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## Hypothesis Testing – A Complete Guide with Examples

Published by Alvin Nicolas at August 14th, 2021 , Revised On October 26, 2023

In statistics, hypothesis testing is a critical tool. It allows us to make informed decisions about populations based on sample data. Whether you are a researcher trying to prove a scientific point, a marketer analysing A/B test results, or a manufacturer ensuring quality control, hypothesis testing plays a pivotal role. This guide aims to introduce you to the concept and walk you through real-world examples.

## What is a Hypothesis and a Hypothesis Testing?

A hypothesis is considered a belief or assumption that has to be accepted, rejected, proved or disproved. In contrast, a research hypothesis is a research question for a researcher that has to be proven correct or incorrect through investigation.

## What is Hypothesis Testing?

Hypothesis testing is a scientific method used for making a decision and drawing conclusions by using a statistical approach. It is used to suggest new ideas by testing theories to know whether or not the sample data supports research. A research hypothesis is a predictive statement that has to be tested using scientific methods that join an independent variable to a dependent variable.

Example: The academic performance of student A is better than student B

## Characteristics of the Hypothesis to be Tested

A hypothesis should be:

- Clear and precise
- Capable of being tested
- Able to relate to a variable
- Stated in simple terms
- Consistent with known facts
- Limited in scope and specific
- Tested in a limited timeframe
- Explain the facts in detail

## What is a Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis?

A null hypothesis is a hypothesis when there is no significant relationship between the dependent and the participants’ independent variables .

In simple words, it’s a hypothesis that has been put forth but hasn’t been proved as yet. A researcher aims to disprove the theory. The abbreviation “Ho” is used to denote a null hypothesis.

If you want to compare two methods and assume that both methods are equally good, this assumption is considered the null hypothesis.

Example: In an automobile trial, you feel that the new vehicle’s mileage is similar to the previous model of the car, on average. You can write it as: Ho: there is no difference between the mileage of both vehicles. If your findings don’t support your hypothesis and you get opposite results, this outcome will be considered an alternative hypothesis.

If you assume that one method is better than another method, then it’s considered an alternative hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis is the theory that a researcher seeks to prove and is typically denoted by H1 or HA.

If you support a null hypothesis, it means you’re not supporting the alternative hypothesis. Similarly, if you reject a null hypothesis, it means you are recommending the alternative hypothesis.

Example: In an automobile trial, you feel that the new vehicle’s mileage is better than the previous model of the vehicle. You can write it as; Ha: the two vehicles have different mileage. On average/ the fuel consumption of the new vehicle model is better than the previous model.

If a null hypothesis is rejected during the hypothesis test, even if it’s true, then it is considered as a type-I error. On the other hand, if you don’t dismiss a hypothesis, even if it’s false because you could not identify its falseness, it’s considered a type-II error.

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## How to Conduct Hypothesis Testing?

Here is a step-by-step guide on how to conduct hypothesis testing.

## Step 1: State the Null and Alternative Hypothesis

Once you develop a research hypothesis, it’s important to state it is as a Null hypothesis (Ho) and an Alternative hypothesis (Ha) to test it statistically.

A null hypothesis is a preferred choice as it provides the opportunity to test the theory. In contrast, you can accept the alternative hypothesis when the null hypothesis has been rejected.

Example: You want to identify a relationship between obesity of men and women and the modern living style. You develop a hypothesis that women, on average, gain weight quickly compared to men. Then you write it as: Ho: Women, on average, don’t gain weight quickly compared to men. Ha: Women, on average, gain weight quickly compared to men.

## Step 2: Data Collection

Hypothesis testing follows the statistical method, and statistics are all about data. It’s challenging to gather complete information about a specific population you want to study. You need to gather the data obtained through a large number of samples from a specific population.

Example: Suppose you want to test the difference in the rate of obesity between men and women. You should include an equal number of men and women in your sample. Then investigate various aspects such as their lifestyle, eating patterns and profession, and any other variables that may influence average weight. You should also determine your study’s scope, whether it applies to a specific group of population or worldwide population. You can use available information from various places, countries, and regions.

## Step 3: Select Appropriate Statistical Test

There are many types of statistical tests , but we discuss the most two common types below, such as One-sided and two-sided tests.

Note: Your choice of the type of test depends on the purpose of your study

## One-sided Test

In the one-sided test, the values of rejecting a null hypothesis are located in one tail of the probability distribution. The set of values is less or higher than the critical value of the test. It is also called a one-tailed test of significance.

Example: If you want to test that all mangoes in a basket are ripe. You can write it as: Ho: All mangoes in the basket, on average, are ripe. If you find all ripe mangoes in the basket, the null hypothesis you developed will be true.

## Two-sided Test

In the two-sided test, the values of rejecting a null hypothesis are located on both tails of the probability distribution. The set of values is less or higher than the first critical value of the test and higher than the second critical value test. It is also called a two-tailed test of significance.

Example: Nothing can be explicitly said whether all mangoes are ripe in the basket. If you reject the null hypothesis (Ho: All mangoes in the basket, on average, are ripe), then it means all mangoes in the basket are not likely to be ripe. A few mangoes could be raw as well.

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## Step 4: Select the Level of Significance

When you reject a null hypothesis, even if it’s true during a statistical hypothesis, it is considered the significance level . It is the probability of a type one error. The significance should be as minimum as possible to avoid the type-I error, which is considered severe and should be avoided.

If the significance level is minimum, then it prevents the researchers from false claims.

The significance level is denoted by P, and it has given the value of 0.05 (P=0.05)

If the P-Value is less than 0.05, then the difference will be significant. If the P-value is higher than 0.05, then the difference is non-significant.

Example: Suppose you apply a one-sided test to test whether women gain weight quickly compared to men. You get to know about the average weight between men and women and the factors promoting weight gain.

## Step 5: Find out Whether the Null Hypothesis is Rejected or Supported

After conducting a statistical test, you should identify whether your null hypothesis is rejected or accepted based on the test results. It would help if you observed the P-value for this.

Example: If you find the P-value of your test is less than 0.5/5%, then you need to reject your null hypothesis (Ho: Women, on average, don’t gain weight quickly compared to men). On the other hand, if a null hypothesis is rejected, then it means the alternative hypothesis might be true (Ha: Women, on average, gain weight quickly compared to men. If you find your test’s P-value is above 0.5/5%, then it means your null hypothesis is true.

## Step 6: Present the Outcomes of your Study

The final step is to present the outcomes of your study . You need to ensure whether you have met the objectives of your research or not.

In the discussion section and conclusion , you can present your findings by using supporting evidence and conclude whether your null hypothesis was rejected or supported.

In the result section, you can summarise your study’s outcomes, including the average difference and P-value of the two groups.

If we talk about the findings, our study your results will be as follows:

Example: In the study of identifying whether women gain weight quickly compared to men, we found the P-value is less than 0.5. Hence, we can reject the null hypothesis (Ho: Women, on average, don’t gain weight quickly than men) and conclude that women may likely gain weight quickly than men.

Did you know in your academic paper you should not mention whether you have accepted or rejected the null hypothesis?

Always remember that you either conclude to reject Ho in favor of Haor do not reject Ho . It would help if you never rejected Ha or even accept Ha .

Suppose your null hypothesis is rejected in the hypothesis testing. If you conclude reject Ho in favor of Haor do not reject Ho, then it doesn’t mean that the null hypothesis is true. It only means that there is a lack of evidence against Ho in favour of Ha. If your null hypothesis is not true, then the alternative hypothesis is likely to be true.

Example: We found that the P-value is less than 0.5. Hence, we can conclude reject Ho in favour of Ha (Ho: Women, on average, don’t gain weight quickly than men) reject Ho in favour of Ha. However, rejected in favour of Ha means (Ha: women may likely to gain weight quickly than men)

## Frequently Asked Questions

What are the 3 types of hypothesis test.

The 3 types of hypothesis tests are:

- One-Sample Test : Compare sample data to a known population value.
- Two-Sample Test : Compare means between two sample groups.
- ANOVA : Analyze variance among multiple groups to determine significant differences.

## What is a hypothesis?

A hypothesis is a proposed explanation or prediction about a phenomenon, often based on observations. It serves as a starting point for research or experimentation, providing a testable statement that can either be supported or refuted through data and analysis. In essence, it’s an educated guess that drives scientific inquiry.

## What are null hypothesis?

A null hypothesis (often denoted as H0) suggests that there is no effect or difference in a study or experiment. It represents a default position or status quo. Statistical tests evaluate data to determine if there’s enough evidence to reject this null hypothesis.

## What is the probability value?

The probability value, or p-value, is a measure used in statistics to determine the significance of an observed effect. It indicates the probability of obtaining the observed results, or more extreme, if the null hypothesis were true. A small p-value (typically <0.05) suggests evidence against the null hypothesis, warranting its rejection.

## What is p value?

The p-value is a fundamental concept in statistical hypothesis testing. It represents the probability of observing a test statistic as extreme, or more so, than the one calculated from sample data, assuming the null hypothesis is true. A low p-value suggests evidence against the null, possibly justifying its rejection.

## What is a t test?

A t-test is a statistical test used to compare the means of two groups. It determines if observed differences between the groups are statistically significant or if they likely occurred by chance. Commonly applied in research, there are different t-tests, including independent, paired, and one-sample, tailored to various data scenarios.

## When to reject null hypothesis?

Reject the null hypothesis when the test statistic falls into a predefined rejection region or when the p-value is less than the chosen significance level (commonly 0.05). This suggests that the observed data is unlikely under the null hypothesis, indicating evidence for the alternative hypothesis. Always consider the study’s context.

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Hypothesis Testing with One Sample

## Null and Alternative Hypotheses

OpenStaxCollege

[latexpage]

The actual test begins by considering two hypotheses . They are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis . These hypotheses contain opposing viewpoints.

H 0 : The null hypothesis: It is a statement about the population that either is believed to be true or is used to put forth an argument unless it can be shown to be incorrect beyond a reasonable doubt.

