·          Verbe :               lire                →           la lecture

·          Adjectif :           frais              →           la fraîcheur

  Elle peut s'effectuer par l'ajout d'un suffixe à la racine du verbe : 

On peut aussi procéder par suppression de la terminaison verbale  

a nominalisation peut s'effectuer sans changement du verbe :

. La nominalisation peut s'effectuer par l' ajout d'un suffixe à l'adjectif  : 

The English Bureau

English for IELTS, Business & Advanced

NOMINALISATION – A SIMPLE TECHNIQUE FOR FORMAL ESSAYS

20th August 2019 By Alex Markham Leave a Comment

When you have to write formal essay s in business or for the Academic IELTS Writing Tasks, you’ll need to use formal English.

One technique to achieve this is to change the main information from a  verb phrase  to a  noun phrase . This gives a passive and hence a more formal feel to your writing. It’s a technique called nomalisation .

WHAT IS NOMINALISATION?

nominalisation

Nominalisation is where we use a verb, and sometimes an adjective or an adverb, as a noun. This means we turn actions (verbs) into things or concepts (nouns). This often means changing the verb into a noun version through a suffix.

nominalisation

For example, to evaporate (verb) becomes evaporation (noun), to investigate (verb) becomes investigation (noun) and to judge (verb) becomes judgement (noun)

Nominalisation can also serve to make the text more concise, which is exactly what you want to do in business and academic essays.

So that’s the grammar theory, but how can we use this for our formal essays? Let’s look at some examples.

USING NOMINALISATION IN FORMAL ESSAYS

When we write or speak we typically use a subject + verb sentence or a  clause to describe an event. Here’s an example:

Companies (the subject) enter (the verb) different markets to increase (another verb) their revenues.

However when we write formally , language which is less personal and more objective is preferred. Using the example above, we can make the sentence appear more formal by changing the main information from verb phrases – companies enter the markets and to increase their revenues – into noun phrases.

Here’s the example converted to noun phrases:

Companies seeking an increase ( noun phrase) in revenues become new entrants (noun phrase) in different markets .

SOME EXAMPLES OF NOMINALISATION FOR FORMAL ESSAYS

  • Verb – to increase: The company has increased its revenues
  • Noun – an increase: There has been an increase in the company’s revenues
  • Verb – to improve: Governments want to improve education standards
  • Noun – an improvement: Governments want to make an  improvement  in education standards
  • Verb – to educate: All parents want schools to better educate their children
  • Noun – an education: All parents want schools to provide a better education for their children
  • Verb – to enter: Multi-national companies are entering the South American market
  • Noun – an entrant or an entry: Multi-national companies are new entrants to the South American market or Multi-national companies are making an entry into the South American market
  • Verb – to fly: It’s advisable  to fly during the week to gain discounts
  • Noun – a flight: It’s advisable to take a mid-week flight to gain discounts

FORMAL WRITING USING NOMINALISATION

Replacing the usual subject+ verb sentences with noun phrases are a great way to improve your formal essays. Noun phrases rather than verbs make them more formal and less personal, enabling you to focus on the facts rather than any emotions.

nominalisationj

Be careful though, this type of language is only really suitable for essays and if you were to use it in your everyday speech you would sound strange and your speech far too formal.

If you’re looking for a way to improve your formal writing, then nominalisation is a simple method to achieve this.

If you have any comments or questions on writing formal essays using noun phras es, please leave a comment or drop me an email via contact me.

Share this:

  • Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)
  • Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)

Leave a comment Cancel reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed .

All content on the site, including personal photographs, is © Alexander Markham 2019

Privacy Policy

PodcastFrancaisFacile.com Logo

Nominalisation en français

Cours de grammaire FLE, niveau avancé (C1) sur le thème de la nominalisation.

Nominaliser, c’est transformer une phrase verbale en groupe nominal. Dans cette leçon, nous verrons comment nominaliser à partir d’un verbe et d’un adjectif.

nominalisation verbe/nom     exercice     adjectif/nom        leçon complète

On distingue la phrase verbale construite autour d’un verbe et la phrase nominale construite autour d’un nom.

Le président sort par la grande porte. La sortie du président par la grande porte.

La nominalisation, qu’est-ce que c’est ?

C’est le fait de transformer un verbe ou un adjectif en nom.

leçon nominalisation adjectif – verbe

À quoi sert la nominalisation ?

Cela permet de rendre une phrase plus concise. Cela permet de réduire le nombre de mots ou encore de résumer (un texte, des informations). Ce procédé est souvent utilisé dans les titres d’article de journaux, dans les bandeaux d’information, pour les titres de compte rendu, etc.

Notez que pour réussir une nominalisation, il faudra aussi changer l’adverbe en adjectif.

Les ventes ont chuté considérablement au premier trimestre. ➜ Chute considérable des ventes au premier trimestre.

Thème : Comment nominaliser un verbe et un adjectif en français

Articles similaires.

Exercices pronoms relatifs

Exercices pronoms relatifs

Exercices passé composé forme pronominale

Exercices passé composé forme pronominale

Verbe aller – conjugaison et utilisation

Verbe aller – conjugaison et utilisation

  • Types of Verbs
  • Types of Adjectives
  • Types of Noun
  • Phrases and Clauses
  • Parts of Speech
  • Parts of a Sentence
  • Determiners
  • Parallelism
  • Direct & Indirect Speech
  • Modal Verbs
  • Relative Clauses
  • Nominalisation
  • Substitution & Ellipsis
  • Demonstratives
  • Pronoun Reference
  • Confusing Words
  • Online Grammar Quizzes
  • Printable Grammar Worksheets
  • Courses to purchase
  • Grammar Book
  • Grammar Blog

Nominalisation (or nominalization in US English!) is when we take verbs or adjectives and turn them into nouns or noun phrases.

So in other words, we are transforming actions or events (verbs) or  descriptions of nouns and pronouns (adjectives) into things, concepts or people (nouns).

Nominalisation

This is important for  academic writing  because it will:

  • Prevent you from keep repeating the same verb or other word again
  • Make your writing less personal as the focus will be on an action rather than who did it

Your writing will thus be more creative, varied, and interesting.

Nominalisation of Verbs

The easiest way to understand this is by looking at examples. Take a look at the following sentences. The verb is shown in red, and in the second sentence it has been nominalised.

The government is introducing new tax rules that should help those on low incomes

The introduction of new tax rules should help those on low incomes

' By the government ' could follow after the word ' rules '. However, most people know it's the government who changes tax regulations so it can easily be left out and makes the sentence more concise without losing the meaning. 

This next example of nominalisation also shows how this technique can make your writing more concise by using fewer words to express meaning:  

She was thinking about all the work she had to do and this made her stressed

The thought of all the work she had to do made her stressed

Here are some examples of verbs being nominalised. There are of course 100s of verbs, so these are just some illustrations of how they are changed:

Examples of Verb Nominalisation

Nominalisation of Adjectives

For adjectives, the same principles are followed. We transform the adjective into a noun:

The delegates at the conference questioned whether the clothes the speaker was wearing were appropriate

The delegates at the conference questioned the appropriateness of the clothes the speaker was wearing

It's worth noting at this point that when we nominalise, there is often more than one way to construct the new sentence. For example, we can also bring the adjective to the front of the sentence:

The appropriateness of  the speakers clothes was questioned by the delegates at the conference

You'll also see the sentence has been made more concise by changing 'the clothes the speaker was wearing' to the 'speakers clothes' . It's a good skill in academic writing to be able to write things as concisely as possible yet in a formal style. 

