100 Best Case Study Questions for Your Next Customer Spotlight

Brittany Fuller

Published: November 29, 2022

Case studies and testimonials are helpful to have in your arsenal. But to build an effective library, you need to ask the right case study questions. You also need to know how to write a case study .

marketing team coming up with case study questions

Case studies are customers' stories that your sales team can use to share relevant content with prospects . Not only that, but case studies help you earn a prospect's trust, show them what life would be like as your customer, and validate that your product or service works for your clients.

Before you start building your library of case studies, check out our list of 100 case study questions to ask your clients. With this helpful guide, you'll have the know-how to build your narrative using the " Problem-Agitate-Solve " Method.

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What makes a good case study questionnaire?

The ultimate list of case study questions, how to ask your customer for a case study, creating an effective case study.

Certain key elements make up a good case study questionnaire.

A questionnaire should never feel like an interrogation. Instead, aim to structure your case study questions like a conversation. Some of the essential things that your questionnaire should cover include:

  • The problem faced by the client before choosing your organization.
  • Why they chose your company.
  • How your product solved the problem clients faced.
  • The measurable results of the service provided.
  • Data and metrics that prove the success of your service or product, if possible.

You can adapt these considerations based on how your customers use your product and the specific answers or quotes that you want to receive.

What makes a good case study question?

A good case study question delivers a powerful message to leads in the decision stage of your prospective buyer's journey.

Since your client has agreed to participate in a case study, they're likely enthusiastic about the service you provide. Thus, a good case study question hands the reins over to the client and opens a conversation.

Try asking open-ended questions to encourage your client to talk about the excellent service or product you provide.

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Categories for the Best Case Study Questions

  • Case study questions about the customer's business
  • Case study questions about the environment before the purchase
  • Case study questions about the decision process
  • Case study questions about the customer's business case
  • Case study questions about the buying team and internal advocates
  • Case study questions about customer success
  • Case study questions about product feedback
  • Case study questions about willingness to make referrals
  • Case study question to prompt quote-worthy feedback
  • Case study questions about the customers' future goals

case study questions and answers for interview

Showcase your company's success using these three free case study templates.

  • Data-Driven Case Study Template
  • Product-Specific Case Study Template
  • General Case Study Template

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Case Study Interview Questions About the Customer's Business

Knowing the customer's business is an excellent way of setting the tone for a case study.

Use these questions to get some background information about the company and its business goals. This information can be used to introduce the business at the beginning of the case study — plus, future prospects might resonate with their stories and become leads for you.

  • Would you give me a quick overview of [company]? This is an opportunity for the client to describe their business in their own words. You'll get useful background information and it's an easy prompt to get the client talking.
  • Can you describe your role? This will give you a better idea of the responsibilities they are subject to.
  • How do your role and team fit into the company and its goals? Knowing how the team functions to achieve company goals will help you formulate how your solution involves all stakeholders.
  • How long has your company been in business? Getting this information will help the reader gauge if pain points are specific to a startup or new company vs. a veteran company.
  • How many employees do you have? Another great descriptor for readers to have. They can compare the featured company size with their own.
  • Is your company revenue available? If so, what is it? This will give your readers background information on the featured company's gross sales.
  • Who is your target customer? Knowing who the target audience is will help you provide a better overview of their market for your case study readers.
  • How does our product help your team or company achieve its objectives? This is one of the most important questions because it is the basis of the case study. Get specifics on how your product provided a solution for your client. You want to be able to say "X company implemented our solution and achieved Y. "
  • How are our companies aligned (mission, strategy, culture, etc.)? If any attributes of your company's mission or culture appealed to the client, call it out.

How many people are on your team? What are their roles? This will help describe key players within the organization and their impact on the implementation of your solution.


Case Study Interview Questions About the Environment Before the Purchase

A good case study is designed to build trust. Ask clients to describe the tools and processes they used before your product or service. These kinds of case study questions will highlight the business' need they had to fulfill and appeal to future clients.

  • What was your team's process prior to using our product? This will give the reader a baseline to compare the results for your company's product.
  • Were there any costs associated with the process prior to using our product? Was it more expensive? Was it worth the cost? How did the product affect the client's bottom line? This will be a useful metric to disclose if your company saved the client money or was more cost-efficient.
  • What were the major pain points of your process prior to using our product? Describe these obstacles in detail. You want the reader to get as much information on the problem as possible as it sets up the reasoning for why your company's solution was implemented.
  • Did our product replace a similar tool or is this the first time your team is using a product like this? Were they using a similar product? If so, having this information may give readers a reason to choose your brand over the competition.
  • What other challenges were you and your team experiencing prior to using our product? The more details you can give readers regarding the client's struggles, the better. You want to paint a full picture of the challenges the client faced and how your company resolved them.
  • Were there any concerns about how your customers would be impacted by using our product? Getting answers to this question will illustrate to readers the client's concerns about switching to your service. Your readers may have similar concerns and reading how your client worked through this process will be helpful.
  • Why didn't you buy our product or a similar product earlier? Have the client describe any hesitations they had using your product. Their concerns may be relatable to potential leads.
  • Were there any "dealbreakers" involved in your decision to become a customer? Describing how your company was able to provide a solution that worked within those parameters demonstrates how accommodating your brand is and how you put the customer first. It's also great to illustrate any unique challenges the client had. This better explains their situation to the reader.
  • Did you have to make any changes you weren't anticipating once you became a customer? Readers of your case study can learn how switching to your product came with some unexpected changes (good or bad) and how they navigated them. If you helped your client with troubleshooting, ask them to explain that here.

How has your perception of the product changed since you've become a customer? Get the interviewee to describe how your product changed how they do business. This includes how your product accomplished what they previously thought was impossible.


Case Study Interview Questions About the Decision Process

Readers of the case study will be interested in which factors influenced the decision-making process for the client. If they can relate to that process, there's a bigger chance they'll buy your product.

The answers to these questions will help potential customers through their decision-making process.

