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Application of project management to disaster resilience

  • Applications of OR in Disaster Relief Operations
  • Published: 16 October 2017
  • Volume 283 , pages 561–590, ( 2019 )

Cite this article

natural disasters project work methodology

  • Sameer Prasad 1 ,
  • Jason Woldt 2 ,
  • Jasmine Tata 3 &
  • Nezih Altay 4  

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13 Citations

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In this paper, we apply project management concepts and frameworks to the context of disaster resilience and examine how groups can increase the disaster resilience of a community. Based on our literature review and case study methodology, we develop a model that draws upon the relevant literatures in project management, operations management, disaster management, and organizational behaviour; we then compare that model with 12 disaster-related cases supported by four Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in India. Our model measures disaster resilience using both an encompassing measure we refer to as Total Cost to Community (TCC) that captures the interrelatedness of level of recovery (deliverables), speed of recovery (time), and loss minimization (cost) at a community group level, as well as through learning (single domain or alternate domain). The model indicates that the external elements of the disaster management process (scale, goal complexity, immediacy, and stakeholder variance) influence the internal characteristics of disaster project management (information demands and uncertainty), which in turn influence disaster resilience. The level of community group processes (group strength, group continuity, and group capacity) also influences learning, both directly and indirectly, through internal characteristics of project management. In addition, the relationship between the external elements of disaster recovery and the internal characteristics of disaster project management is moderated by resources available. This model provides interesting new avenues for future theory and research, such as creating operations research models to identify the trigger points for groups becoming effective and exploring the quantification of TCC, a new construct developed in this research. Ultimately, this model can provide a roadmap for NGOs and government entities interested in building disaster resilience among micro-enterprises in vulnerable communities.

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Prasad, S., Woldt, J., Tata, J. et al. Application of project management to disaster resilience. Ann Oper Res 283 , 561–590 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10479-017-2679-9

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Is Your Project Robust to the Impacts of Climate Change and Disasters?

Floods in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

As part of the Tanzanian Urban Resilience Program, a consultative process with stakeholders helped develop a master plan aimed at mitigating flood risk in some of the most flood-prone areas of the city.

Photo: World Bank


  • A stress testing methodology and tool were recently developed to ensure that the economic analyses of World Bank projects properly consider climate and disaster risks.
  • When applied to a transport project in India, the methodology demonstrates that the project is robust to even highly pessimistic climate and disaster scenarios.
  • If deployed widely, this methodology and tool could help ensure that all investments are designed to be robust and resilient to climate and disaster risks and thereby promote adaptation to climate change.

Climate stressors such as temperature increases, sea level rise, water scarcity, and extreme weather events including droughts, hurricanes and floods, are increasingly posing risks to the health, livelihoods, and wellbeing of households and communities. They disrupt critical services, reduce agricultural productivity, and destroy infrastructure and dwellings with increasing frequency. To minimize the effect on people’s wellbeing, these impacts need to be considered and integrated in all investments and projects, regardless of their sector, nature, and financing.

This applies particularly to World Bank projects: to maximize development benefits, it is critical to ensure that our investments are robust, throughout their lifetimes, to a changing climate. The World Bank Group’s newly launched Climate Change Action Plan 2021-2025 starts from the premise that climate and development need to be integrated. To help align climate and development, the newly launched Resilience Ratings System provides a simple approach to measure and disclose the extent to which adaptation and resilience considerations have been integrated into project design. The Resilience Rating System is currently being piloted in a number of investment projects supported by the International Development Association , the World Bank’s fund for the poorest countries. The Resilience Rating System provides a rating from C through to A+ along two complementary dimensions: (1) the resilience of the project design – or the robustness of project design to disaster and climate risks, and the confidence the project will perform as expected in spite of these risks; and (2) the resilience through project outcomes – or the project’s broader contribution to building the climate resilience of beneficiaries. These two dimensions are complementary but different. In particular, all projects should be made resilient to disaster and climate risks, while not all projects need to boost resilience (there are many other valid development outcomes).

"To help align climate and development, the newly launched Resilience Ratings System provides a simple approach to measure and disclose the extent to which adaptation and resilience considerations have been integrated into project design."

To achieve an “A” rating in the resilience of the project design dimension, projects are required to demonstrate that a climate and disaster risk stress test has been incorporated in the project’s economic and financial analysis. Projects are also required to report on how, after risk reduction measures are included, residual risks do not make the project economically or financially unviable (or they at least must disclose the existence of any residual risk).

In this interview, World Bank Climate Change Lead Economist Stéphane Hallegatte and Senior Climate Change Specialist Veronique Morin explain how the climate risk stress testing methodology can support project teams by identifying potential climate and disaster risks to a project and inform decision makers on project robustness.