Collective Groups

One of the most common reasons for nominalising adjectives in English is when the adjective has been used to denote a collective group . This is then changed to a noun by simply omitting the original noun in the sentence (people) and adding 'the'.

Here are some common examples:

  • The government needs to do more to help homeless people
  • The government needs to do more to help  the homeless
  • Poor people often have a lower life expectancy than rich people
  • The poor often have a lower life expectancy than the rich
  • The charity was set up to help blind people
  • The charity was set up to help the blind
  • I've always found French people very friendly 
  • I've always found the French very friendly 

Here are some examples of adjectives being nominalised. Again there are of course 100s of adjectives, so these are just some for illustrative purposes:

Examples of adjective nominalisation

Nominalisation and Academic Writing

It has been noted how nominalisation is often related to academic writing so it's worth looking at a specific example of how it could be used to improve style.

Papers and Articles

When writing papers and articles in the natural and social sciences, for example, it's assumed that you will not refer to yourself. Take a look at the difference between these two sentences:

I analysed the data, which revealed the numbers of obese people had increased . 

An analysis of the data revealed  an increase in obesity

You will see how the writing has been depersonalised by omitting 'I' and nominalising the verb 'analysed'. In addition, the verb 'had increased' has been changed as this makes the whole sentence shorter (this has also involved  reducing the relative clause ).

Shortening sentences whilst retaining academic style and not changing the meaning is important when you are trying to write a paper within a limited number of words!

Nominalisation is also something a writing examiner will notice if you are taking the  IELTS test . It's something that would be expected of someone getting band 7 or higher for grammar. 

It can of course be used in essays, but also for IELTS graphs. Nominalising some sentences will give you a greater variety of structures. For example, the first sentence below is commonly seen written by candidates, but it can also be written another way:

The number of visitors increased sharply from 2005 to 2010

There was a sharp increase in the number of visitors from 2005 to 2010

In the second sentence, the verb becomes noun and the adverb becomes an adjective. Both are ok but it's better to have a mix rather than relying on one too much.

Now check what you have learned in this nominalisation practice exercise >>>

More on Sentence Structure:

Using object complements in a sentence enhances your ability to convey specific information about actions and their outcomes.

Using Object Complements in a Sentence

Using object complements in a sentence enhances your ability to convey specific information about actions and their outcomes.

Parallelism is about balancing the grammatical structure of words, phrases and clauses in your sentences. Parallel structure will improve your writing's coherence.

Parallelism Grammar Rules (Parallel Structure)

Parallelism is about balancing the grammatical structure of words, phrases and clauses in your sentences. Parallel structure will improve your writing's coherence.

Here we demystify subject complements, predicate adjectives, and predicate nominatives with simple explanations and examples.

Subject Complements: Predicate Adjectives and Predicate Nominatives

Here we demystify subject complements, predicate adjectives, and predicate nominatives with simple explanations and examples.

Direct and indirect objects are key parts of most sentences. A direct object is the receiver of action while indirect object identifies to or for whom or what the action of the verb is performed.

Direct and Indirect Objects: The Differences

Direct and indirect objects are key parts of most sentences. A direct object is the receiver of action while indirect object identifies to or for whom or what the action of the verb is performed.

The two types of clauses in English grammar are the independent and dependent clause. Both have a subject and verb which makes them clauses, but while independent clauses express a complete thought, dependent clauses do not. This is the main distinction.

Types of Clauses in English Grammar - Independent and Dependent Clause

The two types of clauses in English grammar are the independent and dependent clause. Both have a subject and verb which makes them clauses, but while independent clauses express a complete thought, dependent clauses do not. This is the main distinction.

The 8 parts of speech are Nouns, Adjectives, Adverbs, Verbs, Prepositions, Pronouns, Conjunctions, and Interjections. Learn about the function of each of these grammatical categories.

8 Parts of Speech in English Grammar

The 8 parts of speech are Nouns, Adjectives, Adverbs, Verbs, Prepositions, Pronouns, Conjunctions, and Interjections. Learn about the function of each of these grammatical categories.

Phrases and clauses are the key building blocks of sentences. A clause contains a subject and a verb and can express a complete thought. A phrase does not contain a subject or verb.

Phrases and Clauses - Building good sentences

Phrases and clauses are the key building blocks of sentences. A clause contains a subject and a verb and can express a complete thought. A phrase does not contain a subject or verb.

Advice on how to use either and neither in English grammar. They can be adjectives, adverbs, pronouns and conjunctions.

How to Use Either and Neither with Examples

Advice on how to use either and neither in English grammar. They can be adjectives, adverbs, pronouns and conjunctions.

The main parts of a sentence are subjects, verbs, objects, predicates, and subject complements. All of these have a specific purpose within the structure of a sentence.

Parts of a Sentence: Subject, Verbs, Objects, Predicates, Complements

The main parts of a sentence are subjects, verbs, objects, predicates, and subject complements. All of these have a specific purpose within the structure of a sentence.

View examples of parallelism in English grammar that show you correct and incorrect parallel sentences.

Examples of Parallelism in English Grammar

View examples of parallelism in English grammar that show you correct and incorrect parallel sentences.

Sign up for free grammar tips, quizzes and lessons, straight into your inbox

New! Comments

Any questions or comments about the grammar discussed on this page?

Post your comment here.

essayer nominalisation

Grammar Rules

Subscribe to grammar wiz:, grammar ebook.

English Grammar Book

This is an affiliate link

Recent Articles

RSS

Discrete vs Discreet

Feb 16, 24 11:01 AM

Lose or Loose Quiz: Multiple Choice

Feb 11, 24 11:08 AM

Lose or Loose: Which to choose?

Feb 08, 24 04:31 AM

Important Pages

Online Quizzes Courses Blog

Connect with Us

Youtube

Search Site

Privacy Policy  / Disclaimer  / Terms of Use

  • Memberships
  • Institutional Members
  • Teacher Members

Academic English UK

How to nominalise in academic writing

by Admin | Mar 7, 2022 | Grammar , Vocabulary , Writing

nominalisation in academic writing

Nominalisation – how to nominalise in academic writing.

What is nominalisation?

  • Nominalisation is the process of changing verbs or adjectives to nouns.

Why use nominalisation?

  • The nominalisation grammatical process develops complex grammar noun-phrase structures.
  • Nominalisation helps achieve a higher degree of abstraction and technicality.
  • Nominalisation is a typical feature of academic writing.

Nominalisation Video

The basic principles of nominalisation

Video Worksheet  – click here

Nominalisation worksheet download, nominalisation (verbs / adjectives to nouns).

An introduction to nominalisation. This worksheet shows the basics of nominalising, practises changing verbs and adjectives to nouns, and includes four exercises from guided practice through to freer practice. Very good writing practice activity with a fair amount of challenge for all levels.  Level ** ** * [B1/B2/C1]   Example   TEACHER MEMBERSHIP  /  INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

£4.50 – Add to cart Checkout Added to cart

Terms & Conditions of Use

Nominalisation example.

