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Resources from Pitt's Writing Center

  • How to Reference Sources Provides specific examples of how to cite different material types in IEEE style.
  • Resources, References, and Plagiarism Helpful hints to avoid plagiarism.

IEEE Publications

  • IEEE Citation Guidelines IEEE's publication on citation standards covers books, conference technical articles, online sources, periodicals, theses, and more.
  • IEEE Editorial Style Manual This style manual provides editorial guidance for IEEE Transactions, Journals, and Letters. It outlines how to divide the parts of a paper, cite figures and tables, and it gives guidelines for specific grammar rules.
  • IEEE Article Templates This site gives the nitty-gritty details on how to edit, format, and submit a paper for IEEE review and publication.

Online IEEE Citation Resources

  • Murdoch University This is an excellent guide that covers all aspects of citing in IEEE style. Check out the Reference List Entries page for details about citing a variety of material types.

What is IEEE Style?

The Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional organization supporting many branches of engineering, computer science, and information technology. In addition to publishing journals, magazines, and conference proceedings, IEEE also makes many standards for a wide variety of industries.

IEEE citation style includes in-text citations, numbered in square brackets, which refer to the full citation listed in the reference list at the end of the paper. The reference list is organized numerically, not alphabetically. For examples, see the IEEE Editorial Style Manual . 

The Basics:

In-text Citing   It is not necessary to mention an author's name, pages used, or date of publication in the in-text citation. Instead, refer to the source with a number in a square bracket, e.g. [1], that will then correspond to the full citation in your reference list.

  • Place bracketed citations within the line of text, before any punctuation, with a space before the first bracket.
  • Number your sources as you cite them in the paper. Once you have referred to a source and given it a number, continue to use that number as you cite that source throughout the paper.
  • When citing multiple sources at once, the preferred method is to list each number separately, in its own brackets, using a comma or dash between numbers, as such: [1], [3], [5] or [1] - [5].

The below examples are from Murdoch University's IEEE Style LibGuide .

Examples of in-text citations:

"...end of the line for my research [13]."

"This theory was first put forward in 1987 [1]."

"Scholtz [2] has argued that..."

"Several recent studies [3], [4], [15], [16] have suggested that...."

"For example, see [7]."

Creating a Reference List    The Reference List appears at the end of your paper and provides the full citations for all the references you have used.  List all references numerically in the order they've been cited within the paper, and include the bracketed number at the beginning of each reference.

  • Title your list as References either centered or aligned left at the top of the page.
  • Create a hanging indent for each reference with the bracketed numbers flush with the left side of the page. The hanging indent highlights the numerical sequence of your references.
  • The author's name is listed as first initial, last name. Example: Adel Al Muhairy would be cited as A. Al Muhairy (NOT Al Muhairy, Adel).
  • The title of an article is listed in quotation marks.
  • The title of a journal or book is listed in italics.

The below examples are from the IEEE Citation Reference Guide , IEEE Reference Guide , and Murdoch University's IEEE Style LibGuide .

Examples of citations for different materials:

Books on Technical Writing

ieee research paper reference

  • Chicago Manual of Style Online This link opens in a new window The IEEE Editorial Style Manual refers authors to the Chicago Manual of Style for further grammar and usage guidance.
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ieee research paper reference

IEEE Referencing

Journal and magazine articles, ieee referencing: journal and magazine articles.

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  • Citing sources in the text
  • Quotes & Paraphrasing
  • Page numbers & Abbreviations
  • Place of publication
  • Books & e-books
  • Theses & dissertations
  • Web-based document or source
  • Handbooks and manuals
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  • Figures, tables and equations
  • Generative AI
  • Sample Reference List
  • Sample in-text reference

Connect through to format examples which provide a review of each component that needs to be included in a reference.

Then move to the FURTHER EXAMPLES table with many examples of book and e-book format types. 

Basic format to reference an electronic journal article

[#]    Author(s) Initial(s). Surname(s), “ Title of the electronic article,” Abbrev . Title of Journal , vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx–xxx, Abbrev. Month. Year. Accessed: Abbrev. Month. Day, Year. doi:xxxxx. [Online]. Available: site/path/file (database or URL) 

Referencing elements to cite:

  • [#] Reference number (matching the in-text citation number)
  • Author’s first initial. Author’s second initial, if provided. Author’s last name
  • Title of the article in double quotation marks, in lower case
  • Title of the Journal, in italics. Important words of the title are capitalised, but not minor ones, such as ‘and’, ‘of’, ‘on’, etc. Refer to the Journal titles abbreviations  section on this page for further information.
  • Volume, issue and page number(s)
  • Abbreviated month and year of publication. Refer to the  Abbreviated month  section for further information.
  • Accessed: Month, Day, Year. Where there is a DOI available, the Access Date can be omitted.
  • If a DOI of the journal article is not available, provide the Victoria University database provider. Refer to  DOI in IEEE  section on this guide for further information.
  • For electronic resources found on the Internet include the full URL

[2]     A. Vaskuri, H. Baumgartner, P. Kärhä, G. Andor, and E. Ikonen, "Modeling the spectral shape of InGaAlP-based red light-emitting diodes," Journal of Applied Physics , vol. 118, no. 20, pp. 203103-1 – 203103-7, Jul. 2015. Accessed: Feb. 9, 2017. doi: 10.1063/1.4936322.  [Online]. Available: https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.4936322

Basic format to reference a print journal article

[#]    Author(s) Initial(s). Surname(s), “ Title of the article,” Abbrev. Title of Journal , vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx–xxx, Abbrev. Month. Year, doi:xxxxx (if available).

