management representation letter format for limited review

  • AR-C 90: Definitive Guide to Review Engagements

By Charles Hall | Preparation, Compilation & Review

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Review engagements provide limited assurance using  AR-C 90, Review of Financial Statements . And these engagements can be done with much less effort than audits.

So, what are the requirements of a review engagement? When might a review be preferable to an audit? Must the CPA be independent? Can the CPA prepare the financial statements and perform the review engagement? Can a special purpose reporting framework be used? Who might desire a review report (rather than an audit or a compilation report)?

I'll answer these questions below, but, first here's a quick video introduction to the post.

Review Engagement Guidance

The guidance for reviews can be found in AR-C 90, Review of Financial Statements . AR-C 90 is part of  the AICPA's Statements on Standards for Accounting and Reporting Services (SSARS)..

Though this article is long, it's not intended to be comprehensive. It's an overview.

Applicability of AR-C 90

You should perform a review engagement when engaged to do so . If your client asks for this service and you accept, you are engaged.

A review engagement letter should be prepared and signed by the accountant or the accountant’s firm and management or those charged with governance. See engagement letter guidance below.

AR-C 90 Objectives

The objective of the accountant in a review engagement is to provide limited assurance regarding the financial statements. Other historical information such as supplementary information can also be included.

So how does an accountant perform a review engagement? Primarily with inquiries and analytics.

How does the limited assurance in a review engagement compare with compilations and audits?

In a compilation engagement, no assurance is provided. What procedures are employed in a compilation? Primarily, the accountant reads the financial statements for appropriateness. Why perform a compilation rather than a review? Economy and cost. Since procedures are minimal, it's easier to perform a compilation and less costly to the client.

In an audit, the accountant provides a high level of assurance. The accountant performs procedures beyond inquires and analytics such as confirmations. Audit risk assessment and planning requirements are much more rigorous than that of a review. While audits provide a higher level of assurance, they are more time-consuming. Consequently, the additional time raises the cost for the client. This is why reviews are sometimes performed rather than an audit.

Prior to performing a review engagement, make sure all stakeholders will accept this product. Some lenders might require an audit.

Review Reports

A review report is always required in a review engagement .

The standard review report states that no material modifications are necessary for the financial statements to be in accordance with the reporting framework. (See a sample review report below.)

If material misstatements are identified and relate to specific amounts in the financial statements, you will issue a review report with a basis for qualified conclusion paragraph and you'll have a qualified conclusion. See Exhibit C, illustration 5 in AR-C 90 for a sample review report with a departure from GAAP.  If the effects of the departure are determined, they are disclosed in the report. If not known, the paragraph states that the effects have not been determined.  

If misstatements are material and pervasive, an adverse conclusion is appropriate. The review report will also have a basis for adverse conclusion paragraph. See Exhibit C, illustration 7 in AR-C 90 for a sample review report with an adverse conclusion.

Review Financial Statements

The accountant prepares financial statements as directed by management or those charged with governance. The financials should be prepared using an acceptable reporting framework including any of the following:

  • Regulatory basis
  • Contractual basis
  • Other basis (as long as the basis uses reasonable, logical criteria that are applied to all material items) 
  • Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP)

All of the above bases of accounting, with the exception of GAAP, are referred to as special purpose frameworks. When such a framework   is used, a description is required and   can be included in:

  • The financial statement titles
  • The notes to the financial statements, or
  • Otherwise on the face of the financial statements

The financial statement should disclose how the special purpose framework differs from generally accepted accounting principles. If, for example, a company uses accelerated depreciation in tax-basis statements, the financial statements should disclose how this method differs from straight-line (the usual GAAP method). 

The review report language changes when a company uses a special purpose reporting framework. See Exhibit C, illustration 3 in AR-90 for a tax-basis review report. 

Which Financial Statements?

Management specifies the financial statements to be prepared. Normally a company desires a balance sheet, an income statement, and a cash flow statement. The accountant can, however, issue just one financial statement (e.g., income statement). 

Who prepares the financial statements? The company or the CPA firm can prepare them.

Can the cash flow statement be omitted? GAAP requires a cash flow statement when a statement of financial condition and an income statement are included. Compilation standards allow for the omission of the GAAP cash flow statement if the omission is noted in the compilation report. Not so in a review engagement. The cash flow statement must be included when GAAP is used.

But is the cash flow statement required when the tax-basis of accounting is used? No, the cash flow statement can be omitted when the financial statements are tax-basis.

Disclosures in Reviewed Financial Statements

What about disclosures? Are they required in a review engagement?

In compilation engagements , disclosures can be omitted. Not so in a review engagement. Full disclosure is required, regardless of the reporting framework.

References to Review Report and Notes

Should a reference to the review report and the notes be included at the bottom of each financial statement page? While not required by the SSARS, it is acceptable to add a reference such as:

  • See Accountant’s Report and accompanying notes
  • See Accountant’s Review Report and accompanying notes, or
  • See Independent Accountant’s Review Report and accompanying notes

Review Engagement Documentation Requirements

The accountant should prepare and retain the following documentation:

  • Engagement letter
  • A copy of the reviewed financial statements 
  • Accountant’s review report 
  • Communications with management and those charged with governance about significant matters arising during the engagement
  • Communications with other accountants that reviewed or audited financial statements of significant components 
  • Emphasis-of-matter or other-matter paragraph communications with management or others
  • The representation letter (see Exhibit B of AR-C 90 for sample wording)
  • Information about how any inconsistencies were addressed when the accountant identified information that was inconsistent with the accountant's findings regarding significant matters affecting the financial statements

The review documentation should be sufficient to enable an experienced accountant, having no previous connection to the engagement to understand:

  • the nature, timing, and extent of the review procedures,
  • the evidence obtained and the accountant's conclusions based on that evidence
  • significant matters and the related conclusions and judgments

Review Engagement Letter

AR-C 80

While it is possible for the accountant to perform only a review and not prepare the financial statements, most review engagement letters will state that the following will be performed by the accountant:

  • Preparation of the financial statements (a nonattest service)
  • A review engagement (an attest service)

Since a nonattest service and an attest service are being provided, the accountant will add language to the engagement letter describing the client’s responsibility for the nonattest service. 

See illustrative engagement letters in Exhibit A of AR-C 90 .

AICPA independence standards require the accountant to consider whether he is independent when the CPA performs an attest service (e.g., review) and a nonattest service (e.g., preparation of financial statements) for the same client. If management does not possess the skill, knowledge, and experience to oversee the preparation of the financial statements and accept responsibility, the accountant may not be independent.

So, must the accountant be independent? Yes, independence is required in review engagements.

AR-C 90 Review Procedures

The accountant should:

  • Make inquiries,
  • Perform analytical procedures, and
  • Perform other procedures, as appropriate

Direct your procedures to areas with increased risks of material misstatement. An understanding of the entity and the industry in which the entity operates will better enable you to identify potential misstatements.

1. Review Inquiries

AR-90.29 provides a series of inquiries that should be made of management and others. Those questions include matters such as fraud, subsequent events, related party transactions, and litigation. Additionally, once you create your analytical procedures, you may have questions regarding unexpected changes.

The accountant should remain alert for related party transactions outside the normal business course. Inquiries should be made about such transactions. 

2. Review Analytical Procedures

Apply analytical procedures to the numbers. What kind? Well, that depends. What numbers are most important? What numbers are most likely to be misstated? What types of analytics illuminate the client's business? Consideration of such factors will lead you to the right analytics.

Here are examples:

  • Comparing the current year's financial statement numbers with the prior year
  • Comparing the current year trial balance numbers with the prior year
  • Ratios such as debt/equity or current assets/current liabilities or depreciation/total depreciable assets
  • Computing numbers with nonfinancial information such as the number of units sold times the average price 
  • Comparing quarterly revenues by location

As you can see, judgment is required. Moreover, you need to develop expectations before computing the numbers. AR-C 90 says that the expectations should enable you to identify material misstatements. So the expectations have to be precise enough to yield that result. 

Here are the five steps I use:

  • Develop expectations
  • Compute the numbers
  • See if the numbers align with expectations
  • Follow up with additional inquiries if expectations are not met
  • Develop a conclusion

I find that many accountants fail to document their expectations. Or if expectations are documented, a second problem occurs: The numbers don't align with the expectation and there's no documented follow-up. If the numbers don't align with expectations, make sure you determine why.