  • How did you hear about our product? If the client chose to work with you based on a recommendation or another positive case study, include that. It will demonstrate that you are a trusted brand with an established reputation for delivering results.
  • How long had you been looking for a solution to this problem? This will add to the reader's understanding of how these particular challenges impacted the company before choosing your product.
  • Were you comparing alternative solutions? Which ones? This will demonstrate to readers that the client explored other options before choosing your company.
  • Would you describe a few of the reasons you decided to buy our product? Ask the interviewee to describe why they chose your product over the competition and any benefits your company offered that made you stand out.
  • What were the criteria you used when deciding to buy our product? This will give readers more background insight into the factors that impacted their decision-making process.
  • Were there any high-level initiatives or goals that prompted the decision to buy? For example, was this decision motivated by a company-wide vision? Prompt your clients to discuss what lead to the decision to work with you and how you're the obvious choice.
  • What was the buying process like? Did you notice anything exceptional or any points of friction? This is an opportunity for the client to comment on how seamless and easy you make the buying process. Get them to describe what went well from start to finish.
  • How would you have changed the buying process, if at all? This is an opportunity for you to fine-tune your process to accommodate future buyers.
  • Who on your team was involved in the buying process? This will give readers more background on the key players involved from executives to project managers. With this information, readers can see who they may potentially need to involve in the decision-making process on their teams.


Case Study Interview Questions About the Customer's Business Case

Your case study questions should ask about your product or solution's impact on the customer's employees, teams, metrics, and goals. These questions allow the client to praise the value of your service and tell others exactly what benefits they derived from it.

When readers review your product or service's impact on the client, it enforces the belief that the case study is credible.

  • How long have you been using our product? This will help readers gauge how long it took to see results and your overall satisfaction with the product or service.
  • How many different people at your company use our product? This will help readers gauge how they can adapt the product to their teams if similar in size.
  • Are there multiple departments or teams using our product? This will demonstrate how great of an impact your product has made across departments.
  • How do you and your team currently use the product? What types of goals or tasks are you using the product to accomplish? Get specifics on how the product actively helps the client achieve their goals.
  • If other teams or departments are using our product, do you know how they're using it? With this information, leads can picture how they can use your product across their teams and how it may improve their workflow and metrics.
  • What was the most obvious advantage you felt our product offered during the sales process? The interviewee should explain the benefits they've gained from using your product or service. This is important for convincing other leads you are better than the competition.
  • Were there any other advantages you discovered after using the product more regularly? Your interviewee may have experienced some additional benefits from using your product. Have them describe in detail what these advantages are and how they've helped the company improve.
  • Are there any metrics or KPIs you track with our product? What are they? The more numbers and data the client can provide, the better.
  • Were you tracking any metrics prior to using our product? What were they? This will allow readers to get a clear, before-and-after comparison of using your product.
  • How has our product impacted your core metrics? This is an opportunity for your clients to drive home how your product assisted them in hitting their metrics and goals.


Case Study Interview Questions About the Buying Team and Internal Advocates

See if there are any individuals at the customer's company who are advocates for your product.

  • Are there any additional team members you consider to be advocates for our product? For example, does anyone stick out as a "power user" or product expert on your team? You may want to interview and include these power users in your case study as well. Consider asking them for tips on using your service or product.
  • Is there anyone else on your team you think we should talk to? Again, the more people can share their experience using your product, the better.
  • Are there any team members who you think might not be the biggest fans of our product or who might need more training? Providing extra support to those struggling with your product may improve their user experience and turn into an opportunity to not only learn about their obstacles but turn them into a product fan
  • Would you share some details about how your team implemented our product? Get as much information as possible about the rollout. Hopefully, they'll gush about how seamless the process was.
  • Who from your company was involved in implementing our product? This will give readers more insight into who needs to be involved for a successful rollout of their own.
  • Were there any internal risks or additional costs involved with implementing our product? If so, how did you address them? This will give insight into the client's process and rollout and this case study question will likely provide tips on what potential leads should be on the lookout for.
  • Is there a training process in place for your team's use of our product? If so, what does it look like? If your company provided support and training to the client, have them describe that experience.
  • About how long does it take a new team member to get up to speed with our product? This will help leads determine how much time it will take to onboard an employee to your using your product. If a new user can quickly get started seamlessly, it bodes well for you.
  • What was your main concern about rolling this product out to your company? Describing their challenges in detail will provide readers with useful insight.


Case Study Interview Questions About Customer Success

Has the customer found success with your product? Ask these questions to learn more.

  • By using our product can you measure any reduced costs? If it has, you'll want to emphasize those savings in your case study.
  • By using our product can you measure any improvements in productivity or time savings? Any metrics or specific stories your interviewee can provide will help demonstrate the value of your product.
  • By using our product can you measure any increases in revenue or growth? Again, say it with numbers and data whenever possible.
  • Are you likely to recommend our product to a friend or colleague? Recommendations from existing customers are some of the best marketing you can get.
  • How has our product impacted your success? Your team's success? Getting the interviewee to describe how your product played an integral role in solving their challenges will show leads that they can also have success using your product.
  • In the beginning, you had XYZ concerns; how do you feel about them now? Let them explain how working with your company eliminated those concerns.
  • I noticed your team is currently doing XYZ with our product. Tell me more about how that helps your business. Illustrate to your readers how current customers are using your product to solve additional challenges. It will convey how versatile your product is.
  • Have you thought about using our product for a new use case with your team or at your company? The more examples of use cases the client can provide, the better.
  • How do you measure the value our product provides? Have the interviewee illustrate what metrics they use to gauge the product's success and how. Data is helpful, but you should go beyond the numbers. Maybe your product improved company morale and how teams work together.


Case Study Interview Questions About Product Feedback

Ask the customer if they'd recommend your product to others. A strong recommendation will help potential clients be more open to purchasing your product.