  • Title of the Journal, in italics. Important words of the title are capitalised, but not minor ones, such as ‘and’, ‘of’, ‘on’, etc. Refer to the Journal titles abbreviations  section on this page for further information.
  • Abbreviated month and year of publication. Refer to the  Abbreviated month  section for further information
  • DOI (Digital Object Identifier), if available.

[1]     T. Kaczorek,   "Minimum energy control of fractional positive electrical circuits,"  Archives of Electrical Engineering , vol. 65, no. 2, pp.191 – 201, Oct. 2016.

Basic format to reference an electronic magazine article

[#]    Author(s) Initial(s). Surname(s), “ Title of the magazine article,” Abbrev . Title of Periodical (Magazine) , vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx–xxx, Abbrev. Month. Year. Accessed: Abbrev. Month. Day, Year. doi:xxxxx. [Online]. Available: site/path/file (database or URL) 

  • Title of the magazine article in double quotation marks, in lower case
  • Title of the Periodical (Magazine), in italics. Important words of the title are capitalised, but not minor ones, such as ‘and’, ‘of’, ‘on’, etc. Refer to the Journal titles abbreviations  section on this page for further information.

[4]     D. T. Hoang, D. Niyato, D. N. Nguyen, E. Dutkiewicz, P. Wang, and Z. Han, "A dynamic edge caching framework for mobile 5G networks," IEEE Wireless Communic. , vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 95–103, Aug. 2018. Accessed: Nov. 26, 2021. doi: 10.1109/MWC.2018.1700360.  [Online]. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8443597

Basic format to reference a print magazine article

[#]    Author(s) Initial(s). Surname(s), “ Title of the magazine article,” Abbrev. Title of Magazine (in italics) , vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx–xxx, Abbrev. Month, Year.

  • Title of the Magazine, in italics. Important words of the title are capitalised, but not minor ones, such as ‘and’, ‘of’, ‘on’, etc.
  • Abbreviated month and year of publication. Refer to the  Abbreviated month  section for further information.

[3]     M. Patrick,   "The origins of today's industrial robots, and where they're headed next," Electronics World , vol. 124, no. 1987, pp.19–20, Oct. 2018.

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  • Last Updated: Jan 18, 2024 2:09 PM
  • URL: https://libraryguides.vu.edu.au/ieeereferencing

IEEE Citation Guide: Sample Reference List

  • Getting started with IEEE referencing
  • Books & e-books
  • Journal articles
  • Web-based document or source
  • Handbooks and manuals
  • Standards and patents
  • Conference proceedings
  • Technical/company reports
  • Lecture notes
  • Audio-visual material
  • Personal communication
  • Figures, tables and equations
  • Sample Reference List
  • Sample in-text reference

The Reference List in IEEE

At the end of the paper provide full details of all references cited in-text. The reference list should be arranged in the order of appearance of the in-text citations, not in an alphabetical order, beginning with [1], and continuing in consecutive numerical order, from the lowest number to the highest. In the reference list, only one resource per reference number is acceptable.

Publication titles of books and journals are italicised. In publication titles, all ‘major words’ (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and pronouns) are also capitalised. Use lower case for ‘minor’ words, such as conjunctions (and, or, not, but), articles (a, an, the), and prepositions (in, on, near, as, at, by, for, etc.), providing they are not the first word in a title or subtitle. Titles of articles, chapters, etc. are placed in quotation marks, in lower case.

Typical reference list entry

The typical components of a reference list are laid our below. Each reference entry should generally contain the referencing elements in the following order (if one of these elements is not recorded  in the original source, then you can only use the elements provided - do not make others up) :

  • Citation number, enclosed within square brackets, is aligned along the left margin. The text of the entry is indented 2 or 3 spaces;
  • Author(s) name(s): first names’  initials are placed first, followed by last names;
  • Title of the article, book chapter, conference paper or report is typed in double quotation marks, with text provided in lower case;
  • Book , Journal or Conference Title is typed in italics. Capitalize the first letter of each important word in the title;
  • Publication information: City, State (if U.S.) or Country if City is not well known: Publisher Name, Date;
  • Page number(s) if applicable, i.e. if you are referencing a book section, a book chapter in an edited book, or an article. Page numbers are cited as p. for a single page or pp. for multiple pages.

IEEE Sample Reference List

Reference List

[1]     R. E. Ziemer and W. H. Tranter,  Principles of Communications: Systems, Modulation , and Noise , 7th ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2015, pp. 13–17.

[2]    J. D. Bellamy et al. , Computer Telephony Integration , New York: Wiley, 2010.

[3]    C. Jacks, High Rupturing Capacity (HRC) Fuses , New York: Penguin Random House, 2013, pp. 175–225.

[4]    N. B. Vargafik, J. A. Wiebelt, and J. F. Malloy, "Radiative transfer," in Convective Heat . Melbourne: Engineering Education Australia, 2011, ch. 9, pp. 379–398.

