Generate accurate APA citations for free

  • Knowledge Base
  • APA Style 7th edition
  • How to create an APA Style appendix

How to Create an APA Style Appendix | Format & Examples

Published on October 16, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 9, 2022.

An appendix is a section at the end of an academic text where you include extra information that doesn’t fit into the main text. The plural of appendix is “appendices.”

In an APA Style paper, appendices are placed at the very end, after the reference list .

Location of appendices

Instantly correct all language mistakes in your text

Upload your document to correct all your mistakes in minutes

upload-your-document-ai-proofreader

Table of contents

Do i need an appendix, appendix format example, organizing and labeling your appendices, frequently asked questions.

You don’t always need to include any appendices. An appendix should present information that supplements the reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to the argument of your paper . Essential information is included in the main text.

For example, you might include some of the following in an appendix:

  • Full transcripts of interviews you conducted (which you can quote from in the main text)
  • Documents used in your research, such as questionnaires , instructions, tests, or scales
  • Detailed statistical data (often presented in tables or figures )
  • Detailed descriptions of equipment used

You should refer to each appendix at least once in the main text. If you don’t refer to any information from an appendix, it should not be included.

When you discuss information that can be found in an appendix, state this the first time you refer to it:

Note that, if you refer to the same interviews again, it’s not necessary to mention the appendix each time.

Are your APA in-text citations flawless?

The AI-powered APA Citation Checker points out every error, tells you exactly what’s wrong, and explains how to fix it. Say goodbye to losing marks on your assignment!

Get started!

definition of appendix in a research paper

The appendix label appears at the top of the page, bold and centered. On the next line, include a descriptive title, also bold and centered.

The text is presented in general APA format : left-aligned, double-spaced, and with page numbers in the top right corner. Start a new page for each new appendix.

The example image below shows how to format an APA Style appendix.

Example of an appendix in APA format

If you include just one appendix, it is simply called “Appendix” and referred to as such in-text:

When more than one appendix is included, they are labeled “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” and so on.

Present and label your appendices in the order they are referred to in the main text.

Labeling tables and figures in appendices

An appendix may include (or consist entirely of) tables and/or figures . Present these according to the same formatting rules as in the main text.

Tables and figures included in appendices are labeled differently, however. Use the appendix’s letter in addition to a number. Tables and figures are still numbered separately and according to the order they’re referred to in the appendix.

For example, in Appendix A, your tables are Table A1, Table A2, etc; your figures are Figure A1, Figure A2, etc.

The numbering restarts with each appendix: For example, the first table in Appendix B is Table B1; the first figure in Appendix C is Figure C1; and so on. If you only have one appendix, use A1, A2, etc.

If you want to refer specifically to a table or figure from an appendix in the main text, use the table or figure’s label (e.g. “see Table A3”).

If an appendix consists entirely of a single table or figure, simply use the appendix label to refer to the table or figure. For example, if Appendix C is just a table, refer to the table as “Appendix C,” and don’t add an additional label or title for the table itself.

An appendix contains information that supplements the reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to it. For example:

  • Interview transcripts
  • Questionnaires
  • Detailed descriptions of equipment

Something is only worth including as an appendix if you refer to information from it at some point in the text (e.g. quoting from an interview transcript). If you don’t, it should probably be removed.

Appendices in an APA Style paper appear right at the end, after the reference list and after your tables and figures if you’ve also included these at the end.

When you include more than one appendix in an APA Style paper , they should be labeled “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” and so on.

When you only include a single appendix, it is simply called “Appendix” and referred to as such in the main text.

Yes, if relevant you can and should include APA in-text citations in your appendices . Use author-date citations as you do in the main text.

Any sources cited in your appendices should appear in your reference list . Do not create a separate reference list for your appendices.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2022, August 09). How to Create an APA Style Appendix | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved April 12, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/appendices/

Is this article helpful?

Jack Caulfield

Jack Caulfield

Other students also liked, creating an apa style table of contents, how to format tables and figures in apa style, apa format for academic papers and essays, unlimited academic ai-proofreading.

✔ Document error-free in 5minutes ✔ Unlimited document corrections ✔ Specialized in correcting academic texts

  • USC Libraries
  • Research Guides

Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper

  • Purpose of Guide
  • Design Flaws to Avoid
  • Independent and Dependent Variables
  • Glossary of Research Terms
  • Reading Research Effectively
  • Narrowing a Topic Idea
  • Broadening a Topic Idea
  • Extending the Timeliness of a Topic Idea
  • Academic Writing Style
  • Applying Critical Thinking
  • Choosing a Title
  • Making an Outline
  • Paragraph Development
  • Research Process Video Series
  • Executive Summary
  • The C.A.R.S. Model
  • Background Information
  • The Research Problem/Question
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Citation Tracking
  • Content Alert Services
  • Evaluating Sources
  • Primary Sources
  • Secondary Sources
  • Tiertiary Sources
  • Scholarly vs. Popular Publications
  • Qualitative Methods
  • Quantitative Methods
  • Insiderness
  • Using Non-Textual Elements
  • Limitations of the Study
  • Common Grammar Mistakes
  • Writing Concisely
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Footnotes or Endnotes?
  • Further Readings
  • Generative AI and Writing
  • USC Libraries Tutorials and Other Guides
  • Bibliography

An appendix contains supplementary material that is not an essential part of the text itself but which may be helpful in providing a more comprehensive understanding of the research problem or it is information that is too cumbersome to be included in the body of the paper. A separate appendix should be used for each distinct topic or set of data and always have a title descriptive of its contents.

Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.

Importance of...

Appendices are always supplementary to the research paper. As such, your study must be able to stand alone without the appendices, and the paper must contain all information including tables, diagrams, and results necessary to understand the research problem. The key point to remember when including an appendix or appendices is that the information is non-essential; if it were removed, the reader would still be able to  comprehend the significance, validity , and implications of your research.

It is appropriate to include appendices for the following reasons:

  • Including this material in the body of the paper that would render it poorly structured or interrupt the narrative flow;
  • Information is too lengthy and detailed to be easily summarized in the body of the paper;
  • Inclusion of helpful, supporting, or useful material would otherwise distract the reader from the main content of the paper;
  • Provides relevant information or data that is more easily understood or analyzed in a self-contained section of the paper;
  • Can be used when there are constraints placed on the length of your paper; and,
  • Provides a place to further demonstrate your understanding of the research problem by giving additional details about a new or innovative method, technical details, or design protocols.

Appendices. Academic Skills Office, University of New England; Chapter 12, "Use of Appendices." In Guide to Effective Grant Writing: How to Write a Successful NIH Grant . Otto O. Yang. (New York: Kluwer Academic, 2005), pp. 55-57; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.

Structure and Writing Style

I.  General Points to Consider

When considering whether to include content in an appendix, keep in mind the following:

  • It is usually good practice to include your raw data in an appendix, laying it out in a clear format so the reader can re-check your results. Another option if you have a large amount of raw data is to consider placing it online [e.g., on a Google drive] and note that this is the appendix to your research paper.
  • Any tables and figures included in the appendix should be numbered as a separate sequence from the main paper . Remember that appendices contain non-essential information that, if removed, would not diminish a reader's ability to understand the research problem being investigated. This is why non-textual elements should not carry over the sequential numbering of non-textual elements in the body of your paper.
  • If you have more than three appendices, consider listing them on a separate page in the table of contents . This will help the reader know what information is included in the appendices. Note that some works list appendices in the table of contents before the first chapter while other styles list the appendices after the conclusion but before your references. Consult with your professor to confirm if there is a preferred approach.
  • The appendix can be a good place to put maps, photographs, diagrams, and other images , if you feel that it will help the reader to understand the content of your paper, while keeping in mind the study should be understood without them.
  • An appendix should be streamlined and not loaded with a lot information . If you have a very long and complex appendix, it is a good idea to break it down into separate appendices, allowing the reader to find relevant information quickly as the information is covered in the body of the paper.

II.  Content

Never include an appendix that isn’t referred to in the text . All appendices should be summarized in your paper where it is relevant to the content. Appendices should also be arranged sequentially by the order they were first referenced in the text [i.e., Appendix 1 should not refer to text on page eight of your paper and Appendix 2 relate to text on page six].

There are very few rules regarding what type of material can be included in an appendix, but here are some common examples:

  • Correspondence -- if your research included collaborations with others or outreach to others, then correspondence in the form of letters, memorandums, or copies of emails from those you interacted with could be included.
  • Interview Transcripts -- in qualitative research, interviewing respondents is often used to gather information. The full transcript from an interview is important so the reader can read the entire dialog between researcher and respondent. The interview protocol [list of questions] should also be included.
  • Non-textual elements -- as noted above, if there are a lot of non-textual items, such as, figures, tables, maps, charts, photographs, drawings, or graphs, think about highlighting examples in the text of the paper but include the remainder in an appendix.
  • Questionnaires or surveys -- this is a common form of data gathering. Always include the survey instrument or questionnaires in an appendix so the reader understands not only the questions asked but the sequence in which they were asked. Include all variations of the instruments as well if different items were sent to different groups [e.g., those given to teachers and those given to administrators] .
  • Raw statistical data – this can include any numerical data that is too lengthy to include in charts or tables in its entirety within the text. This is important because the entire source of data should be included even if you are referring to only certain parts of a chart or table in the text of your paper.
  • Research instruments -- if you used a camera, or a recorder, or some other device to gather information and it is important for the reader to understand how, when, and/or where that device was used.
  • Sample calculations – this can include quantitative research formulas or detailed descriptions of how calculations were used to determine relationships and significance.

NOTE:   Appendices should not be a dumping ground for information. Do not include vague or irrelevant information in an appendix; this additional information will not help the reader’s overall understanding and interpretation of your research and may only distract the reader from understanding the significance of your overall study.

ANOTHER NOTE :   Appendices are intended to provide supplementary information that you have gathered or created; it is not intended to replicate or provide a copy of the work of others. For example, if you need to contrast the techniques of analysis used by other authors with your own method of analysis, summarize that information, and cite to the original work. In this case, a citation to the original work is sufficient enough to lead the reader to where you got the information. You do not need to provide a copy of this in an appendix.

III.  Format

Here are some general guideline on how to format appendices . If needed, consult the writing style guide [e.g., APA, MLS, Chicago] your professor wants you to use for more detail:

  • Appendices may precede or follow your list of references.
  • Each appendix begins on a new page.
  • The order they are presented is dictated by the order they are mentioned in the text of your research paper.
  • The heading should be "Appendix," followed by a letter or number [e.g., "Appendix A" or "Appendix 1"], centered and written in bold type.
  • If there is a table of contents, the appendices must be listed.
  • The page number(s) of the appendix/appendices will continue on with the numbering from the last page of the text.

Appendices. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College;  Appendices. Academic Skills Office, University of New England; Appendices. Writing Center, Walden University; Chapter 12, "Use of Appendices." In Guide to Effective Grant Writing: How to Write a Successful NIH Grant . Otto O. Yang. (New York: Kluwer Academic, 2005), pp. 55-57 ; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Lunsford, Andrea A. and Robert Connors. The St. Martin's Handbook . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989; What To Know About The Purpose And Format Of A Research Paper Appendix. LoyolaCollegeCulion.com.

Writing Tip

Consider Putting Your Appendices Online

Appendices are useful because they provide the reader with information that supports your study without breaking up the narrative or distracting from the main purpose of your paper. If you have a lot of raw data or information that is difficult to present in textual form, consider uploading it to an online site. This prevents your paper from having a large and unwieldy set of appendices and it supports a growing movement within academe to make data more freely available for re-analysis. If you do create an online portal to your data, note it prominently in your paper with the correct URL and access procedures if it is a secured site.

Piwowar, Heather A., Roger S. Day, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Sharing Detailed Research Data Is Associated with Increased Citation Rate.” PloS ONE (March 21, 2007); Wicherts, Jelte M., Marjan Bakker, and Dylan Molenaar. “Willingness to Share Research Data Is Related to the Strength of the Evidence and the Quality of Reporting of Statistical Results.” PLoS ONE (November 2, 2011).