  • How do other companies in this industry solve the problems you had before you purchased our product? This will give you insight into how other companies may be functioning without your product and how you can assist them.
  • Have you ever talked about our product to any of your clients or peers? What did you say? This can provide you with more leads and a chance to get a referral.
  • Why would you recommend our product to a friend or client? Be sure they pinpoint which features they would highlight in a recommendation.
  • Can you think of any use cases your customers might have for our product? Similar industries may have similar issues that need solutions. Your interviewee may be able to provide a use case you haven't come up with.
  • What is your advice for other teams or companies who are tackling problems similar to those you had before you purchased our product? This is another opportunity for your client to talk up your product or service.
  • Do you know someone in X industry who has similar problems to the ones you had prior to using our product? The client can make an introduction so you can interview them about their experience as well.
  • I noticed you work with Company Y. Do you know if they are having any pain points with these processes? This will help you learn how your product has impacted your client's customers and gain insight into what can be improved.
  • Does your company participate in any partner or referral programs? Having a strong referral program will help you increase leads and improve customer retention.
  • Can I send you a referral kit as a thank-you for making a referral and give you the tools to refer someone to us? This is a great strategy to request a referral while rewarding your existing customers.
  • Are you interested in working with us to produce additional marketing content? The more opportunities you can showcase happy customers, the better.


Case Study Interview Questions About Willingness to Make Referrals

  • How likely are you to recommend our product to a friend or client? Ideally, they would definitely refer your product to someone they know.
  • Can you think of any use cases your customers might have for our product? Again, your interviewee is a great source for more leads. Similar industries may have similar issues that need solutions. They may be able to provide a use case you haven't come up with.
  • I noticed you work with Company Y; do you know if they are having any pain points with these processes? This will help you learn how your product has impacted your client's customers and gain insight into what can be improved.


Case Study Interview Questions to Prompt Quote-Worthy Feedback

Enhance your case study with quotable soundbites from the customer. By asking these questions, prospects have more insight into other clients and their success with your product — which helps build trust.

  • How would you describe your process in one sentence prior to using our product? Ideally, this sentence would quickly and descriptively sum up the most prominent pain point or challenge with the previous process.
  • What is your advice to others who might be considering our product? Readers can learn from your customer's experience.
  • What would your team's workflow or process be like without our product? This will drive home the value your product provides and how essential it is to their business.
  • Do you think the investment in our product was worthwhile? Why? Have your customer make the case for the value you provide.
  • What would you say if we told you our product would soon be unavailable? What would this mean to you? Again, this illustrates how integral your product is to their business.
  • How would you describe our product if you were explaining it to a friend? Your customers can often distill the value of your product to their friends better than you can.
  • What do you love about your job? Your company? This gives the reader more background on your customer and their industry.
  • What was the worst part of your process before you started using our product? Ideally, they'd reiterate how your product helped solve this challenge.
  • What do you love about our product? Another great way to get the customer's opinion about what makes your product worth it.
  • Why do you do business with us? Hopefully, your interviewee will share how wonderful your business relationship is.


Case Study Interview Questions About the Customers' Future Goals

Ask the customer about their goals, challenges, and plans for the future. This will provide insight into how a business can grow with your product.

  • What are the biggest challenges on the horizon for your industry? Chances are potential leads within the same industry will have similar challenges.
  • What are your goals for the next three months? Knowing their short-term goals will enable your company to get some quick wins for the client.
  • How would you like to use our product to meet those challenges and goals? This will help potential leads understand that your product can help their business as they scale and grow.
  • Is there anything we can do to help you and your team meet your goals? If you haven't covered it already, this will allow your interviewee to express how you can better assist them.
  • Do you think you will buy more, less, or about the same amount of our product next year? This can help you gauge how your product is used and why.
  • What are the growth plans for your company this year? Your team? This will help you gain insight into how your product can help them achieve future goals.
  • How can we help you meet your long-term goals? Getting specifics on the needs of your clients will help you create a unique solution designed for their needs.
  • What is the long-term impact of using our product? Get their feedback on how your product has created a lasting impact.
  • Are there any initiatives that you personally would like to achieve that our product or team can help with? Again, you want to continue to provide products that help your customers excel.
  • What will you need from us in the future? This will help you anticipate the customer's business needs.
  • Is there anything we can do to improve our product or process for working together in the future? The more feedback you can get about what is and isn't working, the better.


Before you can start putting together your case study, you need to ask your customer's permission.

If you have a customer who's seen success with your product, reach out to them. Use this template to get started:

Thank you & quick request

Hi [customer name],

Thanks again for your business — working with you to [solve X, launch Y, take advantage of Z opportunity] has been extremely rewarding, and I'm looking forward to more collaboration in the future.

[Name of your company] is building a library of case studies to include on our site. We're looking for successful companies using [product] to solve interesting challenges, and your team immediately came to mind. Are you open to [customer company name] being featured?

It should be a lightweight process — [I, a product marketer] will ask you roughly [10, 15, 20] questions via email or phone about your experience and results. This case study will include a blurb about your company and a link to your homepage (which hopefully will make your SEO team happy!)

In any case, thank you again for the chance to work with you, and I hope you have a great week.

[Your name]

case study questions and answers for interview

If one of your customers has recently passed along some praise (to you, their account manager, your boss; on an online forum; to another potential customer; etc.), then send them a version of this email:

Hey [customer name],

Thanks for the great feedback — I'm really glad to hear [product] is working well for you and that [customer company name] is getting the results you're looking for.

My team is actually in the process of building out our library of case studies, and I'd love to include your story. Happy to provide more details if you're potentially interested.

Either way, thank you again, and I look forward to getting more updates on your progress.

case study questions and answers for interview

You can also find potential case study customers by usage or product data. For instance, maybe you see a company you sold to 10 months ago just bought eight more seats or upgraded to a new tier. Clearly, they're happy with the solution. Try this template:

I saw you just [invested in our X product; added Y more users; achieved Z product milestone]. Congratulations! I'd love to share your story using [product] with the world -- I think it's a great example of how our product + a dedicated team and a good strategy can achieve awesome results.

Are you open to being featured? If so, I'll send along more details.

case study questions and answers for interview

Case Study Benefits

  • Case studies are a form of customer advocacy.
  • Case studies provide a joint-promotion opportunity.
  • Case studies are easily sharable.
  • Case studies build rapport with your customers.
  • Case studies are less opinionated than customer reviews.

1. Case studies are a form of customer advocacy.

If you haven't noticed, customers aren't always quick to trust a brand's advertisements and sales strategies.