[5]    H. C. Hottel and R. Siegel, "Film condensation," in Handbook of Heat Transfer, 2nd ed .  W. C. McAdams, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011, ch. 9, pp. 78–99.

[6]   W. M. Rohsenow , "Heat transmission," in Thermal Radiation Properties , vol. 3,  M. W. Catton and J. P. Hartnett, Eds. New York: Macmillan, 2012, ch. 9, pp. 37–62.

[7]     H. Schmidt-Walter and R. Kories,  Electrical Engineering. A Pocket Reference.  Boston: Artech House, 2007. Accessed on: Oct. 16, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://ebrary.com

[8]     H. H. Gaynor ,  Leading and Managing Engineering and Technology, Book 2: Developing Managers and Leaders.  IEEE-USA , 2011. Accessed on: Oct. 15, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.ieeeusa.org/communications/ebooks/files/sep14/n2n802/Leading-and-Managing-Engineering-and-Technology-Book-2.pdf

[9]     G. H. Gaynor,   "Dealing with the manager leader dichotomy," in Leading and Managing Engineering and Technology, Book 2, Developing Leaders and Mangers . IEEE-USA, 2011, pp. 27–28. Accessed on Jan. 23, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.ieeeusa.org/communications/ebooks/files/sep14/n2n802/Leading-and-Managing-Engineering-and-Technology-Book-2.pdf

[10]     M. Cvijetic,   "Optical transport system engineering," in Wiley Encyclopedia of Telecommunications , vol. 4, J. G. Proakis, Ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2003, pp. 1840–1849. Accessed on: Feb. 5, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://ebscohost.com

[11]     T. Kaczorek,   "Minimum energy control of fractional positive electrical circuits", Archives of Electrical Engineering , vol. 65, no. 2, pp.191 – 201, 2016.

[12]     A. Vaskuri, H. Baumgartner, P. Kärhä, G. Andor, and E. Ikonen, "Modeling the spectral shape of InGaAlP-based red light-emitting diodes," Journal of Applied Physics , vol. 118, no. 20, pp. 203103-1 – 203103-7, Jul. 2015. Accessed on Feb. 9, 2017. [Online]. Available  doi: 10.1063/1.4936322

[13]    K. Jegathala Krishnan, "Implementation of renewable energy to reduce carbon consumption and fuel cell as a back-up power for national broadband network (NBN) in Australia," Ph.D dissertation, College of Eng. and Sc., Victoria Univ., Melb., 2013.

[14]    M. T. Long, "On the statistical correlation between the heave, pitch and roll motion of road transport vehicles,"  Research Master thesis, College of Eng. and Sc., Victoria Univ., Melb.,  Vic., 2016.

[15]     R. King (2008, Oct.). Engineers for the Future: Addressing the Supply and Quality of Australian Engineering Graduates for the 21st Century , Australian Council of Engineering Deans. Accessed on: Feb. 1, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.engineersaustralia.org.au/sites/default/files/shado/ACED/Engineers%20for%20the%20Future.pdf

[16]     Audel Electrician's Pocket Manual , 2nd ed. ,  Wiley Pub., Indianapolis, IN, 2003.

[17]     Operational Procedure – Electrical Safety Rules CEOP8030 , no. 14, Essential Energy, Sept. 2016.  Accessed on: Feb. 1, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.essentialenergy.com.au/asset/cms/pdf/contestableWorks/CEPG8030.pdf

[18]     Safe Working on or Near Low-voltage Electrical Installations and E quipment ,  AS/NZS 4836:2011, 2011. 

[19]     N. Tesla,   "System of electrical distribution," United States Patent and Trademark Office 390,413, Oct. 2, 1888. 

[20]     Fixing System for an Electrical Plate, Legrand Australia Pty Ltd. (2016, Dec. 22).  2016905338.  Accessed on: Feb. 1, 2017.   [Online]. Available: AusPat

[21]    S. r. Ayyubi, Y. Miao, and H. Shi, "Automating standalone smoke alarms for early remote notifications," in: ICARCV , (13th Intern. Conf. on Cont. Automa. Robotics & Vision), Marina Bay Sands Singapore, Dec. 2014.

[22]     W. M. Brown, A. Semin, M. Hebenstreit, S. Khvostov, K. Raman, and S. J. Plimpton,  " Increasing molecular dynamics simulation rates with an 8-fold increase in electrical power efficiency", in SC '16 Proc. of the Int. Conf. for High Perf. Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis,  Article No. 8, Salt Lake City, Utah, IEEE Press Piscataway, November 13 - 18, 2016. Accessed on Feb. 10, 2017.  [Online]. Available: ACM Digital Library

[23]    D. Smith, “17th Construction Squadron Relocation Infrastructure Project,” Canberra Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works, Canberra, ACT, Rep. no. 5, June 2015, pp. 5–7.

[24]    G. Glass, "Electrical Safety Program: Nonelectrical Crafts at LANL, Live #12175," Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, LA-UR--16-29637, 2016. Accessed on Feb. 1, 2017. [Online]. Available: doi:10.2172/1338684

[25]    H.  King, Class Lecture, Topic: " Lecture 3- AC Circuits."  NEF2251/VAM3112, College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, Melbourne, Vic., Apr. 2016.