Expectations

How do we develop expectations?

It is helpful to discuss current operations with management before computing your numbers. You want to know, for example, if sales rose during the year or if there were reductions in the workforce. The conversation informs your expectations.

Also, if you've previously worked with the client, you are familiar with their profit margins or debt levels. This prior knowledge informs your expectations.

Finally, you might also read the minutes (if there are any) before computing your numbers.

3. Other Review Procedures

AR-C 90 states that procedures include inquiry, analytics, and other procedures. The third element--other procedures-- is a general category that encompasses reading the financial statements and responding to risks. You might, for example, identify potential misstatements as you perform analytical procedures. If revenues are up 25% but you expected them to be stable, you'll perform additional procedures to see why.

Interestingly (at least to me), AR-C 90.A45 states that you can perform audit procedures in a review engagement. Though your review engagement letter states you are not performing an audit, your review file can include audit procedures. Why would the AICPA provide this latitude? To give you the ability to reach beyond your typical review procedures (inquiry and analytics). You need a basis for the limited assurance you are providing. And in some situations, you may need audit procedures to get you there.

Materiality in Review Engagements

AR-C 90 requires accountants to determine and use materiality. This makes sense given the review report says the following:

Those standards require us to perform procedures to obtain limited assurance as a basis for reporting whether we are aware of any material modifications that should be made to the financial statements for them to be in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

You can't know what a "material modification" is without knowing what materiality is. So, the accountant should use materiality in the planning and conduct of the review engagement. AR-C 90 says the determination of materiality is a matter of professional judgment. 

Review Representation Letter

AR-C 90

A signed representation letter is required in all review engagements.

The date of the representation letter will agree with the date of the review report. In no event should the date of the representation letter precede the date of the review report. (The accountant is not required to have physical possession of the letter on the date of the review report. But the accountant should have the signed letter before releasing the financial statements.)

Provide the draft of the financial statements to the client promptly so they can review them and assume responsibility. Thereafter, the client can sign the representation letter.

Additionally, the representation letter should cover all financial statements and all periods in the report.

Exhibit B of AR-90 provides a sample representation letter.

Review Report Sample

The following is a review report sample (sometimes referred to as an accounting review report):

Independent Accountant's Review Report

[ Appropriate Addressee ]

I (We) have reviewed the accompanying financial statements of XYZ Company, which comprise the balance sheets as of December 31, 20X2 and 20X1, and the related statements of income, changes in stockholders' equity, and cash flows for the years then ended, and the related notes to the financial statements. A review includes primarily applying analytical procedures to management's (owners') financial data and making inquiries of company management (owners). A review is substantially less in scope than an audit, the objective of which is the expression of an opinion regarding the financial statements as a whole. Accordingly, I (we) do not express such an opinion.

Management's Responsibility for the Financial Statements

Management (Owners) is (are) responsible for the preparation and fair presentation of these financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America; this includes the design, implementation, and maintenance of internal control relevant to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements that are free from material misstatement whether due to fraud or error.

Accountant's Responsibility

My (Our) responsibility is to conduct the review engagements in accordance with Statements on Standards for Accounting and Review Services promulgated by the Accounting and Review Services Committee of the AICPA. Those standards require me (us) to perform procedures to obtain limited assurance as a basis for reporting whether I am (we are) aware of any material modifications that should be made to the financial statements for them to be in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. I (We) believe that the results of my (our) procedures provide a reasonable basis for my (our) conclusion.

We are required to be independent of XYZ Company and to meet our ethical responsibilities, in accordance with the relevant ethical requirements related to our reviews.

Accountant's Conclusion

Based on my (our) reviews, I am (we are) not aware of any material modifications that should be made to the accompanying financial statements in order for them to be in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

[ Signature of accounting firm or accountant, as appropriate ]

[ Accountant's city and state ]

[ Date of the accountant's review report ]

Exhibit C of  AR-C 90 provides seven review report illustrations.

Reporting When There are Other Accountants

What are your responsibilities if you are performing the review of a consolidated entity that includes a subsidiary audited or reviewed by another accountant? 

First, obtain and read the subsidiary report.

Second, decide whether to refer to the other accountants in your review report. If reference is made, AR-C 90.122 states the accountant should clearly indicate in the accountant's review report that the accountant used the work of other accountants. The report should also include the magnitude of the portion of the financial statements audited or reviewed by the other accountants." See Illustration 6 in Appendix C of AR-C 90 for sample report language. If you refer to the other accountant, you will state that your conclusion, as it relates to the entity reviewed by the other accountants, is based solely on their report.

Third, regardless of whether you decide to refer to the other accountants, communicate with the other accountants. Determine the following:

  • That the other accountants are familiar with the relevant reporting framework and review or auditing standards, as applicable. 
  • Advise them that you are including the subsidiary's financials in the consolidation and that their report will be relied upon, and when applicable, that the other accountant's report will be referred to in your review report. 
  • Communicate the ethical requirements of the engagement, mainly independence. 
  • And finally, advise them that you are reviewing matters affecting the intercompany eliminations.

Going Concern in Review Engagements

If the reporting framework requires that management evaluate going concern (FASB has such a requirement), then you should perform going concern review procedures. Those procedures include:

  • Determining whether the going concern basis of accounting is appropriate
  • Reviewing management's evaluation of whether substantial doubt exists
  • When there is substantial doubt, reviewing management's plans to mitigate the conditions
  • Reviewing going concern disclosures

See my article about going concern in relation to FASB standards. 

If the applicable reporting framework does not require management to evaluate going concern but you become aware of conditions or events that raise substantial doubt about the entity's ability to continue as a going concern, do the following:

  • Ask management if the going concern basis of accounting is appropriate
  • Ask management about their plans to address the adverse effects of the conditions or events
  • Review the going concern disclosures to see if they are appropriate

Other Historical Information in Review Engagements

In addition to historical financial statements, AR-C 90 may be applied to the following:

  • Profit participation, or
  • Income tax provisions
  • Supplementary information
  • Required supplementary information
  • Tax return information

Review Engagements Conclusion

There you have it. Now you know how to perform a review engagement.

The main purpose of a review is to provide limited assurance in regard to the information. Inquiries and analytics are required. A signed representation letter is also required.

If you desire to issue financial statements without a compilation or review report, consider the use of AR-C 70, Preparation of Financial Statements .

If you desire to issue financial statements without a review report, consider using AR-C 80, Compilation Engagements .

The AICPA provides the full text of AR-C 90 online . You can download the PDF if you like. Once you download the document, you can use control-f to find particular words. I find this useful.

For additional SSARS-related articles see:

  • AR-C 70: The Definitive Guide to Preparations
  • AR-C 80: The Definitive Guide to Compilations

About the Author

Charles Hall is a practicing CPA and Certified Fraud Examiner. For the last thirty-five years, he has primarily audited governments, nonprofits, and small businesses. He is the author of The Little Book of Local Government Fraud Prevention, The Why and How of Auditing, Audit Risk Assessment Made Easy, and Preparation of Financial Statements & Compilation Engagements. He frequently speaks at continuing education events. Charles consults with other CPA firms, assisting them with auditing and accounting issues.

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Hello Charles – My client is selling his business (Sch C). The buyer’s bank is requesting reviewed financial statements prior to closing. The person paying for the work is the buyer. For the engagement letter, do both the seller (I am thinking here about the management representations) and the buyer need to sign the EL? Do you have another suggestion? Thank you.

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It’s permissible for you to prepare the financial statements in a review engagement as long as management reviews them (after you prepare them) and assumes responsibility for them. The client (designated person) assuming responsibility for the financial statements must have sufficient skill, knowledge, and experience to perform this role. If the client does not understand the financials, they can’t assume responsibility, and you would not be independent–and could not perform the review engagement.

Lyli, I’d consider whether the records are sufficient before accepting the engagement. It sounds like the transaction detail from the general ledger is not available. If not, you may not want to accept the engagement. You can do a compilation or a review on an entity that has sufficient records. If your independence is impaired, you cannot perform a review engagement. A compilation can be performed, even when your independence is impaired, but you’ll need to disclose your lack of independence in your compilation report. I hope this helps.