With every other brand claiming to be the best in the business, it's hard to sort exaggeration from reality.

This is the most important reason why case studies are effective. They are testimonials from your customers of your service. If someone is considering your business, a case study is a much more convincing piece of marketing or sales material than traditional advertising.

2. Case studies provide a joint-promotion opportunity.

Your business isn't the only one that benefits from a case study. Customers participating in case studies benefit, too.

Think about it. Case studies are free advertisements for your customers, not to mention the SEO factor, too. While they're not promoting their products or services, they're still getting the word out about their business. And, the case study highlights how successful their business is — showing interested leads that they're on the up and up.

3. Case studies are easily sharable.

No matter your role on the sales team, case studies are great to have on hand. You can easily share them with leads, prospects, and clients.

Whether you embed them on your website or save them as a PDF, you can simply send a link to share your case study with others. They can share that link with their peers and colleagues, and so on.

Case studies can also be useful during a sales pitch. In sales, timing is everything. If a customer is explaining a problem that was solved and discussed in your case study, you can quickly find the document and share it with them.

4. Case studies build rapport with your customers.

While case studies are very useful, they do require some back and forth with your customers to obtain the exact feedback you're looking for.

Even though time is involved, the good news is this builds rapport with your most loyal customers. You get to know them on a personal level, and they'll become more than just your most valuable clients.

And, the better the rapport you have with them, the more likely they'll be to recommend your business, products, or services to others.

5. Case studies are less opinionated than customer reviews.

Data is the difference between a case study and a review. Customer reviews are typically based on the customer's opinion of your brand. While they might write a glowing review, it's completely subjective and there's rarely empirical evidence supporting their claim.

Case studies, on the other hand, are more data-driven. While they'll still talk about how great your brand is, they support this claim with quantitative data that's relevant to the reader. It's hard to argue with data.

An effective case study must be genuine and credible. Your case study should explain why certain customers are the right fit for your business and how your company can help meet their specific needs. That way, someone in a similar situation can use your case study as a testimonial for why they should choose your business.

Use the case study questions above to create an ideal customer case study questionnaire. By asking your customers the right questions, you can obtain valuable feedback that can be shared with potential leads and convert them into loyal customers.

Editor’s Note: This article was originally published in June 2021 and has been updated for comprehensiveness.


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9 Types of Questions in Actual Case Interviews

Case interviews at management consulting firms are among the most difficult job interviews, but they are also quite predictable. Once you know the types of questions they ask, preparation is straightforward.

Using years of experience at McKinsey, as well as field reports from thousands of candidates, I’ve crafted a list of 8 common case interview questions, and in this article, I’ll show you how to answer each of them.

Case interview questions – Overview

Types of case interview questions .

Most questions in case interviews belong to one of these 9 types:

1. Framework/issue tree questions 2. Market-sizing and guesstimate questions 3. Valuation questions 4. Brain teaser questions 5. Chart insight questions 6. Value proposition questions 7. Information questions 8. Math problems 9. Solution-finding questions

In this article, we’ll discuss how to answer each question, along with the necessary tips and tricks.

How to answer case interview questions

There are the fo ur basic steps to answer case interview questions:

  • Step 1: Clarify any unclear points in the question
  • Step 2: Announce approach and ask for time
  • Step 3: Draw issue trees to solve the given problem
  • Step 4: Pitch your answer and end with a takeaway conclusion.

This general outline may vary depending on each type and each question – for example, brain teasers or information questions need only the last step, while market-sizing and framework questions need all four steps to deliver the perfect answer.

Type 1 – Framework/Issue tree questions

These are on top of the list among popular case interview questions!

case study questions and answers for interview

If the interviewer asks you to identify factors contributing to a problem or to break down an entity (such as the revenue of a business), he/she is telling you to draw an issue tree.

And to draw a spot-on issue tree, you need to master consulting problem-solving foundations , the MECE principle , and common consulting frameworks . You should check out our other articles on these topics before moving on, because mastering the issue tree is the key to acing every possible case interview.

You also need good business intuition to draw good issue trees, so that’s all the more reason to start reading every day.

Gastronomia – a gourmet restaurant chain has found the turnover rate among its highly-skilled chefs increasing dramatically for the last 3 years; this has led to a noticeable decline in food quality and increased training costs, among other negative effects.

Which factors would you consider when tackling this turnover problem?

case study questions and answers for interview

Job: Factors from the job itself. Further divided into 3 sub-branches

  • Compensations: are the salaries, bonuses, and benefits attractive enough?
  • Difficulty: is the job too difficult?
  • Nature: is the job too boring, too unengaging, too repetitive…?

Company: Factors from the work environment within the restaurant chain, surrounding the affected jobs. Further divided into 2 sub-branches

  • Cultural environment: is the culture at Gastronomia compatible with the chefs?
  • Physical environment: is the physical working environment at Gastronomia safe, comfortable, convenient…?

Competitors: Factors from outside the restaurant chain, related to competing job offers. Further divided into 2 sub-branches.

  • Inside industry: are other restaurant chains competing with Gastronomia for skilled personnel?
  • Outside industry: are there new career options or changes in existing alternatives that draw chefs away from restaurant chains like Gastronomia?

For detailed guides on issue trees, frameworks and their principles, see the articles on Issue Trees , Case Interview Frameworks, and MECE Principle

Type 2 – Market-sizing & guesstimate

These questions go along the lines of “How many trees are there in Central Park?” or “What’s the market size of pick-up trucks in the USA?”

The key to nailing market-sizing and guesstimate questions lies in not the closest results, but the most logical and structured approaches. In fact, the interviewer expects you to follow these four steps:

Step 1: Clarify: Make sure you and the interviewer are on the same page regarding every detail and terminology, so you won’t be answering the wrong question.

Step 2: Break down the problem: Break the item in the question (number of trees in Central Park, market size of pickup trucks) down into smaller, easy-to-estimate pieces.

Step 3: Solve each piece: Estimate each small piece one at a time; each estimation should be backed by facts, figures, or at least observations.