  • << Previous: 9. The Conclusion
  • Next: 10. Proofreading Your Paper >>
  • Last Updated: Apr 11, 2024 1:27 PM
  • URL: https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide
  • How To Write A Research Paper Appendix: A Step-by-Step Guide

Moradeke Owa

Think of appendices like bonus levels on your favorite video game. They are not a major part of the game, but they boost your points and they make the game worthwhile. 

Appendix are important facts, calculations, or data that don’t fit into the main body of your research paper. Having an appendix gives your research paper more details, making it easier for your readers to understand your main ideas.

Let’s dive into how to create an appendix and its best practices.

Understanding the Purpose of an Appendix

definition of appendix in a research paper

If you’re looking to add some extra depth to your research, appendices are a great way to do it.  They allow you to include extremely useful information that doesn’t fit neatly into the main body of your research paper, such as huge raw data, multiple charts, or very long explanations.

Think of your appendix as a treasure chest with different compartments. You can include different information including, extra data, surveys, graphs, or even detailed explanations of your methods. You can fit anything too big or detailed for the main paper in the appendix.

Planning Your Appendix

definition of appendix in a research paper

Before you dive into making your appendix, it’s a good idea to plan things out; think of it as drawing a map before going on an adventure. 

You want your appendix to be organized and provide more context to your research. Not planning it will make the process time-consuming and make the appendix confusing to people reading your research paper.

How to Decide What to Include in Your Research Paper

You have to sort through the content that you will include in your appendix. Think of what your readers need to know to understand your key points. Anything that’s overly detailed, off-topic, or clutters up your paper is a good candidate for your appendix.

Tips for Organizing Your Appendix

Once you’ve figured out what to put in your appendix, it’s time to organize it. Your appendix is a place to add extra information, but it shouldn’t be cluttered or confusing to your readers. Instead, it should make your research paper easier to understand.

Use clear headings, labels, and even page numbers to help your readers find the information they need in the appendix. This way, it’s not a jumbled mess, but a well-organized part of your research paper

Formatting Guidelines

typical breakdown of how to format your appendix

Yes, your appendix must be formatted. Most of the time, you’ll want to keep the font and margin sizes consistent with your main paper. 

However, some universities and journals may have specific guidelines for appendix formatting. Verify if your institution has special guidelines, if they do, follow them, if they don’t use the same format as your main text.

Here’s a typical breakdown of how to format your appendix:

(1) Labeling and Titling 

If you have different types of information in your appendix, use letters to label them, such as “Appendix A” and “Appendix B”. Then, give each appendix a title that explains the information inside it. 

For example, if the first section of your appendix contains raw survey data, you could call it “Appendix A (Survey Data of People Living with Diabetes Under 18 in Texas)”. If the second section of your appendix contains charts, you could call it “Appendix B (The Effect of Sugar Tax in Curbing Diabetes in Children and Young Adults)”.

(2) Numbering Tables, Figures, and More 

If you have tables, figures, or other things in your appendix, number them like a list. For example, “Table A1,” “Figure A1,” and more. This numbering helps your readers know what they’re looking at, sort of like chapters in a book.

Creating Tables and Figures

definition of appendix in a research paper

Using tables and figures helps you organize your data neatly in your appendix. Here’s a step-by-step guide to creating tables and figures in your appendix:

Choose the Right Format for Your Appendix Data

Before creating tables or figures, you need to pick the right format to display the information. Think about what makes your data most clear and understandable. 

For example, a table is better for detailed numbers, while a graph is great for showing trends. The right format makes your information easy to grasp and makes your paper look organized.

How to Create Tables in Your Appendix

You can use a spreadsheet program (like Excel or Google Sheets) to create tables to arrange information neatly. Make sure to give your table a clear title so readers know what it’s about.

Here’s a step-by-step guide to creating tables with a spreadsheet program:

  • Open Google Sheets/Excel : Access Google Sheets or Excel through the web or download the app
  • Open a New Spreadsheet or Existing File : Create a new spreadsheet or open an existing one where you want to insert a table.
  • Select Data : Click and drag to select the data you want to include in the table.
  • Insert Table : Once your data is selected, go to the “Insert” menu, then select “Table.
  • Create Table : A dialog box will appear, confirming the selected data range. Make sure the “Use the first row as headers” option is checked if your data has headers. Click “Insert .”
  • Customize Your Table : After inserting the table, you can customize it by adjusting the style, format, and other table properties using the “Table” menu in Google Sheets or Excel.

You can use software like PowerPoint, Google Slides, or graphic design tools to create them. If you have a chart or graph, make sure it’s easy to understand and add a title or labels to explain it. 

You can use the editing tools for images to change the size and other aspects of the image.

Stop Struggling with Research Proposals! Get Organized and Impress Reviewers with our Template

Including Raw Data

The major reasons for including raw data in your appendix are transparency and credibility. Raw data is like your research recipe; it shows exactly what you worked with to arrive at your conclusions.

Raw data also provides enough information to guide researchers in replicating your study or getting a deeper understanding of your research.

Formatting and Presenting Raw Data 

Formatting your raw data makes it easy for anyone to understand. You can use tables, charts, or even lists to display your data. For example, if you did a survey, you could put the survey responses in a table with clear headings.

When presenting your raw data, clear organization is your best friend. Use headings, labels, and consistent formatting to help your readers find and understand the data. This keeps your appendix from becoming a confusing puzzle.

Citing Your Appendix

Referencing your appendix in the main text gives readers a full picture of your research while they’re reading- They don’t have to wait until the end to figure out important details of your research.

Unlike actual references and citations, citing your appendix is a very straightforward process. You can simply say, “See Appendix A for more details.”

In-Text Citations for Appendix Content

If you would like to cite information in your appendix, you usually mention the author, year, and what exactly you’re citing. This allows you to give credit to the original creator of the content, so your readers know where it came from.

For instance, if you included a chart from a book in your appendix, you’d say something like (Author, Year, p. X). Keep in mind that there are different citation styles (APA, MLA, Chicago, and others), so your appendix may look a little different.

Proofreading and Editing

definition of appendix in a research paper

Proofreading and editing your appendix is just as important as proofreading and editing the main body of your paper. A poorly written or formatted appendix can leave a negative impression on your reader and detract from the overall quality of your work. 

Make sure that your appendix is consistent with the main text of your paper in terms of style and tone unless otherwise stated by your institution. Use the same font, font size, and line spacing in the appendix as you do in the main body of your paper. 

Your appendix should also be free of errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, and formatting.

Tips for Checking for Errors in Formatting, Labeling, and Content

Here are some tips for checking for errors in formatting, labeling, and content in your appendix:

  • Formatting : Make sure that all of the elements in your appendix are formatted correctly, including tables, figures, and equations. Check the margins, line spacing, and font size to make sure that they are consistent with the rest of your paper.
  • Labeling : All of the tables, figures, and equations in your appendix should be labeled clearly and consistently. Use a consistent numbering system and make sure that the labels match the references in the main body of your paper.
  • Content : Proofread your appendix carefully to catch any errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, and content. You can use grammar editing tools such as Grammarly to help you automatically detect errors in your context.

Appendix Checklist

Having an appendix checklist guarantees a well-organized appendix and helps you spot and correct any overlooked mistakes.

Here’s a checklist of key points to review before finalizing your appendix:

  • Is all of the information in the appendix relevant and necessary?
  • Is the appendix well-organized and easy to understand?
  • Are all the tables, numbers, and equations clearly labeled?
  • Is the appendix formatted correctly and consistently with the main body of the paper?
  • Is the appendix free of errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, and content?

Sample Appendix

We have discussed what you should include in your appendix and how to organize it. Let’s take a look at what a well-formatted appendix looks like:

Appendix A. (Raw Data of Class Scores)

The following table shows the raw data collected for the study.

How the Sample Appendix Adheres to Best Practices

  • The appendix is labeled clearly and concisely as “Appendix A. (Raw Data of Class Score).”
  • The appendix begins on a new page.
  • The appendix is formatted consistently with the rest of the paper, using the same font, font size, and line spacing.
  • The table in the appendix is labeled clearly and concisely as “Table A1.”
  • The table is formatted correctly, with consistent column widths and alignment.
  • The table includes all of the necessary information, including the participant number, age, gender, and score.
  • The appendix is free of grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

Having an appendix easily makes your research paper impressive to reviewers, and increases your likelihood of achieving high grades or journal publication.  It also makes it easier for other researchers to replicate your research, allowing you to make a significant contribution to your research field.

Ensure to use the best practices in this guide to create a well-structured and relevant appendix. Also, use the checklist provided in this article to help you carefully review your appendix before submitting it.

Logo

Connect to Formplus, Get Started Now - It's Free!

  • appendix data
  • business research
  • Moradeke Owa

Formplus

You may also like:

Projective Techniques In Surveys: Definition, Types & Pros & Cons

Introduction When you’re conducting a survey, you need to find out what people think about things. But how do you get an accurate and...

definition of appendix in a research paper

Subgroup Analysis: What It Is + How to Conduct It

Introduction Clinical trials are an integral part of the drug development process. They aim to assess the safety and efficacy of a new...

43 Market Research Terminologies You Need To Know

Introduction Market research is a process of gathering information to determine the needs, wants, or behaviors of consumers or...

Desk Research: Definition, Types, Application, Pros & Cons

If you are looking for a way to conduct a research study while optimizing your resources, desk research is a great option. Desk research...

Formplus - For Seamless Data Collection

Collect data the right way with a versatile data collection tool. try formplus and transform your work productivity today..

Have a language expert improve your writing

Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, automatically generate references for free.

  • Knowledge Base
  • Dissertation
  • Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates

Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates

Published on 15 August 2022 by Kirsten Dingemanse and Tegan George. Revised on 25 October 2022.

An appendix is a supplementary document that facilitates your reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to your core argument. Appendices are a useful tool for providing additional information or clarification in a research paper , dissertation , or thesis without making your final product too long.

Appendices help you provide more background information and nuance about your topic without disrupting your text with too many tables and figures or other distracting elements.

We’ve prepared some examples and templates for you, for inclusions such as research protocols, survey questions, and interview transcripts. All are worthy additions to an appendix. You can download these in the format of your choice below.

Download Word doc Download Google doc

Instantly correct all language mistakes in your text

Be assured that you'll submit flawless writing. Upload your document to correct all your mistakes.

upload-your-document-ai-proofreader

Table of contents

What is an appendix in a research paper, what to include in an appendix, how to format an appendix, how to refer to an appendix, where to put your appendices, other components to consider, appendix checklist.

In the main body of your research paper, it’s important to provide clear and concise information that supports your argument and conclusions . However, after doing all that research, you’ll often find that you have a lot of other interesting information that you want to share with your reader.

While including it all in the body would make your paper too long and unwieldy, this is exactly what an appendix is for.

As a rule of thumb, any detailed information that is not immediately needed to make your point can go in an appendix. This helps to keep your main text focused but still allows you to include the information you want to include somewhere in your paper.

Prevent plagiarism, run a free check.

An appendix can be used for different types of information, such as:

  • Supplementary results : Research findings  are often presented in different ways, but they don’t all need to go in your paper. The results most relevant to your research question should always appear in the main text, while less significant results (such as detailed descriptions of your sample or supplemental analyses that do not help answer your main question), can be put in an appendix.
  • Statistical analyses : If you conducted statistical tests using software like Stata or R, you may also want to include the outputs of your analysis in an appendix.
  • Further information on surveys or interviews : Written materials or transcripts related to things such as surveys and interviews can also be placed in an appendix.

You can opt to have one long appendix, but separating components (like interview transcripts, supplementary results, or surveys) into different appendices makes the information simpler to navigate.

Here are a few tips to keep in mind:

  • Always start each appendix on a new page.
  • Assign it both a number (or letter) and a clear title, such as ‘Appendix A. Interview transcripts’. This makes it easier for your reader to find the appendix, as well as for you to refer back to it in your main text.
  • Number and title the individual elements within each appendix (e.g., ‘Transcripts’) to make it clear what you are referring to. Restart the numbering in each appendix at 1.