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Can a CPA prepare financial statements as part of a review engagement? Long story short. A new property management company took over after some irregularities of the previous management company. No tax returns were filed for 2021 and 2022. The current board obtained some bookkeeping records (balance sheet and the general ledger), but only printed reports, not the actual records from the accounting system. At first, we were engaged to do a compilation but the mistatements are so significant that a review would be more appropriate. The client intended to use the new financials for applying to loans, going to litigation proceedings against the former management company and for filing taxes. Can we modified our engagement to a review and as part of such review issue new financial statements? If yes, the reviewed financials should be part of the Independent Accountant’s Report? Our independence would be impaired considering we had to prepare the financials almost from scratch, because the records provided are not reliable? In this case, management was not responsible for preparing the financials under reviewed, who will sign the management representation letter? I couldn’t find a template for this case. Thanks.

I would subject all numbers to review procedures (inquiry and analytics). You may want to use quarterly or monthly comparisons within the first year.

The following if from an audit article I wrote, but should help:

First Option One option is to compute expected numbers using non-financial information. Then compare the calculated numbers to the general ledger to search for unexpected variances.

Second Option A second option is to calculate ratios common to the entity’s industry and compare the results to industry benchmarks.

While industry analytics can be computed, I’m not sure how useful they are for a new company. An infant company often does not generate numbers comparable to more mature entities. But we’ll keep this choice in our quiver–just in case.

Third Option A more useful option is the third: comparing intraperiod numbers.

Discuss the expected monthly or quarterly revenue trends with the client before you examine the accounting records. The warehouse foreman might say, “We shipped almost nothing the first six months. Then things caught fire. My head was spinning the last half of the year.” Does the general ledger reflect this story? Did revenues and costs of goods sold significantly increase in the latter half of the year?

Fourth Option The last option we’ve listed is a review of the budgetary comparisons. Some entities, such as governments, lend themselves to this alternative. Others, not so–those that don’t adopt budgets.

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When performing a financial statement Review for the first year can you cover the income statement and cashflow as Reviewed or do they have to be Compiled since the prior year was not Reviewed?

It’s fine to manually create your analytics. Most people still use Excel to do so. The main thing is to document your expectations and then create analytics for material areas. I hope your peer review goes well.

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With review analytics, is it acceptable to do it manually or use some type of computer system to assist? Can you recommend a few if the latter? I’m worried about peer review and if it’s done manually, will that be less acceptable?

You can provide a balance sheet using GAAP and it can be subject to a review engagement. But you will need disclosures in addition to the balance sheet. You’ll also need to follow all AR-C 90 guidance.

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Licensing bureau is requesting review balance sheet only. Is this in conformity with GAAP

Naina, either is fine, but I prefer the first since it highlights that you are independent. Charles

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Hello Mr.Charles,

I have been looking for some illustrative reviewed financial statements. On the report I have seen some firms say “Financial Statements and Independent Accountant’s Report” and few say “Reviewed Financial Statements”. Can you please advice what is the correct title to be disclosed on a Review report. Any help is highly appreciated.

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Financial Statement Review Management Representation Letter (What is it?)

The financial statement review management representation letter is designed to complete managements responsibilities in the review. The letter is signed at the end of the engagement and is dated at the time of the review report. The management representation letter has three basic parts, the introduction, statements about the financials and declarations on the information management has provided.

Care should be taken in producing this letter. It contains many items that if left out, increase liability on the CPA. In addition, the standards of SSARS (Statements on Standards for Accounting and Review) require certain elements to be included.

Also, please review our Ultimate Guide to Financial Statement Review and Compilation for information on the review process from beginning to end.

If you need help with a financial statement review or audit, contact me now!

The Introduction

This section lays out the basis of the representations. Management states what has been performed, the review. They also state that matters are generally limited to items that are material in nature. The following is the standard wording provided by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA ).

This representation letter is provided in connection with your review of the financial statements of ABC Company, which comprise the balance sheets as of December 31, 20X2 and 20X1, and the related statements of income, changes in stockholders’ equity and cash flows for the years then ended, and the related notes to the financial statements, for the purpose of obtaining limited assurance as a basis for reporting whether you are aware of any material modifications that should be made to the financial statements in order for the statements to be in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Certain representations in this letter are described as being limited to matters that are material. Items are considered material, regardless of size, if they involve an omission or misstatement of accounting information that, in the light of surrounding circumstances, makes it probable that the judgment of a reasonable person relying on the information would be changed or influenced by the omission or misstatement.

Statements About the Financials

This is one of the two sections of the document that contain the meat. In this section management takes responsibility for a number of things, it covers fair presentation according to GAAP, responsibility for internal controls and more. The following is a section form the AICPA approved wording.

  • We acknowledge our responsibility and have fulfilled our responsibilities for the preparation and fair presentation of the financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
  • We acknowledge our responsibility and have fulfilled our responsibilities for the design, implementation, and maintenance of internal control relevant to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements that are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error.
  • We acknowledge our responsibility for the design, implementation, and maintenance of internal control to prevent and detect fraud.
  • Significant assumptions used by us in making accounting estimates, including those measured at fair value, are reasonable.
  • Related party relationships and transactions have been appropriately accounted for and disclosed in accordance with the requirements of accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
  • Guarantees, whether written or oral, under which the company is contingently liable have been properly accounted for and disclosed in accordance with the requirements of accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
  • Significant estimates and material concentrations known to management that are required to be disclosed in accordance with FASB Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 275, Risks and Uncertainties, have been properly accounted for and disclosed in accordance with the requirements of accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
  • All events occurring subsequent to the date of the financial statements and for which accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires adjustment or disclosure have been properly accounted for.
  • The effects of uncorrected misstatements are immaterial, both individually and in the aggregate, to the financial statements as a whole.
  • The effects of all known actual or possible litigation and claims have been accounted for and disclosed in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Declaration of the Information Provided

Finally, management states certain things about the information it has provided during the engagement. Things such as: We have responded fully and truthfully to all inquiries made to us by you during your review.

We have provided you with:

  • access to all information, of which we are aware, that is relevant to the preparation and fair presentation of the financial statements, such as records, documentation, and other matters
  • minutes of meetings of stockholders, directors, and committees of directors or summaries of actions of recent meetings for which minutes have not yet been prepared; additional information that you have requested from us for the purpose of the review; and unrestricted access to persons within the entity from whom you determined it necessary to obtain review evidence.
  • All transactions have been recorded in the accounting records and are reflected in the financial statements.
  • We have [no knowledge of any] [disclosed to you all information that we are aware of regarding] fraud or suspected fraud that affects the entity and involves
  • management, employees who have significant roles in internal control, or others when the fraud could have a material effect on the financial statements.
  • We have [no knowledge of any] [disclosed to you all information that we are aware of regarding] allegations of fraud, or suspected fraud, affecting the entity’s financial statements as a whole communicated by employees, former employees, analysts, regulators, or others.
  • We have no plans or intentions that may materially affect the carrying amounts or classification of assets and liabilities.
  • We have disclosed to you all known instances of noncompliance or suspected noncompliance with laws or regulations whose effects should be considered when preparing financial statements.
  • We [have disclosed to you all known actual or possible] [are not aware of any pending or threatened] litigation and claims whose effects should be considered when preparing the financial statements [and we have not consulted legal counsel concerning litigation or claims]
  • We have disclosed to you any other material liabilities or gain or loss contingencies that are required to be accrued or disclosed by FASB ASC 450, Contingencies.
  • We have disclosed to you the identity of the entity’s related parties and all the related party relationships and transactions of which we are aware.
  • We have disclosed to you all information relevant to the use of the going concern assumption in the financial statements.
  • No material losses exist (such as from obsolete inventory or purchase or sale commitments) that have not been properly accrued or disclosed in the financial statements.
  • The company has satisfactory title to all owned assets, and no liens or encumbrances on such assets exist, nor has any asset been pledged as collateral, except as disclosed to you and reported in the financial statements. We have complied with all aspects of contractual agreements that would have a material effect on the financial statements in the event of noncompliance.
  • We are in agreement with the adjusting journal entries that you have recommended, and they have been posted to the company’s accounts (if applicable).