Step 4: Consolidate the pieces: Combine the previous estimations to arrive at a final result; be quick with the math, but don’t rush it if you aren’t confident.

Unless you come up with something about 10 times the reasonable estimate, don’t worry about being “wrong” – the interviewer is unlikely to have a “correct” number in mind, he/she just wants to see your structured mindset.

This question type is so common, we devote a whole article to it, and our Case Interview End-to-End Secrets Program have a separate package on these questions. Check out our comprehensive guide on Market-Sizing & Guesstimate Questions for more details!

Now, here’s a quick example for you to try and get used to this type:

How many smartphones are sold each year, globally?

  • Smartphones are phones using exclusively touch-screens.
  • “Sold” means sold to the end-consumers. 
  • The market size is calculated at present.

Break down the problem:

The global smartphone market can be divided into three segments – developed countries, developing countries, and undeveloped countries.

In each segment, the annual unit sales of smartphones depend on four variables:

  • The percentage of “phone-owning age” people among the population
  • The percentage of smartphone owners within the “phone-owning age” group.
  • The average, annual, per capita “consumption” of smartphones for those owners.

Solve each piece:

  • The population is 1.5 billion in developed countries, 5.5 billion in developing countries, and 1 billion in undeveloped countries.
  • 80% of the world population is in the “phone-owning age” (Global life expectancy is 70 and everyone older than 15 years counts towards the “phone-owning age” group)
  • 100% of the phone-owning age in developed countries will own a smartphone; the figure in developing countries is 75%, while in undeveloped countries it’s 10%.
  • The average smartphone user replaces their phone every 3 years – so they “consume” 0.33 phones each year.

=> Estimated global smartphone market: 1.53 billion units per year

=> Actual 2019 global smartphone sales:  1.37 billion units (error margin: 11.7%).

This market-sizing question is solved using a four-step process, which is explained in this article:  Market-Sizing & Guesstimate Questions

Type 3 – Valuation questions

Valuation questions are about estimating the monetary value of a business, and these are very popular in case interviews too!

Valuation questions are a blend of guesstimation/market-sizing, math, and business. They also require basic finance knowledge. There are three ways to estimate the value of a business:

  • The NPV Method: take the net cash flow generated by the business, and discount it to the present to account for time value of money. Basically “this company is worth X dollars because it gives me Y dollars over Z years”. This approach works best when the cash flow from the business is positive and stable.
  • The Market Method: take one index of the firm (which can be stocks or anything depending on the industry) and multiply it with an industry multiple (the value of one unit of the said index). In other words, “this company is worth AxB dollars because it has A traffic and each traffic is worth B dollars”. This approach works best when the market is transparent and data on similar firms are accessible – usually with major, established industries such as commercial airlines.

In real case interviews, you have to justify your approach then ask the interviewer to give you the necessary data.

Our client wants to sell his organic-food restaurant (called “Cato’s Cabbage Farm”) to retire. How much is his restaurant worth?

(Supposed the interviewer gives you the following data: his current income from the restaurant is $100,000 per year; two other restaurants in the neighborhood – one with 2 times more customers, and another about 0.75 times, have been sold at $1,800,000 and $1,000,000 respectively).

NPV Method: Cato’s Cabbage Farm value = $100,000 / 10% = $1,000,000

Market Method:

Assume the number of customers for Cato’s Cabbage Farm is 1 “customer unit”, then the two neighborhood restaurants get 2 and 0.75 “customer units”.

  • Industry multiple: ($1,800,000+$1,000,000) / (2+0.75) = ~$1,018,182
  • Cato’s Cabbage Farm value = $1,018,182 x 1 = $1,018,182

Type 4 – Brain teasers

Brain teasers are the least predictable case interview questions – but even these can be learned!

Brain teasers are riddles designed to test unconventional, creative, and logical thinking. A famous example of this is Accenture’s “How do you put a giraffe in a fridge?”.

Although not as popular as before, brain teasers might still appear in consulting interviews; therefore, you should spend some time to prepare.

Most brain teasers can be allocated into these seven types:

  • Logical questions are pure logic riddles – there’s no trick, no illusion, no creativity.

In our Case Interview End-to-End Secrets Program , there are +200 brain teasers to help you prepare for these “unpredictable” questions. You can also read our article about Case Interview Brain Teasers for insights on all of these exciting brain teasers, as well as 30 example questions and answers!

How do you put a giraffe in a fridge?

Open the fridge, put the giraffe in, then close the fridge. The question never says how big the fridge or the giraffe is.

For the logic and approach behind each kind of brain teasers, see the article on Brain Teasers.

Type 5 – Chart insight questions

You can’t be a management consultant without mastering the use of charts – the complex, scary-looking real-world charts such as those included in our Case Interview End-to-End Secrets Program.

In management consulting and case interviews, most charts are one (or a combination) of these four basic types:

  • Bar charts compare the values of several items at one point in time, or 1-2 items at several time intervals.
  • Line charts illustrate time-series data, i.e trends in data over a continuous period.
  • Pie charts illustrate proportions, i.e “parts of a whole” analyses.
  • Scatter-plots use data points to visualize how two variables relate to each other.

To read these charts and answer chart-insights questions effectively, you must follow a structured, comprehensive process:

You can find a more detailed guide in the Charts section in our article about Consulting Math.

What can you draw from the following chart?

case study questions and answers for interview

Trends in chart:

  • Steady rise in the number of confirmed deaths to about 70-80 per million;
  • Both changes started around March 10-11.
  • These sudden rises can be explained by events occurring in early-March, and 2.
  • If number of cases is kept low, the threat from COVID-19 will remain minimal, considering a mortality rate of only 2%.

Type 6 – Value proposition questions

No business or consulting candidate can succeed without understanding the customers!

Value-proposition questions are not only about correctly identifying customer preferences, but also about analyzing and delivering the answer in a structured fashion. The former relies heavily on business knowledge and intuition, but the latter can be trained methodically and quickly. Personally, I use a “double issue-tree” – essentially a table with customer segments on one axis and proposed values on the other:

For segmenting customers, you can use the following table. However, don’t over-rely on it, since there may be more relevant and insightful question-specific segmentations.