Nominalisation Example

Verbs to Nouns

academic verbs to nouns

Answers – click here

Nominalisation practice.

Nominalise these sentences:

  • Nominalised Sentence

Possible Answer

1. One of the assumptions on inflation is that the figures will not rise higher  than 2%.

1. The one primary issue to create value in a business is profits.

1.  Value creation in a business is connected to the one primary issue of profits.

1. We evaluated the results and this explains the loss in revenue.

1.  An evaluation of results provides an explanation to the loss in revenue.

1.Bonds are   attractive   for   investors   seeking   predictable   returns   on   their   investments.

1.  The predictability of investment return on bonds attracts investors.

Want more exercises?  – buy the worksheet download

Academic passive structures & nominalisation.

An introduction to the impersonal passive structure ‘it is said that…’ , to infinitive passive form ‘ it is claimed to be…’. and how to nominalise verbs to nouns to show formality in writing. This worksheet provides key information and 10 writing questions (example) . Level **** * [B1/B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

£5.00 – Add to cart Checkout Added to cart

Academic Style 4: STEM Vocabulary 2 (AWL & Nominalisation)

This lesson is for STEM classes (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths). It focuses on two key areas of academic writing: AWL and nominalisation. There are three worksheets comprising of a number of different activities to practise categorisation and reformulation at sentence and paragraph level.  ( Example)  Time: 60mins.    / Webpage link  / Level  *** **  [ B1/B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP  / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

More grammar and vocabulary downloads...

  Causes, Effects & Related L anguage 

This lesson helps improve students' awareness of cause and effect  language.  It includes a language review section, lots of guided practice and freer paragraph writing practice  ( see worksheet example )  Time: 60mins.   Level *** ** [ B1/B2/C1]  / Webpage link.   / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

  Comparatives & Superlatives  

This lesson helps improve students' awareness of compare and contrast  language.  It includes a language review section, lots of guided practice and freer paragraph writing practice ( see worksheet example )  Time: 60mins.   Level *** ** [ B1/B2/C1]  / Webpage link.  / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

  Compare & contrast : comparatives and superlatives

This lesson helps improve students' awareness of compare and contrast  language.  It includes a language review section, lots of guided practice and freer paragraph writing practice ( see worksheet example )  Time: 60mins.   Level *** ** [ B1/B2/C1] .  / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

  Academic Conditionals

This lesson helps improve students' awareness of conditionals .  It includes a language review section, lots of guided practice and freer paragraph writing practice ( see worksheet example )  Time: 60mins.   Level *** ** [ B1/B2/C1]     TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

Countable and uncountable nouns

This lesson helps improve students' awareness of countable & uncountable nouns .  It includes a language review section, lots of guided practice and freer paragraph writing practice (see worksheet example) Time: 60mins.   Level *** ** [ B1/B2/C1]   TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

      Memberships (Teacher / Institutional)

      Full access to everything -  £80 /  £200 /   £550

  Join today * x

  Modal Auxiliary Verbs

This lesson helps improve students' awareness of modal verbs .  It includes a language review section, lots of guided practice and freer paragraph writing practice  ( see worksheet example )  Time: 60mins.   Level *** ** [ B1/B2/C1]   TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

An introduction to nominalisation. This worksheet shows the basics of nominalising, practises changing verbs and adjectives to nouns, and includes four exercises from guided practice through to freer practice. Very good writing practice activity with a fair amount of challenge for all levels.  Level ** ** * [B1/B2/C1] (see example sheet)   TEACHER MEMBERSHIP   /   INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

Noun Phrases Worksheet 1

This lesson highlights what noun phrases are and provides valuable practice. it focuses on the key concepts of quantifiers, adjectives and nouns, noun + noun, noun + preposition and noun phrase combinations ( example ).   level *** ** [b2/c1]  / teacher membership / institutional membership, noun phrases worksheet 2, this lesson is designed to help students write more concisely by using noun phrases. it takes students through a whole range of tasks including noticing the language in context, eight guided practice tasks and five freer practice activities. there's a language review sheet included too (see example ).   level *** ** [b2/c1]   teacher membership  / institutional membership.

An introduction to the impersonal passive structure 'it is said that...' , to infinitive passive form ' it is claimed to be...'. and how to nominalise verbs to nouns to show formality in writing. This worksheet provides key information and 10 writing questions (example) . Level **** * [B1/B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

Relative clauses:  defining & non-defining clauses

This lesson is to support students in their understanding and use of defining & non-defining relative clauses.The lesson includes four tasks of guided practice and two tasks of freer practice  ( see worksheet example )  Time: 60mins.   Level *** ** [ B1/B2/C1] .  / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

Sentence Structure 1:  Simple, compound, complex & complex  compound  

This lesson is to support students in their understanding and practice of the four types of sentence structures: simple, compound, complex and complex-compound. It includes noticing, guided and freer practice ( see worksheet example )  Time: 60mins.   Level *** ** [ B1/B2/C1] / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

Sentence Structure 2:  Fragment, run-on & comma splice  sentences 

This lesson helps improve students'  sentence structure through identifying and practising fragments, run-ons and comma splice sentences. It includes noticing, guided and freer practice ( see worksheet example )  Time: 60mins.   Level *** ** [ B1/B2/C1] / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

  Sentence Structure 3:  Complex sentence structure (STEM)

This lesson is to support students in their understanding and practice of complex sentence structure. The worksheets focus on three structures: adverbial, adjective and noun clauses and contain key explanations and sentence and paragraph-level practice within a STEM context   ( see worksheet example) Time: 90mins.   Level *** ** [ B1/B2/C1]   TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

Tense Review (3 lessons: analysis, gap fill, speaking)

This is a great lesson to introduce / revise English Tenses. Lesson 1: students discuss a number of sentences & identify the tense & reason for use. Give out Tense handout ( here ) to consolidate. Lesson 2:  tense review gap fill. Lesson 3: speaking exercise with lots of questions using the tenses. Example    Level **** * [B1/B2/C1 ] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

£5.00 – Add to cart Checkout Added to cart *

Verb Patterns

This lesson helps improve students' awareness of verb patterns (verb + infinitive, verb + to infinitive, verb + gerund, verb + that clause, verb + wh-clause)  .  It includes a language review section, lots of guided practice and freer paragraph writing practice ( see worksheet example) Time: 60mins.   Level *** ** [ B1/B2/C1]   TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

Academic Phrases

Academic style [1], academic style [2], academic style [3], academic style [4], academic word list , writing websites, error correction,   hedging [1], hedging [2], nominalisation, noun phrases [1], noun phrases [2], the syllabus, referencing, in-text referencing, harvard ref. [1], harvard ref. [2], apa ref. [1], ref. generators, reference lists, reporting verbs, credible sources, evaluating sources, academic integrity, 'me' in writing, writer's voice  , writing skills, paraphrasing [1], paraphrasing [2], paraphrase (quotes), summary writing  , summary language, critical thinking, analysis & evaluation, fact vs opinion, argument essays, spse essays, sentence str.  [1], sentence str.  [2], sentence str.  [3], academic posters [1] new, academic posters [2]   new, structure    , essay structure, introductions, thesis statements, paragraphing, topic sentences [1], topic sentences [2], definitions, conclusions, linking words, exemplification , parallelism, punctuation, marking criteria, aeuk blog articles….