H a : The alternative hypothesis: It is a claim about the population that is contradictory to H 0 and what we conclude when we reject H 0 .

Since the null and alternative hypotheses are contradictory, you must examine evidence to decide if you have enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis or not. The evidence is in the form of sample data.

After you have determined which hypothesis the sample supports, you make a decision. There are two options for a decision. They are “reject H 0 ” if the sample information favors the alternative hypothesis or “do not reject H 0 ” or “decline to reject H 0 ” if the sample information is insufficient to reject the null hypothesis.

Mathematical Symbols Used in H 0 and H a :

H 0 always has a symbol with an equal in it. H a never has a symbol with an equal in it. The choice of symbol depends on the wording of the hypothesis test. However, be aware that many researchers (including one of the co-authors in research work) use = in the null hypothesis, even with > or < as the symbol in the alternative hypothesis. This practice is acceptable because we only make the decision to reject or not reject the null hypothesis.

H 0 : No more than 30% of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. p ≤ 30

A medical trial is conducted to test whether or not a new medicine reduces cholesterol by 25%. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

H 0 : The drug reduces cholesterol by 25%. p = 0.25

H a : The drug does not reduce cholesterol by 25%. p ≠ 0.25

We want to test whether the mean GPA of students in American colleges is different from 2.0 (out of 4.0). The null and alternative hypotheses are:

H 0 : μ = 2.0

We want to test whether the mean height of eighth graders is 66 inches. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- H 0 : μ = 66
- H a : μ ≠ 66

We want to test if college students take less than five years to graduate from college, on the average. The null and alternative hypotheses are:

H 0 : μ ≥ 5

We want to test if it takes fewer than 45 minutes to teach a lesson plan. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol ( =, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- H 0 : μ ≥ 45
- H a : μ < 45

In an issue of U. S. News and World Report , an article on school standards stated that about half of all students in France, Germany, and Israel take advanced placement exams and a third pass. The same article stated that 6.6% of U.S. students take advanced placement exams and 4.4% pass. Test if the percentage of U.S. students who take advanced placement exams is more than 6.6%. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

H 0 : p ≤ 0.066

On a state driver’s test, about 40% pass the test on the first try. We want to test if more than 40% pass on the first try. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- H 0 : p = 0.40
- H a : p > 0.40

<!– ??? –>

Bring to class a newspaper, some news magazines, and some Internet articles . In groups, find articles from which your group can write null and alternative hypotheses. Discuss your hypotheses with the rest of the class.

## Chapter Review

In a hypothesis test , sample data is evaluated in order to arrive at a decision about some type of claim. If certain conditions about the sample are satisfied, then the claim can be evaluated for a population. In a hypothesis test, we:

## Formula Review

H 0 and H a are contradictory.

If α ≤ p -value, then do not reject H 0 .

If α > p -value, then reject H 0 .

α is preconceived. Its value is set before the hypothesis test starts. The p -value is calculated from the data.

You are testing that the mean speed of your cable Internet connection is more than three Megabits per second. What is the random variable? Describe in words.

The random variable is the mean Internet speed in Megabits per second.

You are testing that the mean speed of your cable Internet connection is more than three Megabits per second. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

The American family has an average of two children. What is the random variable? Describe in words.

The random variable is the mean number of children an American family has.

The mean entry level salary of an employee at a company is 💲58,000. You believe it is higher for IT professionals in the company. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

A sociologist claims the probability that a person picked at random in Times Square in New York City is visiting the area is 0.83. You want to test to see if the proportion is actually less. What is the random variable? Describe in words.

The random variable is the proportion of people picked at random in Times Square visiting the city.

A sociologist claims the probability that a person picked at random in Times Square in New York City is visiting the area is 0.83. You want to test to see if the claim is correct. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

In a population of fish, approximately 42% are female. A test is conducted to see if, in fact, the proportion is less. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

Suppose that a recent article stated that the mean time spent in jail by a first–time convicted burglar is 2.5 years. A study was then done to see if the mean time has increased in the new century. A random sample of 26 first-time convicted burglars in a recent year was picked. The mean length of time in jail from the survey was 3 years with a standard deviation of 1.8 years. Suppose that it is somehow known that the population standard deviation is 1.5. If you were conducting a hypothesis test to determine if the mean length of jail time has increased, what would the null and alternative hypotheses be? The distribution of the population is normal.

A random survey of 75 death row inmates revealed that the mean length of time on death row is 17.4 years with a standard deviation of 6.3 years. If you were conducting a hypothesis test to determine if the population mean time on death row could likely be 15 years, what would the null and alternative hypotheses be?

- H 0 : __________
- H a : __________
- H 0 : μ = 15
- H a : μ ≠ 15

The National Institute of Mental Health published an article stating that in any one-year period, approximately 9.5 percent of American adults suffer from depression or a depressive illness. Suppose that in a survey of 100 people in a certain town, seven of them suffered from depression or a depressive illness. If you were conducting a hypothesis test to determine if the true proportion of people in that town suffering from depression or a depressive illness is lower than the percent in the general adult American population, what would the null and alternative hypotheses be?

Some of the following statements refer to the null hypothesis, some to the alternate hypothesis.

State the null hypothesis, H 0 , and the alternative hypothesis. H a , in terms of the appropriate parameter ( μ or p ).

- The mean number of years Americans work before retiring is 34.
- At most 60% of Americans vote in presidential elections.
- The mean starting salary for San Jose State University graduates is at least 💲100,000 per year.
- Twenty-nine percent of high school seniors get drunk each month.
- Fewer than 5% of adults ride the bus to work in Los Angeles.
- The mean number of cars a person owns in her lifetime is not more than ten.
- About half of Americans prefer to live away from cities, given the choice.
- Europeans have a mean paid vacation each year of six weeks.
- The chance of developing breast cancer is under 11% for women.
- Private universities’ mean tuition cost is more than 💲20,000 per year.
- H 0 : μ = 34; H a : μ ≠ 34
- H 0 : p ≤ 0.60; H a : p > 0.60
- H 0 : μ ≥ 100,000; H a : μ < 100,000
- H 0 : p = 0.29; H a : p ≠ 0.29
- H 0 : p = 0.05; H a : p < 0.05
- H 0 : μ ≤ 10; H a : μ > 10
- H 0 : p = 0.50; H a : p ≠ 0.50
- H 0 : μ = 6; H a : μ ≠ 6
- H 0 : p ≥ 0.11; H a : p < 0.11
- H 0 : μ ≤ 20,000; H a : μ > 20,000

Over the past few decades, public health officials have examined the link between weight concerns and teen girls’ smoking. Researchers surveyed a group of 273 randomly selected teen girls living in Massachusetts (between 12 and 15 years old). After four years the girls were surveyed again. Sixty-three said they smoked to stay thin. Is there good evidence that more than thirty percent of the teen girls smoke to stay thin? The alternative hypothesis is:

- p < 0.30
- p > 0.30

A statistics instructor believes that fewer than 20% of Evergreen Valley College (EVC) students attended the opening night midnight showing of the latest Harry Potter movie. She surveys 84 of her students and finds that 11 attended the midnight showing. An appropriate alternative hypothesis is:

- p > 0.20
- p < 0.20

Previously, an organization reported that teenagers spent 4.5 hours per week, on average, on the phone. The organization thinks that, currently, the mean is higher. Fifteen randomly chosen teenagers were asked how many hours per week they spend on the phone. The sample mean was 4.75 hours with a sample standard deviation of 2.0. Conduct a hypothesis test. The null and alternative hypotheses are:

- H o : \(\overline{x}\) = 4.5, H a : \(\overline{x}\) > 4.5
- H o : μ ≥ 4.5, H a : μ < 4.5
- H o : μ = 4.75, H a : μ > 4.75
- H o : μ = 4.5, H a : μ > 4.5

Data from the National Institute of Mental Health. Available online at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/depression.cfm.

Null and Alternative Hypotheses Copyright © 2013 by OpenStaxCollege is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

## Exploring the Null Hypothesis: Definition and Purpose

Updated: July 5, 2023 by Ken Feldman

Hypothesis testing is a branch of statistics in which, using data from a sample, an inference is made about a population parameter or a population probability distribution .

First, a hypothesis statement and assumption is made about the population parameter or probability distribution. This initial statement is called the Null Hypothesis and is denoted by H o. An alternative or alternate hypothesis (denoted Ha ), is then stated which will be the opposite of the Null Hypothesis.

The hypothesis testing process and analysis involves using sample data to determine whether or not you can be statistically confident that you can reject or fail to reject the H o. If the H o is rejected, the statistical conclusion is that the alternative or alternate hypothesis Ha is true.

## Overview: What is the Null Hypothesis (Ho)?

Hypothesis testing applies to all forms of statistical inquiry. For example, it can be used to determine whether there are differences between population parameters or an understanding about slopes of regression lines or equality of probability distributions.

In all cases, the first thing you do is state the Null and Alternate Hypotheses. The word Null in the context of hypothesis testing means “nothing” or “zero.”

As an example, if we wanted to test whether there was a difference in two population means based on the calculations from two samples, we would state the Null Hypothesis in the form of:

Ho: mu1 = mu2 or mu1- mu2 = 0

In other words, there is no difference, or the difference is zero. Note that the notation is in the form of a population parameter, not a sample statistic.

Since you are using sample data to make your inferences about the population, it’s possible you’ll make an error. In the case of the Null Hypothesis, we can make one of two errors.

- Type 1 , or alpha error: An alpha error is when you mistakenly reject the Null and believe that something significant happened. In other words, you believe that the means of the two populations are different when they aren’t.
- Type 2, or beta error: A beta error is when you fail to reject the null when you should have. In this case, you missed something significant and failed to take action.

A classic example is when you get the results back from your doctor after taking a blood test. If the doctor says you have an infection when you really don’t, that is an alpha error. That is thinking that there is something significant going on when there isn’t. We also call that a false positive. The doctor rejected the null that “there was zero infection” and missed the call.