[26]     Films Media Group (2006),  Electrical components. Part one: Resistors, Batteries and Switches [DVD]. Monmouth Junction, NJ: Shopware.

[27]     Kanopy Streaming Service (2012).  Engineering: The Break Press  [Streaming Video]. Accessed on: Feb. 9, 2017. Available: https://vu.kanopystreaming.com

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  • IEEE Citation Generator

Free IEEE Citation Generator

Generate accurate IEEE style citations quickly and automatically, with MyBib!

🤔 What is an IEEE Citation Generator?

An IEEE citation generator is a tool that creates citations in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) citation style. It does this automatically by taking the identifier for an article or document, such as a website URL, book ISBN, or journal article ISSN (supplied by you), and detecting the remaining details. Then it formats all the details in the correct IEEE citation style.

👩‍🎓 Who uses an IEEE Citation Generator?

The IEEE citation style was developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and is based on the Chicago citation style. It is used in the area of computer science, technology, and engineering by students of these subjects, and academics writing to be published in journals of these subjects.

🙌 Why should I use an IEEE Citation Generator?

Every academic field--not just engineering--will recommend using a tool to record references to others' work in your writing. A citation generator like MyBib can record this data, and can also automatically create an accurate reference list from it, with the necessary in-text citations too.

⚙️ How do I use MyBib's IEEE Citation Generator?

MyBib's IEEE citation generator was designed to be fast and easy to use. Follow these steps:

  • Search for the article, website, or document you want to cite using the search box at the top of the page.
  • Look through the list of results found and choose the one that you referenced in your work.
  • Make sure the details are all correct, and change any that aren't. Then click Generate!

The generator will produce a formatted IEEE citation that can be copied and pasted directly into your document, or saved to MyBib as part of your overall bibliography (which can be downloaded fully later!).

MyBib supports the following for IEEE style:

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Daniel is a qualified librarian, former teacher, and citation expert. He has been contributing to MyBib since 2018.

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How to Cite a Conference Paper in IEEE Referencing

How to Cite a Conference Paper in IEEE Referencing

4-minute read

  • 22nd January 2020

IEEE referencing – named for the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers – is a common citation system in many technical subject areas, from computing to engineering. And if you’re using this system in your work, you may need to know how to cite a conference paper.

But how does this work? And is there a difference between published and unpublished conference papers in IEEE referencing ? Let’s take a look.

To cite a conference paper in IEEE referencing, simply treat it like any other source. This means giving a number in square brackets, usually at the end of the relevant sentence or passage:

Traditional manufacturing techniques have largely been replaced [1].

This number points to an entry in a reference list. The [1] above, for instance, shows that we’re citing the first source in the reference list.

Beyond this, standard rules for citing sources in IEEE referencing include:

  • Number sources sequentially (i.e., use [1] for the first source you cite, [2] for the second source, [3] for the third source, and so on).
  • Use the same number each time you cite the same source (i.e., the number that matches the position of the source in the reference list).
  • If you quote a source, include page numbers (e.g., [1, p. 146]).

You can see examples of repeat citations and quotations below:

Brown [2] says this is a matter of efficiency. With this shift, some argue that we have “lost valuable skills” [3, p. 40]. However, we can see examples of traditional skills being preserved where there is demand [2].

Here, for instance, the first and third citations are for the second source in the reference list. We can also see that the quote here comes from page 40 of the third source in the reference list via the other citation. For more information on citing sources in IEEE referencing, see this blog post .

IEEE Reference List: Published Conference Paper

The reference list is where you provide details of all sources cited in your work. However, in IEEE, the format to use here depends on whether you’re citing a published or unpublished paper. For a paper from published conference proceedings, the standard format is as follows:

[#] INITIAL(S) Surname, “Paper Title,” in Abbreviated Conference Name , location of conference (optional), date of conference (if available), year, page range.

So, a published conference paper would look something like this in practice:

[1] R. Johnson, “Traditional Manufacturing Techniques in Modern Industry,” in Proc. 3rd Annu. Traditional Skills Colloq. , Cambridge, UK, 19-21 Jul. 2019., pp. 182-194.

If the paper is also available online, include a DOI after the page numbers.

IEEE Reference List: Unpublished Conference Paper

Not every paper presented at a conference will be published in proceedings. But you can reference an unpublished paper as follows:

[#] INITIAL(S) Surname, “Paper Title,” presented at Abbreviated Conference Name , location of conference, date of conference.

For example, we could list an unpublished version of a paper as follows:

[1] R. Johnson, “Traditional Manufacturing Techniques in Modern Industry,” presented 3rd Annu. Traditional Skills Colloq., Cambridge, UK, 19-21 Jul. 2019.

If the unpublished paper is also available online, though, you should include the format and URL in place of the location and date. For example:

[1] R. Johnson. “Traditional Manufacturing Techniques in Modern Industry,” presented 3rd Annu. Traditional Skills Colloq. [Online]. Available: http://www.imaginaryuniversity.ac.uk/profiles/rian-johnson/papers/traditional-manufacturing-techniques-paper-revised-01082019.pdf

This makes it easier for readers to check the paper you’ve cited.