Critical Reading

Advertisement:

Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

Sentence Clarity: Nominalizations and Subject Position

OWL logo

Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

This resource discusses nominalizations and subject position as they relate to sentence clarity.

This resource will help students understand what nominalizations are, as well as how and when they should be used in sentences.

Nominalizations are nouns that are created from adjectives (words that describe nouns) or verbs (action words). For example, “interference” is a nominalization of “interfere,” “decision” is a nominalization of “decide,” and “argument” is a nominalization of “argue.”

Below are some of the more common nominalizations (on the left) and their original forms (on the right):

As you can see, the endings of the nominalized forms vary, but many end in “-ion/tion”, “-ment,” “-ity/–ty”, and “-ness.”

So, why does this matter?

First, it is important to understand what these words mean when you see them. Second, if you are aware of what nominalizations are, you may use them to make your writing easier to understand.

Remember, the two most basic units of a sentence are the subject and the verb.

Subject → Verb

Character → Action

Person or Thing → Doing Something

Sentences often start with a subject followed by a verb, and are easily understood according to this order. For example,

Many children → experience worries when they go to school for the first time.

Elephants → argue over small concerns, just like humans.

The sentences above are very clear, but you might see some with nominalizations, like the ones below:

The experience of children with respect to being at school for the first time is common.

Arguments over small concerns are something elephants have, as well as humans.

This second set of sentences is more difficult to understand because the use of the nominalization means there must be more words in the sentence.

Subject → Verb : easy to follow

Subject → Long strings of nominalizations and other forms → Verb : hard to follow

Here is an example of the difference between the two structures:

The group discussed how to plan the surprise party.

The discussion of the group was about how to surprise the girl with the birthday without her knowing.

Are nominalizations always a bad choice?

No. Sometimes, nominalizations can be useful:

  • When the nominalization is familiar to your reader as a character (happiness), it can be treated as a character. Example: Happiness has many causes and effects.
  • When you are making a general statement that focuses more on the idea than the actual actors in the sentence. Example: The distribution of the pizzas was fair.

Be sure to remember that even in a case where a nominalization is appropriate, you should not use them too often in too short of a space.

Student Activities

For additional practice with this concept, please refere to our two sentence clarity quizzes. For quiz 1, click here . For quiz 2, click here .

Enago Academy

Nominalization and Clarity: Ensuring the Right Balance in Academic Writing

' src=

Although research would significantly benefit from clear and direct writing, it often becomes crucial to adhere to a certain style of writing, in this case academic style, which warrants some stiffness and formal expression. As a result, writers of academic prose often produce texts that are difficult to navigate and comprehend, being rife with lack of cohesion, logical flow, and focused emphasis. These issues are usually brought about by the lack of a common conscious goal—to make content clear.

Let’s review some of the characteristics that make academic prose wordy and complex:

  • Emphasis on static verbs
  • Emphasis on abstract nouns

Emphasis on static verbs and emphasis on abstract nouns lead to nominalization .

What is Nominalization?

Nominalization entails the expression of an important action (one that is usually central to the understanding of a sentence) as an abstract noun.

Alternatively,

When a verb or an adjective is used as a noun, a nominalization is created.

Consider the following sentence:

A comparison was made of the effects of inflation on the stock market by Smith and Jones.

It should be noted how the significant action of the sentence, to compare , has been expressed as an abstract noun. While a certain degree of embellishment is required in academic writing, it is important to ensure that the use of elevated expressions does not hinder readability and the primary purpose of research (to be practical and relevant).

Thus, to ensure clarity, many stylists recommend using the following method:

Whenever possible, use agents as subjects (that is, the performer of the action in the sentence) and actions (usually the main action) as verbs.

Nominalized sentences tend to insert much of their information into the subject position, which hinders readability and makes them difficult to understand. They can mask the key verb of a sentence, and hence, we often risk losing important information.

For example,

The university students conducted an investigation of the passive action of the university teaching body .

The sentence above can be made concise by removing the nominalization and by the decisive use of the action verb investigated .

The university students investigated the passive action of the university teaching body .

Some common nominalizations are as follows:

common nominalizations

Other kinds of nominalizations are as follows:

nominalization-2

However, not all nominalizations are redundant and contribute to making a sentence complex; some nominalizations are in fact necessary .

For example, a succinct nominalization can replace expressions such as the fact that and make a sentence more concise:

The fact that the reduced sample size affected the outcome of the study was noted by the panelists.

The panelists noted that the reduced sample size had affected the outcome of the study.

Further, some nominalizations stand for ideas that can only be expressed as nominalizations: taxation , revolution , hope , amendment , etc.

With good research comes great responsibility. Choose your method of expression wisely!

For more information on this, please visit the following reference links:

http://www.cgu.edu/PDFFiles/Writing%20Center/Writing%20Center%20Resources/Nominalizations.pdf

http://www.groundsforargument.org/drupal/style/actions/basic-principles

' src=

Yes very useful explanation!!

Rate this article Cancel Reply

Your email address will not be published.

essayer nominalisation

Enago Academy's Most Popular

Use synonyms

  • Language & Grammar
  • Reporting Research

How to Use Synonyms Effectively in a Sentence? — A way to avoid plagiarism!

Do you remember those school days when memorizing synonyms and antonyms played a major role…

Noun Stacks

Noun Stacks: Why You Should Avoid It in Scientific Writing

When we write, we want to be understood. Good writing should be clear and concise.…

Corpora

How to Improve Your Academic Writing Using Language Corpora

No matter how brilliant a researcher you are, you must be able to write about…

Subject-Verb Agreement

  • Global Spanish Webinars
  • Old Webinars

Cómo Dominar el Arte de Escribir Manuscritos en Inglés

Consejos de corrección Errores comunes de manuscritos Aplicación de la gramática inglesa Consejos sobre redacción…

  • Global Japanese Webinars
  • Webinar Mobile App

英語での論文執筆をマスターする

英語でのライティングスキルの重要性 論文英語の組み立て 日本人によくある英語の間違い 論文執筆の基本

How to Avoid Phrasal Verbs in Academic Writing

essayer nominalisation

Sign-up to read more

Subscribe for free to get unrestricted access to all our resources on research writing and academic publishing including:

  • 2000+ blog articles
  • 50+ Webinars
  • 10+ Expert podcasts
  • 50+ Infographics
  • 10+ Checklists
  • Research Guides

We hate spam too. We promise to protect your privacy and never spam you.

I am looking for Editing/ Proofreading services for my manuscript Tentative date of next journal submission:

essayer nominalisation

When should AI tools be used in university labs?

  • ELT Concourse home
  • A-Z site index
  • Teacher training index
  • In-service training
  • Initial plus training
  • Teacher development
  • Academic management
  • For teacher trainers
  • EAP topics:
  • Genre in EAP
  • Hedging and Modality
  • Listening for EAP
  • Nominalisation
  • Reporting verbs
  • Speaking for EAP

Concourse 2

Nominalisation in EAP

The title of this guide suggests it is applicable to English for Academic Purposes and, indeed, it is.  However, nominalisation is not confined to EAP so this guide is linked from elsewhere, too. Many of the examples in the guide are taken from academic materials but the concepts are unchanged, whatever the text type.