On the other hand, if the doctor told you that everything was OK when you really did have an infection, then he made a beta, or type 2, error. He failed to reject the Null Hypothesis when he should have. That is called a false negative.

The decision to reject or not to reject the Null Hypothesis is based on three numbers.

- Alpha, which you get to choose. Alpha is the risk you are willing to assume of falsely rejecting the Null. The typical values for alpha are 1%, 5%, or 10%. Depending on the importance of the conclusion, you only want to falsely claim a difference when there is none, 1%, 5%, or 10% of the time.
- Beta, which is typically 20%. This means you’re willing to be wrong 20% of the time in failing to reject the null when you should have.
- P-value, which is calculated from the data. The p-value is the actual risk you have in being wrong if you reject the null. You would like that to be low.

Your decision as to what to do about the null is made by comparing the alpha value (your assumed risk) with the p-value (actual risk). If the actual risk is lower than your assumed risk, you can feel comfortable in rejecting the null and claiming something has happened. But, if the actual risk is higher than your assumed risk you will be taking a bigger risk than you want by rejecting the null.

## RELATED: NULL VS. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS

3 benefits of the null hypothesis .

The stating and testing of the null hypothesis is the foundation of hypothesis testing. By doing so, you set the parameters for your statistical inference.

## 1. Statistical assurance of determining differences between population parameters

Just looking at the mathematical difference between the means of two samples and making a decision is woefully inadequate. By statistically testing the null hypothesis, you will have more confidence in any inferences you want to make about populations based on your samples.

## 2. Statistically based estimation of the probability of a population distribution

Many statistical tests require assumptions of specific distributions. Many of these tests assume that the population follows the normal distribution . If it doesn’t, the test may be invalid.

## 3. Assess the strength of your conclusions as to what to do with the null hypothesis

Hypothesis testing calculations will provide some relative strength to your decisions as to whether you reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis.

## Why is the Null Hypothesis important to understand?

The interpretation of the statistics relative to the null hypothesis is what’s important.

## 1. Properly write the null hypothesis to properly capture what you are seeking to prove

The null is always written in the same format. That is, the lack of difference or some other condition. The alternative hypothesis can be written in three formats depending on what you want to prove.

## 2. Frame your statement and select an appropriate alpha risk

You don’t want to place too big of a hurdle or burden on your decision-making relative to action on the null hypothesis by selecting an alpha value that is too high or too low.

## 3. There are decision errors when deciding on how to respond to the Null Hypothesis

Since your decision relative to rejecting or not rejecting the null is based on statistical calculations, it is important to understand how that decision works.

## An industry example of using the Null Hypothesis

The new director of marketing just completed the rollout of a new marketing campaign targeting the Hispanic market. Early indications showed that the campaign was successful in increasing sales in the Hispanic market.

He came to that conclusion by comparing a sample of sales prior to the campaign and current sales after implementation of the campaign. He was anxious to proudly tell his boss how successful the campaign was. But, he decided to first check with his Lean Six Sigma Black Belt to see whether she agreed with his conclusion.

The Black Belt first asked the director his tolerance for risk of being wrong by telling the boss the campaign was successful when in fact, it wasn’t. That was the alpha value. The Director picked 5% since he was new and didn’t want to make a false claim so early in his career. He also picked 20% as his beta value.

When the Black Belt was done analyzing the data, she found out that the p-value was 15%. That meant if the director told the VP the campaign worked, there was a 15% chance he would be wrong and that the campaign probably needed some revising. Since he was only willing to be wrong 5% of the time, the decision was to not reject the null since his 5% assumed risk was less than the 15% actual risk.

## 3 best practices when thinking about the Null Hypothesis

Using hypothesis testing to help make better data-driven decisions requires that you properly address the Null Hypothesis.

## 1. Always use the proper nomenclature when stating the Null Hypothesis

The null will always be in the form of decisions regarding the population, not the sample.

## 2. The Null Hypothesis will always be written as the absence of some parameter or process characteristic

The writing of the Alternate Hypothesis can vary, so be sure you understand exactly what condition you are testing against.

## 3. Pick a reasonable alpha risk so you’re not always failing to reject the Null Hypothesis

Being too cautious will lead you to make beta errors, and you’ll never learn anything about your population data.

## Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about the Null Hypothesis

What form should the null hypothesis be written in.

The Null Hypothesis should always be in the form of no difference or zero and always refer to the state of the population, not the sample.

## What is an alpha error?

An alpha error, or Type 1 error, is rejecting the Null Hypothesis and claiming a significant event has occurred when, in fact, that is not true and the Null should not have been rejected.

## How do I use the alpha error and p-value to decide on what decision I should make about the Null Hypothesis?

The most common way of answering this is, “If the p-value is low (less than the alpha), the Null should be rejected. If the p-value is high (greater than the alpha) then the Null should not be rejected.”

## Becoming familiar with the Null Hypothesis (Ho)

The proper writing of the Null Hypothesis is the basis for applying hypothesis testing to help you make better data-driven decisions. The format of the Null will always be in the form of zero, or the non-existence of some condition. It will always refer to a population parameter and not the sample you use to do your hypothesis testing calculations.

Be aware of the two types of errors you can make when deciding on what to do with the Null. Select reasonable risks values for your alpha and beta risks. By comparing your alpha risk with the calculated risk computed from the data, you will have sufficient information to make a wise decision as to whether you should reject the Null Hypothesis or not.

## About the Author

## Ken Feldman

- 9.1 Null and Alternative Hypotheses
- Introduction
- 1.1 Definitions of Statistics, Probability, and Key Terms
- 1.2 Data, Sampling, and Variation in Data and Sampling
- 1.3 Frequency, Frequency Tables, and Levels of Measurement
- 1.4 Experimental Design and Ethics
- 1.5 Data Collection Experiment
- 1.6 Sampling Experiment
- Chapter Review
- Bringing It Together: Homework
- 2.1 Stem-and-Leaf Graphs (Stemplots), Line Graphs, and Bar Graphs
- 2.2 Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Time Series Graphs
- 2.3 Measures of the Location of the Data
- 2.4 Box Plots
- 2.5 Measures of the Center of the Data
- 2.6 Skewness and the Mean, Median, and Mode
- 2.7 Measures of the Spread of the Data
- 2.8 Descriptive Statistics
- Formula Review
- 3.1 Terminology
- 3.2 Independent and Mutually Exclusive Events
- 3.3 Two Basic Rules of Probability
- 3.4 Contingency Tables
- 3.5 Tree and Venn Diagrams
- 3.6 Probability Topics
- Bringing It Together: Practice
- 4.1 Probability Distribution Function (PDF) for a Discrete Random Variable
- 4.2 Mean or Expected Value and Standard Deviation
- 4.3 Binomial Distribution (Optional)
- 4.4 Geometric Distribution (Optional)
- 4.5 Hypergeometric Distribution (Optional)
- 4.6 Poisson Distribution (Optional)
- 4.7 Discrete Distribution (Playing Card Experiment)
- 4.8 Discrete Distribution (Lucky Dice Experiment)
- 5.1 Continuous Probability Functions
- 5.2 The Uniform Distribution
- 5.3 The Exponential Distribution (Optional)
- 5.4 Continuous Distribution
- 6.1 The Standard Normal Distribution
- 6.2 Using the Normal Distribution
- 6.3 Normal Distribution—Lap Times
- 6.4 Normal Distribution—Pinkie Length
- 7.1 The Central Limit Theorem for Sample Means (Averages)
- 7.2 The Central Limit Theorem for Sums (Optional)
- 7.3 Using the Central Limit Theorem
- 7.4 Central Limit Theorem (Pocket Change)
- 7.5 Central Limit Theorem (Cookie Recipes)
- 8.1 A Single Population Mean Using the Normal Distribution
- 8.2 A Single Population Mean Using the Student's t-Distribution
- 8.3 A Population Proportion
- 8.4 Confidence Interval (Home Costs)
- 8.5 Confidence Interval (Place of Birth)
- 8.6 Confidence Interval (Women's Heights)
- 9.2 Outcomes and the Type I and Type II Errors
- 9.3 Distribution Needed for Hypothesis Testing
- 9.4 Rare Events, the Sample, and the Decision and Conclusion
- 9.5 Additional Information and Full Hypothesis Test Examples
- 9.6 Hypothesis Testing of a Single Mean and Single Proportion
- 10.1 Two Population Means with Unknown Standard Deviations
- 10.2 Two Population Means with Known Standard Deviations
- 10.3 Comparing Two Independent Population Proportions
- 10.4 Matched or Paired Samples (Optional)
- 10.5 Hypothesis Testing for Two Means and Two Proportions
- 11.1 Facts About the Chi-Square Distribution
- 11.2 Goodness-of-Fit Test
- 11.3 Test of Independence
- 11.4 Test for Homogeneity
- 11.5 Comparison of the Chi-Square Tests
- 11.6 Test of a Single Variance
- 11.7 Lab 1: Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit
- 11.8 Lab 2: Chi-Square Test of Independence
- 12.1 Linear Equations
- 12.2 The Regression Equation
- 12.3 Testing the Significance of the Correlation Coefficient (Optional)
- 12.4 Prediction (Optional)
- 12.5 Outliers
- 12.6 Regression (Distance from School) (Optional)
- 12.7 Regression (Textbook Cost) (Optional)
- 12.8 Regression (Fuel Efficiency) (Optional)
- 13.1 One-Way ANOVA
- 13.2 The F Distribution and the F Ratio
- 13.3 Facts About the F Distribution
- 13.4 Test of Two Variances
- 13.5 Lab: One-Way ANOVA
- A | Appendix A Review Exercises (Ch 3–13)
- B | Appendix B Practice Tests (1–4) and Final Exams
- C | Data Sets
- D | Group and Partner Projects
- E | Solution Sheets
- F | Mathematical Phrases, Symbols, and Formulas
- G | Notes for the TI-83, 83+, 84, 84+ Calculators

The actual test begins by considering two hypotheses . They are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis . These hypotheses contain opposing viewpoints.