It is important that you refer to each of your appendices at least once in the main body of your paper. This can be done by mentioning the appendix and its number or letter, either in parentheses or within the main part of a sentence. It is also possible to refer to a particular component of an appendix.

Appendix B presents the correspondence exchanged with the fitness boutique. Example 2. Referring to an appendix component These results (see Appendix 2, Table 1) show that …

It is common to capitalise ‘Appendix’ when referring to a specific appendix, but it is not mandatory. The key is just to make sure that you are consistent throughout your entire paper, similarly to consistency in capitalising headings and titles in academic writing.

However, note that lowercase should always be used if you are referring to appendices in general. For instance, ‘The appendices to this paper include additional information about both the survey and the interviews.’

The only proofreading tool specialized in correcting academic writing

The academic proofreading tool has been trained on 1000s of academic texts and by native English editors. Making it the most accurate and reliable proofreading tool for students.

definition of appendix in a research paper

Correct my document today

The simplest option is to add your appendices after the main body of your text, after you finish citing your sources in the citation style of your choice . If this is what you choose to do, simply continue with the next page number. Another option is to put the appendices in a separate document that is delivered with your dissertation.

Location of appendices

Remember that any appendices should be listed in your paper’s table of contents .

There are a few other supplementary components related to appendices that you may want to consider. These include:

  • List of abbreviations : If you use a lot of abbreviations or field-specific symbols in your dissertation, it can be helpful to create a list of abbreviations .
  • Glossary : If you utilise many specialised or technical terms, it can also be helpful to create a glossary .
  • Tables, figures and other graphics : You may find you have too many tables, figures, and other graphics (such as charts and illustrations) to include in the main body of your dissertation. If this is the case, consider adding a figure and table list .

Checklist: Appendix

All appendices contain information that is relevant, but not essential, to the main text.

Each appendix starts on a new page.

I have given each appendix a number and clear title.

I have assigned any specific sub-components (e.g., tables and figures) their own numbers and titles.

My appendices are easy to follow and clearly formatted.

I have referred to each appendix at least once in the main text.

Your appendices look great! Use the other checklists to further improve your thesis.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

Dingemanse, K. & George, T. (2022, October 25). Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates. Scribbr. Retrieved 9 April 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/thesis-dissertation/appendix/

Is this article helpful?

Kirsten Dingemanse

Kirsten Dingemanse

Other students also liked, thesis & dissertation acknowledgements | tips & examples, dissertation title page, how to write a results section | tips & examples.

  • Privacy Policy

Buy Me a Coffee

Research Method

Home » Appendices – Writing Guide, Types and Examples

Appendices – Writing Guide, Types and Examples

Table of Contents

Appendices

Definition:

Appendices refer to supplementary materials or documents that are attached to the end of a Book, Report , Research Paper , Thesis or other written work. These materials can include charts, graphs, tables, images, or other data that support the main content of the work.

Types of Appendices

Types of appendices that can be used depending on the content and purpose of the document. These types of Appendices are as follows:

Statistical Appendices

Statistical appendices are used to present raw data or statistical analysis that is relevant to the main text but would be too bulky to include in the main body of the document. These appendices may include tables, graphs, charts, or other types of visual aids that help to illustrate the data.

Technical Appendices

Technical appendices are used to provide detailed technical information that is relevant to the main text but would be too complex or lengthy to include in the main body of the document. These appendices may include equations, formulas, diagrams, or other technical details that are important for understanding the subject matter.

Bibliographical Appendices

Bibliographical appendices are used to provide additional references or sources that are relevant to the main text but were not cited in the main body of the document. These appendices may include lists of books, articles, or other resources that the author consulted in the course of their research.

Historical Appendices

Historical appendices are used to provide background information or historical context that is relevant to the main text but would be too lengthy or distracting to include in the main body of the document. These appendices may include timelines, maps, biographical sketches, or other historical details that help to contextualize the subject matter.

Supplemental Appendices

Supplemental appendices are used to provide additional material that is relevant to the main text but does not fit into any of the other categories. These appendices may include interviews, surveys, case studies, or other types of supplemental material that help to further illustrate the subject matter.

Applications of Appendices

Some applications of appendices are:

  • Providing detailed data and statistics: Appendices are often used to include detailed data and statistics that support the findings presented in the main body of the document. For example, in a research paper, an appendix might include raw data tables or graphs that were used to support the study’s conclusions.
  • Including technical details: Appendices can be used to include technical details that may be of interest to a specialized audience. For example, in a technical report, an appendix might include detailed calculations or equations that were used to develop the report’s recommendations.
  • Presenting supplementary information: Appendices can be used to present supplementary information that is related to the main content but doesn’t fit well within the main body of the document. For example, in a business proposal, an appendix might include a list of references or a glossary of terms.
  • Providing supporting documentation: Appendices can be used to provide supporting documentation that is required by the document’s audience. For example, in a legal document, an appendix might include copies of contracts or agreements that were referenced in the main body of the document.
  • Including multimedia materials : Appendices can be used to include multimedia materials that supplement the main content. For example, in a book, an appendix might include photographs, maps, or illustrations that help to clarify the text.

Importance of Appendices

Appendices are important components of research papers, reports, Thesis, and other academic papers. They are supplementary materials that provide additional information and data that support the main text. Here are some reasons why appendices are important:

  • Additional Information : Appendices provide additional information that is too detailed or too lengthy to include in the main text. This information includes raw data, graphs, tables, and charts that support the research findings.
  • Clarity and Conciseness : Appendices help to maintain the clarity and conciseness of the main text. By placing detailed information and data in appendices, writers can avoid cluttering the main text with lengthy descriptions and technical details.
  • Transparency : Appendices increase the transparency of research by providing readers with access to the data and information used in the research process. This transparency increases the credibility of the research and allows readers to verify the findings.
  • Accessibility : Appendices make it easier for readers to access the data and information that supports the research. This is particularly important in cases where readers want to replicate the research or use the data for their own research.
  • Compliance : Appendices can be used to comply with specific requirements of the research project or institution. For example, some institutions may require researchers to include certain types of data or information in the appendices.

Appendices Structure

Here is an outline of a typical structure for an appendix:

I. Introduction

  • A. Explanation of the purpose of the appendix
  • B. Brief overview of the contents

II. Main Body

  • A. Section headings or subheadings for different types of content
  • B. Detailed descriptions, tables, charts, graphs, or images that support the main content
  • C. Labels and captions for each item to help readers navigate and understand the content

III. Conclusion

  • A. Summary of the key points covered in the appendix
  • B. Suggestions for further reading or resources

IV. Appendices

  • A. List of all the appendices included in the document
  • B. Table of contents for the appendices

V. References

  • A. List of all the sources cited in the appendix
  • B. Proper citation format for each source

Example of Appendices

here’s an example of what appendices might look like for a survey:

Appendix A:

Survey Questionnaire

This section contains a copy of the survey questionnaire used for the study.

  • What is your age?
  • What is your gender?
  • What is your highest level of education?
  • How often do you use social media?
  • Which social media platforms do you use most frequently?
  • How much time do you typically spend on social media each day?
  • Do you feel that social media has had a positive or negative impact on your life?
  • Have you ever experienced cyberbullying or harassment on social media?
  • Have you ever been influenced by social media to make a purchase or try a new product?
  • In your opinion, what are the biggest advantages and disadvantages of social media?

Appendix B:

Participant Demographics

This section includes a table with demographic information about the survey participants, such as age, gender, and education level.

Age Gender Education Level

  • 20 Female Bachelor’s Degree
  • 32 Male Master’s Degree
  • 45 Female High School Diploma
  • 28 Non-binary Associate’s Degree

Appendix C:

Statistical Analysis

This section provides details about the statistical analysis performed on the survey data, including tables or graphs that illustrate the results of the analysis.

Table 1: Frequency of Social Media Platforms

Use Platform Frequency

  • Facebook 35%
  • Instagram 28%
  • Twitter 15%
  • Snapchat 12%

Figure 1: Impact of Social Media on Life Satisfaction

Appendix D:

Survey Results

This section presents the raw data collected from the survey, such as participant responses to each question.

Question 1: What is your age?

Question 2: What is your gender?

And so on for each question in the survey.

How to Write Appendices

Here are the steps to follow to write appendices:

  • Determine what information to include: Before you start writing your appendices, decide what information you want to include. This may include tables, figures, graphs, charts, photographs, or other types of data that support the main content of your paper.
  • Organize the material: Once you have decided what to include, organize the material in a logical manner that follows the sequence of the main content. Use clear headings and subheadings to make it easy for readers to navigate through the appendices.
  • Label the appendices: Label each appendix with a capital letter (e.g., “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” etc.) and provide a brief descriptive title that summarizes the content.
  • F ormat the appendices: Follow the same formatting style as the rest of your paper or report. Use the same font, margins, and spacing to maintain consistency.
  • Provide detailed explanations: Make sure to provide detailed explanations of any data, charts, graphs, or other information included in the appendices so that readers can understand the significance of the material.
  • Cross-reference the appendices: In the main text, cross-reference the appendices where appropriate by referring to the appendix letter and title (e.g., “see Appendix A for more information”).
  • Review and revise: Review and revise the appendices just as you would any other part of your paper or report to ensure that the information is accurate, clear, and relevant.

When to Write Appendices

Appendices are typically included in a document when additional information needs to be provided that is not essential to the main text, but still useful for readers who want to delve deeper into a topic. Here are some common situations where you might want to include appendices:

  • Supporting data: If you have a lot of data that you want to include in your document, but it would make the main text too lengthy or confusing, you can include it in an appendix. This is especially useful for academic papers or reports.
  • Additional examples: I f you want to include additional examples or case studies to support your argument or research, but they are not essential to the main text, you can include them in an appendix.
  • Technical details: I f your document contains technical information that may be difficult for some readers to understand, you can include detailed explanations or diagrams in an appendix.
  • Background information : If you want to provide background information on a topic that is not directly related to the main text, but may be helpful for readers, you can include it in an appendix.

Purpose of Appendices

The purposes of appendices include:

  • Providing additional details: Appendices can be used to provide additional information that is too detailed or bulky to include in the main body of the document. For example, technical specifications, data tables, or lengthy survey results.
  • Supporting evidence: Appendices can be used to provide supporting evidence for the arguments or claims made in the main body of the document. This can include supplementary graphs, charts, or other visual aids that help to clarify or support the text.
  • Including legal documents: Appendices can be used to include legal documents that are referred to in the main body of the document, such as contracts, leases, or patent applications.
  • Providing additional context: Appendices can be used to provide additional context or background information that is relevant to the main body of the document. For example, historical or cultural information, or a glossary of technical terms.
  • Facilitating replication: In research papers, appendices are used to provide detailed information about the research methodology, raw data, or analysis procedures to facilitate replication of the study.

Advantages of Appendices

Some Advantages of Appendices are as follows:

  • Saving Space: Including lengthy or detailed information in the main text of a document can make it appear cluttered and overwhelming. By placing this information in an appendix, it can be included without taking up valuable space in the main text.
  • Convenience: Appendices can be used to provide supplementary information that is not essential to the main argument or discussion but may be of interest to some readers. By including this information in an appendix, readers can choose to read it or skip it, depending on their needs and interests.
  • Organization: Appendices can be used to organize and present complex information in a clear and logical manner. This can make it easier for readers to understand and follow the main argument or discussion of the document.
  • Compliance : In some cases, appendices may be required to comply with specific document formatting or regulatory requirements. For example, research papers may require appendices to provide detailed information on research methodology, data analysis, or technical procedures.

About the author

' src=

Muhammad Hassan

Researcher, Academic Writer, Web developer

You may also like

Research Paper Citation

How to Cite Research Paper – All Formats and...

Data collection

Data Collection – Methods Types and Examples

Delimitations

Delimitations in Research – Types, Examples and...

Research Paper Formats

Research Paper Format – Types, Examples and...

Research Process

Research Process – Steps, Examples and Tips

Research Design

Research Design – Types, Methods and Examples

Reference management. Clean and simple.

What is an appendix in a paper

definition of appendix in a research paper

What is an appendix?

What type of information includes an appendix, the format of an appendix, frequently asked questions about appendices in papers, related articles.