What is the history behind the Risk Stress Test methodology? What is the methodology designed to do?

The Resilience Rating System has been piloted in more than 20 projects. To help teams perform such a stress test, the World Bank just released a new report, Integrating Climate Change and Natural Disasters in the Economic Analysis of Projects , which provides a methodology – and a tool – to perform a disaster and climate stress test.

Because future changes in climate conditions are highly uncertain, the methodology does not recommend predicting a revised net present value or rate of return. In particular, for projects with long lifetimes, uncertainties are too large and results would be overdependent on assumptions and hypotheses, and risk creating overconfidence.

Instead, the methodology suggests to perform a stress test as part of a project’s economic analysis using various scenarios ranging from the most optimistic to the most pessimistic, and to identify the conditions under which the project may fail, as well as the consequences in case of failure. A reporting template is then proposed to help decision makers assess the level of residual risks, and therefore the project’s attractiveness and economic feasibility.

Practically, the methodology is designed to highlight the risks to project outcomes and evaluation criteria (such as net present value and benefit-to-cost ratio) over long time horizons, in multiple scenarios and accounting for risks along three dimensions:

  • Changes in average climate conditions (e.g., temperature, precipitation);
  • Impacts from natural disasters, with historic frequency and intensity (e.g., hurricanes, floods, wildfires); and
  • Changes in the occurrence of future disasters due to climate change.  

"Early results  have demonstrated that incorporating a climate and disaster risk stress test is far from straightforward."

How can the methodology be implemented?

The report provides step-by-step guidance for considering and incorporating climate risk stress testing into a project’s economic analysis, and general and sector-specific climate and disaster information resources to support the analysis. To assist with the implementation of the stress testing, an accompanying Excel-based Risk Stress Test (RiST) Tool has been developed to illustrate how the three components of climate and disaster risks can be incorporated in a project’s economic analysis, how climate and disaster impacts can be reflected in components of project costs and benefits, how decision metrics can be evaluated under alternative climate scenarios, and how key assumptions and inputs (such as the discount rate) may change the results of the analysis. Moreover, the tool can help determine threshold conditions under which a project may become economically undesirable and thereby help project teams identify possible risk reduction measures. A series of short one to three-minute training videos are provided to demonstrate the applicability of the RiST tool.

Are there any examples of how the methodology has helped project teams identify possible climate and disaster risks and evaluate project robustness?

Illustrative applications are provided for projects in energy, transport, water infrastructure, and agriculture. One of these projects is the  Integrated Transport Project in the state of Meghalaya , India. This project aimed to improve transport connectivity and efficiency and modernize transport sector management. Given that Meghalaya is in one of the wettest regions in the world, the analysis accounted for climate risks by estimating the impact on the costs and benefits of the project of changes in average conditions (i.e., temperature and rainfall patterns) and natural hazards (i.e., landslides and flooding), considering current and future frequency and intensity. The analysis demonstrated that even with a pessimistic baseline scenario (assuming delays in implementation and increase in costs) and a high-end climate impact scenario, the project is still anticipated to generate a positive Net Present Value, even though the expected net benefits can be halved by disaster and climate risks.

Beyond the result of the analysis, the implementation of the stress test guided the team in its exploration of possible disaster and climate risks and provided important information to help assess the project’s economic feasibility, therefore contributing to proper climate and disaster risk management and reduction, and increasing our confidence in the project’s ability to deliver its expected results in spite of today’s and tomorrow’s climate risks.  

  • Climate Explainer: What You Need to Know About the Climate Change Resilience Rating System
  • Explore: Risk Stress Test Tool
  • Download: Resilience Rating System: A Methodology for Building and Tracking Resilience to Climate Change
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An integrated approach to natural disaster management: Public project management and its critical success factors

Profile image of Dean Kyne

Purpose – With an aim to develop an integrated approach for effectively managing natural disasters, this paper has three research objectives. First, it provides a framework for effective natural disaster management from a public project management perspective. Second, it proposes an integrated approach for successfully and effectively managing disaster crisis. Third, it specifies a set of critical success factors for managing disaster related public projects. Design/methodology/approach – A detailed case study of the tsunami was carried out to identify specific problems associated with managing natural disaster in Thailand. Findings – The investigations reveal that the country lacked a master plan for natural disaster management including prediction, warning, mitigation and preparedness, unspecified responsible governmental authority, unclear line of authority, ineffective collaboration among institutions in different levels, lack of encouragement for participation of local and international NGOs, lack of education and knowledge for tsunami in potential disaster effected communities, and lack of information management or database system. Research limitations/implications – This study identifies the specific problems associated with natural disasters management based on a detailed case study of managing tsunami disaster in Thailand in 2004. Practical implications – The proposed integrated approach which includes both proactive and reactive strategies can be applied to managing natural disasters successfully in Thailand. Originality/value – This paper highlights the importance of having proactive and reactive strategies for natural disaster management.