H 0 , the — null hypothesis: a statement of no difference between sample means or proportions or no difference between a sample mean or proportion and a population mean or proportion. In other words, the difference equals 0.

H a —, the alternative hypothesis: a claim about the population that is contradictory to H 0 and what we conclude when we reject H 0 .

Since the null and alternative hypotheses are contradictory, you must examine evidence to decide if you have enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis or not. The evidence is in the form of sample data.

After you have determined which hypothesis the sample supports, you make a decision. There are two options for a decision. They are reject H 0 if the sample information favors the alternative hypothesis or do not reject H 0 or decline to reject H 0 if the sample information is insufficient to reject the null hypothesis.

Mathematical Symbols Used in H 0 and H a :

H 0 always has a symbol with an equal in it. H a never has a symbol with an equal in it. The choice of symbol depends on the wording of the hypothesis test. However, be aware that many researchers use = in the null hypothesis, even with > or < as the symbol in the alternative hypothesis. This practice is acceptable because we only make the decision to reject or not reject the null hypothesis.

## Example 9.1

H 0 : No more than 30 percent of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. p ≤ 30 H a : More than 30 percent of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. p > 30

A medical trial is conducted to test whether or not a new medicine reduces cholesterol by 25 percent. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

## Example 9.2

We want to test whether the mean GPA of students in American colleges is different from 2.0 (out of 4.0). The null and alternative hypotheses are the following: H 0 : μ = 2.0 H a : μ ≠ 2.0

We want to test whether the mean height of eighth graders is 66 inches. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- H 0 : μ __ 66
- H a : μ __ 66

## Example 9.3

We want to test if college students take fewer than five years to graduate from college, on the average. The null and alternative hypotheses are the following: H 0 : μ ≥ 5 H a : μ < 5

We want to test if it takes fewer than 45 minutes to teach a lesson plan. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol ( =, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- H 0 : μ __ 45
- H a : μ __ 45

## Example 9.4

An article on school standards stated that about half of all students in France, Germany, and Israel take advanced placement exams and a third of the students pass. The same article stated that 6.6 percent of U.S. students take advanced placement exams and 4.4 percent pass. Test if the percentage of U.S. students who take advanced placement exams is more than 6.6 percent. State the null and alternative hypotheses. H 0 : p ≤ 0.066 H a : p > 0.066

On a state driver’s test, about 40 percent pass the test on the first try. We want to test if more than 40 percent pass on the first try. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- H 0 : p __ 0.40
- H a : p __ 0.40

## Collaborative Exercise

Bring to class a newspaper, some news magazines, and some internet articles. In groups, find articles from which your group can write null and alternative hypotheses. Discuss your hypotheses with the rest of the class.

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## Module 9: Hypothesis Testing With One Sample

Null and alternative hypotheses, learning outcomes.

- Describe hypothesis testing in general and in practice

The actual test begins by considering two hypotheses . They are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis . These hypotheses contain opposing viewpoints.

H 0 : The null hypothesis: It is a statement about the population that either is believed to be true or is used to put forth an argument unless it can be shown to be incorrect beyond a reasonable doubt.

H a : The alternative hypothesis : It is a claim about the population that is contradictory to H 0 and what we conclude when we reject H 0 .

Since the null and alternative hypotheses are contradictory, you must examine evidence to decide if you have enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis or not. The evidence is in the form of sample data.

After you have determined which hypothesis the sample supports, you make adecision. There are two options for a decision . They are “reject H 0 ” if the sample information favors the alternative hypothesis or “do not reject H 0 ” or “decline to reject H 0 ” if the sample information is insufficient to reject the null hypothesis.

Mathematical Symbols Used in H 0 and H a :

H 0 always has a symbol with an equal in it. H a never has a symbol with an equal in it. The choice of symbol depends on the wording of the hypothesis test. However, be aware that many researchers (including one of the co-authors in research work) use = in the null hypothesis, even with > or < as the symbol in the alternative hypothesis. This practice is acceptable because we only make the decision to reject or not reject the null hypothesis.

H 0 : No more than 30% of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. p ≤ 30

H a : More than 30% of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. p > 30

A medical trial is conducted to test whether or not a new medicine reduces cholesterol by 25%. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

H 0 : The drug reduces cholesterol by 25%. p = 0.25

H a : The drug does not reduce cholesterol by 25%. p ≠ 0.25

We want to test whether the mean GPA of students in American colleges is different from 2.0 (out of 4.0). The null and alternative hypotheses are:

H 0 : μ = 2.0

H a : μ ≠ 2.0

We want to test whether the mean height of eighth graders is 66 inches. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses. H 0 : μ __ 66 H a : μ __ 66

- H 0 : μ = 66
- H a : μ ≠ 66

We want to test if college students take less than five years to graduate from college, on the average. The null and alternative hypotheses are:

H 0 : μ ≥ 5

H a : μ < 5

We want to test if it takes fewer than 45 minutes to teach a lesson plan. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol ( =, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses. H 0 : μ __ 45 H a : μ __ 45

- H 0 : μ ≥ 45
- H a : μ < 45

In an issue of U.S. News and World Report , an article on school standards stated that about half of all students in France, Germany, and Israel take advanced placement exams and a third pass. The same article stated that 6.6% of U.S. students take advanced placement exams and 4.4% pass. Test if the percentage of U.S. students who take advanced placement exams is more than 6.6%. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

H 0 : p ≤ 0.066

H a : p > 0.066

On a state driver’s test, about 40% pass the test on the first try. We want to test if more than 40% pass on the first try. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses. H 0 : p __ 0.40 H a : p __ 0.40

- H 0 : p = 0.40
- H a : p > 0.40

## Concept Review

In a hypothesis test , sample data is evaluated in order to arrive at a decision about some type of claim. If certain conditions about the sample are satisfied, then the claim can be evaluated for a population. In a hypothesis test, we: Evaluate the null hypothesis , typically denoted with H 0 . The null is not rejected unless the hypothesis test shows otherwise. The null statement must always contain some form of equality (=, ≤ or ≥) Always write the alternative hypothesis , typically denoted with H a or H 1 , using less than, greater than, or not equals symbols, i.e., (≠, >, or <). If we reject the null hypothesis, then we can assume there is enough evidence to support the alternative hypothesis. Never state that a claim is proven true or false. Keep in mind the underlying fact that hypothesis testing is based on probability laws; therefore, we can talk only in terms of non-absolute certainties.

## Formula Review

H 0 and H a are contradictory.

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## 10.3: Design Research Hypotheses and Experiment

- Last updated
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- Page ID 20906

- Maurice A. Geraghty
- De Anza College

After developing a general question and having some sense of the data that is available or that is collected, we then design and an experiment and a set of hypotheses .

## Hypotheses and Hypothesis

Testing For purposes of testing, we need to design hypotheses that are statements about population parameters. Some examples of hypotheses:

At least 20% of juvenile offenders are caught and sentenced to prison.

- The mean monthly income for college graduates is over $5000.
- The mean standardized test score for schools in Cupertino is the same as the mean scores for schools in Los Altos.
- The lung cancer rates in California are lower than the rates in Texas.
- The standard deviation of the New York Stock Exchange today is greater than 10 percentage points per year.

These same hypotheses could be written in symbolic notation:

- \(p \geq 0.20\)
- \(\mu>5000\)
- \(\mu_{1}=\mu_{2}\)
- \(p_{1}<p_{2}\)
- \(\sigma>10\)

Hypothesis Testing is a procedure, based on sample evidence and probability theory, used to determine whether the hypothesis is a reasonable statement and should not be rejected, or is unreasonable and should be rejected. This hypothesis that is tested is called the Null Hypothesis and is designated by the symbol Ho. If the Null Hypothesis is unreasonable and needs to be rejected, then the research supports an Alternative Hypothesis designated by the symbol Ha.

Definition: Null Hypothesis (\(H_o\))

A statement about the value of a population parameter that is assumed to be true for the purpose of testing.

Definition: Alternative Hypothesis (\(H_a\))

A statement about the value of a population parameter that is assumed to be true if the Null Hypothesis is rejected during testing.

From these definitions it is clear that the Alternative Hypothesis will necessarily contradict the Null Hypothesis; both cannot be true at the same time. Some other important points about hypotheses:

- Hypotheses must be statements about population parameters, never about sample statistics.
- In most hypotheses tests, equality (\(=, \leq, \geq\)) will be associated with the Null Hypothesis while non‐equality (\(\neq,<,>\)) will be associated with the Alternative Hypothesis.
- It is the Null Hypothesis that is always tested in attempt to “disprove” it and support the Alternative Hypothesis. This process is analogous in concept to a “proof by contradiction” in Mathematics or Logic, but supporting a hypothesis with a level of confidence is not the same as an absolute mathematical proof.

Examples of Null and Alternative Hypotheses:

- \(H_{o}: p \leq 0.20 \qquad H_{a}: p>0.20\)
- \(H_{o}: \mu \leq 5000 \qquad H_{a}: \mu>5000\)
- \(H_{o}: \mu_{1}=\mu_{2} \qquad H_{a}: \mu_{1} \neq \mu_{2}\)
- \(H_{o}: p_{1} \geq p_{2} \qquad H_{a}: p_{1}<p_{2}\)
- \(H_{o}: \sigma \leq 10 \qquad H_{a}: \sigma>10\)

## Statistical Model and Test Statistic

To test a hypothesis we need to use a statistical model that describes the behavior for data and the type of population parameter being tested. Because of the Central Limit Theorem, many statistical models are from the Normal Family, most importantly the \(Z, t, \chi^{2}\), and \(F\) distributions. Other models that are used when the Central Limit Theorem is not appropriate are called non‐parametric Models and will not be discussed here.

Each chosen model has requirements of the data called model assumptions that should be checked for appropriateness. For example, many models require that the sample mean have approximately a Normal Distribution, something that may not be true for some smaller or heavily skewed data sets.