An appendix is a section of a paper that features supporting information not included in the main text.

The appendix of a paper consists of supporting information for the research that is not necessary to include in the text. This section provides further insight into the topic of research but happens to be too complex or too broad to add to the body of the paper. A paper can have more than one appendix, as it is recommended to divide them according to topic.

➡️ Read more about  what is a research paper?

An appendix can take many types of forms. Here are some examples:

  • Surveys. Since many researchers base their methodology on surveys, these are commonly found attached as appendices. Surveys must be included exactly as they were presented to the respondents, and exactly how they were answered so the reader can get a real picture of the findings.
  • Interviews . Whether it’s a transcript or a recording, interviews are usually included as an appendix. The list of questions and the real answers must be presented for complete transparency.
  • Correspondence . All types of communication with collaborators regarding the research should be included as an appendix. These can be emails, text messages, letters, transcripts of audio messages, etc.
  • Research tools . Any instrument used to perform the research should be acknowledged in an appendix to give the reader insight into the process. For instance, audio recorders, cameras, special software, etc.
  • Non-textual items . If the research includes too many graphs, tables, figures, illustrations, photos or charts, these should be added as an appendix.
  • Statistical data . When raw data is too long, it should be attached to the research as an appendix. Even if only one part of the data was used, the complete data must be given.

➡️ Learn more about surveys, interviews, and other research methodologies .

The format of an appendix will vary based on the type of citation style you’re using, as well as the guidelines of the journal or class for which the paper is being written. Here are some general appendix formatting rules:

  • Appendices should be divided by topic or by set of data.
  • Appendices are included in the table of contents.

The most common heading for an appendix is Appendix A or 1, centered, in bold, followed by a title describing its content.

  • An appendix should be located before or after the list of references.
  • Each appendix should start on a new page.
  • Each page includes a page number.
  • Appendices follow a sequential order, meaning they appear in the order in which they are referred to throughout the paper.

An appendix is usually added before or after the list of references.

There is no specific space limit to an appendix, but make sure to consult the guidelines of the citation format you are using.

Yes, all appendices must be included in the table of contents.

Appendices feature different types of material, for instance interviews, research tools, surveys, raw statistical data, etc.

h-index illustration for Google Scholar

  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Therapy Center
  • When To See a Therapist
  • Types of Therapy
  • Best Online Therapy
  • Best Couples Therapy
  • Best Family Therapy
  • Managing Stress
  • Sleep and Dreaming
  • Understanding Emotions
  • Self-Improvement
  • Healthy Relationships
  • Student Resources
  • Personality Types
  • Guided Meditations
  • Verywell Mind Insights
  • 2023 Verywell Mind 25
  • Mental Health in the Classroom
  • Editorial Process
  • Meet Our Review Board
  • Crisis Support

How to Write an APA Appendix

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

definition of appendix in a research paper

Amanda Tust is a fact-checker, researcher, and writer with a Master of Science in Journalism from Northwestern University's Medill School of Journalism.

definition of appendix in a research paper

 damircudric / Getty Images

  • When to Use an Appendix
  • What to Include
  • Basic Rules

If you are writing a psychology paper for a class or for publication, you may be required to include an appendix in APA format. An APA appendix is found at the end of a paper and contains information that supplements the text but that is too unwieldy or distracting to include in the main body of the paper. 

APA format is the official writing style used by the American Psychological Association . This format dictates how academic and professional papers should be structured and formatted. 

Does Your Paper Need an APA Appendix?

Some questions to ask about whether you should put information in the body of the paper or in an appendix:

  • Is the material necessary for the reader to understand the research? If the answer is yes, it should be in your paper and not in an appendix.
  • Would including the information interrupt the flow of the paper? If the answer is yes, then it should likely appear in the appendix.
  • Would the information supplement what already appears in your paper? If yes, then it is a good candidate for including in an appendix.

Your appendix is not meant to become an information dump. While the information in your appendices is supplementary to your paper and research, it should still be useful and relevant. Only include what will help readers gain insight and understanding, not clutter or unnecessary confusion.

What to Include in an APA Appendix

The APA official stylebook suggests that the appendix should include information that would be distracting or inappropriate in the text of the paper.

Some examples of information you might include in an appendix include:

  • Correspondence (if it pertains directly to your research)
  • Demographic details about participants or groups
  • Examples of participant responses
  • Extended or detailed descriptions
  • Lists that are too lengthy to include in the main text
  • Large amounts of raw data
  • Lists of supporting research and articles that are not directly referenced in-text
  • Materials and instruments (if your research relied on special materials or instruments, you might want to include images and further information about how these items work or were used)
  • Questionnaires that were used as part of your research
  • Raw data (presented in an organized, readable format)
  • Research surveys

While the content found in the appendix is too cumbersome to include in the main text of your paper, it should still be easily presented in print format.

The appendices should always act as a supplement to your paper. The body of your paper should be able to stand alone and fully describe your research or your arguments.

The body of your paper should not be dependent upon what is in the appendices. Instead, each appendix should act to supplement what is in the primary text, adding additional (but not essential) information that provides extra insight or information for the reader. 

Basic Rules for an APA Appendix

Here are some basic APA appendix rules to keep in mind when working on your paper:

  • Your paper may have more than one appendix.
  • Each item usually gets its own appendix section.
  • Begin each appendix on a separate page.
  • Each appendix must have a title.
  • Use title case for your title and labels (the first letter of each word should be capitalized, while remaining letters should be lowercase).
  • If your paper only has one appendix, simply title it Appendix. 
  • If you have more than one appendix, each one should be labeled Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix C, and so on.
  • Put the appendix label centered at the top of the page.
  • On the next line under the appendix label, place the centered title of the appendix. 
  • If you refer to a source in your appendix, include an in-text citation just as you would in the main body of your paper and then include the source in your main reference section.
  • Each appendix may contain headings, subheadings, figures, and tables. 
  • Each figure or table in your appendix should include a brief but explanatory title, which should be italicized. 
  • If you want to reference your appendix within the text of your paper, include a parenthetical note in the text. For example, you would write (See Appendix A).

Formatting an APA Appendix

How do you format an appendix in APA? An APA appendix should follow the overall rules on how to format text. Such rules specify what font and font size you should use, the size of your margins, and the spacing of the text.

Some of the APA format guidelines you need to observe:

  • Use a consistent font, such as 12-point Times New Roman or 11-point Calibri
  • Double-space your text
  • All paragraphs should be indented on the first line
  • Page numbering should be continuous with the rest of your paper

The appendix label should appear centered and bolded at the top of the page. A descriptive title should follow and should also be bolded and centered. As with other pages in your paper, your APA format appendix should be left-aligned and double-spaced. Each page should include a page number in the top right corner. You can also have more than one appendix, but each one should begin on a new page.

Data Displays in an APA Appendix

When presenting information in an appendix, use a logical layout for any data displays such as tables or figures. All tables and figures should be labeled with the words “Table” or “Figure” (sans quotation marks) and the letter of the appendix and then numbered.

For example, Table A1 would be the first table in an Appendix A. Data displays should be presented in the appendix following the same order that they first appear in the text of your paper.

In addition to following basic APA formatting rules, you should also check to see if there are additional guidelines you need to follow. Individual instructors or publications may have their own specific requirements.

Where to Include an APA Appendix

If your paper does require an appendix, it should be the very last pages of your finished paper. An APA format paper is usually structured in the following way:

Your paper may not necessarily include all of these sections. At a minimum, however, your paper may consist of a title page, abstract, main text, and reference section. Also, if your paper does not contain tables, figures, or footnotes, then the appendix would follow the references.

Never include an appendix containing information that is not referred to in your text. 

A Word From Verywell

Writing a paper for class or publication requires a great deal of research, but you should pay special attention to your APA formatting. Each section of your paper, including the appendix section, needs to follow the rules and guidelines provided in the American Psychological Association’s stylebook.

American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). Washington DC: The American Psychological Association; 2020.

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

Banner

APA 7th edition - Paper Format: Appendices

  • Introduction
  • Mechanics of Style
  • Overall Paper
  • Sample Papers
  • Reference List
  • Tables and Figures
  • APA Citations This link opens in a new window
  • Additional Resources
  • Writing Skills This link opens in a new window

How to Format An Appendix - Tutorial

  • APA Appendices - JIBC Tip Sheet All you need to know about appendices in APA Style.

Information in this section is as outlined in the APA Publication Manual (2020), sections 2.14, 2.17, 2.24, and 7.6.

Appendices are used to include information that supplement the paper’s content but are considered distracting or inappropriate for the overall topic. It is recommended to only include an appendix if it helps the reader comprehend the study or theoretical argument being made. It is best if the material included is brief and easily presented. The material can be text, tables, figures, or a combination of these three.

Placement :

Appendices should be placed on a separate page at the end of your paper after the references, footnotes, tables, and figure. The label and title should be centre aligned. The contents of the appendix and the note should be left-aligned.

  • If you are choosing to include tables and figures in your appendix, then you can list each one on a separate page or you may include multiple tables/figures in one appendix, if there is no text and each table and/or figure has its own clear number and title within the appendix.
  • Tables and figures in an appendix receive a number preceded by the letter of the appendix in which it appears, e.g. Table A1 is the first table in Appendix A or of a sole appendix that is not labeled with a letter.

The follow elements are required for appendices in APA Style:

Appendix Labels:

Each appendix that you place in your paper is labelled “Appendix.” If a paper has more than one appendix, then label each with a capital letter in the order the appendices are referred to in your paper (“Appendix A” is referred to first, “Appendix B” is referred to second, etc).

  • The label of the appendix should be in bold font, centre-aligned, follow Title Casing, and is located at the top of the page.
  • If your appendix only contains one table or figure (and no text), then the appendix label takes the place of the table/figure number, e.g. the table may be referred to as “Appendix B” rather than “Table B1.”

Appendix Titles:

Each appendix should have a title, that describes its contents. Titles should be brief, clear, and explanatory.

  • The title of the appendix should be in bold font, centre-aligned, follow Title Casing, and is one double-spaced line down from the appendix label.
  • If your appendix only contains one table or figure (and no text), then the appendix title takes the place of the table/figure title. 

Appendix Contents:

  • Left aligned and indented; written the same as paragraphs within the body of the paper
  • Double-spaced and with the same font as the rest of the paper
  • If the appendix contains a table and/or figure, then the table/figure number must contain a letter to correlate the table and/or figure to the appendix and not the body of the paper, e.g. “Table A1” rather than “Table 1” to clarify that the table appears in the appendix and not in the body of the paper.
  • All tables and figures in an appendix must be mentioned in the appendix and numbered in order of mention. 
  • All tables and figures must be aligned to the left margin, (not center aligned), and positioned after a paragraph break, preferably the paragraph in which they are referred to, with a double-spaced blank line between the table and the text. 
  • Each table and figure should include a note afterwards to further explain the supplement or clarify information in the table or figure to your paper/appendix and can be general, specific, and probability. See “Table Notes” in the section “Table and Figures” above for more details.

Referring to Appendices in the Text:

In your paper, refer to every appendix that you have inserted. Do not include an appendix in your work that you do not clearly explain in relation to the ideas in your paper.

  • In general, only refer to the appendix by the label (“Appendix” or “Appendix A” etc.) and not the appendix title.

Reprinting or Adapting:

If you did not create the content in the appendix yourself, for instance if you found a figure on the internet, you must include a copyright attribution in a note below the figure. 

  • A copyright attribution is used instead of an in-text citation. 
  • Each work should also be listed in the reference list. 

Please see pages 390-391 in the Manual for example copyright attributions.

  • << Previous: Tables and Figures
  • Next: Workshops >>
  • Last Updated: Feb 7, 2024 1:05 PM
  • URL: https://libguides.jibc.ca/apa/formatyourpaper

definition of appendix in a research paper

  • Walden University
  • Faculty Portal

General Research Paper Guidelines: Appendices

If you have some information you would like to include in your research but it could potentially be distracting to readers or inappropriate within the body of your research paper, you can always include supplemental information as an appendix to your work. An appendix or appendices should always be inserted after your Reference List; however, the appropriateness of appendix content really depends on the nature and scope of your research paper.