In some cases, clarification is also necessary – both to avoid “answering the wrong question” and to narrow down the range of customers/values you need to cover in the answer.

What will a customer consider when buying a Toyota sedan?

Clarification: A sedan must be branded “Toyota” to be a Toyota sedan – cars with other Toyota-owned brands such as Lexus or Ranz do not count in this question.

Situational Assessment:

Toyota sedans occupy the entry-level and mid-range price segments, so Toyota customers will be more price-conscious than, for example, Lexus customers.

They are also less likely to lean considerably towards one particular factor, so achieving a balance is extremely important.

Functionality factors:

  • Comfort: Toyota sedans are mostly for everyday use, so customers should feel comfortable being inside the car.
  • Utility: Toyota sedans are used for multiple purposes, so convenience for a wide range of uses is important.

Cost factors

  • Purchase price: A car can be an expensive investment while Toyota’s low-to-mid-range customers are more price-conscious, so having a cheap/reasonable price is important.
  • Fuel and maintenance: Maintenance and fuel costs over time are likewise inversely related to the decision to buy a Toyota sedan.

Physical factors

  • Performance: Customers are usually drivers themselves, who often pay attention to the technical characteristics of the car (speed, acceleration, handling, etc.)
  • Visual design: The car should possess the same level of visual appeal as other competitors in the same segment.
  • Build quality: Parts of the car should be assembled in a reasonably good manner.

Emotional factors

  • Branding: The car should come from a well-known, reputable brand
  • Personal preferences: Some customers choose specific cars simply because they “like” the car.

Type 7 – Information questions

In any problem-solving process, information is one of the overarching concerns!

“Information questions” essentially ask if the piece of data you use is obtainable in the first place. In real consulting work, data is not always available – client team members may refuse to cooperate or there’s simply no data on the subject.

There are many kinds of information sources in case interviews/consulting works, but I’ll divide them into primary and secondary sources. Primary sources means you must do the research yourself (or pay someone else to do it for you), such as customer surveys or mystery shoppings. If someone already did that research, and you use their results, it’s called a secondary source – you can get these from the client , the consulting firm you work for, or third-parties such as market research firms or external industry experts.

You can find out more about these sources and how to cite them in real case interviews through this free Prospective Candidate Starter Pack, which contains a glossary of data sources in consulting.

Our Prospective Candidate Starter Pack has a sheet containing all the possible sources of information in case interviews and consulting projects, among numerous other free resources; you can download and use it to answer these questions, by subscribing to our newsletter at the end of this article.

How do you assess your target customer’s preferences for sports cars?

Primary sources: customer survey, customer interviews, Secondary sources: industry reports, client sales reports, third-party expert interview, client expert interview

Type 8 – Math problems

A lot of information in case interviews and consulting work comes in the quantitative form, so you won’t escape Math by joining the consulting industry!

When you have to do the math, perform back-of-the-envelope calculations in a structured fashion, and say out loud what you’re writing. For one thing, it’s safe; for another, you show that you’re careful, organized, and reliable – just like actual consultants.

We have a Math Practice Tool right here! Use it every day, and you’ll be a master of mental calculations in no time flat!

We have a dedicated article on Consulting Math, which you should definitely read.

Type 9 – Solution-finding questions

What’s the point of analyzing a problem, if not to solve it?!

When dealing with solution questions, keep these four points in mind:

  • Firstly, in case interviews as well as real consulting projects, solutions must always solve every root cause of a problem, so remember to check if your solutions are relevant and comprehensive.
  • Secondly, every solution must be actionable – if your solutions are too expensive, too time-consuming, etc. for the client, they’re useless.
  • Thirdly, the interview expects a highly-structured answer; so segment your solutions based on their characteristics (long-term vs short-term is the easiest segmentation)

case study questions and answers for interview

Last but not least, deliver at least two solutions, preferably three to five. Otherwise, you’ll appear uncreative and lazy to the interviewer’s eyes.

Nailing these questions relies on having excellent business intuition; our Case Interview End-to-End Program has a dedicated Business Intuition package, but you should also train a habit of reading consulting and business articles daily, to sharpen your business mind.

A restaurant that relies solely on on-premise dining found the loss of adjacent parking space (due to termination of contract) harming their revenue. How can they fix that?

The solutions for the restaurant’s parking space problem can be divided into two types:

  • Short-term solutions: Find new parking space around the neighborhood, or renegotiate for old parking space (possibly at a higher price).
  • Long-term solutions: Introduce takeaway items and off-premise dining.

Reminders on case interview questions

The questions are not clear-cut in candidate-led cases.

There are two extremes in consulting case interview format: interviewer-led (McKinsey) and candidate-led (BCG, Bain).

Interviewer-led cases, on one hand, consist of multiple, clear-cut questions in a larger business case context; the candidate navigates through these questions to arrive at the solutions.

Candidate-led cases, on the other hand, have one big problem, which the candidate must break down into small pieces to identify the root causes and deliver solutions.

This list, therefore, is much more relevant to the interviewer-led format; nonetheless, this guide is still quite beneficial for candidate-led cases, because when solving that big problem, you’ll have to tackle small issues similar to the 8 aforementioned question types.

Mastering the fundamentals is crucial to consistent performance

Although it’s good to study the case interview questions, it is no substitute for mastering the fundamental principles.

Learning the exercises without the basics is like building a house without a foundation. My poor neighbor’s house developed a huge crack right down the center because of its weak foundation, so make sure to build your case interview prep a strong one by knowing the basics first.

Once you’ve mastered the fundamentals, you’ll become much more flexible – this quality is getting increasingly important because case interviews are getting less predictable, and more realistic.

If you haven’t, I advise you to read these articles (especially the first 4) before practicing the question types:

  • Case Interview 101
  • Issue Tree – The Complete Guide
  • MECE Principle
  • Case Interview Frameworks
  • McKinsey Case Interview – Interviewer-led Format
  • BCG & Bain Case Interview – Candidate-led Format

Expect the unexpected

If you study those nine question types, rest assured that you’ve covered the majority of questions in case interviews.