Once the model is chosen, we can then determine a test statistic , a value derived from the data that is used to decide whether to reject or fail to reject the Null Hypothesis.

Examples of Statistical Models and Test Statistics

## Errors in Decision Making

Whenever we make a decision or support a position, there is always a chance we make the wrong choice. The hypothesis testing process requires us to either to reject the Null Hypothesis and support the Alternative Hypothesis or fail to reject the Null Hypothesis. This creates the possibility of two types of error:

- Type I Error Rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true.
- Type II Error Failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is actually false.

In designing hypothesis tests, we need to carefully consider the probability of making either one of these errors.

Example: Pharmaceutical research

Recall the two news stories discussed earlier. In the first story, a drug company marketed a suppository that was later found to be ineffective (and often dangerous) in treatment. Before marketing the drug, the company determined that the drug was effective in treatment, meaning that the company rejected a Null Hypothesis that the suppository had no effect on the disease. This is an example of Type I error.

In the second story, research was abandoned when the testing showed Interferon was ineffective in treating a lung disease. The company in this case failed to reject a Null Hypothesis that the drug was ineffective. What if the drug really was effective? Did the company make Type II error? Possibly, but since the drug was never marketed, we have no way of knowing the truth.

These stories highlight the problem of statistical research: errors can be analyzed using probability models, but there is often no way of identifying specific errors. For example, there are unknown innocent people in prison right now because a jury made Type I error in wrongfully convicting defendants. We must be open to the possibility of modification or rejection of currently accepted theories when new data is discovered.

In designing an experiment, we set a maximum probability of making Type I error. This probability is called the level of significance or significance level of the test and is designated by the Greek letter \(\alpha\) , read as alpha. The analysis of Type II error is more problematic since there are many possible values that would satisfy the Alternative Hypothesis. For a specific value of the Alternative Hypothesis, the design probability of making Type II error is called Beta (\(\beta\)) which will be analyzed in detail later in this section.

## Critical Value and Rejection Region

Once the significance level of the test is chosen, it is then possible to find the region(s) of the probability distribution function of the test statistic that would allow the Null Hypothesis to be rejected. This is called the Rejection Region , and the boundary between the Rejection Region and the “Fail to Reject” is called the Critical Value .

There can be more than one critical value and rejection region. What matters is that the total area of the rejection region equals the significance level \(\alpha\).

## One and Two tailed Tests

A test is one‐tailed when the Alternative Hypothesis, \(H_{a}\), states a direction, such as:

\(H_{o}\): The mean income of females is less than or equal to the mean income of males.

\(H_{a}\): The mean income of females is greater than that of males.

Since equality is usually part of the Null Hypothesis, it is the Alternative Hypothesis which determines which tail to test.

A test is two‐tailed when no direction is specified in the alternate hypothesis Ha , such as:

\(H_{o}\): The mean income of females is equal to the mean income of males.

\(H_{a}\): The mean income of females is not equal to the mean income of the males.

In a two tailed‐test, the significance level is split into two parts since there are two rejection regions. In hypothesis testing, in which the statistical model is symmetrical ( eg: the Standard Normal \(Z\) or Student’s t distribution) these two regions would be equal. There is a relationship between a confidence interval and a two‐tailed test: if the level of confidence for a confidence interval is equal to \(1-\alpha\), where \(\alpha\) is the significance level of the two‐tailed test, the critical values would be the same.

Here are some examples for testing the mean \(\mu\) against a hypothesized value \(\mu_{0}\):

\(H_{a}: \mu>\mu_{0}\) means test the upper tail and is also called a right‐tailed test.

\(H_{a}: \mu<\mu_{0}\) means test the lower tail and is also called a left‐tailed test.

\(H_{a}: \mu \neq \mu_{0}\) means test both tails.

Deciding when to conduct a one or two‐tailed test is often controversial and many authorities even go so far as to say that only two‐tailed tests should be conducted. Ultimately, the decision depends on the wording of the problem. If we want to show that a new diet reduces weight, we would conduct a lower tailed test, since we don’t care if the diet causes weight gain. If instead, we wanted to determine if mean crime rate in California was different from the mean crime rate in the United States, we would run a two‐tailed test, since different implies greater than or less than.

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Methodology

- How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Steps & Examples

## How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Steps & Examples

Published on May 6, 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on November 20, 2023.

A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested by scientific research. If you want to test a relationship between two or more variables, you need to write hypotheses before you start your experiment or data collection .

## Example: Hypothesis

Daily apple consumption leads to fewer doctor’s visits.

## Table of contents

What is a hypothesis, developing a hypothesis (with example), hypothesis examples, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about writing hypotheses.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess – it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).

## Variables in hypotheses

Hypotheses propose a relationship between two or more types of variables .

- An independent variable is something the researcher changes or controls.
- A dependent variable is something the researcher observes and measures.

If there are any control variables , extraneous variables , or confounding variables , be sure to jot those down as you go to minimize the chances that research bias will affect your results.

In this example, the independent variable is exposure to the sun – the assumed cause . The dependent variable is the level of happiness – the assumed effect .

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## Step 1. Ask a question

Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project.

## Step 2. Do some preliminary research

Your initial answer to the question should be based on what is already known about the topic. Look for theories and previous studies to help you form educated assumptions about what your research will find.

At this stage, you might construct a conceptual framework to ensure that you’re embarking on a relevant topic . This can also help you identify which variables you will study and what you think the relationships are between them. Sometimes, you’ll have to operationalize more complex constructs.

## Step 3. Formulate your hypothesis

Now you should have some idea of what you expect to find. Write your initial answer to the question in a clear, concise sentence.

## 4. Refine your hypothesis

You need to make sure your hypothesis is specific and testable. There are various ways of phrasing a hypothesis, but all the terms you use should have clear definitions, and the hypothesis should contain:

- The relevant variables
- The specific group being studied
- The predicted outcome of the experiment or analysis

## 5. Phrase your hypothesis in three ways

To identify the variables, you can write a simple prediction in if…then form. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable.

In academic research, hypotheses are more commonly phrased in terms of correlations or effects, where you directly state the predicted relationship between variables.

If you are comparing two groups, the hypothesis can state what difference you expect to find between them.

## 6. Write a null hypothesis

If your research involves statistical hypothesis testing , you will also have to write a null hypothesis . The null hypothesis is the default position that there is no association between the variables. The null hypothesis is written as H 0 , while the alternative hypothesis is H 1 or H a .

- H 0 : The number of lectures attended by first-year students has no effect on their final exam scores.
- H 1 : The number of lectures attended by first-year students has a positive effect on their final exam scores.

If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

- Sampling methods
- Simple random sampling
- Stratified sampling
- Cluster sampling
- Likert scales
- Reproducibility

Statistics

- Null hypothesis
- Statistical power
- Probability distribution
- Effect size
- Poisson distribution

Research bias

- Optimism bias
- Cognitive bias
- Implicit bias
- Hawthorne effect
- Anchoring bias
- Explicit bias

A hypothesis is not just a guess — it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).

Null and alternative hypotheses are used in statistical hypothesis testing . The null hypothesis of a test always predicts no effect or no relationship between variables, while the alternative hypothesis states your research prediction of an effect or relationship.

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

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## AP®︎/College Statistics

Course: ap®︎/college statistics > unit 10.

- Idea behind hypothesis testing

## Examples of null and alternative hypotheses

- Writing null and alternative hypotheses
- P-values and significance tests
- Comparing P-values to different significance levels
- Estimating a P-value from a simulation
- Estimating P-values from simulations
- Using P-values to make conclusions

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## The Craft of Writing a Strong Hypothesis

## Table of Contents

Writing a hypothesis is one of the essential elements of a scientific research paper. It needs to be to the point, clearly communicating what your research is trying to accomplish. A blurry, drawn-out, or complexly-structured hypothesis can confuse your readers. Or worse, the editor and peer reviewers.

A captivating hypothesis is not too intricate. This blog will take you through the process so that, by the end of it, you have a better idea of how to convey your research paper's intent in just one sentence.

## What is a Hypothesis?

The first step in your scientific endeavor, a hypothesis, is a strong, concise statement that forms the basis of your research. It is not the same as a thesis statement , which is a brief summary of your research paper .

The sole purpose of a hypothesis is to predict your paper's findings, data, and conclusion. It comes from a place of curiosity and intuition . When you write a hypothesis, you're essentially making an educated guess based on scientific prejudices and evidence, which is further proven or disproven through the scientific method.

The reason for undertaking research is to observe a specific phenomenon. A hypothesis, therefore, lays out what the said phenomenon is. And it does so through two variables, an independent and dependent variable.

The independent variable is the cause behind the observation, while the dependent variable is the effect of the cause. A good example of this is “mixing red and blue forms purple.” In this hypothesis, mixing red and blue is the independent variable as you're combining the two colors at your own will. The formation of purple is the dependent variable as, in this case, it is conditional to the independent variable.

## Different Types of Hypotheses

Types of hypotheses

Some would stand by the notion that there are only two types of hypotheses: a Null hypothesis and an Alternative hypothesis. While that may have some truth to it, it would be better to fully distinguish the most common forms as these terms come up so often, which might leave you out of context.

Apart from Null and Alternative, there are Complex, Simple, Directional, Non-Directional, Statistical, and Associative and casual hypotheses. They don't necessarily have to be exclusive, as one hypothesis can tick many boxes, but knowing the distinctions between them will make it easier for you to construct your own.

## 1. Null hypothesis

A null hypothesis proposes no relationship between two variables. Denoted by H 0 , it is a negative statement like “Attending physiotherapy sessions does not affect athletes' on-field performance.” Here, the author claims physiotherapy sessions have no effect on on-field performances. Even if there is, it's only a coincidence.

## 2. Alternative hypothesis

Considered to be the opposite of a null hypothesis, an alternative hypothesis is donated as H1 or Ha. It explicitly states that the dependent variable affects the independent variable. A good alternative hypothesis example is “Attending physiotherapy sessions improves athletes' on-field performance.” or “Water evaporates at 100 °C. ” The alternative hypothesis further branches into directional and non-directional.