Nominalisation (n.) is derived from the Latin nomen , also the root of the word noun , meaning name . Literally, it means the act of giving something a name but in our field it has the more precise meaning of changing the status of a word, phrase or clause to a noun. Here are some examples:

  • drink (verb) → drink (noun) with no change to the word at all, a process of conversion
  • compute (verb) → computer (noun) with a suffix [- r ]
  • clear (adjective) → clarity (noun) / cleanliness (noun) with a change to the morphology / morphology + pronunciation
  • he left (intransitive finite verb phrase) → his departure (genitive + noun) making the verb phrase into a noun phrase
  • I discovered the new species ... (transitive finite verb phrase) → the discovery of the new species [by me] (noun phrase post-modified with the of genitive)
  • He broke it and that caused a problem (two coordinated finite verb phrases) → His breaking of it caused a problem (a pre-modified gerund as the subject of a single finite verb phrase)

As you see, there are lots of ways that nominalisation occurs in English but the first question is to ask why we should want to do it at all. As a way to answer this, compare these two sentences:

  • If you place a particle of sodium in water it produces hydrogen
  • Placing a particle of sodium in water results in the production of hydrogen

It's easy to see that the former is akin to spoken language and out of place in academic writing whereas the second formulation, which means the same thing, is more appropriate in written academic reports.

Reason 1: Nominalisation achieves formality with the use of noun phrases instead of active verb phrases. Reason 2: Nominalisation removes the need for verb subjects and avoids the necessity to state who does what to what or whom.  This means that a suitably objective and impersonal note can be struck.

How does it do that?

What has happened in sentence 2. is that both verb forms have been nominalised. The first: by making a gerund, post-modified with an object complement, a genitive and a prepositional phrase and making that whole noun phrase the subject of the verb result in . The second: by simple suffixation to change the verb produce + its object to the noun production + a genitive of description. If we compare the structures of the two sentences we get:

A somewhat simpler way of looking at this is: Sentence 1. consists of two clauses, each with their own active verb forms:     If + subject (personal) + verb + object and subject + verb + object Sentence 2. has only one clause with a nominalised subject and a nominalised object:     Subject (impersonal) + verb + object Although the structure of sentence 2. is therefore simpler, we have crammed the same information into the noun phrases.  That's what nominalisation does: it moves the information from the verb to a noun.

The introduction to this guide contained six examples of the common types of nominalisation in English.  In any EAP programme, we'll want to break the ways down to make sense of them for our learners.  Here's one approach to doing that.

These are all examples of word formation.  Making a noun from verbs and adjectives is often quite simple and the guides to word formation and teaching word formation have more in this area. Here are some examples:

  • -ance / -ence: appearance, allowance, clearance, disturbance, guidance, performance, coalescence, convergence, emergence, existence etc. For example:     We allowed for some errors → Allowance was made for error
  • -ment: accomplishment, alignment, apportionment, arrangement, commencement, development, endorsement, improvement, measurement, replacemen t etc.  This is a very productive suffix. For example:     We arranged the interviews → The arrangement of the interviews
  • -or / -or: actor, regulator, computer, discoverer, receiver etc.  Potentially, -er or - r can be affixed to any verb in English to denote the agent.  The -or suffix is no longer productive but still exists on words like actor, doctor, vendor etc. For example:     Guru discovered ... → The discoverer of ... was Guru
  • -ant: informant, disinfectant, inhabitant, propellant, pollutant etc.  This suffix is often used in more scholarly settings and for verbs which end -ate such as participate → participant, lubricate → lubricant, penetrate → penetrant etc. For example:     200 people participated in the survey → There were 200 participants in the survey
  • -ation / -cation / -tion / -sion: satisfaction, justification, investigation, inspection, comprehension, compression etc.  This is another very productive set of suffixes converting states or actions into nouns. For example:     We inspected the results and they showed ... → The inspection of the results showed ...
  • -al: refusal, dismissal, revival etc.  This suffix converts dynamic verbs, often reporting verbs in EAP, to countable nouns. For example:     Guru dismissed the results → Guru's dismissal of the results
  • -ing : the classic gerund maker for all verbs in English.  There are no irregular gerunds. For example:     It was difficult to explain the issue → Explaining the issue was difficult
  • -age: coverage, shrinkage etc.  This is almost completely unproductive in making new nouns. For example:     The questionnaire covered many areas → The questionnaire had wide coverage
  • -ness: addictiveness, backwardness, illness, orderliness, usefulness etc.  This is a very productive source of abstract nouns and new ones are coinable.  Words ending in -ful or -less are often converted to nouns with this suffix. For example:     The presentation was very orderly → The good orderliness of the presentation
  • -ity: elasticity, similarity, adjustability, computability etc.  Adjectives ending -ible or -able are often converted to nouns in this way. For example:     Results were comparable → The comparability of the results

For EAP purposes, we need to focus on what happens to the syntax of a clause when we nominalise by affixation or simple conversion.

  • In many cases, all that is needed is the insertion of a copular verb to link the noun phrase we have made to an attribute.  For example:     It was easy to calculate the difference → Calculation of the difference was simple     It was impossible to estimate the effect → Estimation of the effect was impossible     Many people participated → Participation was good
  • The addition of an of descriptive genitive structure is often required.  For example:     The outcome was similar → The similarity of the outcome     We investigated the changes → The investigation of the changes     The people who live in Margate → The inhabitants of Margate
  • Frequently, we need to find a suitable verb for the noun to act as the subject, with or without the genitive form.  For example:     The material is elastic so ...→ The elasticity of the material allows ...     The patient was too ill to travel → The patient's illness prevented travel     We discovered that ... → The discovery indicated that ...

We saw above that we often have to make quite drastic adjustments to the syntax to nominalise and adopt an appropriately academic style.  Here are the examples again:

Essentially, as we saw, this means pre- and post-modifying subject and object noun phrases and linking them with an appropriate verb.  In this way, we can change, for example:     We carefully investigated in the laboratory exactly what the reaction produced and found that it was very toxic which contains four verbs ( investigated, produced, found, was ) to     A careful laboratory investigation of the exact nature of the product of the reaction revealed great toxicity which contains only one verb, revealed , with the rest of the information embedded in noun phrases.

The key here is complex nominalisation of the original informal verb phrases.  It works like this:

The core of the sentence is a simple Subject–Verb–Object formula: An investigation revealed toxicity and that is, in fact, syntactically far simpler than the informal expression of the same idea.  Realising this is a key reading and writing skill.

This is not a simple area to learn and needs to be taken piecemeal. The easiest place to start is the formation of nouns from adjectives and verbs.

To introduce the area, a simple matching exercise can be used.  Something like this:

This alerts people to two things:

  • That verbs may be nominalised
  • That the resultant style is more appropriate

This is just an example.  Learners will need lots of practice to notice all the significant differences.

Unpacking some especially complex nominalisations is a half-way house to the ability to use them and also, of course, a useful reading skill in itself. Presenting learners with exercises like this can help:

Learners need quite a lot of practice in spotting nominalisations and deciding which parts of the pre- and post-modification they can safely ignore.

For productive purposes, once the learners are aware of what needs to happen, the same kind of exercise can be done but this time the learners have to make the adjustments rather than simply identify what they are. Here's one for adjective to noun formation:

and here's another for making syntactical changes

and so on. Adjustments will be made for level, of course, and a good deal of practice will be needed.