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This paper examines the problems faced by disaster management and relief organizations during handling different disaster-related projects. It focuses on the causes, and control and techniques adopted by different countries to effectively manage the disasters. Four different cases have been studied and analyzed to develop an understanding of issue faced by the organizations. Recommendations have been proposed for improving management policies. Findings of this research highlight the importance and need for coordination among different regional, national and international organizations to minimize the risks and vulnerabilities, and to ensure the availability of resources required for relief and rehabilitation.

Khairul Hisyam Kamarudin , Noraini Chong

Federal Town and Country Planning Department of Peninsular Malaysia have recently launched three important policy documents namely National Physical Plan 3.0 (Rancangan Fizikal Negara 3, RFN3), National Urbanisation Policy 2.0 (Dasar Perbandaran Negara 2, DPN2) and National Rural Physical Planning Policy (Dasar Perancangan Fizikal Desa Negara 2030, DPF Desa Negara 2030). In these three documents, are the outlined of a comprehensive policy statements which crucial for Malaysia to progress towards becoming a high income developed nation in the view of town planning. Including in these documents, among others, are the government’s emphasis on the fostering efforts in the field of disaster risk management. Disaster has been seen as a major threat that could jeopardise the development of economic, social and physical of a nation as well as the well-being of its people. The damages and loss of property and life cause by the disaster are undesirable. Only by having good and well-coordinated disaster management such as reducing the disaster risk, recovery planning and highly prepared response team including community, can reduce the damages and loss of life, hence enable this country to move forward for achieving the high income developed country. Nevertheless, policies implementation, in disaster management particularly, not only required coordination, corporation and commitment between related agencies, but most importantly is the community as the first responder when disaster strike. Three major issues and challenges identified in this review paper namely: (1) Imbalance of disaster management planning between top-down and bottom up approaches; (2) Lack of coordination for the whole of disaster management cycle and rather working more on disaster emergency response stage; and (3) Lack of planning for long term recovery (post-disaster) process, which resulted in low level of community and stakeholders’ resilience.

Eakarat Boonreang

The past two decades, Thailand faced the natural<br> disasters, for instance, Gay typhoon in 1989, tsunami in 2004, and<br> huge flood in 2011. The disaster management in Thailand was<br> improved both structure and mechanism for cope with the natural<br> disaster since 2007. However, the natural disaster management in<br> Thailand has various problems, for examples, cooperation between<br> related an organizations have not unity, inadequate resources, the<br> natural disaster management of public sectors not proactive, people<br> has not awareness the risk of the natural disaster, and communities<br> did not participate in the natural disaster management.<br> Objective of this study is to find the methods for capacity building<br> in the natural disaster management of Thailand. The concept and<br> information about the capacity building and the natural disaster<br> management of Thailand were reviewed and...