In total the management representation letter sums up the company responsibilities for the engagement. It outlines the various factors taken into account during a review or audit. Care should be used when preparing this letter to assure it is in compliance with accounting regulations. Below is a link to a properly formatted financial statement review management representation letter.

Sample Management Representation Letter

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03 Apr What are Management Representation Letters?

management representation letter format for limited review

In the world of assurance engagements, a management representation letter is a formal document that represents management’s agreement with the financial statements that are being audited or reviewed. This letter is a critical part of the assurance engagement process and is required by the auditor or reviewer as evidence that management acknowledges and accepts responsibility for the financial statements.

A management representation letter is typically issued by senior management, such as the CEO or CFO, and is addressed to the CPA firm performing the audit or review. It contains a series of statements that confirm certain facts and assurances about the company’s financial information, including the completeness and accuracy of financial records, disclosures of relevant information, and adherence to accounting principles.

The letter serves several purposes, including:

  • Confirming the accuracy of financial information : The management representation letter is used to confirm that the financial statements are accurate and complete. This helps provide assurance to stakeholders that the financial statements are reliable.
  • Demonstrating management’s responsibility : By signing the letter, management acknowledges its responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of the financial statements. This helps to provide accountability and transparency to stakeholders.
  • Providing evidence for auditors and reviewer s: The management representation letter provides evidence to the CPA firm that management has taken responsibility for the financial statements, which helps to support the audit opinion or review conclusion.
  • Reducing the risk of misstatements : The letter helps to reduce the risk of misstatements by requiring management to review the financial statements and provide assurance that they are accurate and complete.

Overall, the management representation letter is a critical part of the assurance engagement process, as it helps to provide assurance that the financial statements are accurate and complete, and that management takes responsibility for them. Without this letter, CPA firms would not have the necessary evidence to support their opinions and conclusions, which could lead to a lack of confidence in the financial statements and potential legal and financial consequences for the company. In fact, CPA firms are not permitted to complete their engagement and issue an audit or review engagement report until management provides a signed management representation letter.

If you require an audit or review and would like to speak to someone about these processes, please contact us to set up a free consultation.

management representation letter format for limited review

Jennifer Scott

Cpa, cga – senior manager.

Jennifer Scott, a Senior Manager at Clearline brings a wealth of expertise in Private Enterprise and Assurance, holding designations as a CPA and CGA. Jennifer’s focus at Clearline includes conducting reviews, compilations, and providing tax services tailored to owner-manager businesses and partnerships, with a keen interest in industries such as professionals, manufacturing, real estate, and services. Her commitment to exceptional client service is evident through her proactive approach to staying updated on evolving accounting standards and tax legislation, thereby making her clients’ lives easier Jennifer’s educational background includes a Bachelor of Commerce from UBC with a major in Accounting, followed by over 15 years of experience in public practice, specializing in private enterprise. She appreciates the supportive environment at Clearline and enjoys various activities outside of work, including travelling, cheering on her children in sports like soccer, baseball, and volleyball, indulging in long walks with her dog while listening to podcasts, spending quality time with loved ones, and exploring her passion for baking through experimenting with new recipes.

management representation letter format for limited review

Charmaine Pirrie

Cpa, ca(sa) – senior manager.

Charmaine Pirrie, a Senior Manager at Clearline is a CPA and CA (SA) with a background in audit and review engagements. With experience from Grant Thornton and D&Co, she brings expertise in private company audits and values Clearline’s supportive environment and technical resources. Charmaine also finds fulfillment in delving into her clients’ businesses to provide tailored services, ensuring meticulous audit and review procedures. Outside of work, she enjoys spending time with family, going for walks, and swimming.

management representation letter format for limited review

Deepeka Dhillon

Cpa – manager.

Deepeka Dhillon, a Manager at Clearline, holds a CPA designation with a focus in Private Enterprise and Tax. Her primary responsibilities include compliance, corporate restructuring, and, estate and succession planning. Deepeka’s passion lies in continuous learning, enabling her to provide tailored solutions to clients’ unique needs. With a CPA designation and completion of the CPA in-depth tax program, she brings a strong educational background to her role at Clearline. Deepeka values the countless opportunities at Clearline to expand her knowledge in the complex world of tax. Outside work, she enjoys spending time with her beloved Jack Russell Terrier, Opie.

management representation letter format for limited review

Raj Momrath

Cpa, ca, senior tax manager.

Raj Momrath, a Senior Tax Manager at Clearline, is a CPA, CA specializing in Canadian Tax. With a focus on Canadian tax planning, corporate reorganizations, estate planning, and providing business advice, Raj caters to a diverse clientele, including small owner-manager companies, high-net-worth individuals and large privately held multinational firms. His passion lies in helping Canadian owner-manager businesses and their shareholders minimize their overall tax obligations while navigating disputes with the Canada Revenue Agency and ensuring compliance with the complex Canadian tax system. Raj’s professional journey includes prior experience in PwC’s tax group, where he obtained his Chartered Accountant designation and then some time at some mid-sized firms. Raj completed the CPA Canada InDepth Tax course in 2017 strengthening his knowledge of Canadian tax. At Clearline, Raj appreciates working alongside knowledgeable colleagues and enjoys spending quality time with his wife and two sons and attending and volunteering with their sports activities. In his leisure time, Raj indulges in barbequing, golfing, and spending time outdoors, finding relaxation and enjoyment in these pursuits.

management representation letter format for limited review

Julia Wallis

Julia Wallis, a Senior Manager at Clearline, holds designations as a CPA, CGA, and also holds a BA. Working within the Private Enterprise Group, her primary focus revolves around assisting entrepreneurs in understanding their personal and business finances while ensuring compliance with tax reporting requirements. Julia finds fulfillment in learning about her clients’ businesses and providing financial insights to enhance their management effectiveness while optimizing tax strategies. With a diverse career spanning various companies and public practice roles, including as a controller, Julia’s progression has equipped her with invaluable skills and insights into different business operations. She chose Clearline for its respected partners and staff, aligned philosophy on client service, and flexibility to balance demanding tax filing periods with leisure time for travel and personal interests such as gardening, wine exploration, reading, and relaxation.

management representation letter format for limited review

Annelie Vistica

Cpa, ca – principal.

Annelie Vistica, a Principal at Clearline, is a CPA and CA with a strong background in private enterprise and assurance. With a Bachelor of Accountancy from the University of Stellenbosch in South Africa and extensive experience in tax, Annelie brings expertise in business setup, growth planning, and estate transitioning. She is passionate about engaging with clients to support them through various business stages, from inception to succession planning. Annelie values the supportive environment at Clearline, where she appreciates colleagues’ assistance in tax and assurance. Outside work, she enjoys spending time with her family and dog, exploring nature, visiting family in the Okanagan, and travelling the world.

management representation letter format for limited review

Bilal Kathrada

Cpa, ca, principal.

Bilal, a Principal at Clearline Chartered Professional Accountants, primarily focuses on income tax and succession planning for Canadian owner-managed businesses in various industries. Bilal received his Bachelor of Commerce degree from the University of Victoria and obtained his CA designation in 2005.

Prior to Clearline, he worked in the tax group of a large international accounting firm in Vancouver and a mid-sized accounting firm located in the Fraser Valley.

Outside of the office, he enjoys spending time with his wife and three children. He enjoys outdoor activities such as golf and spending time with his family and friends.

management representation letter format for limited review

Danny Sandhu

Cpa, manager.

Bio coming soon.

management representation letter format for limited review

Shehzel Saif

Cpa, tax manager.