Contact | FAQs | Copyright notice | ELT Concourse charter | Disclaimer and Privacy statement | Search ELT Concourse

French Verb Conjugation Using "Essayer" (to Try)

Erica Shires / Getty Images

  • Pronunciation & Conversation
  • Resources For Teachers

The French verb  essayer  means "to try." It's a simple word that can easily be confused with  essuyer  (to wipe) , so be sure to look and listen for that 'A' in  essayer .

In order to place  essayer  into the past, present, or future tense, the verb needs to be conjugated . Just follow along in this lesson and you'll be saying "tried" and "trying" in French before you know it.

Conjugating the French Verb  Essayer ​​

Essayer  is an optional stem-changing verb . Typically with verbs that end in - yer , the 'Y' has to change to an 'I' in certain forms. The rules are a little more casual with  essayer  as you'll see in the table. When there are two forms of the conjugation, you can use either.

The stem of  essayer  is  essay -. To this, a variety of infinitive endings is added that conform with the subject pronoun as well as the tense of the sentence. For instance, "I try" is " j'essaie " or " j'essaye ." Similarly, there are two options for "we will try": " nous essaierons " or " nous essayerons ."

All this leaves you with many words to memorize. The good news is that there are many opportunities to practice it and use  essayer  as you "try" things throughout your day.

The Present Participle of  Essayer

The  present participle  of essayer is  essayant . This is as simple as adding - ant  to the verb stem. Not only does it work as a verb, but it can also become an adjective, gerund, or noun when needed.

The Past Participle and Passé Composé

The  past participle   essayé  is used to form the  passé composé , a common past tense form of "tried" in French. To use this, you'll also need to conjugate the  auxiliary verb   avoir . For example, "I tried" is " j'ai essayé " and "we tried" is " nous avons essayé ."

More Simple  Essayer  Conjugations to Know

When the action of trying is in some way questionable, you can turn to the subjunctive verb mood . Similarly, if it's dependent on something, the conditional verb mood is used.

With less frequency, you will come across the passé simple or the imperfect subjunctive . These are mostly found in formal writing and will help considerably with reading comprehension.

To use  essayer  in commands or direct requests, turn to the imperative verb form . When using this, the subject pronoun is not required: use " essaie " instead of " tu essaie ."

  • How to Conjugate "Lever" in French
  • How to Conjugate "Décevoir" (to Disappoint) in French
  • "Dinner" is "Dîner": Easy to Remember and Simple to Conjugate
  • How to Conjugate Décider, to Decide, in French
  • How to Conjugate the French Word "Disparaître"
  • How to Conjugate "Gagner" (to Win, to Earn) in French
  • How to Conjugate "Utiliser" (to Use) in French
  • How to Conjugate "Essuyer" (to Wipe)
  • How to Conjugate "Louer" (to Rent)
  • How to Conjugate "Déjeuner" (to Have Lunch)
  • Learn How to Conjugate the French Verb "Passer" (to Pass)
  • How to Conjugate "Endormir" (To Put/Send to Sleep) in French
  • How to Conjugate "Grandir" (to Grow)
  • How to Conjugate "Éteindre" (to Extinguish, to Snuff Out)
  • How to Conjugate "Élire" (to Elect"
  • How to Conjugate "Désirer" (to Desire)
  • Skip to main content
  • Skip to footer

lexis-logo

  • Our approach
  • Case studies
  • Certified School program
  • Tertiary institutions
  • Teaching in English in multilingual classrooms
  • 3L: Language and literacy for learning
  • Teaching young children in English in multilingual contexts
  • All training venues
  • Host a Training
  • Free Resources
  • Language & Learning Development Continuum
  • Tutor login

The power of nominalisation

As teachers, our role is to move  students from spoken to written realms and from written to spoken.   We call this  moving  across the  register  continuum.  

essayer nominalisation

  • At one end of the continuum (left), there is the most spoken language which usually happens face-to-face and accompanies  some kind of action .   
  • In the middle of the continuum, spoken and written language overlap, so some texts are spoken-like but written and could be read aloud ( eg.  an email or narrative) or written-like but spoken ( eg.  an oral presentation).   
  • The other end of the continuum (right) is the most written end, where language is most reflective, where the text is constructed by the writer for an unknown reader, and deals with generalisations and abstractions.  

Nominalisation is a major resource for moving across the register continuum . It can be defined as a  linguistic process in which meanings that are typically realised by verbs, adjectives and   conjunctions are realised more abstractly by nouns.  It  is used to realise more abstract meanings seen in written language   and for building up technical meanings in the various subject areas.  

Here are a few examples of nominalisations:  

Here, we can see that  the verbs, adjectives and conjunctio ns in the more spoken versions (left column)  have become nou ns in the more written versions (right column).  We can see these new forms as more metaphorical   because we are breaking the usual link between processes being realised through the verbal group   (‘explained’, ‘failed’) and attribute participants being realised th rough adjectives (‘persistent’).  Instead, they are realised by nouns. We can see the effect this has on the clause. Where the meaning   was initially realised through one or more clauses (‘she explained to him why she failed’), it is now   realised by a nominal group (‘Her explanation for her failure’).   

Also note how, with some nominalisations, the connection between the nominalisation and the verb   or adjective is mo re direct (‘explained’ to ‘explanation’, ‘persistent’ to ‘persistence’) and with others   less direct (‘are not working’ to ‘out of work’ to ‘unemployed’ to ‘unemployment’) and others even   more cryptic (‘didn’t’ to ‘lack’).  This is why  nominalisation is often very difficult for students to develop control of.   

Typically, teachers de-nominalise highly written texts that students encounter in the  classroom  but we need to ensure that students are taken back to the written end once they have understood the meanings at the more spoken, common-sense end. A shared understanding of the role of nominalisation by both the teacher and the students will make these shifts transparent and more likely to be taken up by the students.

SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTER – NO SPAM, JUST GREAT TIPS

  • Name * First Last
  • Name This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.
  • How language works
  • All Tutor training courses
  • Hosting a Tutor Training
  • Online Shop
  • Tutor Resources
  • Our Mission

19th Edition of Global Conference on Catalysis, Chemical Engineering & Technology

Victor Mukhin

  • Scientific Program

Victor Mukhin, Speaker at Chemical Engineering Conferences

Title : Active carbons as nanoporous materials for solving of environmental problems

However, up to now, the main carriers of catalytic additives have been mineral sorbents: silica gels, alumogels. This is obviously due to the fact that they consist of pure homogeneous components SiO2 and Al2O3, respectively. It is generally known that impurities, especially the ash elements, are catalytic poisons that reduce the effectiveness of the catalyst. Therefore, carbon sorbents with 5-15% by weight of ash elements in their composition are not used in the above mentioned technologies. However, in such an important field as a gas-mask technique, carbon sorbents (active carbons) are carriers of catalytic additives, providing effective protection of a person against any types of potent poisonous substances (PPS). In ESPE “JSC "Neorganika" there has been developed the technology of unique ashless spherical carbon carrier-catalysts by the method of liquid forming of furfural copolymers with subsequent gas-vapor activation, brand PAC. Active carbons PAC have 100% qualitative characteristics of the three main properties of carbon sorbents: strength - 100%, the proportion of sorbing pores in the pore space – 100%, purity - 100% (ash content is close to zero). A particularly outstanding feature of active PAC carbons is their uniquely high mechanical compressive strength of 740 ± 40 MPa, which is 3-7 times larger than that of  such materials as granite, quartzite, electric coal, and is comparable to the value for cast iron - 400-1000 MPa. This allows the PAC to operate under severe conditions in moving and fluidized beds.  Obviously, it is time to actively develop catalysts based on PAC sorbents for oil refining, petrochemicals, gas processing and various technologies of organic synthesis.