nompumelelo mupupuni

AJHSSR Journal

Disaster management is the bailiwick of dealing with and circumventing the risk. It involves those precautions and safety measures (e.g. mass decontamination, convalescence, quarantine, emergency evacuation as well as supporting and rebuilding of society) that are took after occurring of a disaster event.In general, emergency management is an uninterrupted and continuous efforts of individual department, groups and local communities to manage and ameliorate the hazardous impacts resulting by disaster. The process of emergency management phases involves into mitigation, preparedness, recovery and response. Action taken depends upon the perception of risk that is going to expose. Disaster management plans and strategies relies on activities on which government and non-government bodies are involved. As the activities at each level affect the whole community at all levels. It is common to place the responsibility for governmental emergency management with the institutions for civil defense or within the conventional structure of the emergency services. In the private sector, emergency management is sometimes referred to as business continuity planning. In this paper current policies and strategies of government for different disaster has been revised and highlight the flaws lies in polices and strategies to handle the situations occurred after eruption of disaster. After overviewing the current disaster management system some response and preparedness are presents for guiding the government to revise his policies and safety measures for various departments which are directly responsible to do needful activities and rehabilitation work to mitigate the effects of disaster. Relationship between Development and Disaster There is a significant relationship between development and disaster management as the both are affected each other. The disasters have great undesirableinfluences on both conventional and informal sector of national priority and as it destroyed the whole economic and social cycle of a country because approximate costs of the damages caused by the disaster are often underestimated. However, disasters consequently having adverse effects on the life ofindividuals and households by loss of assets and breadwinner adherents. It slow down the nonfunctional economy through the direct loss of substructure, housing, equipments, industrial plants, domesticparaphernalia as well as the lives of human beings. The loss of employment and economic losses are the indirect losses of the disasters. There are following two important contradictions are referred in the context of above cited section:  Disaster Provides Development Opportunities Disaster can provides the opportunities of the development, because the development programs are designed to reduce the vulnerability and weakness of disasters and their negative consequences. For instance, in the project of house building, it has been encourage to use of homemade bricks that have the ability to withstand in heavy rainfall and stormy weather, as a results the chances destruction are very rare during next tropical storm.  Vulnerability can be Reduced through Development Vulnerability of the system can be reduced with the help of development, because development process highlights the areas of high-risks and parts where the action must be engagedformerlythe occurrences of another disaster assaults. The policymakers can motivate general public by encouraging them to participate in seminars for the realization of vulnerability, and use other common communication sources like TV, radio, newspapers and broachers for spreading the awareness and enable them to participate in the activities of rehabilitations and risk-reduction, in order to reduce the huge loss of infrastructure and life. For example, the Pietermaritzburg flood disaster of 25 December 1995 highlighted a need for speedy development in Eden-dale, and Yellow River Flood (China 1931)-1,000,000-4,000,000 dead. If the people have the basic training of disaster management then the loss of human being might be reduce.

ศิรินันต์ สุวรรณโมลี (Sirinon Suwanmolee)

local actions needed to counter this situation supposed to be 4Cs including cognition, communication, coordination and control following the recommendation of Comfort (2007) who was studied policy implementation at the community level. The study shows that community is an actor impacted decentralization from Local administration organization as well as first encounter the disaster, they have to be open for an operator in the system to take part of the decision-making process in enhancing the community’s resilience to response their crisis by 4 factors as following 1) Cognition is risk monitoring and realizes how to response the situation, damages assessment, and cognition what is the consequence.Learning how to utilize scientific information to mitigate the risk, as well as innovation to enhance adaptability in each phase. 2) Communication is the key led to the inter-agency operation. Communication-based on using’s common scientific information can create share meaning in finding solutions between groups. Contributing clear communication will lead to adjustment on integrated disaster management. 3) Coordination is an action that local actors organize to higher actors and various level actor to achieve a common goal following good communication in mitigating risk 4) Control, the definition of this case is sharing knowledge, abilities and action in response to help affected area mitigate the risk while different organizations can act on their own ways. Thus, controlling risk can be occurred by keeping actions to achieve common objectives to protect lives, property, and recovery. Therefore, to elaborate on how the importance of integrated disaster management to strengthen communities’ resilience in Thailand. This article may represent Meaphun subdistrict’s flash flood and landslide in 2006 as a case study to link issue and solution which have been solved by adopted transdisciplinary approach step by step as follows.

Puntita Tanwattana

Sudhakar Kulkarni

Carlos Alberto Chavez

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International Journal of Scientific Research and Management

Lilybeth Matunhay

Rajarshi Mitra

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samed karovic

Laila Alfirdaus

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Nezih Altay

International Journal of Advanced Research

Iqra Rasheed

Proceedings of International Structural Engineering and Construction

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Yogyakarta International Conference on Public Organization

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Learn more about the Climate Disaster Project’s method for honouring the human dignity of the survivors we work with.

A portrait of an older man wearing glasses and a faded baseball cap talking animatedly with his hands.

Our trauma-informed process gives climate disaster survivors the control they can often lose during news media interviews.

Seeking consent

We ask the survivor permission to work with them, providing a sign-up sheet describing how we’ll co-create a Testimony about their experiences. The survivor can leave the project and ask for that story to be destroyed any time before it is shared.

Co-creating the interview

Our co-creation process starts with a pre-interview where the survivor reviews the questions we’d like to ask them. The survivor can add, remove, and change any of those questions. We then ask them during an interview that takes place in a safe space.

Reviewing with care

From that interview, we produce a transcript and a shorter “as-told-to” article that only uses the survivor’s own words. The survivor reviews the article and transcript before they are shared, removing information that’s uncomfortable and correcting incorrect information.

Do You Have a Story?

We’ll talk to you about how climate change has affected you and what you think can be done about it.

Two Methods of Storytelling

We work with survivors to gather Testimonies about their experiences. We then closely listen to what they’ve said and launch Investigations based on the problems and solutions survivors share with us.