As Clearline’s Tax Manager, Shehzel focuses on tax planning, corporate reorganizations and succession and estate planning. She’s passionate about continuous learning and staying up to date on tax legislation changes and helping clients with succession. In addition to her CPA designation, Shehzel also has a Bachelor of Business Administration and has completed the CPA In-Depth Taxation Program. Outside of work, she enjoys spending time with family and friends, traveling and trying out new recipes.

management representation letter format for limited review

Ameeta Randhawa

As Clearline’s HR Manager, Ameeta supports our firm’s greatest resource—our staff. With a Bachelor of Business Administration in Human Resources and over 7 years of HR experience in various industries, she ensures all employees have a positive experience at Clearline. Ameeta’s focuses include recruitment, performance management, employee relations, program and policy development, and employee engagement. Outside of work, she enjoys traveling and spending time with friends and family.

management representation letter format for limited review

CPA, CA, Senior Manager

Michael is a Senior Manager in Private Enterprise, carrying out reviews, compilations, and tax services for small- to medium-sized businesses. With a Bachelor of Commerce specializing in finance and a Diploma in Accounting, backed by over a decade of accounting experience, Michael is a trusted advisor who helps clients’ businesses succeed. Outside of the office, Michael enjoys spending time with family, trying out different restaurants in the city, and building and collecting mechanical keyboards.

management representation letter format for limited review

CPA, CGA, Manager

management representation letter format for limited review

Victor K. Yoshida

Victor was born and raised in Vancouver and obtained his Bachelor of Commerce from the University of British Columbia. He articled with Deloitte & Touche and received his CA designation in 1984. Victor was accepted to the firm’s tax group and went on to complete the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants In-Depth Tax course.

Victor specializes in Canadian income tax issues for professional and owner-managed businesses. He has extensive experience with business succession, estate planning, wealth preservation issues, corporate reorganizations, as well as mergers and acquisitions.

Victor was a member of the education committee of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of British Columbia and has held executive positions with various amateur sport organizations.

In his free time, Victor enjoys training for marathons, travelling, and spending time with his family.

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Management Representation Letter (MRL) for Audit

CA Ramanujan Sharma

In this article, the author has shared the format of the Management Representation Letter or Written Representation (MRL/WR)  to be obtained from the management during various professional engagements:

M/s XYZ & Co. Gurgaon, Haryana

Sub: Management Representation in course of Statutory Audit for F.Y. 2021-22 .

This representation letter is provided in connection with your audit of the financial statements of M/s Private Limited, Delhi for the year ended March 31, 20XX  for the purpose of expressing an opinion as to whether the financial statements are presented fairly, in all material respects, (or give a true and fair view) in accordance with the applicable accounting standards in India.

We confirm that (to the best of our knowledge and belief, having made such inquiries as we considered necessary for the purpose of appropriately informing ourselves):

Management Representation Letter (MRL) for Audit

Financial Statements

  • We have fulfilled our responsibilities, as set out in the terms of the audit engagement, for the preparation of the financial statements in accordance with Financial Reporting Standards; in particular the financial statements are fairly presented (or give a true and fair view) in accordance with the applicable accounting standards in India.
  • Significant assumptions used by us in making accounting estimates, including those measured at fair value, are reasonable.
  • Related party relationships and transactions have been appropriately accounted for and disclosed in accordance with the requirements of applicable accounting standards in India.
  • All events subsequent to the date of the financial statements and for which applicable accounting standards in India require adjustment or disclosure have been adjusted or disclosed.
  • The effects of uncorrected misstatements are immaterial, both individually and in the aggregate, to the financial statements as a whole.

Information Provided

  • We have provided you with:

Access to all information of which we are aware that is relevant to the preparation of the financial statements such as records, documentation and other matters;

Additional information that you have requested from us for the purpose of the audit; and

Unrestricted access to persons within the entity from whom you determined it necessary to obtain audit evidence.

  • All transactions have been recorded in the accounting records and are reflected in the financial statements.
  • We have disclosed to you the results of our assessment of the risk that the financial statements may be materially misstated as a result of fraud.
  • We have disclosed to you all information in relation to fraud or suspected fraud that we are aware of and that affects the entity and involves:

Management;

Employees who have significant roles in internal control; or

Others where the fraud could have a material effect on the financial statements.

  • We have disclosed to you all information in relation to allegations of fraud, or suspected fraud, affecting the entity’s financial statements communicated by employees, former employees, analysts, regulators or others.
  • We have disclosed to you all known instances of non-compliance or suspected non-compliance with laws and regulations whose effects should be considered when preparing financial statements.
  • We have disclosed to you the identity of the entity’s related parties and all the related party relationships and transactions of which we are aware.

For and on Behalf Board of Directors

Director (DIN:) Date: Place:

The author can also be reached at [email protected]

Disclaimer:  The information provided by the author in the article is for general informational purposes only. All information provided is in the good faith, however we make no representation or warranty of any kind, express or implied, regarding the accuracy, adequacy, validity, reliability, availability or completeness of any information in the article.

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CA Ramanujan Sharma (Proprietor) Category Audit   Report

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Detailed Format of a Management Representation Letter

Format of a management representation letter (mrl).

Chartered Accountants Dear Sirs, This representation letter is provided in connection with your audit of the financial statement of M/s. …….for the year ended 31st March 2020 for the purpose of expressing an opinion as to whether the financial statements give a true and fair view of the financial position of M/s. …….as of 31st March 2020 and of the results of operations for the year then ended. We acknowledge our responsibility for the preparation of financial statements in accordance with the requirements of the other relevant statute and recognized accounting policies and practices, including the accounting standards issued by The Companies Act 2013/ The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India.

We confirm, to the best of our knowledge and belief, the following representations; General ___________________________ 1. Ours ‘…….is a limited company incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956/2013 bearing Regn. No CIN: ……………..dated …….. as Private Limited Company and converted into Public Limited Company on ………….. A copy of the Memorandum & Articles of Association is already with you. 2. Following persons are the members of the Board of Directors of the Company as on date:- Name of Director:- Designation;- Director Date of appointment Name of Director:- Designation; – Director Date of appointment Name of Director:- Designation; – Director Date of appointment Name of Director:- Designation;- Director Date of appointment Name of Director:- Designation;- Director Date of appointment 3. The Company has obtained all registrations/licenses required to run the business. 4. So far the Company had filed I.T. Return for the FY ending March …… No income tax return has been filed by the Company after the AY . PAN of the Company is ……. There are no demands/ appeals pending or details of appeals/demands pending are as under:- All the Statutory Compliance like VAT, Service Tax, GST, PF, ESIC, etc, has been paid timely and there is no default there, except the following:

5. We have maintained the following books of account:-

(a)Cash book (b) Bank Book (c) Ledger (d) Journal All the books have been kept on the computer and printouts are taken on a monthly/yearly basis as per needs. All the aforesaid books have been kept and maintained at the corporate office of the Company. 6. We enclose herewith a copy of final accounts for the year-ended ……… duly approved by the Board of Directors of the Company, for your perusal and doing the needful.