Victor M. Mukhin was born in 1946 in the town of Orsk, Russia. In 1970 he graduated the Technological Institute in Leningrad. Victor M. Mukhin was directed to work to the scientific-industrial organization "Neorganika" (Elektrostal, Moscow region) where he is working during 47 years, at present as the head of the laboratory of carbon sorbents.     Victor M. Mukhin defended a Ph. D. thesis and a doctoral thesis at the Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (in 1979 and 1997 accordingly). Professor of Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia. Scientific interests: production, investigation and application of active carbons, technological and ecological carbon-adsorptive processes, environmental protection, production of ecologically clean food.   

Quick Links

  • Conference Brochure
  • Tentative Program

Watsapp

Sintering particulars of pelletized oxide nuclear fuel

  • Published: 01 July 2011
  • Volume 110 , pages 172–177, ( 2011 )

Cite this article

  • V. G. Baranov 1 ,
  • R. S. Kuzmin 1 ,
  • A. V. Tenishev 1 ,
  • A. V. Khlunov 1 ,
  • A. V. Ivanov 2 ,
  • I. V. Petrov 2 &
  • I. S. Timoshin 2  

78 Accesses

3 Citations

Explore all metrics

Sintering of oxide nuclear fuel pellets has been studied by dilatometric and thermogravimetric studies in the medium Ar–8%H 2 at temperatures to 1600°C. Samples produced under commercial conditions using two different technologies were investigated: with the addition of a liquid plasticizer and alloying additives (wet technology) and by granulation and compaction (dry technology). It has been shown that sintering onset is characterized by the temperature interval 1100–1200°C for dry-technology pellets and 900–1000°C for wet-technology pellets. The pellets were sintered with different heating rates 1–8°C/min, and the dependence of the growth rate of the grains in sintered samples on the heat rate was determined. The mass losses of the samples were determined as a function of the temperature intervals tied to the release of the components of the lubricant and binder.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price includes VAT (Russian Federation)

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Rent this article via DeepDyve

Institutional subscriptions

A. Zhiganov, V. Guzeev, and G. Andreev, Technology of Uranium Dioxide for Ceramic Nuclear Fuel , Tomsk (2002).

A. A. Maiorov and I. B. Braverman, Technology of Producing Ceramic Uranium Dioxide Powders, Energoatomizdat, Moscow (1985).

Google Scholar  

V. Mikli, H. Kaerdi, P. Kulu, and M. Besterci, “Characterization of powder particle morphology,” in: Proc. Estonian Arac. Sci (2000), pp. 22–34.

D. Lahiri, S. Rao, G. Rao, and R. Srivastava, “Study on sintering kinetics and activation energy of UO 2 pellets using three different methods,” J. Nucl. Mater. , 357 , 88–96 (2006).

Article   ADS   Google Scholar  

Download references

Author information

Authors and affiliations.

National Nuclear Research University – Moscow Engineering-Physics Institute (NIYaU MIFI), Moscow, Russia

V. G. Baranov, R. S. Kuzmin, A. V. Tenishev & A. V. Khlunov

Mashinostroitelnyi Zavod Company, Elektrostal, Moscow Oblast, Russia

A. V. Ivanov, I. V. Petrov & I. S. Timoshin

You can also search for this author in PubMed   Google Scholar

Additional information

Translated from Atomnaya Énergiya, Vol. 110, No. 3, pp. 146–149, March, 2011.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Baranov, V.G., Kuzmin, R.S., Tenishev, A.V. et al. Sintering particulars of pelletized oxide nuclear fuel. At Energy 110 , 172–177 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10512-011-9407-3

Download citation

Received : 23 July 2010

Published : 01 July 2011

Issue Date : July 2011

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s10512-011-9407-3

Share this article

Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative

  • Find a journal
  • Publish with us
  • Track your research
  • History of cooperation
  • Areas of cooperation
  • Procurement policy
  • Useful links
  • Becoming a supplier
  • Procurement
  • Rosatom newsletter

© 2008–2024Valtiollinen Rosatom-ydinvoimakonserni

essayer nominalisation

  • Rosatom Global presence
  • Rosatom in region
  • For suppliers
  • Preventing corruption
  • Press centre

Rosatom Starts Life Tests of Third-Generation VVER-440 Nuclear Fuel

  • 16 June, 2020 / 13:00

This site uses cookies. By continuing your navigation, you accept the use of cookies. For more information, or to manage or to change the cookies parameters on your computer, read our Cookies Policy. Learn more

essayer nominalisation

First refuelling for Russia’s Akademik Lomonosov floating NPP

!{Model.Description}

essayer nominalisation

The FNPP includes two KLT-40S reactor units. In such reactors, nuclear fuel is not replaced in the same way as in standard NPPs – partial replacement of fuel once every 12-18 months. Instead, once every few years the entire reactor core is replaced with and a full load of fresh fuel.

The KLT-40S reactor cores have a number of advantages compared with standard NPPs. For the first time, a cassette core was used, which made it possible to increase the fuel cycle to 3-3.5 years before refuelling, and also reduce by one and a half times the fuel component in the cost of the electricity produced. The operating experience of the FNPP provided the basis for the design of the new series of nuclear icebreaker reactors (series 22220). Currently, three such icebreakers have been launched.

The Akademik Lomonosov was connected to the power grid in December 2019, and put into commercial operation in May 2020.

Electricity generation from the FNPP at the end of 2023 amounted to 194 GWh. The population of Pevek is just over 4,000 people. However, the plant can potentially provide electricity to a city with a population of up to 100,000. The FNPP solved two problems. Firstly, it replaced the retiring capacities of the Bilibino Nuclear Power Plant, which has been operating since 1974, as well as the Chaunskaya Thermal Power Plant, which is more than 70 years old. It also supplies power to the main mining enterprises located in western Chukotka. In September, a 490 km 110 kilovolt power transmission line was put into operation connecting Pevek and Bilibino.

Image courtesy of TVEL

  • Terms and conditions
  • Privacy Policy
  • Newsletter sign up
  • Digital Edition
  • Editorial Standards

essayer nominalisation

IMAGES

  1. tableau de la nominalisation des verbes

    essayer nominalisation

  2. DELF B1

    essayer nominalisation

  3. How to nominalise in academic writing

    essayer nominalisation

  4. La nominalisation en francais.

    essayer nominalisation

  5. Exercices Nominalisation

    essayer nominalisation

  6. NOMINALISATION

    essayer nominalisation

VIDEO

  1. Bac 2024 : من اهم دروس لجميع الشعب: La nominalisation 🔥

  2. 3ème AC. Révision pour l'examen régional...La nominalisation

  3. La nominalisation partie 1

  4. La nominalisation pour 1as 2as et 3as

  5. la nominalisation page 16 /lire le texte convenablement /1AM

  6. La nominalisation à partir du verbe page 18 le français au collège 3AC

COMMENTS

  1. Nominalisation

    Nominalisation - cours. La nominalisation est le fait de former un nom à partir d'un verbe ou d'un adjectif. Elle n'a pas de règle spécifique. · Verbe : lire → la lecture. · Adjectif : frais → la fraîcheur. Elle peut s'effectuer par l'ajout d'un suffixe à la racine du verbe : Suffixe.