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Eyewitness accounts


The Testimonies we share are “as-told-to” articles adapted from the interviews we conduct with survivors. These articles only use the survivor’s own words, aside from a brief biography at the top.

In-depth reporting


The Investigations we launch are based on what survivors have told us about the problems they’ve experienced and what they think can be done about them.

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Our arts and culture partners adapt our Testimonies for creative spaces and diverse audiences.

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Class 9 SST Project Work On Disaster Management

Home > Class 9 Subject-wise Material

Disaster Management Project

As part of the CBSE 2024–25 syllabus, students are required to prepare and submit Class 9 Social Science projects on disaster management. Educart has created a special page filled with inspiring ideas for various parts of this project.

Here, you will find creative cover page designs, well-designed acknowledgment pages, and even complete project files (in video form) showcasing the top projects on disaster management from previous years.

natural disasters project work methodology

Serial No. Content

Project Structure

The index, also called the Table of Contents, usually comes after acknowledgment. It contains the main heading of the topics arranged in a sequence. Here is an example for reference purpose.

Start your class 9 SST project on disaster management by providing a brief introduction and overview of disaster management. Define disaster followed by the definition of disaster management. Use the following reference to understand the meaning of disaster management, and write the intro part of the project.

natural disasters project work methodology





Explain why disaster management is important given India’s diversified climatic conditions. Explain natural catastrophes such as earthquakes, cyclones, floods, droughts, etc.

natural disasters project work methodology


Write two different types of natural and man-made disasters, along with examples.  

3.1 Natural Disasters

Start with the definition—Natural hazards are environmental events that can affect societies and the human environment. They are different from man-made hazards. For example, a flood caused by changes in river flows is a natural hazard, while a flood caused by a dam failure is a man-made hazard.

Now, describe various natural disasters and their impacts. Quote a few, e.g., of natural disasters like:

  • Earthquakes
  • Hurricanes/Cyclones
  • Volcanic Eruptions
  • Avalanche, etc.

natural disasters project work methodology


3.2 Man-Made Disasters

Next, write about man-made disasters, how they are caused, etc., along with quoting a few examples, like: 

  • Industrial Accidents
  • Nuclear Disasters
  • Environmental degradation

natural disasters project work methodology


Mention the vulnerability profile of India, discussing the States and Union Territories that are disaster-prone. Describe all the factors, both natural and man-induced, responsible for the vulnerability of these states.

natural disasters project work methodology



Write about the two worst disaster cases in India that impacted the lives of millions of people. Mention the following two:

5.1 Natural Disaster: 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami

natural disasters project work methodology

5.2 Man-Made Disaster: Bhopal Gas Tragedy

natural disasters project work methodology


Define what disaster risk reduction is, write about all phases and also describe the disaster management cycle.

6.1 Phases of Disaster Management

Under this topic, describe the key phases of disaster management i.e., the pre-disaster phase, the disaster phase, and the post-disaster phase, and mention all the key components of this phase.  

  • Preparedness
  • Rehabilitation

natural disasters project work methodology


6.2 Disaster Management Cycle

natural disasters project work methodology

Mention various national and international bodies and their role in disaster management. 

  • National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
  • National Disaster Response Force (NDRF)
  • United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR)

natural disasters project work methodology

Mention the Disaster Management Act of 2005. Highlight the key points and explain how the act is beneficial in disaster management.

As technology develops, so does its application, and it has not left any field unaffected. So, describe how technology helps predict, prepare for, and respond to disasters. Provide examples of technologies used in disaster management, such as early warning systems, GIS mapping, and communication tools.

natural disasters project work methodology


Other Measures to Prevent Disasters

Write some of the measures that should be taken to mitigate disasters, for eg: 

  • Disaster resilient infrastructure
  • Climate Change Adaptation
  • Environmentally Sustainable Development
  • Risk Assessment and Vulnerability Mapping
  • Urban Planning and Development


Once you have written down all the important points in your disaster management project for class 9, you should summarize the key points discussed in your project and highlight the importance of effective disaster management for community resilience and safety.

The last page of your project should be a bibliography. Here, you have to provide a list of sources you used for your research, whether books, websites, articles, or any other relevant materials.

Below is the list of references used to provide you with all the important information on the disaster management project for class 9. This might be useful for you, so please do check this out.  


https://iasscore.in/data-story/vulnerability-profile-of-india https://ebooks.inflibnet.ac.in/geop15/chapter/issues-and-challenges-in-disaster-management/

  • Explain the main difference between natural and man-made disasters with examples?
  • How many phases are there in Disaster Management cycle?
  • What measures can be taken to improve disaster preparedness in communities?
  • Describe the role of government agencies in disaster mitigation.
  • What are some challenges faced during the response phase of disaster management?