Related Topic: Private Company – Specimen Audit Report March 2020

7. Significant Accounting Policies

a) Basis of preparation The financial statements are prepared on an accrual basis under the historical cost convention, in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles (Indian GAAP) to comply with the Accounting Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act. The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of the financial statements are consistent with those followed in the previous year. b) Use of estimates The preparation of financial statements in conformity with the Indian GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) and the reported income and expenses during the year. Management believes that the estimates used in the preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Future results could differ due to these estimates and the differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognized in the periods in which the results are known/materialize. c) Revenue recognition Revenue is recognized on an “accrual” basis at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable net of applicable taxes, trade discounts, and customer returns. d) Secured Loans 1) The term loan from Financial Institutions i.e. ……….. are secured by the first charge ranking parri-passu in each case with the others by way of Equitable Mortgage by the deposit of the deeds in respect of the land situated ………………………. & by hypothecation of all the movable (save and except book debts) including immovable machinery, spares & accessories, Both present and future, subject to prior charge created in favour of the company’s banker on stock of raw material, semi-finished goods, finished goods & consumable stores and book debts for securing the cash credit for the working capital requirement. 2) All loans are guaranteed by all the promoters/shareholders of the company. e) Fixed assets Fixed assets are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses if any. The cost of fixed assets includes interest on borrowings attributable to the acquisition of qualifying fixed assets up to the date the asset is ready for its intended use and other incidental expenses incurred up to that date. f) Depreciation / amortization All the Company’s fixed assets including Intangible assets are depreciated on the basis of the Written Down method over the estimated useful life of the asset as per the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013. Leasehold improvements, Office Equipments, Furniture & Fixtures & Software are amortized over the useful life of the assets as specified under Company’s Act 2013. g) Foreign exchange transactions Transactions in foreign currency are recorded in the reporting currency by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency prevailing on the date of the transaction. Monetary items denominated in foreign currency are restated at the rates prevailing on the balance sheet date. Non-monetary items denominated in foreign currency which are carried at historical cost are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting company’s monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year or reported in the previous financial statements are recognized as income or expense in the year in which they arise. h) Earnings per share Basic earnings/loss per share is calculated by dividing net profit/loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. i) Taxation Tax expense comprises current tax and deferred tax. Current tax is determined as the amount of tax payable in respect of taxable income for the year. The provision for current income-tax is recorded based on assessable income and the tax rate applicable to the relevant assessment year. Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) credit is recognized as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. In the year in which MAT credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset in accordance with the recommendations contained in the guidance note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the profit and loss account and shown as MAT credit entitlement. The Company is carrying/carrying any business since …….. Income Tax Returns have been/not been filed from AY ……. There is no reasonable certainty of the realization of future profits based on the Profits & Loss Account of the earlier years. Therefore, no provision for Deferred Tax has been made under the prevailing circumstances. j) Investments: Long term investments are carried at cost after providing for any diminution in value if such diminution is of a permanent nature. Current investments are carried at lower of cost or market value. k) Loans & Advances Security deposits with of Rs. – will be adjusted by the …………… against the outstanding bill ………………………..hence not recoverable. l) Inventories: There are no inventories in the Balance Sheet. m) Borrowing Cost: Interest and other financing costs relating to borrowed funds attributable to the construction or acquisition of fixed assets have been capitalized to the extent if they relate to the period up to which the asset was ready to use (As per AS-16). All other borrowing costs are charged to revenue. n) Employee Benefits:

LEAVE ENCASHMENT

There are ………/s no employee. Accordingly, provisions have been made as per AS-15../hence this clause is not applicable. PROVIDENT FUND REgular in payment of dues/There is no employee hence this clause is not applicable. GRATUITY There are …… employees/is no employee hence this clause is not applicable. Provision made on the basis of actuarial valuation o) CONTINGENT LIABILITIES: A) Corporate Guarantees B)Capital Commitments .. The company has become a sick company within the meaning of clause (o) of sub-section 1 of section 3 of the sick industrial companies (special provision) act, 1985. The matter under consideration at BIFR/AIIFR for the revival process has been rejected by the Hon’ble BIFR. The interest of Rs…………. has not been provided on the term loans of …………..because OTS (ONE TIME SETTLEMENT) has been revoked due to nonpayment as per the OTS scheme. However, interest has been provided on the term loan of ……………… as per OTS Settlement and statement of account provided by the ……………….. B) The sales tax authorities have raised a demand of Rs ………………………The above demand is not acceptable and it has been challenged by the Company in Appeal. The appeal is pending before the authorities. Although the company has provided a liability of Rs. …………- in the books of accounts but from the prevailing circumstances the amount of Rs. ……………… appears to be a contingent liability.

8 NOTES ON ACCOUNTS

Micro and Medium Scale Business Entities: There are no Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises, to whom the company owes dues which are outstanding for more than 45 days as at 31st March 2020. This information as required to be disclosed under the Micro, Small and Medium Development Act, 2006 has been determined to the extent such parties have been identified on the basis of information available with the Company. B The Company is a Small and Medium-Sized Company (SMC) as defined in the General Instructions in respect of Accounting Standard notified under the Companies Act, 2013, accordingly, the company has complied with the accounting standard as applicable to a Small and Medium-Sized Company. C In the absence of confirmation from the parties the debit & credit balances in respect of Security Deposits and have been taken as reflected in the books. Balance appearing under the heads Current Assets, Loans and Advances, and Current Liabilities are subject to confirmation. D In the opinion of the Board of Directors of the company, the current assets, loans, and advances have the value at least equal to the figures stated in the Balance Sheet on realization in the ordinary course of business and provision for all determinable/known liabilities have been made in the accounts when reliable estimates can be made of the amount of obligation. F Previous year Figures have been reworked, regrouped, re-arranged, and reclassified wherever considered necessary to make them comparable with current year’s figures. G There has been no default except Default of Principal repayment and interest repayment on Long Term Borrowings from ……………….. The figures have been quantified in the balance sheet.

i. There have been no irregularities involving management or employees who have a significant role in the system of internal control that could have a material effect on the financial statements. ii. The financial statements are free of material misstatements, including omissions. iii. We have complied with all the relevant provisions of the statute as applicable to us and our records and minutes in this respect are up to date and are open for inspection in the course of your audit. iv. The company has complied with all aspects of contractual agreements that could have a material effect on the financial statements in the event of noncompliance. There has been no non-compliance with requirements of regulatory authorities that could have a material effect on the financial statements in the event of non-compliance. v. We have no plans or intentions that may materially affect the carrying value or classification of assets and liabilities reflected in the financial statements. vi. All the loans or depositor repayment thereof was made by account payee Cheques or demand draft only. vii. In term of section 22 of the micro, Small & Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006: Sundry Creditors of the Company: Rs.NIL Interest Paid to them: Rs. NIL viii. We have complied with tax provisions in respect of the deduction of TDS. ix. All the payments in the respect of any revenue item has been made in compliance with the provisions of section 40(A)(3) of the Income Tax Act 1961. x. Details of all immovable Properties Purchased/Sold during the years are as below: Details Purchase/Sale Amount Value as per stamp duty act NIL NA NA NA

10. General Affirmations

· The Cash balance as on 31/03/2020 has been physically verified by the management at Rs. · The company has not given any guarantee for loans taken by others from banks or financial institutions. · We confirm that no short-term funds have been employed for long-term purposes. · We confirm that during the year company has not issued any shares. · We confirm that during the year company has not issued any debentures to any person. · We confirm that during the year company has not raised funds from the public issue of shares. · None of the employees of the Company were in receipt of remuneration in excess of the limits specified under various provisions of the Companies Act, 2013. · We confirm that Company has duly complied all the provisions of Section 40(A)3 of the I.T. Act, 1961, read with Rule 6DD, and has not made any payment of expenditure in excess of Rs……./- in Cash. · We confirm that Company has duly complied all the provisions of Section 269SS and 269T of the I.T. Act, 1961 and has not taken/accepted and or repaid any loans or deposits in excess of limits prescribed under these sections otherwise them through account payee Cheques and or draft as the case may be. · No personal expenses have been charged to revenue accounts. · No fraud has been committed during the year.

11. Other Information of the company:

Email id: :- Principal Contact No :- No. Of Employees: :- persons No. of Branches:- NIL 12. Others: (a) Our Books of Accounts and Other Records are kept at the corporate address of the company. (b) A bonus amounting Rs. NIL /- was paid to employees which is of customary nature. For and on behalf of the Board ……. Place: New Delhi

Profile photo of CA RK Gupta

A chartered Accountant and a Law Graduate having more than 30 years of experience. Founder of Tri Nagar Keshav Puram CPE Study Circle of NIRC of ICAI. Have organized learning sessions covering the Syllabus for Limited Insolvency Examination in different cities and forums in Northern India.

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management representation letter format for limited review

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Draft Engagement letter & Management representation on Statutory Audit

The main purpose of Management Representation Letter on various matters is to focus the management’s attention on those matters so that the management can specifically address those matters in more detail than would otherwise be the case.

However the Auditor needs to understand the limitations of management representations as audit evidence. Getting a Management Representation Letter does not absolve the auditor of its responsibilities. He has to exercise professional care in conducting the audit.

Article contains Draft Format of Engagement letter on Statutory Audit and Draft Format of Management Representation letter on Statutory Audit-

Draft Format of Engagement letter on Statutory Audit

Date: XX/XX/2020

The Executive Director

(Mention the name & Address of client)

Sub: Engagement Letter for conducting Statutory Audit for the financial year…………         

You have requested vide your letter no.                                      dated             , that we audit the Balance Sheet of (Mention the name of Company). (Hereinafter referred as “Company”) as at 31st March                and the related Profit & Loss Account for the year ended on the date. We are pleased to confirm our acceptance and our understanding of this engagement by means of this letter. Our audit will be conducted with the objective of our expressing an opinion on the financial statements.