- Directional hypothesis: A hypothesis that states the result would be either positive or negative is called directional hypothesis. It accompanies H1 with either the ‘<' or ‘>' sign.
- Non-directional hypothesis: A non-directional hypothesis only claims an effect on the dependent variable. It does not clarify whether the result would be positive or negative. The sign for a non-directional hypothesis is ‘≠.'

## 3. Simple hypothesis

A simple hypothesis is a statement made to reflect the relation between exactly two variables. One independent and one dependent. Consider the example, “Smoking is a prominent cause of lung cancer." The dependent variable, lung cancer, is dependent on the independent variable, smoking.

## 4. Complex hypothesis

In contrast to a simple hypothesis, a complex hypothesis implies the relationship between multiple independent and dependent variables. For instance, “Individuals who eat more fruits tend to have higher immunity, lesser cholesterol, and high metabolism.” The independent variable is eating more fruits, while the dependent variables are higher immunity, lesser cholesterol, and high metabolism.

## 5. Associative and casual hypothesis

Associative and casual hypotheses don't exhibit how many variables there will be. They define the relationship between the variables. In an associative hypothesis, changing any one variable, dependent or independent, affects others. In a casual hypothesis, the independent variable directly affects the dependent.

## 6. Empirical hypothesis

Also referred to as the working hypothesis, an empirical hypothesis claims a theory's validation via experiments and observation. This way, the statement appears justifiable and different from a wild guess.

Say, the hypothesis is “Women who take iron tablets face a lesser risk of anemia than those who take vitamin B12.” This is an example of an empirical hypothesis where the researcher the statement after assessing a group of women who take iron tablets and charting the findings.

## 7. Statistical hypothesis

The point of a statistical hypothesis is to test an already existing hypothesis by studying a population sample. Hypothesis like “44% of the Indian population belong in the age group of 22-27.” leverage evidence to prove or disprove a particular statement.

## Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis

Writing a hypothesis is essential as it can make or break your research for you. That includes your chances of getting published in a journal. So when you're designing one, keep an eye out for these pointers:

- A research hypothesis has to be simple yet clear to look justifiable enough.
- It has to be testable — your research would be rendered pointless if too far-fetched into reality or limited by technology.
- It has to be precise about the results —what you are trying to do and achieve through it should come out in your hypothesis.
- A research hypothesis should be self-explanatory, leaving no doubt in the reader's mind.
- If you are developing a relational hypothesis, you need to include the variables and establish an appropriate relationship among them.
- A hypothesis must keep and reflect the scope for further investigations and experiments.

## Separating a Hypothesis from a Prediction

Outside of academia, hypothesis and prediction are often used interchangeably. In research writing, this is not only confusing but also incorrect. And although a hypothesis and prediction are guesses at their core, there are many differences between them.

A hypothesis is an educated guess or even a testable prediction validated through research. It aims to analyze the gathered evidence and facts to define a relationship between variables and put forth a logical explanation behind the nature of events.

Predictions are assumptions or expected outcomes made without any backing evidence. They are more fictionally inclined regardless of where they originate from.

For this reason, a hypothesis holds much more weight than a prediction. It sticks to the scientific method rather than pure guesswork. "Planets revolve around the Sun." is an example of a hypothesis as it is previous knowledge and observed trends. Additionally, we can test it through the scientific method.

Whereas "COVID-19 will be eradicated by 2030." is a prediction. Even though it results from past trends, we can't prove or disprove it. So, the only way this gets validated is to wait and watch if COVID-19 cases end by 2030.

## Finally, How to Write a Hypothesis

Quick tips on writing a hypothesis

## 1. Be clear about your research question

A hypothesis should instantly address the research question or the problem statement. To do so, you need to ask a question. Understand the constraints of your undertaken research topic and then formulate a simple and topic-centric problem. Only after that can you develop a hypothesis and further test for evidence.

## 2. Carry out a recce

Once you have your research's foundation laid out, it would be best to conduct preliminary research. Go through previous theories, academic papers, data, and experiments before you start curating your research hypothesis. It will give you an idea of your hypothesis's viability or originality.

Making use of references from relevant research papers helps draft a good research hypothesis. SciSpace Discover offers a repository of over 270 million research papers to browse through and gain a deeper understanding of related studies on a particular topic. Additionally, you can use SciSpace Copilot , your AI research assistant, for reading any lengthy research paper and getting a more summarized context of it. A hypothesis can be formed after evaluating many such summarized research papers. Copilot also offers explanations for theories and equations, explains paper in simplified version, allows you to highlight any text in the paper or clip math equations and tables and provides a deeper, clear understanding of what is being said. This can improve the hypothesis by helping you identify potential research gaps.

## 3. Create a 3-dimensional hypothesis

Variables are an essential part of any reasonable hypothesis. So, identify your independent and dependent variable(s) and form a correlation between them. The ideal way to do this is to write the hypothetical assumption in the ‘if-then' form. If you use this form, make sure that you state the predefined relationship between the variables.

In another way, you can choose to present your hypothesis as a comparison between two variables. Here, you must specify the difference you expect to observe in the results.

## 4. Write the first draft

Now that everything is in place, it's time to write your hypothesis. For starters, create the first draft. In this version, write what you expect to find from your research.

Clearly separate your independent and dependent variables and the link between them. Don't fixate on syntax at this stage. The goal is to ensure your hypothesis addresses the issue.

## 5. Proof your hypothesis

After preparing the first draft of your hypothesis, you need to inspect it thoroughly. It should tick all the boxes, like being concise, straightforward, relevant, and accurate. Your final hypothesis has to be well-structured as well.

Research projects are an exciting and crucial part of being a scholar. And once you have your research question, you need a great hypothesis to begin conducting research. Thus, knowing how to write a hypothesis is very important.

Now that you have a firmer grasp on what a good hypothesis constitutes, the different kinds there are, and what process to follow, you will find it much easier to write your hypothesis, which ultimately helps your research.

Now it's easier than ever to streamline your research workflow with SciSpace Discover . Its integrated, comprehensive end-to-end platform for research allows scholars to easily discover, write and publish their research and fosters collaboration.

It includes everything you need, including a repository of over 270 million research papers across disciplines, SEO-optimized summaries and public profiles to show your expertise and experience.

If you found these tips on writing a research hypothesis useful, head over to our blog on Statistical Hypothesis Testing to learn about the top researchers, papers, and institutions in this domain.

## Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. what is the definition of hypothesis.

According to the Oxford dictionary, a hypothesis is defined as “An idea or explanation of something that is based on a few known facts, but that has not yet been proved to be true or correct”.

## 2. What is an example of hypothesis?

The hypothesis is a statement that proposes a relationship between two or more variables. An example: "If we increase the number of new users who join our platform by 25%, then we will see an increase in revenue."

## 3. What is an example of null hypothesis?

A null hypothesis is a statement that there is no relationship between two variables. The null hypothesis is written as H0. The null hypothesis states that there is no effect. For example, if you're studying whether or not a particular type of exercise increases strength, your null hypothesis will be "there is no difference in strength between people who exercise and people who don't."

## 4. What are the types of research?

• Fundamental research

• Applied research

• Qualitative research

• Quantitative research

• Mixed research

• Exploratory research

• Longitudinal research

• Cross-sectional research

• Field research

• Laboratory research

• Fixed research

• Flexible research

• Action research

• Policy research

• Classification research

• Comparative research

• Causal research

• Inductive research

• Deductive research

## 5. How to write a hypothesis?

• Your hypothesis should be able to predict the relationship and outcome.

• Avoid wordiness by keeping it simple and brief.

• Your hypothesis should contain observable and testable outcomes.

• Your hypothesis should be relevant to the research question.

## 6. What are the 2 types of hypothesis?

• Null hypotheses are used to test the claim that "there is no difference between two groups of data".

• Alternative hypotheses test the claim that "there is a difference between two data groups".

## 7. Difference between research question and research hypothesis?

A research question is a broad, open-ended question you will try to answer through your research. A hypothesis is a statement based on prior research or theory that you expect to be true due to your study. Example - Research question: What are the factors that influence the adoption of the new technology? Research hypothesis: There is a positive relationship between age, education and income level with the adoption of the new technology.

## 8. What is plural for hypothesis?

The plural of hypothesis is hypotheses. Here's an example of how it would be used in a statement, "Numerous well-considered hypotheses are presented in this part, and they are supported by tables and figures that are well-illustrated."

## 9. What is the red queen hypothesis?

The red queen hypothesis in evolutionary biology states that species must constantly evolve to avoid extinction because if they don't, they will be outcompeted by other species that are evolving. Leigh Van Valen first proposed it in 1973; since then, it has been tested and substantiated many times.

## 10. Who is known as the father of null hypothesis?

The father of the null hypothesis is Sir Ronald Fisher. He published a paper in 1925 that introduced the concept of null hypothesis testing, and he was also the first to use the term itself.

## 11. When to reject null hypothesis?

You need to find a significant difference between your two populations to reject the null hypothesis. You can determine that by running statistical tests such as an independent sample t-test or a dependent sample t-test. You should reject the null hypothesis if the p-value is less than 0.05.

## You might also like

## Consensus GPT vs. SciSpace GPT: Choose the Best GPT for Research

## Literature Review and Theoretical Framework: Understanding the Differences

## Types of Essays in Academic Writing

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## StatPearls [Internet].

Hypothesis testing, p values, confidence intervals, and significance.

Jacob Shreffler ; Martin R. Huecker .

## Affiliations

Last Update: March 13, 2023 .

- Definition/Introduction

Medical providers often rely on evidence-based medicine to guide decision-making in practice. Often a research hypothesis is tested with results provided, typically with p values, confidence intervals, or both. Additionally, statistical or research significance is estimated or determined by the investigators. Unfortunately, healthcare providers may have different comfort levels in interpreting these findings, which may affect the adequate application of the data.