However, these are not all the possible questions you might be given. In actual cases, there are always questions that cannot be categorized neatly. If you do not prepare for these questions, it’s easy to be thrown off-balance.

So, how do you prepare for “the unexpected”?

  • Master the basics: Focus your efforts on the basics, once you’ve mastered them it’d be comfortable to move on to higher, more sophisticated levels.
  • Business Intuition : You need business intuition for a business-related job, it’s simple as that. Nearly every case concerns business in one way or another – even public sector cases. This is why we also teach business intuition in our Case Interview E2E Secret Program.
  • Have mock case interviews : Practice case interviews with ex-consultants will help you get a sense of what might happen or how you might be evaluated in actual cases. Highly experienced coaches from MConsultingPrep will review your performance, giving you the most valuable feedback and actionable tips & techniques.

Scoring in the McKinsey PSG/Digital Assessment

The scoring mechanism in the McKinsey Digital Assessment

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Elevate your case interview skills with a well-rounded preparation package

Six types of charts in case interview are: Bar/Column chart, Line chart, Percentage chart, Mekko chart, Scatter plot chart, Waterfall chart.

A case interview is where candidates is asked to solve a business problem. They are used by consulting firms to evaluate problem-solving skill & soft skills

Case interview frameworks are methods for addressing and solving business cases.  A framework can be extensively customized or off-the-shelf for specific cases.

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Case Interview: Complete Prep Guide

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Welcome to our preparation tips for case interviews!  Whether you are just curious about case interviews or are planning to apply for consulting internships or full-time jobs, these tips and resources will help you feel more prepared and confident.

case study questions and answers for interview

A case interview is a role playing exercise in which an employer assesses how logically and persuasively you can present a case. Rather than seeing if you get the “correct” answer, the objective is to evaluate your thought process. ( Adapted with permission from Case In Point: Complete Case Interview Preparation by Marc Cosentino). 

Case interviews are very commonly used in the interview process for consulting firms and companies in similar industries. In the case interview, you will typically be given a business problem and then asked to solve it in a structured way. Learning this structure takes preparation and practice. You can learn more and practice using the resources listed below.  

Why are Case Interviews Used?

Case interviews allow employers to test and evaluate the following skills:

  • Analytical skills and logical ability to solve problems
  • Structure and thought process
  • Ability to ask for relevant data/information
  • Tolerance for ambiguity and data overload
  • Poise and communication skills under pressure and in front of a client

How can I prepare for Case Interviews?

1.) Read Management Consulted’s “Case Interview: Complete Prep Guide (2024)”

Management Consulted is a FREE resource for Tufts students : case and consulting resources such as 500 sample cases, Case Interview Bootcamp,  Market Sizing Drills, Math Drills, case videos, consulting firm directory, and more

2.) Review additional resources:

  • Case in Point – This book, by Marc Cosentino, is a comprehensive guide that walks you through the case interview process from beginning to end. This guide has helped many students over the years and can serve as an excellent foundation for how to approach business problems
  • Casequestions.com – The companion website to Marc Cosentino’s book listed above offers preparation for case interviews, along with links to top 50 consulting firms
  • Management Consulting Case Interviews: Cracking The Case – tips for case interviews from the other side of the table, from Argopoint, a Boston management consulting firm specializing in legal department consulting for Fortune 500 companies
  • Preplounge.com – Free case preparation access for to up to 6 practice interviews with peers, selected cases, and video case solutions
  • RocketBlocks – Features consulting preparation such as drills and coaching
  • Practice sample online cases on consulting firm websites such as McKinsey , BCG , Bain , Deloitte and more!  

3.) Schedule a mock case interview appointment with  Karen Dankers or Kathy Spillane , our advisors for the Finance, Consulting, Entrepreneurship, and Business Career Community.

4.) PRACTICE PRACTICE PRACTICE cases out loud on your own (yes, that can feel odd) or preferably, with another person. See #2 and #3 above for resources and ideas to find partners to practice live cases

5.) Enjoy and have fun solving business problems!

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20+ Data Science Case Study Interview Questions (with Solutions)

2024 Guide: 20+ Essential Data Science Case Study Interview Questions

Case studies are often the most challenging aspect of data science interview processes. They are crafted to resemble a company’s existing or previous projects, assessing a candidate’s ability to tackle prompts, convey their insights, and navigate obstacles.

To excel in data science case study interviews, practice is crucial. It will enable you to develop strategies for approaching case studies, asking the right questions to your interviewer, and providing responses that showcase your skills while adhering to time constraints.

The best way of doing this is by using a framework for answering case studies. For example, you could use the product metrics framework and the A/B testing framework to answer most case studies that come up in data science interviews.

There are four main types of data science case studies:

  • Product Case Studies - This type of case study tackles a specific product or feature offering, often tied to the interviewing company. Interviewers are generally looking for a sense of business sense geared towards product metrics.
  • Data Analytics Case Study Questions - Data analytics case studies ask you to propose possible metrics in order to investigate an analytics problem. Additionally, you must write a SQL query to pull your proposed metrics, and then perform analysis using the data you queried, just as you would do in the role.
  • Modeling and Machine Learning Case Studies - Modeling case studies are more varied and focus on assessing your intuition for building models around business problems.
  • Business Case Questions - Similar to product questions, business cases tackle issues or opportunities specific to the organization that is interviewing you. Often, candidates must assess the best option for a certain business plan being proposed, and formulate a process for solving the specific problem.

How Case Study Interviews Are Conducted

Oftentimes as an interviewee, you want to know the setting and format in which to expect the above questions to be asked. Unfortunately, this is company-specific: Some prefer real-time settings, where candidates actively work through a prompt after receiving it, while others offer some period of days (say, a week) before settling in for a presentation of your findings.

It is therefore important to have a system for answering these questions that will accommodate all possible formats, such that you are prepared for any set of circumstances (we provide such a framework below).

Why Are Case Study Questions Asked?