  2. Nominalisation

    USING NOMINALISATION IN FORMAL ESSAYS When we write or speak we typically use a subject + verb sentence or a clause to describe an event. Here's an example: Companies (the subject) enter (the verb) different markets to increase (another verb) their revenues.

  3. Nominalisation en français

    Cela permet de réduire le nombre de mots ou encore de résumer (un texte, des informations). Ce procédé est souvent utilisé dans les titres d'article de journaux, dans les bandeaux d'information, pour les titres de compte rendu, etc. Notez que pour réussir une nominalisation, il faudra aussi changer l'adverbe en adjectif.

  4. Using Academic Style and Tone: Nominalisation

    This process of nominalisation creates complexity, formality and objectivity and is a feature used by all good academic writers. It is important to understand that noun phrases can only contain one 'head noun' (main noun), and that all other information in the phrase is describing that head noun. Locating Head Nouns in Noun Phrases

  5. Nominalisation

    How to nominalise a sentence in academic writing. Video Worksheet - click here Nominalisation Worksheet Download Nominalisation (verbs / adjectives to nouns) [updated 2022] An introduction to nominalisation.

  6. Nominalisation in English Grammar: High Level Writing Tips

    Nominalisation (or nominalization in US English!) is when we take verbs or adjectives and turn them into nouns or noun phrases. So in other words, we are transforming actions or events (verbs) or descriptions of nouns and pronouns (adjectives) into things, concepts or people (nouns). This is important for academic writing because it will:

  7. How to nominalise in academic writing

    Nominalisation is the process of changing verbs or adjectives to nouns. Why use nominalisation? The nominalisation grammatical process develops complex grammar noun-phrase structures. Nominalisation helps achieve a higher degree of abstraction and technicality. Nominalisation is a typical feature of academic writing. Nominalisation Video

  8. Sentence Clarity: Nominalizations and Subject Position

    This resource will help students understand what nominalizations are, as well as how and when they should be used in sentences. Nominalizations are nouns that are created from adjectives (words that describe nouns) or verbs (action words). For example, "interference" is a nominalization of "interfere," "decision" is a nominalization of "decide," and "argument" is a ...

  9. Why Every Writer Should Use Nominalisation

    Nominalisation is a great grammar device any writer can use to make their writing economic but impactful. It makes writing academic and straightforward.

  10. Nominalization

    In linguistics, nominalization or nominalisation is the use of a word that is not a noun (e.g., a verb, an adjective or an adverb) as a noun, or as the head of a noun phrase. This change in functional category can occur through morphological transformation, but it does not always.

  11. Nominalization in Academic Writing

    What is Nominalization? Nominalization entails the expression of an important action (one that is usually central to the understanding of a sentence) as an abstract noun. Alternatively, When a verb or an adjective is used as a noun, a nominalization is created. Consider the following sentence:

  12. Definition and Examples of Nominalization in Grammar

    In English grammar, nominalization is a type of word formation in which a verb or an adjective (or another part of speech) is used as (or transformed into) a noun. The verb form is nominalize. It is also called nouning . In transformational grammar, nominalization refers to the derivation of a noun phrase from an underlying clause.

  13. ELT Concourse: nominalisation

    Nominalisation (n.) is derived from the Latin nomen, also the root of the word noun, meaning name. Literally, it means the act of giving something a name but in our field it has the more precise meaning of changing the status of a word, phrase or clause to a noun. I discovered the new species ... (transitive finite verb phrase) → the ...

  14. Nominalizations: A Probe into the Architecture of Grammar Part I: The

    In (1a), although a noun, examination behaves like the verb examine in that it takes two arguments (the teacher, the students).Specifically, in both (1a) and (1b), the teacher is felt to be the Agent of the act of examining, and the students is interpreted as the Patient. In addition, the noun examination is morphologically related to the verb examine. ...

  15. What is Nominalisation? How to nominalise a sentence in ...

    Nominalisation is the process of changing verbs & adjectives into nouns. This is a typical feature of academic writing as it makes writing more concise and c...

  16. Simple "Essayer" (to Try) French Verb Conjugations

    French Verb Conjugation Using "Essayer" (to Try) Erica Shires / Getty Images By ThoughtCo Team Updated on October 15, 2019 The French verb essayer means "to try." It's a simple word that can easily be confused with essuyer (to wipe), so be sure to look and listen for that 'A' in essayer .

  17. Nominalisation

    Nominalisation. A process for forming nouns from verbs (for example, reaction from react or departure from depart) or adjectives (for example, length from long, or eagerness from eager ). Also a process for forming noun phrases from clauses (for example, their destruction of the city from 'they destroyed the city').

  18. Nominalisation in scientific discourse. A corpus-based study of

    Nominalisation is acknowledged to be a powerful linguistic resource for realizing grammatical metaphor. Through nominalisation, processes and properties are re-construed metaphorically as nouns ...

  19. The power of nominalisation

    Nominalisation is a major resource for moving across the register continuum. It can be defined as a linguistic process in which meanings that are typically realised by verbs, adjectives and conjunctions are realised more abstractly by nouns. It is used to realise more abstract meanings seen in written language and for building up technical ...

  20. Active carbons as nanoporous materials for solving of environmental

    Catalysis Conference is a networking event covering all topics in catalysis, chemistry, chemical engineering and technology during October 19-21, 2017 in Las Vegas, USA. Well noted as well attended meeting among all other annual catalysis conferences 2018, chemical engineering conferences 2018 and chemistry webinars.

  21. Sintering particulars of pelletized oxide nuclear fuel

    Sintering of oxide nuclear fuel pellets has been studied by dilatometric and thermogravimetric studies in the medium Ar-8%H2 at temperatures to 1600°C. Samples produced under commercial conditions using two different technologies were investigated: with the addition of a liquid plasticizer and alloying additives (wet technology) and by granulation and compaction (dry technology). It has ...

  22. Rosatom Starts Life Tests of Third-Generation VVER-440 Nuclear Fuel

    Rosatom Starts Life Tests of Third-Generation VVER-440 Nuclear Fuel. 8 139. "Introduction of RK3+ will make it possible to operate all four power units at increased thermal capacity and also to extend the fuel cycle at Dukovany NPP, which will improve economic efficiency of the power plant operation", said Alexander Ugryumov, Vice President ...

  23. First refuelling for Russia's Akademik Lomonosov floating NPP

    Rosatom's fuel company TVEL has supplied nuclear fuel for reactor 1 of the world's only floating NPP (FNPP), the Akademik Lomonosov, moored at the city of Pevek, in Russia's Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. The supply of fuel was transported along the Northern Sea Route. The first ever refuelling of the FNPP is planned to begin before the end of ...