Abbreviating Conference Names in IEEE Referencing

You will have noticed above that the reference list entries include an abbreviated conference name. These are based on the official abbreviations used for conference names in IEEE referencing:

  You should also leave out articles (e.g., a , an , the ) and prepositions (e.g., of , on , in ). However, all other words should be written out in full. For example:

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Full Name: Proceedings of the Third Annual Traditional Skills Colloquium

Abbreviated Name: Proc. 3rd Annu. Traditional Skills Colloq.

We hope this has fully explained how to cite a conference paper in IEEE referencing! If you have any questions, just leave a comment below.

And if you’d like an academic writing expert to check your work, including the citations, we have specialist editors ready to help !

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IEEE General Format

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This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

Contained in this page are some basic guidelines for formatting a paper in IEEE style. The best way to format your paper may vary slightly depending on which field you’re working in and the specifics of where your paper is being submitted, so remember to double-check against any submission guidelines provided by the organization, instructor, or supervisor to whom you are submitting your paper.

  • The paper title should be centered at the top of the first page, in 24-point type.
  • Author’s name (or authors’ names)
  • Author affiliation(s)
  • City & country location(s)
  • E-mail address(es).
  • The body of the paper should be in 10-point type, and formatted to appear in two columns. The columns on the last page should be the same length; this may require adding a column break after you have finished the body of your paper.
  • All papers must begin with an abstract and index terms.

Note to Practitioners

Nomenclature.

  • Acknowledgements
  • Papers may be divided into sections and subsections; IEEE has guidelines for primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary section headings.
  • IEEE papers begin with a drop cap two lines deep, followed by the next 8-12 characters (or 1-2 words, whichever is appropriate) in all caps.
  • Figures, tables, and equations should each be numbered consecutively, but separately. They should also be centered in the column in which they appear.

An IEEE abstract should be written as a single paragraph roughly 200 words long, give or take 50 words. (Abstracts shorter than 150 words or longer than 250 risk incurring the irritation of the editors.) It should be self-contained, and should concisely & accurately summarise the contents of your paper. It is encouraged to try and include three or four keywords or key phrases to help interested readers to find your article.

Abstracts should be simply formatted, without anything that requires specialized typesetting or consultation of material outside the abstract. Abbreviations, footnotes, references, tables, graphs, charts, figures, and displayed mathematical equations are specifically forbidden. The goal of an abstract is to be a simple, accessible, and self-contained microcosm of your paper.

Here is an example of how you might format an abstract:

The abstract should be followed by index terms. These should be in a paragraph separate from the abstract. Index terms are similar to keywords and are provided by the paper’s author to help journals, editors, and readers categorize, archive, or locate your paper. IEEE maintains a standardized list of index terms to make this process easier and its categories more consistent. The most recent version of the  IEEE Taxonomy  can be found on the IEEE website. Here is a link to the 2019 version of the taxonomy .

Index terms should be given in alphabetical order; the first should be capitalized, and the rest lowercase unless they contain acronyms or other components that inherently require capitalization.

Here is an example of how you might format a set of index terms:

Section Headings

Dividing one’s paper into clearly labelled sections increases readability, and is encouraged. Typical sections include Introduction and Conclusion sections as well as sections within the body of the paper that relate to aspects of its content.

Primary headings are enumerated with Roman numerals followed by a period, set in small caps, and centered above the text.

Secondary headings are enumerated with capital letters followed by a period,   set in italics and title case, left-aligned, unindented, and separated from the text by a line break.

Tertiary headings are enumerated by Arabic numerals followed by a close-parenthesis, set in italics and title case, left-aligned, indented one em, and separated from the text by a colon. There is no line break between the heading and the text. 

Quaternary headings are enumerated by lowercase letters followed by a close-parenthesis, set in italics and sentence case, left-aligned, indented two ems, and separated from the text by a colon. There is also no line break here.

Here is an example of what the various headings should look like in your document:

I. Primary Heading

                  Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Fermentum leo vel orci porta non pulvinar neque laoreet suspendisse.

A. Secondary Heading

                  Odio ut enim blandit volutpat maecenas volutpat blandit aliquam. Amet consectetur adipiscing elit pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et.

         1) Tertiary Heading:  Libero justo laoreet sit amet cursus sit. Enim nec dui nunc mattis enim ut tellus elementum sagittis.

                  a) Quaternary heading:  Nibh ipsum consequat nisl vel pretium lectus. Malesuada proin libero nunc consequat interdum varius.

Special Headings

In addition to the standard headings above, there are a few special cases. References and Acknowledgments are formatted like primary headings, but are not enumerated.

Appendix headings should be arranged under a separate system, though formatted like primary headings; if there is only one appendix, it requires neither a number nor a name, but is simply labelled Appendix. If there are multiple appendices, they should be numbered and titled, though one should note that the numbering system for appendix headings is wholly separate from that of section headings; they start at one, regardless of how many sections were present within the paper. Appendices may be enumerated either with Roman numerals or with capital letters, according to the preference of the author, as long as it is done with consistency. Unlike section headings, the number will come after the word “Appendix”: Appendix A rather than A. Appendix. They should have titles, set on the line below them but still formatted like a section heading.

Here is an example of how you might format the beginning of an appendix:

Regarding the Vermiform Process

                  Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. At augue eget arcu dictum varius.