Examples: Cover Images

Here are a few cover page ideas for the disaster management project for class 9.

natural disasters project work methodology

Examples: Acknowledgement / Index page

Have a look at few creative examples for your project acknowledgement and Index Page.

natural disasters project work methodology

Videos: Topper Project Files

Here are some video links to inspire your disaster management project.

Project Idea- Video 1

Project Idea- Video 2

Project Idea- Video 3

Project Idea- Video 4

Pdfs: full projects.

Download full project PDF of disaster management file for CBSE class 9

natural disasters project work methodology

Sample Project 1

natural disasters project work methodology

Sample Project 2

Sample project 3, sample project 4, sample project 5, sample project 6, other projects.

<red> → <red>  SST Social Issues Project for Class 10

<red> → <red>  SST Sustainable Development Project for Class 10

<red> → <red>   SST Consumer Awareness Project for Class 10

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Official website of the U.S. government

Recovering from a Disaster

  • Project documentation

I told the case worker, 'I’ve already lost everything; haven’t I shown you enough to show you I’m deserving? Do you not trust what I’m saying?'

After receiving funds from FEMA, a son and daughter start work to rebuild their father’s home damaged by Hurricane Maria. They are starting the process by salvaging what they can until contractors, who are in high demand, can begin building a stronger concrete home.

FEMA/K.C. Wilsey

Where we are

An increasing number of Americans face natural disasters each year, yet they often lack the support necessary to fully recover.

When a natural disaster hits, survivors face the painful task of putting the pieces of their lives back together. They must care for basic needs and keep businesses going while enduring stress and trauma. On top of this, people must manage multiple bureaucratic processes with competing guidance, a confusing and frustrating journey at a moment when people expect government to show up and help.

natural disasters project work methodology

1 Source: FEMA

natural disasters project work methodology

Our approach

To start, we listened to people’s stories.

The Life Experience research team spoke with people nationwide about this moment in their lives and where the government process could have been simpler and more helpful. The listening sessions captured honest conversations about peoples' experiences, candid feedback on what could have worked better, and what really made a difference for them. Their stories have been combined and are represented here through illustrations. The quotes are real, but names have been changed.

natural disasters project work methodology

Cristina’s story

natural disasters project work methodology

Jordan’s story

natural disasters project work methodology

Linda’s story

natural disasters project work methodology

The team conducted interviews in-person, virtually, in English, and in Spanish. Participants included people from twelve states and territories who have experienced hurricanes, tornadoes, and wildfires and represented various backgrounds—including low-income renters and home owners, parents, the elderly, new immigrants, veterans, and people with disabilities.

The team spoke with:

  • 43 survivors
  • 22 frontline staff
  • 16 government / nonprofit staff

Discovery insights

Framing for collective thinking about customer pain points

How might we support survivors by minimizing the burden of navigating multiple applications?

How might we better design our information, interactions, and services for people who have endured a traumatic experience and may have ongoing stress?

How might we improve and coordinate our communications about the full range of Federal programs for the general public and small business owners alike?

Design Phase

Designing customer-centered solutions

In the 2024 design phase, the portfolio is running three pilot projects:

  • Building a trauma-informed care approach  will continue working with agency representatives to refine and deliver pilot training modules for Federal staff who serve disaster survivors directly to develop their awareness of trauma-informed care principles to utilize while working on location with people seeking Federal services or assistance.
  • Calculating a more holistic burden estimate  will work with Federal agency High Impact Service Providers (HISPs) to pilot the method and tool, and aims to continue burden assessments within disaster recovery.
  • Streamlining disaster assistance processes  includes multiple  workstreams, including updates to  Disasterassistance.gov , cross-agency referrals and data sharing, and registration process for disaster assistance.

Building a trauma-informed care approach

Collaborating agencies: DHS (FEMA), HHS (SAMHSA), HUD, SBA

Sources: Project Documentation

The project aims to develop and test standardized design guidelines for communications, training, and consultation materials to improve the government’s response and interaction with the public. The interactions include in-person and print, letters, emails, and websites.

The design work will include creating guidelines and resource materials through iterative development and testing with Federal agency staff. These guidelines include training materials to promote better trauma-informed communications and interactions between agencies and disaster survivors.

Project objectives

Help agency and front-line staff have the knowledge, skills, and support via workshops, consultations, and resources to use a trauma-informed approach that enables a more sensitive and effective responsive recovery experience for disaster survivors.

The improvements will help increase survivor comprehension of critical information they receive in times of crisis and their ability to engage with resources and programs available to support them.