- Issues of Concern

Without a foundational understanding of hypothesis testing, p values, confidence intervals, and the difference between statistical and clinical significance, it may affect healthcare providers' ability to make clinical decisions without relying purely on the research investigators deemed level of significance. Therefore, an overview of these concepts is provided to allow medical professionals to use their expertise to determine if results are reported sufficiently and if the study outcomes are clinically appropriate to be applied in healthcare practice.

Hypothesis Testing

Investigators conducting studies need research questions and hypotheses to guide analyses. Starting with broad research questions (RQs), investigators then identify a gap in current clinical practice or research. Any research problem or statement is grounded in a better understanding of relationships between two or more variables. For this article, we will use the following research question example:

Research Question: Is Drug 23 an effective treatment for Disease A?

Research questions do not directly imply specific guesses or predictions; we must formulate research hypotheses. A hypothesis is a predetermined declaration regarding the research question in which the investigator(s) makes a precise, educated guess about a study outcome. This is sometimes called the alternative hypothesis and ultimately allows the researcher to take a stance based on experience or insight from medical literature. An example of a hypothesis is below.

Research Hypothesis: Drug 23 will significantly reduce symptoms associated with Disease A compared to Drug 22.

The null hypothesis states that there is no statistical difference between groups based on the stated research hypothesis.

Researchers should be aware of journal recommendations when considering how to report p values, and manuscripts should remain internally consistent.

Regarding p values, as the number of individuals enrolled in a study (the sample size) increases, the likelihood of finding a statistically significant effect increases. With very large sample sizes, the p-value can be very low significant differences in the reduction of symptoms for Disease A between Drug 23 and Drug 22. The null hypothesis is deemed true until a study presents significant data to support rejecting the null hypothesis. Based on the results, the investigators will either reject the null hypothesis (if they found significant differences or associations) or fail to reject the null hypothesis (they could not provide proof that there were significant differences or associations).

To test a hypothesis, researchers obtain data on a representative sample to determine whether to reject or fail to reject a null hypothesis. In most research studies, it is not feasible to obtain data for an entire population. Using a sampling procedure allows for statistical inference, though this involves a certain possibility of error. [1] When determining whether to reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis, mistakes can be made: Type I and Type II errors. Though it is impossible to ensure that these errors have not occurred, researchers should limit the possibilities of these faults. [2]

Significance

Significance is a term to describe the substantive importance of medical research. Statistical significance is the likelihood of results due to chance. [3] Healthcare providers should always delineate statistical significance from clinical significance, a common error when reviewing biomedical research. [4] When conceptualizing findings reported as either significant or not significant, healthcare providers should not simply accept researchers' results or conclusions without considering the clinical significance. Healthcare professionals should consider the clinical importance of findings and understand both p values and confidence intervals so they do not have to rely on the researchers to determine the level of significance. [5] One criterion often used to determine statistical significance is the utilization of p values.

P values are used in research to determine whether the sample estimate is significantly different from a hypothesized value. The p-value is the probability that the observed effect within the study would have occurred by chance if, in reality, there was no true effect. Conventionally, data yielding a p<0.05 or p<0.01 is considered statistically significant. While some have debated that the 0.05 level should be lowered, it is still universally practiced. [6] Hypothesis testing allows us to determine the size of the effect.

An example of findings reported with p values are below:

Statement: Drug 23 reduced patients' symptoms compared to Drug 22. Patients who received Drug 23 (n=100) were 2.1 times less likely than patients who received Drug 22 (n = 100) to experience symptoms of Disease A, p<0.05.

Statement:Individuals who were prescribed Drug 23 experienced fewer symptoms (M = 1.3, SD = 0.7) compared to individuals who were prescribed Drug 22 (M = 5.3, SD = 1.9). This finding was statistically significant, p= 0.02.

For either statement, if the threshold had been set at 0.05, the null hypothesis (that there was no relationship) should be rejected, and we should conclude significant differences. Noticeably, as can be seen in the two statements above, some researchers will report findings with < or > and others will provide an exact p-value (0.000001) but never zero [6] . When examining research, readers should understand how p values are reported. The best practice is to report all p values for all variables within a study design, rather than only providing p values for variables with significant findings. [7] The inclusion of all p values provides evidence for study validity and limits suspicion for selective reporting/data mining.

While researchers have historically used p values, experts who find p values problematic encourage the use of confidence intervals. [8] . P-values alone do not allow us to understand the size or the extent of the differences or associations. [3] In March 2016, the American Statistical Association (ASA) released a statement on p values, noting that scientific decision-making and conclusions should not be based on a fixed p-value threshold (e.g., 0.05). They recommend focusing on the significance of results in the context of study design, quality of measurements, and validity of data. Ultimately, the ASA statement noted that in isolation, a p-value does not provide strong evidence. [9]

When conceptualizing clinical work, healthcare professionals should consider p values with a concurrent appraisal study design validity. For example, a p-value from a double-blinded randomized clinical trial (designed to minimize bias) should be weighted higher than one from a retrospective observational study [7] . The p-value debate has smoldered since the 1950s [10] , and replacement with confidence intervals has been suggested since the 1980s. [11]

Confidence Intervals

A confidence interval provides a range of values within given confidence (e.g., 95%), including the accurate value of the statistical constraint within a targeted population. [12] Most research uses a 95% CI, but investigators can set any level (e.g., 90% CI, 99% CI). [13] A CI provides a range with the lower bound and upper bound limits of a difference or association that would be plausible for a population. [14] Therefore, a CI of 95% indicates that if a study were to be carried out 100 times, the range would contain the true value in 95, [15] confidence intervals provide more evidence regarding the precision of an estimate compared to p-values. [6]

In consideration of the similar research example provided above, one could make the following statement with 95% CI:

Statement: Individuals who were prescribed Drug 23 had no symptoms after three days, which was significantly faster than those prescribed Drug 22; there was a mean difference between the two groups of days to the recovery of 4.2 days (95% CI: 1.9 – 7.8).

It is important to note that the width of the CI is affected by the standard error and the sample size; reducing a study sample number will result in less precision of the CI (increase the width). [14] A larger width indicates a smaller sample size or a larger variability. [16] A researcher would want to increase the precision of the CI. For example, a 95% CI of 1.43 – 1.47 is much more precise than the one provided in the example above. In research and clinical practice, CIs provide valuable information on whether the interval includes or excludes any clinically significant values. [14]

Null values are sometimes used for differences with CI (zero for differential comparisons and 1 for ratios). However, CIs provide more information than that. [15] Consider this example: A hospital implements a new protocol that reduced wait time for patients in the emergency department by an average of 25 minutes (95% CI: -2.5 – 41 minutes). Because the range crosses zero, implementing this protocol in different populations could result in longer wait times; however, the range is much higher on the positive side. Thus, while the p-value used to detect statistical significance for this may result in "not significant" findings, individuals should examine this range, consider the study design, and weigh whether or not it is still worth piloting in their workplace.

Similarly to p-values, 95% CIs cannot control for researchers' errors (e.g., study bias or improper data analysis). [14] In consideration of whether to report p-values or CIs, researchers should examine journal preferences. When in doubt, reporting both may be beneficial. [13] An example is below:

Reporting both: Individuals who were prescribed Drug 23 had no symptoms after three days, which was significantly faster than those prescribed Drug 22, p = 0.009. There was a mean difference between the two groups of days to the recovery of 4.2 days (95% CI: 1.9 – 7.8).

- Clinical Significance

Recall that clinical significance and statistical significance are two different concepts. Healthcare providers should remember that a study with statistically significant differences and large sample size may be of no interest to clinicians, whereas a study with smaller sample size and statistically non-significant results could impact clinical practice. [14] Additionally, as previously mentioned, a non-significant finding may reflect the study design itself rather than relationships between variables.

Healthcare providers using evidence-based medicine to inform practice should use clinical judgment to determine the practical importance of studies through careful evaluation of the design, sample size, power, likelihood of type I and type II errors, data analysis, and reporting of statistical findings (p values, 95% CI or both). [4] Interestingly, some experts have called for "statistically significant" or "not significant" to be excluded from work as statistical significance never has and will never be equivalent to clinical significance. [17]

The decision on what is clinically significant can be challenging, depending on the providers' experience and especially the severity of the disease. Providers should use their knowledge and experiences to determine the meaningfulness of study results and make inferences based not only on significant or insignificant results by researchers but through their understanding of study limitations and practical implications.

- Nursing, Allied Health, and Interprofessional Team Interventions

All physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals should strive to understand the concepts in this chapter. These individuals should maintain the ability to review and incorporate new literature for evidence-based and safe care.

- Review Questions
- Access free multiple choice questions on this topic.
- Comment on this article.

Disclosure: Jacob Shreffler declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies.

Disclosure: Martin Huecker declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies.

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- Cite this Page Shreffler J, Huecker MR. Hypothesis Testing, P Values, Confidence Intervals, and Significance. [Updated 2023 Mar 13]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2024 Jan-.

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## What are H0 and Ha for T test

H0: [x variable] has no relationship with [y variable] when [other x variables] are present in the model.

Ha: [x variable] has a significant relationship with [y variable] when [other x variables] are present in the model.

Note 1: When writing the hypothesis statement you need to replace the terms specified in the square parenthesis with the actual variable names. For instance in the case of Rent, square feet and number of bedrooms example the H0 and Ha for square feet will be stated as follows:

H0: Square feet has no relatoinship with Rent when number of bedrooms is present in the model

Ha: Square feet has a significant relationship with Rent when number of bedrooms is present in the model.

Similarly, you can have H0 and Ha for number of bedrooms:

H0: Number of bedrooms has no relationship with Rent when square feet is present in the model

Ha: Number of bedroms has a significant relationship with Rent when square feet is present in the model

Note 2: You need as many H0 / Ha statements as there are number of x varaibles in the model. For instance you have two x variables in the model, then you would need two sets of H0 and Ha, i.e. one set of Ho and Ha for each x variable.

Why it is important to say that last phrase “when other x variables are included in the model”?