For a more in-depth review of what supplemental materials might be included in a social science appendix, be sure to review Section 2.14 “Appendices” (pp. 41-42) of your 7 th edition APA manual.

Appendices Formatting

APA 7 addresses appendices and supplemental materials in Section 2.14 and on page 41:

  • The appendices follow the reference list.
  • They are lettered "Appendix A," "Appendix B," "Appendix C," and so forth. If you have only one appendix, however, simply label it Appendix.
  • Put figures and tables in separate appendices. The appendix title serves as the title for a table if it is the only table in the appendix.
  • If you decide that certain figures and tables should appear in the same appendix, number them A1, A2, A3, and so forth, according to the appendix in which they appear.
  • The materials in the appendix must not extend beyond the margins of the rest of the paper: Reduce the appendix materials as needed.

As a general guide, appendices are appropriate for any material that, if presented in the main body of the document, would unnecessarily interrupt the flow of the writing. Note that it is unlikely that you will use appendices in Walden course papers. For doctoral capstone studies, you might include some appendices with supplementary information.

  • Previous Page: References
  • Office of Student Disability Services

Walden Resources

Departments.

  • Academic Residencies
  • Academic Skills
  • Career Planning and Development
  • Customer Care Team
  • Field Experience
  • Military Services
  • Student Success Advising
  • Writing Skills

Centers and Offices

  • Center for Social Change
  • Office of Academic Support and Instructional Services
  • Office of Degree Acceleration
  • Office of Research and Doctoral Services
  • Office of Student Affairs

Student Resources

  • Doctoral Writing Assessment
  • Form & Style Review
  • Quick Answers
  • ScholarWorks
  • SKIL Courses and Workshops
  • Walden Bookstore
  • Walden Catalog & Student Handbook
  • Student Safety/Title IX
  • Legal & Consumer Information
  • Website Terms and Conditions
  • Cookie Policy
  • Accessibility
  • Accreditation
  • State Authorization
  • Net Price Calculator
  • Contact Walden

Walden University is a member of Adtalem Global Education, Inc. www.adtalem.com Walden University is certified to operate by SCHEV © 2024 Walden University LLC. All rights reserved.

definition of appendix in a research paper

Easy Guide on How to Write an Appendix

definition of appendix in a research paper

Understanding What Is an Appendix

Many students ask, 'What is an appendix in writing?'. Essentially, an appendix is a compilation of the references cited in an academic paper, prevalent in academic journals, which can be found in any academic publication, including books. Professors frequently require their students to include an appendix in their work.

Incorporating an appendix in your written piece can aid readers in comprehending the information presented. It is important to note that different professors may have varying guidelines on how to write an appendix. To learn more about how to write an appendix for a research paper according to APA, Chicago, and MLA styles, check out the following paragraphs prepared by our PRO nursing essay writing service !

Meanwhile, note that an appendix comprises all the information utilized in a paper, including references and statistics from several authors and sources (the number varies according to the type of academic paper). The purpose of the appendix is to prevent vague or irrelevant information and improve the reader's understanding of the paper.

The Purpose of an Appendix

To understand what an appendix tries to accomplish and how to write an appendix example, after all, we must first answer the key question, 'What is the purpose of an appendix?'. In short, an appendix is crucial for further explaining complex information that may be difficult to fully convey within the main text of an essay. It is intended to offer readers additional information about the topic addressed in the paper.

The material presented in an appendix has the potential to bolster the argument and sway the reader's opinion. Nonetheless, you should try to incorporate supporting material and examples toward the end of the paper to avoid disrupting the flow of the main text. Furthermore, the likelihood of including an appendix increases as a paper becomes more advanced. The use of an appendix is especially prevalent in the academic writing of a research document and journal-style scientific paper, in which extra information is usually needed to support a main point of view.

How to Structure an Appendix

While there are variations between formats, each one follows a basic structure. Thus, understanding the general structure is an essential first step in learning about this topic. No matter if you're tasked with 'how to write an appendix MLA or APA style?' - remember that both adhere to this structure, despite their differences:

How to Structure an Appendix

Order an Essay Now & Get These Features For Free :

Every Appendix Should Contain:

  • A clear title: The title of the appendix should be concise and descriptive, clearly indicating what information is contained within it. For example, 'Appendix A: Data Tables for Study Results or 'Appendix B: Images of Experimental Setup.'
  • A list of contents: Including a table of contents in the appendix can be helpful for readers to navigate the information provided. For example:

Table of Contents:

A. Data Tables for Study Results

B. Images of Experimental Setup

C. Survey Questions and Responses

D. Sample Interview Transcripts

  • Page numbers: The appendix should be a separate page, independently numbered from the main body of the paper, and specified uniformly (e.g., 'Appendix A,' 'Appendix B,' etc.). For example:

Page 1 of 5

  • Relevant information: The appendix should contain all the relevant information supporting the main arguments of the document, including tables of data, raw statistical data, charts, or other documents. For example:

Figure 1: Experimental Results

[insert graph or chart here]

  • Proper formatting: The appendix should be formatted in accordance with the specific requirements of the chosen citation style (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago). For example:

Appendix B: Survey Questions and Responses

[insert survey questions and responses here, formatted following APA style guidelines]

  • Clear labeling: Each element should have a clear appendix label so readers can easily understand its relevance to the paper. For example:

Table 1: Demographic Characteristics of Survey Respondents

  • Concise explanation: It is important to provide short detailed descriptions of each element in the Appendix so that readers can understand its importance. For example:

Appendix C: Sample Interview Transcripts

Transcripts of the three interviews with the study participants shall be included for reference. These interviews provide further insights into the experiences of participants and their views on the subject addressed in this document.

Need college essay help ? You can always ask us to do a custom term paper from our professional writers.

General Appendix Format

To ensure proper formatting, it is important to understand the basics of how to structure an appendix. Although it may seem overwhelming, the basic format is relatively easy to comprehend and serves as a foundation for understanding the APA and MLA formats. Additionally, mastering the basic format can be helpful when writing an appendix for a book or dissertation.

General Appendix Format

  • Heading “Appendix #” . Contains a number or letter, that could be 1 or A.
  • Reference List.
  • Index Table followed a list of appendices.
  • Page Number.

Do You Need More Help With Your APPENDIX?

Get help from professional writers asap!

How to Write an Appendix in Different Styles

There are two distinct styles for creating an appendix, and it's important to familiarize yourself with both since a professor may request one or the other. Our expert writers have compiled guidelines and rules for both formats - the Appendix APA format and the Appendix MLA format. Although they share some similarities, they also have unique features and regulations that must be strictly followed.

Appendix APA

Many professors require students to write an appendix in a paper of this format. To master how to write an appendix APA format and get the structure correct, it's a good idea to follow these guidelines and rules:

The guidelines for Appendix APA:

  • The appendix begins with the heading 'Appendix' followed by ABC.
  • It should also be written on top of the appendix title.
  • Every appendix follows the order of the stated information in the paper.
  • Include the appendix after the reference list.
  • Include page numbers for each appendix.
  • Appendices are to have their own page, regardless of the size.
  • Include Footnotes.

The general rules for Appendix APA are to be followed when writing. This is what professors look for when a paper is required when apprentices are to be written in this format. Learn the general rules to master how to write an appendix APA style and get you onto the right path to success. You may find it useful to memorize this information or keep a note of it.

Rules for APA:

  • All appendices should include their own point.
  • Include a title for each appendix.
  • For multiple appendices, use ABC for tilting them.
  • For reference within the body, include (see appendix a) after the text.
  • The title should be centered.
  • All appendices are to have their own page, regardless of the size.
  • Paragraph One should be written without indents.
  • The rest of the paragraphs should have the intended formatting.
  • Include double spacing.

Whether you're tackling how to write an interview paper in APA appendix or any other type of academic work, the following example can serve as a valuable blueprint to guide you through the process.

Appendix Chicago Style

Writing an appendix Chicago style is rather similar to APA. Though, there are some minor differences. Take a look at these guidelines for this form of an appendix.

Guidelines for an Appendix Chicago Style

  • More than one appendix is described as appendices.
  • The font required for the appendix Chicago style is Times New Roman.
  • The text size should be 12 points.
  • The page numbers should be displayed on the top right of each page.
  • The page numbers should also be labeled as 'Page 1,2,3'.
  • Avoid including a page number on the front cover.
  • The bibliography should be the final new page. It should not share a page with any other content.
  • It is possible to include footnotes in the bibliography.

To better comprehend how to write an appendix in Chicago style, glance through the example below:

Appendix MLA Format

The guidelines and regulations for creating an appendix in MLA format are largely similar to those in APA format. However, there are some differences between the two, the most notable being that the MLA appendix is placed before the reference list.

The guidelines for MLA Format:

  • The appendix is included before the list of references.

It may be useful to follow the example of an appendix to better understand how to write an appendix in MLA style. Doing so can increase the chances of getting a grasp of the MLA rules to fulfill the requirements of your professor on your academic paper.

Rules for MLA

  • The title is to be centered.
  • The list should be double-spaced.
  • The first line should include each reference in the left margin. Every subsequent line is to be formatted so it's invented. This can be referred to as 'hanging indent' to make things easier.
  • The reference list must be in alphabetical order. This can be done with the first letter of the title of the reference. Though, this is usually done if the writer is unknown. If the writer is known, you can also use the first letter of the surname.
  • If you include the name of the known writer, use this order. SURNAME, FIRST NAME, YEAR.
  • Italic fonts are required for the titles of complete writings, internet sites, books, and recordings.
  • It is important not to use an italic font on reference titles that only refer to the part of a source. This includes poetry, short papers, tabloids, sections of a PDF, and scholarly entries.

Before we conclude, let's dive deeper into the world of appendix writing by exploring an example of how to write an appendix MLA style.

Let's wrap this up! It's safe to say that following the APA, Chicago, and MLA formats is crucial when crafting an appendix. As we've seen, starting with an APA appendix example can help ease you in mastering how to write an appendix of paper. Once you have a handle on the precise formats and guidelines, creating an appendix becomes a piece of cake. Also, memorizing the format can help you whip up accurate appendices for any type of paper, whether an essay or a dissertation. Trust us, mastering this topic is a must if you want to excel in knowing how to write an appendix in a report or any other academic work.

Moreover, if you ever find yourself in need of additional academic assistance, be sure to check out our resources on how to write an article review . Or, better yet, why not let us handle your most challenging tasks with ease by simply sending us a ' write my paper request? We are here to support you every step of the way.

Get Immediate Writing Help

Our appendix pages are written with the customer’s needs in mind, and plagiarism-free. Why not give it a try?

What Is An Appendix In Writing?

What is the purpose of an appendix, how to format an appendix, related articles.

PowerPoint Presentation Tips

Illustration

  • Research Paper Guides
  • Basics of Research Paper Writing
  • How to Write an Appendix: Step-by-Step Guide & Examples
  • Speech Topics
  • Basics of Essay Writing
  • Essay Topics
  • Other Essays
  • Main Academic Essays
  • Research Paper Topics
  • Miscellaneous
  • Chicago/ Turabian
  • Data & Statistics
  • Methodology
  • Admission Writing Tips
  • Admission Advice
  • Other Guides
  • Student Life
  • Studying Tips
  • Understanding Plagiarism
  • Academic Writing Tips
  • Basics of Dissertation & Thesis Writing

Illustration

  • Essay Guides
  • Formatting Guides
  • Basics of Research Process
  • Admission Guides
  • Dissertation & Thesis Guides

How to Write an Appendix: Step-by-Step Guide & Examples

how to write an appendix

Table of contents

Illustration

Use our free Readability checker

While composing your work, you may stumble upon a question on how to write an appendix.

An appendix is a supplemental section of a research paper that provides additional information, data, or materials to support the main content. The appendix is usually placed at the end of the document and is numbered with letters or numbers, such as "Appendix A," "Appendix B," etc. The purpose of an appendix is to provide readers with supplementary details that are not included in the main text but are relevant to the topic.