We will conduct our audit in accordance with the auditing standards generally accepted in India and with the requirements of the relevant statute. Those Standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatements. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation.

However, having regard to the test nature of an audit, persuasive rather than conclusive nature of audit evidence together with inherent limitations of any accounting and internal control system, there is an unavoidable risk that even some material misstatements of financial statements, resulting from fraud, and to lesser extent error, if either exists, may remain undetected.

In addition to our report on the financial statements, we expected to provide you with a separate letter concerning any material weakness in accounting and internal control system, which might come to our notice.

The responsibility for the preparation of financial statements on a going concern basis is that of the management of the company. The management is also responsible for selection and consist application of appropriate accounting policies, including implementation of applicable accounting standards along with proper explanation relating to any material departures from those accounting standards. The management is also responsible for making judgments and estimates that are reasonable and prudent as to give a true and fair view of the state of affairs of the institute at the end of the financial year and of the surplus or deficit of the institute for that period. Further, the management is also responsible for the identifying and ensuring that the institute complies with the laws and regulations applicable to its activities.

The responsibility of the management also includes the maintenance of adequate accounting records and internal controls for safeguarding of the assets of the company and for the preventing and detecting fraud of irregularities. Further, the management is also responsible for adjusting the financial statements to correct material misstatements identified by us. As part of our audit process, we will request from management written confirmation concerning representations made to us in connection with the audit at the conclusion of our audit.

Our fees will be billed as follows”

The total audit fee of Rs…… (Excluding GST) (Rupees………………only) which will be billed on submission of the audit report.

We wish to emphasis that our audit report would be exclusively for income tax and Registrar of company’s purposes. We shall not be liable for any way to any third party to whom you may make the audit report available.

We also wish to invite your attention to the fact that our audit process is subject to “peer review” under the Chartered Accountants Act, 1949. The reviewer may examine our working papers during the course of the peer review.

We look forward to full cooperation with your staff and we trust that they will make available to us whatever records; documentation and other information as requested in connection with our audit.

This letter will be effective for future years unless it is terminated, amended of superseded.

If the forgoing is in accordance with your understanding, please sign the copy of this letter in the space provided and return it to us.

Thanking you

Yours faithfully

For M/s XYZ & Co.

Chartered Accountants

 (Mention n ame & Designation of Partner)

Draft Format of Management Representation letter on Statutory Audit

[ON THE LETTER HEAD OF AUDITEE]

M/s XYZ & Co.

_______________

Sub: Management Representation in course of Statutory Audit for A.Y.

This representation letter is provided in connection with your audit of the financial statements of………………………………………..(Name of company) for the year ended 31.03.2020 for the purpose of expressing an opinion as to whether the financial statements give a true and fair view of the financial position of………………………. (Name) as on 31.03.2020 and of the results of operations for the year ended.

We acknowledge our responsibility for preparation of financial statements in accordance with the requirements of the Companies Act, 2013 and recognized accounting policies and practices, including the Accounting Standards issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India.

We confirm, to the best of our knowledge and belief, the following representations;

1. Accounting Policies:

1. The accounting policies which are material or critical in determining the results of operations for the year or financial position is set out in the financial statements are consistent with those adopted in the financial statements for the previous year. The financial statements are prepared on accrual basis except discounts claims and rebates, which cannot be determined with certainty in the respective accounting year.

2. Significant assumptions used by us in making accounting estimates, including those measured at fair value, are reasonable.

3. All events subsequent to the date of the financial statements and for which applicable accounting standards in India require adjustment or disclosure have been adjusted or disclosed.

4. The effects of uncorrected misstatements are immaterial, both individually and in the aggregate, to the financial statements as a whole.

5. We have fulfilled our responsibilities, as set out in the terms of the audit engagement, for the preparation of the financial statements in accordance with Financial Reporting Standards; in particular, the financial statements give a true and fair view in accordance with the applicable accounting standards in India.

1. The company has satisfactory title to all assets.

2. The company has satisfactory title to all assets and is subject to first charge to ________ for securing the working capital loan/ Term loan.

3. Fixed Assets

The net book values at which fixed assets are stated in the balance sheet are arrived at;

1. After taking into account all capital expenditure on additions thereto, but no expenditure being chargeable to revenue.

2. After eliminating the cost and accumulated depreciation relating to items sold, discarded, demolished or destroyed.

3. After providing adequate depreciation on fixed assets during the period.

4. Capital Commitments

At the balance sheet date, there were no outstanding commitments for capital expenditure.

5. Investment

1. The company does not have any investments.

2. All the investments shown in the balance sheet are “Long Term Investment’ .

3. Long-term quoted investments are valued cost less provision for permanent diminution in their value.

4. Long term unquoted investments are valued at cost.

5. All the investments belong to the entity and they do not include any investments held on behalf of any other persons.

6. The entity has clear title to all of its investments. There are no charges against the investments of the entity except those appearing in the records of the entity.

6. Inventories

1. Inventories at the year-end consisted of the following:

2. All quantities were determined by actual physical count or weight that was taken under our supervision and in accordance with written instructions, on 31.3.2020.

3. All goods included in the inventory are the property of the entity, and none of the goods are held as consignee for others or as bailee.

4. All inventories owned by the entity, wherever located, have been recorded.

5. Inventories do not include goods sold to customers for which delivery is yet to be made.

6. Inventories have been valued at cost or net-realizable value, whichever is less.

7. In our opinion, there is no excess, slow moving, damaged or obsolete inventories, hence no provision is required to be made.

8. No item of inventories has a net realizable value in the ordinary course of business, which is less than the amount at which it is included in inventories.

7. Debtors, Loans and Advances

The following items appearing in the books as at 31.3.2020 are considered good and fully recoverable.

8. Liabilities

1. We have recorded all known liabilities in the financial statements except retirement benefits, discounts claims and rebates.

2. We have disclosed in Notes on Accounts all guarantees that, if any we have given to third parties.

3. There are no Contingent Liabilities as on 31.3.2020, if yes, relevant documents have been provided during the audit.

9. Provisions for Claims and Losses

1. There are no known losses and claims of material amounts for which provision is required to be made.

2. There have been no events subsequent to the balance sheet date which require adjustment of or disclosure in, the financial statements or notes thereto.

10. General

1. The following have been properly recorded and, when appropriate, adequately disclosed in the financial statements;

2. Loss arising from sale and purchase commitments.

3. Agreements and options to buy back assets previously sold.

4. Assets pledged as collateral.

5. All transactions have been recorded in the accounting records and are reflected in the financial statements.

6. There have been no irregularities involving management or employees who have a significant role in the system of internal control that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

7. The financial statements are free of material misstatements, including omissions.

8. The Company has complied with all aspects of contractual agreements that could have a material effect on the financial statements in the event of non-compliance. There has been no non-compliance with requirements of regulatory authorities that could have a material effect on the financial statements in the event of non-compliance.

9. We have no plans or intentions that may materially affect the carrying value or classification of assets and liabilities reflected in the financial statements.

10. The allocation between capital and revenue has been correctly done and that no items of capital nature have been debited to Statement of Profit & Loss and vice versa.

11. The Cash balance as on 31.3.2020 has been physically verified by the management at Rs…………………..

12. The details of disputed dues in case of GST/VAT/sales tax/ income tax/ customer tax/ excise duty/ cess/PF/ESI which have not been deposited on account of dispute is as under:

13. The company has not defaulted in repayment of dues to financial institution or bank.

14. The company has not given any guarantee for loans taken by others from bank or financial institutions.

15. No personal expenses have been charged to revenue accounts .

16. We have provided you with:

17. Access to all information of which we are aware that is relevant to the preparation of the financial statements such as records, documentation and other matters;

18. Additional information that you have requested from us for the purpose of the audit; and

19. Unrestricted access to persons within the entity from whom you determined it necessary to obtain audit evidence.

20. We have disclosed to you the results of our assessment of the risk that the financial statements may be materially misstated as a result of fraud.

21. Related party relationships and transactions have been appropriately accounted for and disclosed in accordance with the requirements of applicable accounting standards in India. We have disclosed to you the identity of the entity’s related parties and all the related party relationships and transactions of which we are aware.