If at any point you wish to refer back to a previous section within the text of your paper – e.g. “As mentioned in [section]…” – you should capitalize the word “Section” and separate subsections from the primary section numeral with a hyphen. E.g., “Section IV,” “Section II-A,” “Section III-B4c,” etc.

The Note to Practitioners, if you choose to include one, goes below your abstract. The aim of the Note is to, without repeating any of the information from your abstract, explain the practical applications of your work without use of jargon. This is so that engineers working on practical problems, who may not have significant background in your particular field, will be able to understand the application of your work to theirs.

A Note to Practitioners can be more than one paragraph, but is otherwise formatted like the abstract.

Here is an example of what a Note to Practitioners might look like:

                  Note to Practitioners – Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Enim sit amet venenatis urna cursus eget nunc scelerisque. Feugiat vivamus at augue eget arcu dictum. Lorem donec massa sapien faucibus et molestie. Pellentesque nec nam aliquam sem.

                  Vel quam elementum pulvinar etiam non quam lacus suspendisse. Velit scelerisque in dictum non consectetur a. Phasellus vestibulum lorem sed risus ultricies tristique nulla. Gravida neque convallis a cras semper auctor. At elementum eu facilisis sed odio morbi quis commodo.

                  Cursus eget nunc scelerisque viverra mauris in. Fames ac turpis egestas integer eget. Viverra mauris in aliquam sem fringilla ut morbi.

If your paper uses a number of different symbols, variables, and so forth, you may want to avoid having to define them within the body of your paper by providing a list of definitions up front; this is called the Nomenclature section. If you choose to include a Nomenclature section, it goes immediately before the Introduction section.

The heading for the Nomenclature section is formatted like a primary heading with no numeral, and the section itself is formatted generally the same as body text, including the italicization of variables. The main difference is the way in which the text must be aligned: the terms being defined are flush against the left margin, and the definitions are aligned one em-space after the longest defined term.

If you are working in a word processor, the easiest way to do this is often to insert a table into your document with invisible borders below the Nomenclature heading. See the images below for an example. Note that the images have been zoomed in to enlarge the text for clarity purposes.

This image shows a document open in a word processor with a nomenclature section formatted in IEEE style.

Example of a nomenclature section

This image shows the same document as above, but the table used to format nomenclature section now has its borders set to visible. This reveals how tables with invisible borders can be used to format text attractively.

Example of a nomenclature section with the borders of the table used to format the section set to visible

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  • Knowledge Base
  • IEEE Paper Format | Template & Guidelines

IEEE Paper Format | Template & Guidelines

Published on 28 August 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 6 April 2023.

IEEE provides guidelines for formatting your paper. These guidelines must be followed when you’re submitting a manuscript for publication in an IEEE journal. Some of the key guidelines are:

  • Formatting the text as two columns, in Times New Roman, 10 pt
  • Including a byline, an abstract , and a set of keywords at the start of the research paper
  • Placing any figures, tables, and equations at the top or bottom of a column, not in the middle
  • Following the appropriate heading styles for any headings you use
  • Including a full list of IEEE references at the end
  • Not including page numbers

IEEE example paper

To learn more about the specifics of IEEE paper format, check out the free template below. Note that you may not need to follow these rules if you’ve only been told to use IEEE citation format for a student paper. But you do need to follow them to submit to IEEE publications.

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Table of contents

Ieee format template, ieee heading styles, frequently asked questions about ieee paper format.

The template below can be used to make sure that your paper follows IEEE format. It’s set up with custom Word styles for all the different parts of the text, with the right fonts and formatting and with further explanation of key points.

Make sure to remove all the explanatory text in the template when you insert your own.

Download IEEE paper format template

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IEEE recommends specific heading styles to distinguish the title and different levels of heading in your paper from each other. Styles for each of these are built into the template.

The paper title is written in 24 pt Times New Roman, centred at the top of the first page. Other headings are all written in 10 pt Times New Roman:

  • Level 1 text headings begin with a roman numeral followed by a full stop. They are written in small caps, in title case, and centred.
  • Level 2 text headings begin with a capital letter followed by a full stop. They are italicised, left-aligned, and written in title case.
  • Level 3 text headings begin with a number followed by a closing parenthesis . They are italicised, written in sentence case, and indented like a regular paragraph. The text of the section follows the heading immediately, after a colon .
  • Level 4 text headings begin with a lowercase letter followed by a closing parenthesis. They are italicised, written in sentence case, and indented slightly further than a normal paragraph. The text of the section follows the heading immediately, after a colon.
  • Component headings are used for the different components of your paper outside of the main text, such as the acknowledgments and references. They are written in small caps, in title case, centred, and without any numbering.

IEEE heading styles

You should use 10 pt. Times New Roman font in your IEEE format paper .

For the paper title, 26 pt. Times New Roman is used. For some other paper elements like table footnotes, the font can be slightly smaller. All the correct stylings are available in our free IEEE format template .

No, page numbers are not included in an  IEEE format paper . If you’re submitting to an IEEE publication, page numbers will be added in the final publication but aren’t needed in the manuscript.

IEEE paper format requires you to include an abstract summarising the content of your paper. It appears at the start of the paper, right after you list your name and affiliation.