Once you decide on writing appendices, you should collect additional information and format your text as required. Here, we will talk about how you can work with appendices. We will also show some nuances of their preparation process using a real example. Is the deadline around the corner? Consider using professional research paper help from expert scholars.

What Is an Appendix: Definition

Experienced researchers know what an appendix in a paper is. But aspiring authors often have problems with this section of the work. First of all, you should understand that appendices are an additional section of a dissertation or any other scientific paper that includes additional information. Main points are not placed in an appendix meanwhile at the end of your work it can expand on some context or clarify author’s position on a particular issue. Also, an appendix is ​​often placed after the citation page of a work. It is indicated with the help of references in a main text.

What Is the Purpose of an Appendix

Quite often, authors don’t understand the purpose of an appendix. This usually looks like a table and is not included in a main text. Remember that content of your dissertation should be concise and clear. It is also undesirable if you deviate from your theme so as not to confuse readers. Therefore, you can provide a reference, which will lead a reader to an appendix of a thesis. Typically, the purpose of an appendix is to extra information that is usually not included in the text's body. It expresses author's point of view, and provides additional information. It may not address the immediate topic of your dissertation or expand on current research. As a reminder, your work should be clear even without studying an appendix. So make sure you don't put important details there.

What Can You Include in an Appendix

An appendix in a paper is a supplement to a main text, not a replacement. You can put different elements there. It is better if you separate appendices, highlighting one element in each of them. Don’t forget about separate references in your text. Otherwise it will be difficult for a reader to understand your information better. Thus, the following information can be added:

  • diagrams with illustrative figures;
  • abbreviations ;
  • interviews;
  • statistics, and much more.

There are no restrictions on content added to your dissertation's appendices. Theoretically, you can attach absolutely any information that is relevant to your topic. Thus, possibilities for evidence base are almost unlimited. All you need to do is add tables or any other information.

How to Write an Appendix: Full Guide

If you already have experience working on dissertations and other scientific texts, you will not wonder how to make an appendix. However, it is still important that you get some advice on how to properly structure an appendices section. This will help add information that may be redundant in the main part of your paper. We offer 4 simple steps to create an informative and readable appendix block.

Step 1. Make an Appendix: Include Your Data

When creating an appendix, include extra data in their raw form. That is, you might not have used some details in your main paper. But you want a reader to know more information. For example, it can be calculations, some results of which are mentioned in your main text. Or maybe, you can add some statistics that clearly demonstrate your research paper conclusion . You can also include facts from other scientific sources that support your position. One thing is important — information should complement your text but not contradict it.

Step 2. Include Visual Supporting Documents in an Appendix 

When you are writing an appendix, you can’t avoid visual additions that clearly demonstrate an information and save an author from lengthy descriptions in the text. Should you need to support your conclusions drawn in the scientific text, these can be used:

Don’t forget: you should quote and indicate the authorship of graphics used in your work. If you took it from any third-party sources, of course. Thus, a reader will be able to find additional data that explains the content of your text. It is good if you personally put results of your research in a graphic form. To do this, you can use Office programs, graphic editors and other programs available to PC users.

Step 3. Describe the Instruments of Your Research in Your Appendices

It is good if your appendix in the research paper has a section for indicating tools that were used during the preparation of your dissertation writing . This way, your reader will understand how you collected information and do it themselves. For example, it could be a dictaphone or tape recorder on which an interview with your expert was recorded. Or you might have used a video camera for recording facts and interviews. In such case, it is advisable to indicate these instruments in your appendix. Specialized equipment for measuring, calculating and making graphics should also be added at the beginning of the appendix. This way, you will demonstrate your skills and knowledge. Research units don’t require extra tools, so make sure they are listed. You can do it even in a short format.

Step 4. Include an Interview and Transcripts in an Appendix

When conducting interviews and surveys for collecting information, make an appendix with photocopies of handwritten materials or electronic copies of digital surveys. Their order is not important. The main thing is that your research text contains references. This will allow you to quickly study the sources. You should not only show that the source contains important data but also explain it. So, even additional content, including questions and answers, needs to be listed. But if you originally had a readable format, you don’t need to do this. In addition to interviews, also add screenshots or photos of correspondences used for surveys. For example, you can refer to a significant researcher with whom you exchanged letters. Or maybe you studied subject, together with this researcher, and they gave some comments on a particular issue. Do not know how to write a discussion section of a research paper ? Do not worry, we have the whole article dedicated to this topic.

Formatting an Appendix: Main Rules

Formatting of appendices is required in any case. First of all, provide correct citations. APA, MLA, and Chicago are the most commonly used standards. Although, you should clarify what formatting requirements your institution has. Correct formatting includes:

  • Appendix title. Write it at the top of the content page, indicate its title, using letters or numbers for ordering.
  • Sorted by mention. Don’t add appendices randomly, it is better to do it in chronological order. That is, as information from it is given in main text.
  • Location after bibliography. This is a general requirement that cannot always be met. For example, if your professor wants the appendices to be put before the bibliography, this will have to be done.
  • Page numbers. All dissertation pages should be numbered, even if they are blank. This will make the appendix block the part of main text.

Also, review your appendix before approval. Make sure that its content is clear, error-free, and correctly quoted.

Appendix Example

To do the job successfully, it is recommended to have an example of an appendix at hand. Without it, there are usually problems with a choice of font and mentions that appear in main text. We will show you what the appendix itself looks like at the end of the dissertation using a short interview as an example.

Appendix example

We have one more blog in case you wonder what is an abstract in a paper  or need some examples and writing tips.

How to Make an Appendix: Final Thoughts

Thus, we talked about how to write an appendix. It allows you to include additional details, while avoiding writing them in the body of your text. To do this, one can use graphics, transcriptions of conversations, tables and statistics — anything that complements your research. Be sure to clarify formatting requirements of your university. Arrange appendices in an order in which they appear in your text. Try to use your own materials and not take other people's work. In case of unique findings, they can be used in your work.

Illustration

Please contact us if you have any difficulties preparing an academic work! Our professional paper writers guarantee high quality and loyal prices. Just choose a writer to your liking, send your requirements and you're good to go!

Frequently Asked Questions About Appendix Writing

1. how do you add an appendix to an essay.

The inclusion of appendix to an essay is the same as to any other paper. You need to provide references in your text of an essay itself, as well as submit attachments after a bibliography. Don't forget to specify name of an appendix for easy navigation.

2. Do I add references to the appendix?

Yes, this is not only recommended but must be done. In this case the appendix will allow your reader to check the reliability of sources you used. Moreover, if you took any information from third-party sources, this protect you from plagiarism charges.

4. How do you create an appendix in Word?

It is not difficult to prepare an appendix in Word, because this Office program contains all the necessary tools. To get started, choose the same font, font size and indentation that were used in the main text, so as not to visually break away from it. We also recommend that you apply title formatting with built-in Word tools. Place the appendix titles at the top in the center of a page. In this case it will be much easier to navigate the paper.

3. What is an appendix in a report example?

You can include a wide range of information into an appendix in a report. It is better to opt for descriptive formats, though. For example, it can be graphical or mathematical research results, statistics of a certain phenomenon, and questionnaires filled in by other people.

Joe_Eckel_1_ab59a03630.jpg

Joe Eckel is an expert on Dissertations writing. He makes sure that each student gets precious insights on composing A-grade academic writing.

Illustration

You may also like

thumbnail@2x.png

Use an Appendix or Annex in Your Research Paper?

'Appendix' and 'annex' are commonly confused in research papers. While the use of an appendix is more common, the annex can also be a valuable way of supplementing your research. The appendix and the annex add supporting/supplementary information. Both are posted online and can be referred to by researchers with a particular interest in your study. The differences between them are context and length.

Updated on July 26, 2022

two scientists discussing the appendix and annex of a research paper

The terms “appendix” and “annex” are commonly confused in research papers. While the use of an appendix is more common, the annex can also be a valuable way of supplementing your research.

Both the appendix and the annex add supporting/supplementary information (SI), like tables and graphs, datasets, or transcriptions. Both are posted online and can be referred to by researchers with a particular interest in your study (especially if they're open access).

The main differences between these two forms of data supplement are context and length. Appendixes are common and are part of the study; you likely used them in theses and dissertations. Annexes deal with much longer and more detailed sets of information, and they're additional to the study's content. Let's take a deeper look at the differences so you'll never them confused.

What is an appendix?

An appendix is, according to Merriem-Webster, “supplementary material usually attached at the end of a piece of writing.” The word comes from the Latin appendere, which means “cause to hang (from something).” It's included in the paper at the end, usually after the references or bibliography.

Appendixes/Appendices can be seen as materials that supplement rather than complement the research. Read only by those with a specific interest.

Basics of an appendix

The following are generally true of an appendix.

  • Included at the end of the manuscript.
  • Written by one more of the paper's researchers. Exceptions are items like letters granting ethical clearance for the research or details of the research tools used (see the example later).
  • Ties into the research directly; gives greater detail than the main body of the manuscript.
  • Not too long. Of course, that's subjective, but generally speaking, it's a page or two rather than dozens of pages, or more.

What to put in an appendix

Some examples of an appendix are:

  • Figures and tables
  • Photographs
  • Raw data (tables, plots, images)
  • Questionnaires and interview questions (especially in qualitative research)
  • Ethics approvals such as from the IRB
  • Correspondences, such as letters or emails

Most research published as a journal article, and particularly as a thesis, will contain appendices rather than annexes.

This paper (PDF link) includes an appendix that details the instruments used in the research. Each test was used in the study, and the author felt the details were important enough to detail in the appendix, too much information to be presented in the main paper.

This chemistry article also presents supplementary data in the appendix. As it's too lengthy to put in print, a downloadable Word file is available. However, it's only data rather than an article or other full and standalone materials, which is likely why it was made into an appendix rather than an annex.

What is an annex?

Merriam-Webster defines an annex as “an added stipulation or statement.” In the context of research, both academic and commercial, annexes are usually separate additions to the research output and are submitted as separate documents.

Annex comes from the French annexer, which means “to join or attach.” Simply put, an annex comes along with (joining or attached to) a research paper. An example might be a UN report relevant to a manuscript, and that will be added as a supporting document, backing up the research findings. Annexes are used for materials that complement the research.

Basics of an annex

  • Attached to the research paper as a separate item.
  • Often (but not always) produced by someone outside the research team. If, for example, one of the researchers produced a white paper for the government on the research domain and this might complement the research, this could be an annex.
  • Can be many pages long.
  • Supports or informs the research that has been done; complements it.
  • Is not part of the research output presented in the manuscript's body text.

What to put in an annex

Some examples of an annex are...

  • Documents mentioned in the manuscript or that may support the manuscript
  • News articles
  • Lab reports
  • Interviews of people mentioned in the manuscript.
  • Data from other studies

Almost always, annexes are added to papers that exceed normal journal article lengths. They're supporting materials to lengthy research output, like those often funded by corporate or government funding.

This World Health Organization guidance paper on HIV/AIDS is itself 21 pages long but comes with separate downloadable annexes. The paper details the findings stemming from the research and describes the processes for the trials. On page 5, the paper notes that the annexes are included to give greater details on the clinical trials mentioned in the paper. In this sense, the annexes are for readers who want greater detail.

The paper reviews the trials done in the annex, but because the trials were not part of the research and was done by others, it was added as an annex.

Should you use an appendix or an annex?

Short answer: you should probably use an appendix. That's because they're much more common. Appendices are placed at the end of a document, while annexes are, technically, separate from it. The former is part of the paper, but the latter is not.

Annexes are often long documents, running even to hundreds of pages. Most often, someone an annex's author is someone who's not part of the research team. Appendices, however, are often by a paper's author(s) and are usually not more than a few pages each (though, in the case of datasets, they technically can be quite long).

Annexes are used to verify the research and provide additional, relevant information. They are documents from credible and relevant sources. They offer further insight into the research topic.

Normally, you'll be using appendices, and that's often because of the journal's word count limits. It may be ideal to include tables or charts in-line in the article, but if there's no room, the appendix can provide extra space.

