speech with Examples and Test (PDF)

    Reported Speech (Reporting verb in past tense) "I eat breakfast at 8 AM.". She said (that) she ate breakfast at 8 AM. "We are going to the beach.". They told me (that) they were going to the beach. "He speaks Spanish fluently.". She said (that) he spoke Spanish fluently. "She cooks delicious meals.".

  16. Direct and indirect speech exercises PDF

    Grammar rules PDF: Reported speech rules PDF Changes of tenses, pronouns, time and place in reported statements, questions and commands. English grammar PDF All PDF rules with examples on Direct + indirect speech. See also: Reported questions + commands. The direct and indirect speech are used to say what other people said ...

  17. Reported Speech (B1)

    RS008 - Reported Questions. RS007 - Reported Speech. RS006 - Reported Speech. RS005 - Reported Speech. RS004 - Reported Speech. RS003 - Reported Speech. RS002 - Reported Speech - Mixed Exercises. RS001 - Reported Speech - Mixed Exercises. Adjective and Adverbs - Downloadable PDF Worksheets for English Language Learners - Intermediate Level (B1)

  18. Reported speech

    Reported speech - English Grammar Today - a reference to written and spoken English grammar and usage - Cambridge Dictionary

  19. Reported speech

    Reported speech 2. Reported requests and orders. Reported speech exercise. Reported questions - worksheet. Indirect speech - worksheet. Worksheets pdf - print. Grammar worksheets - handouts. Grammar - lessons. Reported speech - grammar notes.

  20. Reported Speech

    Reported speech is the form in which one can convey a message said by oneself or someone else, mostly in the past. It can also be said to be the third person view of what someone has said. In this form of speech, you need not use quotation marks as you are not quoting the exact words spoken by the speaker, but just conveying the message. Q2.

  21. Reported Speech Exercises

    Perfect English Grammar. Here's a list of all the reported speech exercises on this site: ( Click here to read the explanations about reported speech ) Reported Statements: Present Simple Reported Statement Exercise (quite easy) (in PDF here) Present Continuous Reported Statement Exercise (quite easy)

  22. PDF Direct And Indirect Speech Rules

    3. The tenses of direct speech do not change if the reporting verb is in future tense or present tense. Direct to indirect speech example: Direct: She says/will say, „she is going‟ Indirect: She says/will say she is going. Rule 2 - Direct Speech to Indirect Speech conversion - Present Tense. Present Perfect Changes to Past Perfect.

  23. PDF Direct-Indirect Speech (Rules)

    BASIC RULES FOR INDIRECT SPEECH. Rule No. 1. Words of the speaker (reported speech) are not enclosed in Inverted Commas or Quotation Marks in Indirect Speech. Rule No. 2. Usage of word "that": The conjunction "that" is always used between reporting verb and reported speech in indirect speech. Example: • Direct Speech: He said, "I ...

  24. PDF Direct and Indirect speech with rules and examples

    Note: That is often implied in indirect discourse. It is not mandatory to use it, so it is indicated in brackets in this lesson. Introductory verbs To relate someone's words to both direct and indirect speech, you need an introductory verb. The two most frequent are tell and say, but there are many other possible ones like: ask reply warn

  25. Transforming Direct Speech to Reported Speech: Rules & Examples

    1. Direct Speech refers to the words of the speaker. 2. Reported Speech refers to the of what someone has said. 3.-4. Direct Speech consists of the part and the part. 5. Reported Speech consists of the substance of what the said. quoted introductory retelling speaker.

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    May 9, 2024. Former President Donald J. Trump told a group of oil executives and lobbyists gathered at a dinner at his Mar-a-Lago resort last month that they should donate $1 billion to his ...

  27. PDF State 4-H Leadership Council Filing Process

    Candidates may bring their speech to the stage on 8 ½ X 11 inch paper or smaller note cards. Candidates may use up to 5 PowerPoint slides with their speech. PowerPoint slides must be submitted to the State 4-H Office no later than 2 weeks prior to Roundup. • Administrative Team candidates will present their speech during a Roundup assembly.

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    What Trump promised oil CEOs as he asked them to steer $1 billion to his campaign. Donald Trump has pledged to scrap President Biden's policies on electric vehicles and wind energy, as well as ...

  29. PDF Bill Sponsors Title Last Action

    House • Apr 30, 2024 : Reported Do Pass H Rules - Administrative Oversight : Bill Sponsors Title Last Action : HB 1533: ... rules for all governing members of colleges and universities House • Feb 19, 2024: Read ... Carter Creates provisions relating to free speech policies in higher education and establishes the College Student Free Speech ...