The abstract begins with the word ‘Abstract,’ italicised and followed by an em dash. The abstract itself follows immediately on the same line. The entire section is written in bold font. For example: ‘ Abstract —This paper discusses …’

You can find the correct format for your IEEE abstract and other parts of the paper in our free IEEE paper format template .

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2023, April 06). IEEE Paper Format | Template & Guidelines. Scribbr. Retrieved 22 February 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/ieee-referencing/ieee-format-paper/

Is this article helpful?

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  • Knowledge Base
  • IEEE Paper Format | Template & Guidelines

IEEE Paper Format | Template & Guidelines

Published on August 24, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on April 6, 2023.

IEEE provides guidelines for formatting your paper. These guidelines must be followed when you’re submitting a manuscript for publication in an IEEE journal. Some of the key guidelines are:

  • Formatting the text as two columns, in Times New Roman, 10 pt.
  • Including a byline, an abstract , and a set of keywords at the start of the research paper
  • Placing any figures, tables, and equations at the top or bottom of a column, not in the middle
  • Following the appropriate heading styles for any headings you use
  • Including a full list of IEEE references at the end
  • Not including page numbers

IEEE example paper

To learn more about the specifics of IEEE paper format, check out the free template below. Note that you may not need to follow these rules if you’ve only been told to use IEEE citation format for a student paper. But you do need to follow them to submit to IEEE publications.

Table of contents

Ieee format template, ieee heading styles, frequently asked questions about ieee.

The template below can be used to make sure that your paper follows IEEE format. It’s set up with custom Word styles for all the different parts of the text, with the right fonts and formatting and with further explanation of key points.

Make sure to remove all the explanatory text in the template when you insert your own.

Download IEEE paper format template

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

IEEE recommends specific heading styles to distinguish the title and different levels of heading in your paper from each other. Styles for each of these are built into the template.

The paper title is written in 24 pt. Times New Roman, centered at the top of the first page. Other headings are all written in 10 pt. Times New Roman:

  • Level 1 text headings begin with a roman numeral followed by a period. They are written in small caps, in title case, and centered.
  • Level 2 text headings begin with a capital letter followed by a period. They are italicized, left-aligned, and written in title case.
  • Level 3 text headings begin with a number followed by a closing parenthesis . They are italicized, written in sentence case, and indented like a regular paragraph. The text of the section follows the heading immediately, after a colon .
  • Level 4 text headings begin with a lowercase letter followed by a closing parenthesis. They are italicized, written in sentence case, and indented slightly further than a normal paragraph. The text of the section follows the heading immediately, after a colon.
  • Component headings are used for the different components of your paper outside of the main text, such as the acknowledgments and references. They are written in small caps, in title case, centered, and without any numbering.

IEEE heading styles

You should use 10 pt. Times New Roman font in your IEEE format paper .

For the paper title, 26 pt. Times New Roman is used. For some other paper elements like table footnotes, the font can be slightly smaller. All the correct stylings are available in our free IEEE format template .

No, page numbers are not included in an IEEE format paper . If you’re submitting to an IEEE publication, page numbers will be added in the final publication but aren’t needed in the manuscript.

IEEE paper format requires you to include an abstract summarizing the content of your paper. It appears at the start of the paper, right after you list your name and affiliation.

The abstract begins with the word “Abstract,” italicized and followed by an em dash. The abstract itself follows immediately on the same line. The entire section is written in bold font. For example: “ Abstract —This paper discusses … ”

You can find the correct format for your IEEE abstract and other parts of the paper in our free IEEE paper format template .

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2023, April 06). IEEE Paper Format | Template & Guidelines. Scribbr. Retrieved February 22, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/ieee/ieee-paper-format/

Is this article helpful?

Jack Caulfield

Jack Caulfield

Other students also liked, ieee reference page | format & examples, ieee in-text citation | guidelines & examples, ieee journal citation | guide with examples.

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COMMENTS

  1. PDF IEEE REFERENCE GUIDE

    IEEE Transactions, if the issue number or month is not available, research IEEEXplore to update the information. For any reference that cites two months for the same issue, the two months should be separated by a slash (e.g., Jul./Aug.), followed by the year of publication.

  2. IEEE Reference Page

    The IEEE reference page (sometimes called the IEEE bibliography) appears at the end of your paper. It's where you list full information about all the sources you've cited, numbered to match your IEEE in-text citations, so that the reader can find and consult them. Follow these guidelines to format the reference page:

  3. PDF IEEE Reference Style Guide for Authors

    7 Conference Conf. TechnicalDigest Tech.Dig. Congress Congr. TechnicalPaper Tech.Paper Convention Conv. Workshop Workshop Digest Dig. First 1st Exposition Expo.

  4. PDF How to Cite References: IEEE Documentation Style

    The three main parts of a reference are as follows: Author's name listed as first initial of first name, then full last. Title of article, patent, conference paper, etc., in quotation marks. Title of journal or book in italics. This system allows the reader to identify the information source at a glance.