Handling data: A workflow for dealing with data in your SI

Submission and sharing of data are especially key steps in dealing with your SI in appendixes, annexes, and other formats. When you're submitting your article to a journal, there is a common workflow for this:

  • Create additional supplementary files (usually as few as possible, a single file is ideal).
  • Upload to the journal site or one of the many ‘approved' online data repositories.
  • You'll be given a URL to link back to your data files.
  • Add this link to the Acknowledgements section of your paper with some text such as “Additional files in support of this article can be found at https://...”

Some commonly used and ostensibly approved online data repositories:

  • Harvard Dataverse
  • Open Science Framework (OSF)
  • Mendeley Data

But don't get carried away!

Supplementary information, including appendixes and annexes, can also be abused. Additional information may be so long/big/dense that it actually may not undergo full peer review even though the rest of the article does.

A study by Pop and Salzberg asserted that journals' word restrictions may cause authors to move key information outside the main manuscript body. In this way, it can avert proper peer review while also being less accessible to the reader. This hinders further investigation because readers have to wade through huge amounts of supplementary documents to find what they're after.

use and abuse of supplementary information

It also robs authors cited in the supplementary information of the recognition they would receive from citations in the body text.

Nature commendably lays out specifics for SI – check them here .

Final thoughts

If you're unsure of what needs to be in your supplementary information, or if you even need an appendix or annex, as well as the English quality and style, a scientific edit can be a big help. Explore AJE's extensive editing services here .

The AJE Team

The AJE Team

See our "Privacy Policy"

definition of appendix in a research paper

Online Plagiarism Checker for Academic Assignments

Start Plagiarism Check

Editing & Proofreading for your Academic Assignments

Get it proofread now

Free Express Delivery to All Places in Canada

Configure binding now

  • Academic essay overview
  • The writing process
  • Structuring academic essays
  • Types of academic essays
  • Academic writing overview
  • Sentence structure
  • Academic writing process
  • Improving your academic writing
  • Titles and headings
  • APA style overview
  • APA citation & referencing
  • APA structure & sections
  • Citation & referencing
  • Structure and sections
  • APA examples overview
  • Commonly used citations
  • Other examples
  • British English vs. American English
  • Chicago style overview
  • Chicago citation & referencing
  • Chicago structure & sections
  • Chicago style examples
  • Citing sources overview
  • Citation format
  • Citation examples
  • College essay overview
  • Application
  • How to write a college essay
  • Types of college essays
  • Commonly confused words
  • Definitions
  • Dissertation overview
  • Dissertation structure & sections
  • Dissertation writing process
  • Graduate school overview
  • Application & admission
  • Study abroad
  • Harvard referencing overview
  • Language rules overview
  • Grammatical rules & structures
  • Parts of speech
  • Punctuation
  • Methodology overview
  • Analyzing data
  • Experiments
  • Observations
  • Inductive vs. Deductive
  • Qualitative vs. Quantitative
  • Types of validity
  • Types of reliability
  • Sampling methods
  • Theories & Concepts
  • Types of research studies
  • Types of variables
  • MLA style overview
  • MLA examples
  • MLA citation & referencing
  • MLA structure & sections
  • Plagiarism overview
  • Plagiarism checker
  • Types of plagiarism
  • Printing production overview
  • Research bias overview
  • Types of research bias
  • Research paper structure & sections
  • Types of research papers
  • Research process overview
  • Problem statement
  • Research proposal
  • Research topic
  • Statistics overview
  • Levels of measurment
  • Measures of central tendency
  • Measures of variability
  • Hypothesis testing
  • Parameters & test statistics
  • Types of distributions
  • Correlation
  • Effect size
  • Hypothesis testing assumptions
  • Types of ANOVAs
  • Types of chi-square
  • Statistical data
  • Statistical models
  • Spelling mistakes
  • Tips overview
  • Academic writing tips
  • Dissertation tips
  • Sources tips
  • Working with sources overview
  • Evaluating sources
  • Finding sources
  • Including sources
  • Types of sources

Dissertation Appendix – Components, Format & Examples

How do you like this article cancel reply.

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

Dissertation-Appendix-Definition

An appendix is an integral part of every dissertation paper, serving as supplementary material that enhances and supports the research study. However, only a few people understand what the section is, where it must be placed, and why it must be included in a dissertation . Therefore, while not typically central to the dissertation’s argument, the appendix adds valuable context and transparency to the academic work. This post will cover everything there is to know about a dissertation appendix, from its definition and purpose to the components and format.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

  • 1 Dissertation Appendix – In a Nutshell
  • 2 Definition: Dissertation appendix
  • 3 Purpose of a dissertation appendix
  • 4 Dissertation appendix: Components
  • 5 Dissertation appendix: Format
  • 6 Referring to a dissertation appendix
  • 7 Dissertation Appendix: Checklist

Dissertation Appendix – In a Nutshell

  • An appendix is not part of the main body of the dissertation, but is still relevant to it.
  • A dissertation appendix encapsulates all explanations that cannot be included in the main body of the dissertation.
  • Appendices must be well-structured, and their components systemically organized to serve their purpose correctly.

Definition: Dissertation appendix

A dissertation appendix (plural –appendices) is an index at the end of a dissertation that provides additional information related to the dissertation paper. The section helps academic writers present background information related to the dissertation, but doesn’t directly answer the research question. These can include tables, illustrations and other graphics.

Purpose of a dissertation appendix

The primary purpose of a dissertation appendix is to help keep your dissertation paper organized and within the required word limit. It contains any additional information that isn’t directly relevant to the research topic.

Typically, texts that strengthen your arguments appear in your dissertation paper’s main body. However, there is additional information that isn’t directly beneficial to your research but might be helpful to your readers. That is where a dissertation appendix comes in.

Although they provide additional information, your audience should be able to understand the contents of your dissertation paper even without looking at the dissertation appendix. So, ensure you include all important texts in the main body.

Dissertation appendix: Components

A dissertation appendix can include different types of information, such as:

Dissertation-Appendix-Components

Research results can be presented in various ways, including tables and figures. However, not all of these findings need to appear in the main body of your dissertation. Only results that are essential in answering the research topic should be included in the paper. Additional results (less significant findings), such as raw data and supplemental analyses, should go into the dissertation appendix.

Further information

Besides supplementary results, additional information related to surveys and interviews can be included in a dissertation appendix. These can include types of interviews, interview transcripts, survey questions, and details of questionnaires. Although these details are not critical to answering your research question, including them in the dissertation appendix gives credibility to your research.

Dissertation-Appendix-Components-copies-and-graphics

Copies of relevant forms 

It is essential to include a list of abbreviations and acronyms and a glossary in the appendix if your dissertation paper contains many words that your audience might not recognize. This helps enhance readability and minimize confusion for readers. Your list of abbreviations and acronyms, and glossary should appear after the table of contents section.

Figures, tables, graphics

You can also include tables, figures, illustrations, and other graphics in the dissertation appendix if your research contains a lot of them. The appendix is the appropriate platform to include less important ones. Use tables and figures that support your research question but cannot be included in the main body.

Dissertation appendix: Format

There is no restriction to how you can format your dissertation appendix. You can opt to have one long appendix if you don’t feel the need to break it into smaller sections with different components. However, it might be a good idea to separate the components (such as interview transcripts and supplementary results) into various appendices to enhance readability.

If you choose to have multiple appendices in your dissertation, always start each appendix on a new page. Additionally, ensure you assign each page a number or letter. For instance, you can use ‘Appendix 2 – Interview Transcripts.’ Giving a unique identifier (number and title of each element) to each appendix makes it easier for the reader to navigate through the information and for you to refer to it in the main dissertation body.

When numbering tables and figures in multiple appendices, you should reset the numbering as you move to the next appendix (next page). For instance, if your ‘Appendix 1 –Raw Data’ has two tables and ‘Appendix 2 – Interview Transcripts’ has one table, the table in ‘Appendix 2’ should be ‘Table 1’ and not ‘Table 3’ .

Referring to a dissertation appendix

It is crucial to refer to each dissertation appendix at least once when crafting the dissertation’s main body. That helps justify the inclusion of appendices in your study.

There are two primary ways you can refer to a dissertation appendix in the main body:

  • Refer to an entire appendix

“The interview transcripts can be found in Appendix 1 –Interview Transcripts”.

  • Refer to an appendix component

There are two ways you can refer to an appendix component:

  • Refer to specific figures or tables in brackets (parenthetical reference). For example, “The results (refer to Table 1 Appendix 3) indicate a slight decline in the number of new infections”.
  • Include the reference in a sentence within the main body (descriptive reference). For example, “As shown in Table 1 of Appendix 3, there is a slight decline in the number of new infections” .

If your paper has one long dissertation appendix, it is good practice to refer to its components in uppercase, but it is not mandatory. However, it is important to maintain consistency throughout your entire paper, the same way you capitalize your headings and titles in academic work.

Although you are free to choose what case to use, you should always use lower-case when referring to appendices in general.

“The appendices at the end of this paper contain additional information about the area of research.”

Dissertation Appendix: Checklist

  • Each dissertation appendix starts on a fresh page
  • My appendices contain relevant information, but they are not essential in answering my research question
  • I have referred to each of my appendices at least once in the main body
  • The content of my appendices (tables and figures) are clearly labelled
  • My appendices are easy to understand and refer to

What is a dissertation appendix?

A dissertation appendix is a section of your dissertation that you use to provide additional data related to your main study but is not essential to answering the primary research question.

What should I include in my appendix?

Your appendix should contain additional information relevant to the dissertation but not directly important to answering your main questions. These can include supplementary results, tables, interview questions and transcripts.

Do I need an appendix in my dissertation?

If you have a lot of additional information, it is important to have an appendix in your dissertation. Appendices help provide readers with details that support your research without breaking the flow of the main body.

Can my dissertation paper have multiple appendices?

Yes. Your dissertation paper can have more than one appendix. Ensure you properly label each appendix (Appendix A or Appendix 1) if your paper has multiple appendices.

Is it appendices or appendixes?

Appendices and appendixes are both correct plurals for the term appendix. However, many scholars prefer using ‘appendices’ over ‘appendixes.’

We use cookies on our website. Some of them are essential, while others help us to improve this website and your experience.

  • External Media

Individual Privacy Preferences

Cookie Details Privacy Policy Imprint

Here you will find an overview of all cookies used. You can give your consent to whole categories or display further information and select certain cookies.

Accept all Save

Essential cookies enable basic functions and are necessary for the proper function of the website.

Show Cookie Information Hide Cookie Information

Statistics cookies collect information anonymously. This information helps us to understand how our visitors use our website.

Content from video platforms and social media platforms is blocked by default. If External Media cookies are accepted, access to those contents no longer requires manual consent.

Privacy Policy Imprint

definition of appendix in a research paper

Chapter 22 Appendix B: A Guide to Research and Documentation

Research documentation guidelines.

This appendix provides general guidelines for documenting researched information. See Chapter 7 "Researching" for more on the research process.

22.1 Choosing a Documentation Format

As a rule, your assignments requiring research will specify a documentation format. If you are free to use the style of your choice, you can choose any format you want as long as you are consistent, but you should know that certain disciplines tend to use specific documentation styles:

  • business and social sciences: American Psychological Association (APA)
  • natural and applied sciences: Council of Science Editors (CSE)
  • humanities: Modern Language Association (MLA) or the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS)

For the purposes of this appendix, we will confine ourselves to the three documentation formats that will be the most common in your undergraduate courses: the style manuals from APA and MLA, as well as CMS. (Other formats are listed at the end of this appendix. Also, note this appendix explains the “Notes-Bibliography” system of CMS, used more often in history, the arts, and humanities, rather than the “Author-Date” system, used in the sciences and social sciences.)

These three systems of documentation have been refined over many generations so that academics can rely on certain standards of attribution when they cite each other’s work and when their work is cited. When you enter into an academic conversation in a given discipline, it’s imperative that you play by its rules. It’s true that popular, nonacademic forms of attribution exist. Making a link to another website in a blog or a Twitter post works quite well, but in an academic context, such a form of attribution is not sufficient. Of course it should go without saying that stealing someone else’s words or borrowing them without attribution, whether you do it casually on the web or in an academic context, is simply wrong.