22. The payments covered under section 40A (3) were made by account payee cheques drawn on a bank or account payee bank draft.

23. All the loans, deposits or specified sum exceeding the limit specified in section 269SS/T are accepted or repaid through an account payee cheque or an account payee bank draft.

24. The information regarding applicability of MSMED Act 2006 to the various supplier/parties has not been received from the suppliers. Hence information as required vide clause 22 of chapter V of MSMED Act 2006 is not being given.

25. The loans taken from directors of the company or their relatives are out of their own funds and not any borrowed funds in pursuance of relevant provisions of Companies Act, 2013. Necessary declarations in this behalf have been obtained by the company from them.

By order of the Board

For «Name of company»

Sd/- Name Director DIN-

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IMAGES

  1. Management Representation Letter

    management representation letter format for limited review

  2. Management Representation Letter Format

    management representation letter format for limited review

  3. Management Representation Letter Sample Form

    management representation letter format for limited review

  4. 11+ Management Representation Letter Templates in DOC

    management representation letter format for limited review

  5. Management Representation Letter Format

    management representation letter format for limited review

  6. Management Representation Letter Format

    management representation letter format for limited review

VIDEO

  1. Quality cafe session on "Importance & Significance of Engagement & Management Representation Letter"

  2. Management Representation letter in Bank Audit

  3. AUD: Performing Procedures and Communications: Management Representation Letter

  4. Bank Branch Audit Seminar 2024- Part 3

  5. Bank Branch Audit Seminar 2024

  6. Bank Branch Audit Seminar 2024

COMMENTS

  1. PDF Management Representations

    tional appropriate representations from management relating to matters spe-cific to the entity's business or industry.14 Examples of additional represen-tations that may be appropriate are provided in paragraph .17 appendix B, "Additional Illustrative Representations.".08 Management's representations may be limited to matters that are

  2. AS 2805: Management Representations

    Obtaining Written Representations. .05 Written representations from management should be obtained for all financial statements and periods covered by the auditor's report. 2 For example, if comparative financial statements are reported on, the written representations obtained at the completion of the most recent audit should address all periods ...

  3. PDF Management Representation Letter—Nonprofit Entities

    representations made to you during your audit. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 1. We have fulfilled our responsibilities, as set out in the terms of the audit engagement letter dated DATE OF ENGAGEMENT LETTER. 2. The financial statements referred to above are fairly presented in conformity GAAP. 3.

  4. PDF Management Representation Letter—For Profit Entities

    representations made to you during your audit. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 1. We have fulfilled our responsibilities, as set out in the terms of the audit engagement letter dated DATE OF ENGAGEMENT LETTER. 2. The financial statements referred to above are fairly presented in conformity U.S. GAAP. 3.

  5. PDF SRE 2410ð*

    Appendix 3: Example of a Management Representation Letter Appendix 4: Examples of Review Reports on Interim Financial Information Appendix 5: Examples of Review Reports with a Qualified Conclusion for ... performing an audit function but because the scope of this SRE is limited to a review of interim financial information performed by the ...

  6. Management Representation Letter

    A management representation letter is a formal document issued by senior management of an organization confirming the accuracy and completeness of financial information presented in the financial statements. It is a critical document that helps auditors or other parties to obtain reasonable assurance that the financial statements are reliable.

  7. Management Representation Letters

    sentence to the representation letter. The illustrative representation letter in appendix 2 of ISA (UK) 580 includes the following suggestion: We confirm that (, to the best of our knowledge and belief, having made such inquiries as we considered necessary for the purpose of appropriately informing ourselves):

  8. PDF SEBI issued procedure and formats for limited review and audit ...

    The SEBI through its circular dated 29 March 2019 prescribed the procedure and formats for limited review report and audit report of the listed entity and its components. The revised procedure and formats would be required to be followed by the statutory auditors of such entities. These procedures are applicable from 1 April 2019.

  9. Procedure and formats for limited review / audit report of the listed

    Procedure and formats for limited review / audit report of the listed entity and those entities whose accounts are to be consolidated with the listed entity Mar 29, 2019 Circular No.: CIR/CFD/CMD1/44/2019

  10. PDF Corporation X 500 7th Street #924 Los Angeles CA 90017

    This representation letter is provided in connection with your review of the financial statements of Corporation X, (the Company), which comprise the balance sheet as of December 31, 2019, and the related statements of income, changes in owner's equity and cash flows for the year then ended, and the related

  11. AR-C 90: Definitive Guide to Review Engagements

    Provide the draft of the financial statements to the client promptly so they can review them and assume responsibility. Thereafter, the client can sign the representation letter. Additionally, the representation letter should cover all financial statements and all periods in the report. Exhibit B of AR-90 provides a sample representation letter.

  12. Financial Statement Review Management Representation Letter

    The letter is signed at the end of the engagement and is dated at the time of the review report. The management representation letter has three basic parts, the introduction, statements about the financials and declarations on the information management has provided. Care should be taken in producing this letter. It contains many items that if ...

  13. PDF International Standard on Review Engagements 2410 Review of ...

    1. The purpose of this International Standard on Review Engagements (ISRE) is to establish standards and provide guidance on the auditor's professional responsibilities when the auditor undertakes an engagement to review interim financial information of an audit client, and on the form and content of the report.

  14. What are Management Representation Letters?

    A management representation letter is typically issued by senior management, such as the CEO or CFO, and is addressed to the CPA firm performing the audit or review. It contains a series of statements that confirm certain facts and assurances about the company's financial information, including the completeness and accuracy of financial ...

  15. Format of Management Representation Letter (MRL) for Audit

    Sub: Management Representation in course of Statutory Audit for F.Y. 2021-22. This representation letter is provided in connection with your audit of the financial statements of M/s Private Limited, Delhi for the year ended March 31, 20XX for the purpose of expressing an opinion as to whether the financial statements are presented fairly, in ...

  16. PDF Review of Interim Financial Information Performed by the Independent

    Management Representations 34-35 Auditor's Responsibility for Accompanying Information 36-37 Communication 38-42 Reporting the Nature, Extent and Results of the Review of Interim Financial Information 43-63 Documentation 64 Effective Date 65 Appendix 1: Example of an Engagement Letter for a Review of Interim Financial Information

  17. Management Representation Letter (MRL) for Audit

    To, Sub: Management Representation in course of Statutory Audit for F.Y. 2021-22. This representation letter is provided in connection with your audit of the financial statements of M/s Private Limited, Delhi for the year ended March 31, 20XX for the purpose of expressing an opinion as to whether the financial statements are presented fairly ...

  18. PDF ADS 594 Additional Help Sample Management Representation Letter for

    This representation letter updates the representations provided in conjunction with your audit of the financial statements as of September 30, 20xx. 1. We are responsible for the fair representation of the financial statements and Required Supplementary Stewardship. 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue NW Washington, D.C. 20523.

  19. Sample Management Representation Letter to KPMG

    The purpose of this memorandum is to provide Audit Committee with a sample Management Representation Letter prior to the June 2016 Audit Committee meeting for you to review and understand the representations made by York ... Certain representations in this letter are described as being limited to matters that are material. Misstatements ...

  20. Detailed Format of a Management Representation Letter

    The detailed format of a management representation letter. It is required by the auditors in most of the cases for seeking confirmation from the management Browse

  21. Demystifying ISA 580: Management Representation Letters in Auditing

    5. Various Forms of Written Representation. Management Representation can assume various formats, including: 5.1. A straightforward representation provided by management. 5.2. A letter authored by auditors delineating their understanding of management's representation, an acknowledgment of which is sought and obtained from management. 5.3.

  22. Client Management Representation Letter

    CLIENT MANAGEMENT REPRESENTATION LETTER - NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION REVIEW. and for the year then ended for the purpose of expressing limited assurance that there are no material modifications that should be made to the statements in order for them to be in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles.

  23. Draft Engagement letter & Management representation on ...

    Article contains Draft Format of Engagement letter on Statutory Audit and Draft Format of Management Representation letter on Statutory Audit- ... We also wish to invite your attention to the fact that our audit process is subject to "peer review" under the Chartered Accountants Act, 1949. The reviewer may examine our working papers during ...