  5. IEEE Citation

    IEEE citation format consists of: Numerical in-text citations appearing in brackets A numbered reference list with full source information Note If you're submitting to an IEEE publication, you should also follow their full IEEE paper format guidelines. Instantly correct all language mistakes in your text

  6. Getting started with IEEE referencing

    In the IEEE referencing style, a number [X] is inserted at the point in your writing where you cite another author's work. At the end of your work, the full reference [X] of the work is provided. Citations and their corresponding references are provided in the order they appear throughout your writing. Citing sources in the text

  7. PDF IEEE Editorial Style Manual (Online)

    B. Style. Reference numbers are set flush left and form a column of their own, hanging out beyond the body of the reference. The reference numbers are on the line, enclosed in square brackets. In all references, the given name of the author or editor is abbreviated to the initial only and precedes the last name.

  8. IEEE Journal Citation

    Revised on June 1, 2023. To cite a journal article in IEEE citation format, include it on your numbered reference page, using the corresponding number for your in-text citation. The IEEE in-text citation includes a page number when you quote or paraphrase a specific passage.

  9. IEEE Reference Page

    Numbering and ordering the reference list. In IEEE citation format, your references are numbered to match the in-text citations that point the reader towards them.In-text citations and references are both numbered in the order they were cited in the text.. If you cite the same source repeatedly in your paper, it's numbered based on the first time it was cited and appears only once on the ...

  10. IEEE Style

    List all references numerically in the order they've been cited within the paper, and include the bracketed number at the beginning of each reference. Title your list as References either centered or aligned left at the top of the page. Create a hanging indent for each reference with the bracketed numbers flush with the left side of the page.

  11. Citation Styles: APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, IEEE

    IEEE citation style includes in-text citations, numbered in square brackets, which refer to the full citation listed in the reference list at the end of the paper. The reference list is organized numerically, not alphabetically. For examples, see the IEEE Editorial Style Manual . The Basics:

  12. IEEE Overview

    This page will introduce you to the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) style for formatting research papers and citing sources. IEEE - pronounced "I-triple-E" - is a style widely used among all branches of engineering, computer science, and other technological fields.

  13. IEEE Xplore

    IEEE Xplore, delivering full text access to the world's highest quality technical literature in engineering and technology. | IEEE Xplore

  14. Library Guides: IEEE Referencing: Journal and magazine articles

    Journal and magazine articles. Connect through to format examples which provide a review of each component that needs to be included in a reference. Components of each format example. Basic format to an electronic journal article. Basic format to reference a print journal article. Basic format to reference an electronic magazine article.

  15. Research Guides: IEEE Citation Guide: Sample Reference List

    The Reference List in IEEE. At the end of the paper provide full details of all references cited in-text. The reference list should be arranged in the order of appearance of the in-text citations, not in an alphabetical order, beginning with [1], and continuing in consecutive numerical order, from the lowest number to the highest.

  16. Free IEEE Citation Generator

    Cite manually Save hours of repetitive work with Scribbr's IEEE Citation Generator. Stop wasting hours figuring out the correct citation format. With Scribbr's citation generator, you can search for your source by title, URL, ISBN, or DOI and generate accurate IEEE citations in seconds. No experience needed.

  17. Free IEEE Citation Generator [Updated for 2024]

    An IEEE citation generator is a tool that creates citations in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) citation style. It does this automatically by taking the identifier for an article or document, such as a website URL, book ISBN, or journal article ISSN (supplied by you), and detecting the remaining details.

  18. How to Cite a Conference Paper in IEEE Referencing

    To cite a conference paper in IEEE referencing, simply treat it like any other source. This means giving a number in square brackets, usually at the end of the relevant sentence or passage: Traditional manufacturing techniques have largely been replaced [1]. This number points to an entry in a reference list. The [1] above, for instance, shows ...

  19. General Format

    An IEEE abstract should be written as a single paragraph roughly 200 words long, give or take 50 words. (Abstracts shorter than 150 words or longer than 250 risk incurring the irritation of the editors.) It should be self-contained, and should concisely & accurately summarise the contents of your paper.

  20. IEEE Paper Format

    IEEE provides guidelines for formatting your paper. These guidelines must be followed when you're submitting a manuscript for publication in an IEEE journal. Some of the key guidelines are: Formatting the text as two columns, in Times New Roman, 10 pt. Including a byline, an abstract, and a set of keywords at the start of the research paper.

  21. IEEE In-Text Citation

    Revised on June 1, 2023. An IEEE in-text citation consists of a number in brackets included in your sentence. This number corresponds to an entry on your IEEE reference page providing full information about the source. Sources are numbered in the order they're cited, so the first source you cite is [1], the second is [2], and so on.

  22. Research paper recommendation with topic analysis

    A research paper recommender system would greatly help researchers to find the most desirable papers in their fields of endeavor. Due to the textual nature of papers, content information could be integrated into existed recommendation methods.

  23. IEEE Paper Format

    Published on August 24, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on April 6, 2023. IEEE provides guidelines for formatting your paper. These guidelines must be followed when you're submitting a manuscript for publication in an IEEE journal. Some of the key guidelines are: Formatting the text as two columns, in Times New Roman, 10 pt.

  24. Future Prospects of Paper Batteries: A Review

    Ultrathin, flexible and secure energy storage devices, are seeing increased attention as a means to meet the varied form and function requirements of today's products. New studies show that carbon nanotubes may have the best chance of adopting the adaptable batteries that might make our devices even smaller. The paper battery may provide enough power for next-gen electronics. The size and mass ...