22.2 Integrating Sources

Your goal within a research paper is to integrate other sources smoothly into your paper to support the points you are making. As long as you give proper credit, you can ethically reference anyone else’s work. You should not, however, create a paper that is made up of one reference after another without any of your input. You should also avoid using half-page or whole-page quotations. Make sure to write enough of your material so that your sources are integrated into your work rather than making up the bulk of your paper.

Think of yourself as a kind of museum docent or tour guide when you are integrating sources into your work. You’ll usually want to take some time to set up your use of a source by placing it in a proper context. That’s why in most cases, before you even launch into quotation, paraphrase, or summary, you will have probably already used what’s called a “signal phrase” that identifies the author of the source, and often the specific publication (whether web or print) from which it is taken. After your use of the source, you’ll need to follow up with analysis and commentary on how you think it fits into the larger context of your argument.

22.3 Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

When you quote another writer’s exact words, you will have to identify the page number within the source where you found the quotation or the paragraph number if the source is taken from an online format or database that does not indicate the original print pagination. Note that only APA allows the use of “p.” or “pp.”

Table 22.1 Citing Quotations

Paraphrased and summarized text is cited within text in the same way that quoted material is cited except that quotations are not used. In APA style, you do not need to include page numbers in this case, but MLA and CMS, on the other hand, do still require page numbers, when they are available.

Table 22.2 Citing Paraphrased or Summarized Text

22.4 Formatting In-Text References

When you use others’ ideas, you have a variety of options for integrating these sources into your text. The main requirement is that you make it clear within your in-text reference that the information is not yours and that you clearly indicate where you got the idea. The following box shows some alternate phrases for signaling that the ideas you are using belong to another writer. Using a variety of wording makes writing more interesting. Note: Past tense is used in these examples. You may elect to use present tense (“writes”) or past perfect tense (“has written”), but keep your tense use consistent.

Phrases That Signal an Idea Belongs to Another Writer (Shown in APA style)

  • According to Starr (2010)…
  • Acknowledging that…
  • Starr (2010) stated…
  • As Starr (2010) noted…
  • In 2010, Starr reported…
  • In the words of Starr (2010)…
  • It is obvious, according to Starr (2010), that…
  • Starr (2010) argued that…
  • Starr (2010) disagreed when she said…
  • Starr (2010) emphasized the importance of…
  • Starr (2010) suggested…
  • Starr observed in 2010 that…
  • Technology specialist, Linda Starr, claimed that…(2010).
  • …indicated Starr (2010).
  • …wrote Starr (2010)

Table 22.3 "Integrating Sources (Summarized or Paraphrased Ideas)" shows some actual examples of integrating sources within the guidelines of the three most common documentation formats. You should weave the cited details in with your ideas.

Table 22.3 Integrating Sources (Summarized or Paraphrased Ideas)

Table 22.4 Two Authors

Table 22.5 Multiple Authors

Table 22.6 Personal Communication

22.5 Developing a List of Sources

This appendix provides a general overview of some of the most common documentation guidelines for different types of sources. For situations not described in this appendix, such as types of sources not described in this chapter or situations where you elect to use footnotes or endnotes in addition to in-text, parenthetical citations, check the complete guidelines for the style you are using:

  • APA: http://www.apastyle.org
  • MLA: http://www.mla.org
  • CMS: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org

Some general online searches, especially those conducted on your library databases, are also likely to generate guidelines for a variety of documentation styles. Look for an opportunity to click on a “citation” or “documentation” icon, or ask a member of your college library staff for guidance. You can even get help through the word processing program you typically use. Microsoft Word, for instance, has an entire tab on the taskbar devoted to managing and documenting sources in all three of the styles featured here. Also, don’t forget the tip from Chapter 7 "Researching" about the free resources that abound on the web from various online writing labs (OWLs) managed by writing programs at colleges and universities across the country.

Each different documentation style has its own set of guidelines for creating a list of references at the end of the essay (called “works cited” in MLA, “references” in APA, and “bibliography” in CMS). This section includes citations for the sources included in other parts of this appendix. For additional citation styles, consult complete citation guidelines for the style you are using.

Source lists should always be in alphabetical order by the first word of each reference, and you should use hanging indentation (with the first line of each reference flush with the margin and subsequent lines indented one-half inch). Here are some of the most common types of entries you will be using for your references at the end of your research essays. These lists are by no means exhaustive, but you will note from the examples some of the most important differences in conventions of punctuation, font, and the exact content of each style.

Table 22.7 APA References

Table 22.8 MLA Works Cited

Table 22.9 CMS Bibliography

22.6 Using Other Formats

Although APA, MLA, and Chicago are the most widely used documentation styles, many other styles are used in specific situations. Some of these other styles are listed in Table 22.10 "Other Documentation Formats" . You can find more about them by searching online.

Table 22.10 Other Documentation Formats

IMAGES

  1. How to Write Appendix in Essay? Format

    definition of appendix in a research paper

  2. How to Write an Appendix for a Research Paper & Examples

    definition of appendix in a research paper

  3. Appendix

    definition of appendix in a research paper

  4. How to Properly Use an Appendix

    definition of appendix in a research paper

  5. How to Write an Appendix for a Research Paper

    definition of appendix in a research paper

  6. What does an appendix look like in a research paper

    definition of appendix in a research paper

VIDEO

  1. Appendix Cancer 2023 Symposium: General Session Part 1

  2. Meet the Foundations Webinar

  3. Appendix Cancer 2023 Symposium: Regional Session

  4. Appendix Cancer 2023 Symposium: Regional Session

  5. Appendix Cancer 2023 Symposium: General Session Part 3

  6. 9. How to write a research paper

COMMENTS

  1. Research Paper Appendix

    Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates. Published on August 4, 2022 by Tegan George and Kirsten Dingemanse. Revised on July 18, 2023. An appendix is a supplementary document that facilitates your reader's understanding of your research but is not essential to your core argument. Appendices are a useful tool for providing additional information or clarification in a research paper ...

  2. Appendix in Research Paper

    Appendix in Research Paper. Appendix in a research paper is a section located at the end of the document that contains supplementary material that is not essential to the main body of the research paper but is helpful to the reader in understanding the research study.. This supplementary material can include raw data, statistical analyses, graphs, charts, questionnaires, maps, and other ...

  3. How to Create an APA Style Appendix

    Appendix format example. The appendix label appears at the top of the page, bold and centered. On the next line, include a descriptive title, also bold and centered. The text is presented in general APA format: left-aligned, double-spaced, and with page numbers in the top right corner. Start a new page for each new appendix.

  4. Appendices

    The order they are presented is dictated by the order they are mentioned in the text of your research paper. The heading should be "Appendix," followed by a letter or number [e.g., "Appendix A" or "Appendix 1"], centered and written in bold type. If there is a table of contents, the appendices must be listed.

  5. How To Write A Research Paper Appendix: A Step-by-Step Guide

    Insert Table: Once your data is selected, go to the "Insert" menu, then select "Table. Create Table: A dialog box will appear, confirming the selected data range. Make sure the "Use the first row as headers" option is checked if your data has headers. Click "Insert.".

  6. Research Paper Appendix

    It is important that you refer to each of your appendices at least once in the main body of your paper. This can be done by mentioning the appendix and its number or letter, either in parentheses or within the main part of a sentence. It is also possible to refer to a particular component of an appendix. Example 1. Referring to an entire appendix.

  7. Appendices

    Label the appendices: Label each appendix with a capital letter (e.g., "Appendix A," "Appendix B," etc.) and provide a brief descriptive title that summarizes the content. F ormat the appendices: Follow the same formatting style as the rest of your paper or report. Use the same font, margins, and spacing to maintain consistency.

  8. What is an appendix in a paper

    An appendix is a section of a paper that features supporting information not included in the main text. The appendix of a paper consists of supporting information for the research that is not necessary to include in the text. This section provides further insight into the topic of research but happens to be too complex or too broad to add to ...

  9. APA Appendix: How to Write an Appendix in APA Format

    Put the appendix label centered at the top of the page. On the next line under the appendix label, place the centered title of the appendix. If you refer to a source in your appendix, include an in-text citation just as you would in the main body of your paper and then include the source in your main reference section.

  10. LibGuides: APA 7th edition

    Information in this section is as outlined in the APA Publication Manual (2020), sections 2.14, 2.17, 2.24, and 7.6. Appendices are used to include information that supplement the paper's content but are considered distracting or inappropriate for the overall topic. It is recommended to only include an appendix if it helps the reader ...

  11. What is an Appendix in a Research Paper: Structure & Format

    The definition of this term is simple. An appendix is an academic work section that contains additional information (statistics, references, tables, figures, etc.) that cannot be included in the main text. This component is usually placed after the reference list at the end of a research paper or dissertation. The purpose of this text component ...

  12. Organizing Academic Research Papers: Appendices

    Each appendix begins on a new page. The order they are presented is dictated by the order they are mentioned in the text of your research paper. The heading should be "Appendix," followed by a letter or number [e.g., "Appendix A" or "Appendix 1"], centered and written in bold. Appendices must be listed in the table of contents [if used].

  13. APA Appendix ~ Construction, Rules & Examples

    An appendix is derived from the Latin "appendere" ("to add"). In academic terminology, an appendix is the end section of a paper where extra information is provided for the reader. The plural of appendix is appendices. Appendices often consist of research materials in the form of tables and figures, but textual appendices are also ...

  14. What Is a Research Paper Appendix?

    An appendix is a section added to the end of a research paper to give readers extra information. Appendices are labeled with numbers or letters and are often a good place to include data that might be distracting in the main text.

  15. Everything You Need to Know About Appendices in Writing

    Appendices are sections at the end of academic writing with nonessential information on the topic that still might be helpful for the reader. The key word there is nonessential —any information that is essential to the topic should be included in the main body of the paper. In other words, your paper should make sense without the appendices.

  16. General Research Paper Guidelines:

    An appendix or appendices should always be inserted after your Reference List; however, the appropriateness of appendix content really depends on the nature and scope of your research paper. For a more in-depth review of what supplemental materials might be included in a social science appendix, be sure to review Section 2.14 "Appendices ...

  17. What Is an Appendix? Structure, Format & Examples

    Essentially, an appendix is a compilation of the references cited in an academic paper, prevalent in academic journals, which can be found in any academic publication, including books. Professors frequently require their students to include an appendix in their work. Incorporating an appendix in your written piece can aid readers in ...

  18. How to Write an Appendix for a Research Paper & Examples

    Step 1. Make an Appendix: Include Your Data. When creating an appendix, include extra data in their raw form. That is, you might not have used some details in your main paper. But you want a reader to know more information. For example, it can be calculations, some results of which are mentioned in your main text.

  19. How to Write an Appendix for a Research Paper in 4 Steps

    Step1: Create an Appendix and Add Your Data. Add supplementary data in its unprocessed state when composing an appendix. In other words, it is possible that some details were left out of your main paper. However, you would prefer the reader to have more details.

  20. Use an Appendix or Annex in Your Research Paper?

    The terms "appendix" and "annex" are commonly confused in research papers. While the use of an appendix is more common, the annex can also be a valuable way of supplementing your research. Both the appendix and the annex add supporting/supplementary information (SI), like tables and graphs, datasets, or transcriptions.

  21. Tables, Images, & Appendices

    For some papers and reports, you may choose to add a table, graph, chart, or image within the body of the draft. Or you may choose to include an appendix at the end of your paper. These can help to provide a visual representation of data or other information that you wish to relay to your reader. Follow the guidance below to understand when and ...

  22. Dissertation Appendix ~ Components, Format & Examples

    An appendix is an integral part of every dissertation paper, serving as supplementary material that enhances and supports the research study. However, only a few people understand what the section is, where it must be placed, and why it must be included in a dissertation.Therefore, while not typically central to the dissertation's argument, the appendix adds valuable context and transparency ...

  23. Appendix B: A Guide to Research and Documentation

    For the purposes of this appendix, we will confine ourselves to the three documentation formats that will be the most common in your undergraduate courses: the style manuals from APA and MLA, as well as CMS. (Other formats are listed at the end of this appendix. Also, note this appendix explains the "Notes-Bibliography" system of CMS, used ...