December 2023 update

Early in project development, the team learned that disaster recovery staff across agencies are committed to improving their skills in working with survivors. The team co-created three training modules focused on the basics of trauma-informed care; working with survivors; and taking care of oneself when recovering from a disaster. The team piloted in-person training modules in FEMA Region 2, created prototypes of three videos, and produced an accompanying guidebook.

In a site visit to a Disaster Recovery Center (DRC) in Vermont, the team learned first-hand from survivors about their challenges in obtaining Federal assistance. Survivors communicated that engaging with DRC staff helps overcome obstacles in the process. The team discovered that DRC staff are not trained in trauma-informed care or working with survivors, however. Federal staff also struggle to cope with the primary and secondary traumatic stress that may result from doing this work. The team believes that improvements in agencies’ work with disaster survivors will require agencies and front-line staff to integrate trauma-informed care principles and skills into their practices.

Measures of success

Key outcomes:.

The trauma-informed care project will result in increased survivor comprehension and level of engagement with assistance programs.

Design phase project measures:

Calculating a more holistic burden estimate.

Collaborating agencies: DHS (FEMA), SBA, HUD

The project aims to calculate an end-to-end view and more informed estimate of the effort and cost required of disaster survivors and small business owners to apply for, maintain, and receive Federal disaster assistance benefits.

This “holistic burden assessment process” will be designed by building a burden assessment methodology, validating it with agency practitioners and academic experts, and testing it for usage and improvement with other service providers.

Create a consistent and replicable method for measuring and assessing end-to-end burden using a more uniform methodology to capture psychological, learning, and time costs.

High Impact Service Providers (HISPs), Life Experience teams, Federal agencies, and other delivery partners can use the toolkit for their burden assessments and better pinpoint opportunities to improve the customer experience and measure improvements and cost savings.

“ Administrative burden ” refers to the costs of interacting with the government, such as time, money, and psychological stress. Typically, agency burden estimates are limited to the time it takes to complete a form, which doesn’t capture all of the effort and resources an individual might expend to navigate a government service.

The team developed a Holistic Burden Assessment process and prototype tool that uses a customer-centric perspective to learn, categorize, and measure burden across the entire customer journey, including aspects of psychological, learning, compliance, and redemption costs. The team reviewed existing models used worldwide and adapted these practices for use by Federal agencies. The team has initially tested the process and a calculator prototype to assess experiences of disaster survivors and small businesses; however, the calculations are incomplete until the team has more data and time to work with agency experts in the field.

Federal agencies and delivery partners involved in disaster recovery utilize the burden baseline toolkit for service improvements. HISPs, other Life Experience teams, or Federal agencies use the toolkit to understand customer experience burden baselines.

Streamlining disaster assistance processes

Collaborating agencies: DHS (FEMA), SBA, HUD, USDA

The project aims to simplify the experience of applying for Federal disaster assistance programs, in response to extensive feedback from survivors that navigating across application forms can be confusing, frustrating, and often requires sharing the same information multiple times.

The design work involves analyzing data from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Individual Assistance (IA) registration and the Small Business Administration (SBA) disaster loan program, identifying critical moments for the most useful interagency collaboration and data sharing, conducting qualitative research on how to improve the registration process, and implementing changes to improve the application processes and forms themselves.

Improve how survivors begin FEMA’s Individual Assistance (IA) registration process, and clarify how FEMA IA and SBA’s disaster loan application offer direct assistance programs.

These improvements will reduce customer navigation burden, minimize duplication, and effectively communicate steps to access relevant assistance provided by multiple Federal entities. Ultimately, this will enable survivors to receive the aid they are eligible for more, quickly and expedite their recovery.

In early 2023, the team started the design phase with extended scoping to better understand the identified customer pain points in the intake and referral process (when the customer moves between FEMA and SBA). For example, the team learned from Disaster Recovery Center (DRC) staff that technology and communication barriers make it difficult for survivors to navigate the disaster registration intake process with FEMA and the referral process to other Federal agencies that provide individual assistance. The team worked with FEMA and SBA to gather and analyze customer navigation data. They focused on the referral process from FEMA to SBA and learned that 7 percent of all FEMA registrants ultimately apply for assistance with SBA. Evidence from in-person research suggests that survivors who could benefit from assistance from SBA do not understand that the agency provides assistance to homeowners.

The project team consulted with FEMA on potential improvements to disasterassistance.gov and SBA on enhancements to the MySBA Loan Portal to identify areas for improved coordination. Both agencies are progressing on internal changes that will improve the survivor experience and will further shape this project. The team also discussed the possibilities for data sharing and other developments with agency leaders during recurring Steering Committee meetings.