To explain the answer for this question I will like to show you couple of examples.

First, an analysis where I include just square feet as the x variable to explain Rent (y); and one more separate analysis where I include just number of bedrooms (x variable) to explain Rent (y).

Second, when I include both square feet and number of bedrooms to explain Rent.

Third, when I alter the number of bedrooms slightly and run the analysis again with square feet and number of bedrooms to explain rent (y).

## Leave a Reply Cancel reply

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## What is a statistical test?

A statistical test is a way to evaluate the evidence the data provides against a hypothesis. This hypothesis is called the null hypothesis and is often referred to as H0 . Under H0, data are generated by random processes. In other words, the controlled processes (the experimental manipulations for example) do not affect the data. Usually, H0 is a statement of equality (equality between averages or between variances or between a correlation coefficient and zero, for example).

H0 is usually opposed to a hypothesis called the alternative hypothesis , referred to as H1 or Ha . Most of the time, the alternative hypothesis is the one the user would like to demonstrate. It involves a statement of difference (difference between averages for example).

If the data does not provide enough evidence against H0, H0 is not rejected. If instead, the data shows strong evidence against H0, H0 is rejected and Ha is considered as true with a quantified (low) risk of being wrong. A statistical test allows to reject / not to reject the H0 hypothesis. Let’s have a look at an example ! Suppose you're comparing two varieties of apples and you're wondering whether the average size of apples from variety 1 differs from the average size of apples from variety 2. Here's how we would write down the null and alternative hypotheses:

H0: average size of apple from variety 1 = average size of apple from variety 2.

Ha: average size of apple from variety 1 ≠ average size of apple from variety 2.

## Other examples of null hypotheses versus alternative challenging hypotheses

H0: the insulin rate of the group of patients receiving a placebo is equal to the insulin rate of patients receiving a medication.

Ha: the insulin rate of the group of patients receiving a placebo is different from the insulin rate of patients receiving a medication.

H0: the presence of attribute A does not affect consumer preference toward this product.

Ha: the presence of attribute A affects consumer preference toward this product.

H0: there is no trend in this time series.

Ha: there is a trend in this time series.

H0: Corn fields submitted to fertilizers A, B, C or D produce equivalent yields.

Ha: at least one fertilizer induces a difference in corn yield.

## How to interpret the output of a statistical test: the significance level alpha and the p-value

When setting up a study, a risk threshold above which H0 should not be rejected must be specified. This threshold is referred to as the significance level alpha and should lay between 0 and 1. Low alpha’s are more conservative. The choice of alpha should depend on how dangerous it is to reject H0 while it is true. For example, in a study aiming at demonstrating the benefits of a medical treatment, alpha should be low. On the other hand, when screening the effects of many attributes on the appreciation of a product, alpha’s could be more moderate. Very often, alpha is set at 0.05 or 0.01 or 0.001.

The statistical test produces a number called p-value (that is also bounded between 0 and 1). The p-value is the probability of obtaining the data or more extreme data under the null hypothesis.

More practically, the p-value should be compared to alpha:

If p-value < alpha , we reject H0 and accept Ha with a risk proportional to p-value of being wrong.

If p-value > alpha , we do not reject H0, but this does not necessarily imply that we should accept it. It either means that H0 is true, or that H0 is false but our experiment and statistical test were not “strong” enough to lead to a p-value lower than alpha.

## What is statistical power and in what case can we accept H0?

Statistically speaking, the ability of an experiment/a test to lead to a rejection of the null hypothesis is called statistical power . The power of an experiment increases with alpha, with the precision of the measurements and with the number of repetitions. Power also changes according to the type of statistical tests being used (see the last section of this tutorial). Power may be computed before or after an experiment. It equals 1 minus the risk of being wrong when accepting H0 (also called risk beta). So the higher the power, the lower the What is the difference between a parametric and a nonparametric test? risk of being wrong when accepting H0 (when p-value > alpha, of course).

In summary, if p > alpha AND if statistical power is high enough (usually higher than 0.95), then we may accept H0 with a risk proportional to (1 – Power) of being wrong.

## What are the kinds of statistical tests?

A statistical test can be:

Parametric or nonparametric

two-tailed or one-tailed

Paired or independant samples

## How do I know what statistical test to use?

Here is a grid which will help you choose an appropriate test according to your question.[

## How can I run a statistical test in XLSTAT?

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The alternative hypothesis ( Ha) answers "Yes, there is an effect in the population." The null and alternative are always claims about the population. That's because the goal of hypothesis testing is to make inferences about a population based on a sample.

Step 1: State your null and alternate hypothesis After developing your initial research hypothesis (the prediction that you want to investigate), it is important to restate it as a null (H o) and alternate (H a) hypothesis so that you can test it mathematically.

Ho: there is no difference between the mileage of both vehicles. If your findings don't support your hypothesis and you get opposite results, this outcome will be considered an alternative hypothesis. If you assume that one method is better than another method, then it's considered an alternative hypothesis.

138 21K views 3 years ago Statistics Intro to hypothesis testing. Write the null hypothesis H0, and the alternative hypothesis H1 (Ha). #vudomath ...more ...more Intro to hypothesis...

H 0 always has a symbol with an equal in it. H a never has a symbol with an equal in it. The choice of symbol depends on the wording of the hypothesis test. However, be aware that many researchers (including one of the co-authors in research work) use = in the null hypothesis, even with > or < as the symbol in the alternative hypothesis.

If the Ho is rejected, the statistical conclusion is that the alternative or alternate hypothesis Ha is true. Overview: What is the Alternate Hypothesis (Ha)? Hypothesis testing applies to all forms of statistical inquiry.

First, a hypothesis statement and assumption is made about the population parameter or probability distribution. This initial statement is called the Null Hypothesis and is denoted by Ho. An alternative or alternate hypothesis (denoted Ha), is then stated which will be the opposite of the Null Hypothesis.

The null and alternative hypotheses are: H0: μ ≥ 5. H 0: μ ≥ 5. Ha: μ < 5. H a: μ < 5. Exercise 9.1.3. We want to test if it takes fewer than 45 minutes to teach a lesson plan. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol ( =, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

Table 9.1 Note H0 always has a symbol with an equal in it. Ha never has a symbol with an equal in it. The choice of symbol depends on the wording of the hypothesis test. However, be aware that many researchers use = in the null hypothesis, even with > or < as the symbol in the alternative hypothesis.

The Four Steps in Hypothesis Testing. STEP 1: State the appropriate null and alternative hypotheses, Ho and Ha. STEP 2: Obtain a random sample, collect relevant data, and check whether the data meet the conditions under which the test can be used. If the conditions are met, summarize the data using a test statistic.

specify a normal distribution. The maintained hypothesis in this case is that H;θ ∈{1,2}. If we assume that the data set is a random sample from N (θ,10) where θ = R. We can formulate the following hypotheses; H0;θ =1 HA;θ =1 The null hypothesis is simple but the alternative hypothesis is composite since the alternative hypothesis

These hypotheses contain opposing viewpoints. H0: The null hypothesis: It is a statement about the population that either is believed to be true or is used to put forth an argument unless it can be shown to be incorrect beyond a reasonable doubt. Ha: The alternative hypothesis: It is a claim about the population that is contradictory to H0 and ...

Choosing H0 and Ha in hypothesis testing Ask Question Asked 5 years, 10 months ago Modified 3 days ago Viewed 18k times 7 There seems to be some ambiguity or contradiction in how to correctly choose the null and alternative hypotheses, both online and in my instructor's notes.

This hypothesis that is tested is called the Null Hypothesis and is designated by the symbol Ho. If the Null Hypothesis is unreasonable and needs to be rejected, then the research supports an Alternative Hypothesis designated by the symbol Ha ... A test is two‐tailed when no direction is specified in the alternate hypothesis Ha , such as: ...

6. Write a null hypothesis. If your research involves statistical hypothesis testing, you will also have to write a null hypothesis. The null hypothesis is the default position that there is no association between the variables. The null hypothesis is written as H 0, while the alternative hypothesis is H 1 or H a.

The major purpose of hypothesis testing is to choose between two competing hypotheses about the value of a population parameter. For example, one hypothesis might claim that the wages of men and women are equal, while the alternative might claim that men make more than women.

The first step in testing hypotheses is the transformation of the research question into a null hypothesis, H 0, and an alternative hypothesis, H A. 6 The null and alternative hypotheses are concise statements, usually in mathematical form, of 2 possible versions of "truth" about the relationship between the predictor of interest and the ...

The null hypothesis is often stated as the assumption that there is no change, no difference between two groups, or no relationship between two variables. The alternative hypothesis, on the other hand, is the statement that there is a change, difference, or relationship. Questions Tips & Thanks Want to join the conversation? Sort by: Top Voted

3. Simple hypothesis. A simple hypothesis is a statement made to reflect the relation between exactly two variables. One independent and one dependent. Consider the example, "Smoking is a prominent cause of lung cancer." The dependent variable, lung cancer, is dependent on the independent variable, smoking. 4.

Medical providers often rely on evidence-based medicine to guide decision-making in practice. Often a research hypothesis is tested with results provided, typically with p values, confidence intervals, or both. Additionally, statistical or research significance is estimated or determined by the investigators. Unfortunately, healthcare providers may have different comfort levels in interpreting ...

Hypothesis Testing - Null and Alternative Hypotheses The Organic Chemistry Tutor 7.3M subscribers 6.3K 476K views 4 years ago Statistics ...more ...more This statistics video tutorial provides a...

What are H0 and Ha for T test T test: H0: [x variable] has no relationship with [y variable] when [other x variables] are present in the model. Ha: [x variable] has a significant relationship with [y variable] when [other x variables] are present in the model.

Very often, alpha is set at 0.05 or 0.01 or 0.001. The statistical test produces a number called p-value (that is also bounded between 0 and 1). The p-value is the probability of obtaining the data or more extreme data under the null hypothesis. More practically, the p-value should be compared to alpha: If p-value < alpha, we reject H0 and ...