The project’s success is defined by its ability to reduce customer navigation burden, minimize duplication, and effectively communicate steps to access relevant assistance provided by multiple Federal entities, which will enable more survivors to receive the aid they are eligible for and recover more quickly.

Project Documentation

  • Portfolio Charter
  • Portfolio One-Sheet
  • Design Project Summary: Building a TraumaInformed Care Approach
  • Design Project Summary: Calculating a More Holistic Burden Estimate
  • Design Project Summary: Streamlining Disaster Assistance Processes
  • Customer Journey Map & Stories
  • Information collection approved under OMB Control #3206-0276
  • Life Experience Initiative Summary
  • Executive Order 14058
  • President’s Management Agenda

Project Outputs

  • Trauma-Informed Disaster Response Course
  • Calculating a More Holistic Burden

Agency collaborators

  • General Services Administration (GSA)
  • Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
  • Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
  • Department of Health & Human Services (HHS)
  • Small Business Administration (SBA)
  • Department of the Interior (DOI)
  • Department of Commerce (DOC)
  • Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

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    Taking disaster and climate change risks into consideration in the design and construction of projects is important to increase their resilience. The Bank has developed a methodology to facilitate the identification and assessment of disaster and climate change risks and resilience opportunities in all relevant projects in the identification, preparation, and implementation phases.

  12. Project management methodology for post disaster reconstruction

    PDRM methodology is unique in its structure and approach because it applies the tested tools of project management to post-disaster situations. PDRM is a resource for organizations or individuals with or without formal project management training. A case scenario-based course accompanies the training for NGO/relief agency/government trainers.

  13. An Integrated Approach to Natural Disaster Management: Public Project

    Third, it specifies a set of critical success factors for managing disaster related public projects. Design/methodology/approach A detailed case study of the tsunami was carried out to identify ...

  14. Is Your Project Robust to the Impacts of Climate Change and Disasters?

    The Resilience Rating System provides a rating from C through to A+ along two complementary dimensions: (1) the resilience of the project design - or the robustness of project design to disaster and climate risks, and the confidence the project will perform as expected in spite of these risks; and (2) the resilience through project outcomes ...

  15. PDF implementing programs and projects for disaster risk management

    implementing programs and projects for disaster risk management 3 8 Chapter Brief • Mainstreaming disaster risk reduction is one major component of the development strategies and plans of international and regional agencies. • The project management cycle is a methodology that can help development organizations consider issues related to ...

  16. An integrated approach to natural disaster management: Public project

    In this regard, effective disaster management is a key element in good governance Development group Natural disasters Hydro-meteorological Geological OECD CEE þ CIS Developing countries Least developed countries 4.465 1.085 3.719 3.399 2.316 0.499 1.567 1.386 Technological disasters Biological Technological 0.023 0.156 0.534 7.809 0.910 1.374 ...

  17. Natural Disaster project .

    Natural Disaster project . The document discusses natural disasters such as volcanoes, cyclones, earthquakes, floods, droughts, and tsunamis. It describes how each type of disaster occurs naturally and its effects. The document also examines the impact of natural disasters on individuals, communities, economies, and the environment.

  18. SST Class9 Disaster Management Project

    Sst Class9 Disaster Management Project - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. This document is a student project on disaster management. It begins with an introduction that defines what a disaster is and lists several types of disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, cyclones, epidemics, floods, droughts, landslides, and industrial hazards.

  19. Our Method

    Climate Disaster Project is coordinated at the University of Victoria's Faculty of Fine Arts in its Department of Writing. Established in September 2021 with the generous support of businessman and philanthropist Wayne C. Crookes, our teaching newsroom includes faculty and students at post-secondary institutions around the world.

  20. Project Disaster Management

    Use alternative work methods: but weigh the costs against the returns. ... Causes of a Project Disaster: The Process of Project Derailment. The process that eventually leads to failure or disaster can be called project derailment. According to Weick and Sutcliffe (2001), the derailment process is characterized by "a deceptively simple ...

  21. Class 9 SST Project Work On Disaster Management

    Disaster Management Project. As part of the CBSE 2024-25 syllabus, students are required to prepare and submit Class 9 Social Science projects on disaster management. Educart has created a special page filled with inspiring ideas for various parts of this project. Here, you will find creative cover page designs, well-designed acknowledgment ...

  22. Recovering from a Disaster

    Early in project development, the team learned that disaster recovery staff across agencies are committed to improving their skills in working with survivors. The team co-created three training modules focused on the basics of trauma-informed care; working with survivors; and taking care of oneself when recovering from a disaster.