Case studies assess your thought process in answering data science questions. Specifically, interviewers want to see that you have the ability to think on your feet, and to work through real-world problems that likely do not have a right or wrong answer. Real-world case studies that are affecting businesses are not binary; there is no black-and-white, yes-or-no answer. This is why it is important that you can demonstrate decisiveness in your investigations, as well as show your capacity to consider impacts and topics from a variety of angles. Once you are in the role, you will be dealing directly with the ambiguity at the heart of decision-making.

Perhaps most importantly, case interviews assess your ability to effectively communicate your conclusions. On the job, data scientists exchange information across teams and divisions, so a significant part of the interviewer’s focus will be on how you process and explain your answer.

Quick tip: Because case questions in data science interviews tend to be product- and company-focused, it is extremely beneficial to research current projects and developments across different divisions , as these initiatives might end up as the case study topic.

case study questions and answers for interview

How to Answer Data Science Case Study Questions (The Framework)


There are four main steps to tackling case questions in Data Science interviews, regardless of the type: clarify, make assumptions, gather context, and provide data points and analysis.

Step 1: Clarify

Clarifying is used to gather more information . More often than not, these case studies are designed to be confusing and vague. There will be unorganized data intentionally supplemented with extraneous or omitted information, so it is the candidate’s responsibility to dig deeper, filter out bad information, and fill gaps. Interviewers will be observing how an applicant asks questions and reach their solution.

For example, with a product question, you might take into consideration:

  • What is the product?
  • How does the product work?
  • How does the product align with the business itself?

Step 2: Make Assumptions

When you have made sure that you have evaluated and understand the dataset, start investigating and discarding possible hypotheses. Developing insights on the product at this stage complements your ability to glean information from the dataset, and the exploration of your ideas is paramount to forming a successful hypothesis. You should be communicating your hypotheses with the interviewer, such that they can provide clarifying remarks on how the business views the product, and to help you discard unworkable lines of inquiry. If we continue to think about a product question, some important questions to evaluate and draw conclusions from include:

  • Who uses the product? Why?
  • What are the goals of the product?
  • How does the product interact with other services or goods the company offers?

The goal of this is to reduce the scope of the problem at hand, and ask the interviewer questions upfront that allow you to tackle the meat of the problem instead of focusing on less consequential edge cases.

Step 3: Propose a Solution

Now that a hypothesis is formed that has incorporated the dataset and an understanding of the business-related context, it is time to apply that knowledge in forming a solution. Remember, the hypothesis is simply a refined version of the problem that uses the data on hand as its basis to being solved. The solution you create can target this narrow problem, and you can have full faith that it is addressing the core of the case study question.

Keep in mind that there isn’t a single expected solution, and as such, there is a certain freedom here to determine the exact path for investigation.

Step 4: Provide Data Points and Analysis

Finally, providing data points and analysis in support of your solution involves choosing and prioritizing a main metric. As with all prior factors, this step must be tied back to the hypothesis and the main goal of the problem. From that foundation, it is important to trace through and analyze different examples– from the main metric–in order to validate the hypothesis.

Quick tip: Every case question tends to have multiple solutions. Therefore, you should absolutely consider and communicate any potential trade-offs of your chosen method. Be sure you are communicating the pros and cons of your approach.

Note: In some special cases, solutions will also be assessed on the ability to convey information in layman’s terms. Regardless of the structure, applicants should always be prepared to solve through the framework outlined above in order to answer the prompt.

The Role of Effective Communication

There have been multiple articles and discussions conducted by interviewers behind the Data Science Case Study portion, and they all boil down success in case studies to one main factor: effective communication.

All the analysis in the world will not help if interviewees cannot verbally work through and highlight their thought process within the case study. Again, interviewers are keyed at this stage of the hiring process to look for well-developed “soft-skills” and problem-solving capabilities. Demonstrating those traits is key to succeeding in this round.

To this end, the best advice possible would be to practice actively going through example case studies, such as those available in the Interview Query questions bank . Exploring different topics with a friend in an interview-like setting with cold recall (no Googling in between!) will be uncomfortable and awkward, but it will also help reveal weaknesses in fleshing out the investigation.

Don’t worry if the first few times are terrible! Developing a rhythm will help with gaining self-confidence as you become better at assessing and learning through these sessions.

Product Case Study Questions


With product data science case questions , the interviewer wants to get an idea of your product sense intuition. Specifically, these questions assess your ability to identify which metrics should be proposed in order to understand a product.

1. How would you measure the success of private stories on Instagram, where only certain close friends can see the story?

Start by answering: What is the goal of the private story feature on Instagram? You can’t evaluate “success” without knowing what the initial objective of the product was, to begin with.

One specific goal of this feature would be to drive engagement. A private story could potentially increase interactions between users, and grow awareness of the feature.

Now, what types of metrics might you propose to assess user engagement? For a high-level overview, we could look at:

  • Average stories per user per day
  • Average Close Friends stories per user per day

However, we would also want to further bucket our users to see the effect that Close Friends stories have on user engagement. By bucketing users by age, date joined, or another metric, we could see how engagement is affected within certain populations, giving us insight on success that could be lost if looking at the overall population.

2. How would you measure the success of acquiring new users through a 30-day free trial at Netflix?

More context: Netflix is offering a promotion where users can enroll in a 30-day free trial. After 30 days, customers will automatically be charged based on their selected package. How would you measure acquisition success, and what metrics would you propose to measure the success of the free trial?

One way we can frame the concept specifically to this problem is to think about controllable inputs, external drivers, and then the observable output . Start with the major goals of Netflix:

  • Acquiring new users to their subscription plan.
  • Decreasing churn and increasing retention.

Looking at acquisition output metrics specifically, there are several top-level stats that we can look at, including:

  • Conversion rate percentage
  • Cost per free trial acquisition
  • Daily conversion rate

With these conversion metrics, we would also want to bucket users by cohort. This would help us see the percentage of free users who were acquired, as well as retention by cohort.

3. How would you measure the success of Facebook Groups?

Start by considering the key function of Facebook Groups . You could say that Groups are a way for users to connect with other users through a shared interest or real-life relationship. Therefore, the user’s goal is to experience a sense of community, which will also drive our business goal of increasing user engagement.

What general engagement metrics can we associate with this value? An objective metric like Groups monthly active users would help us see if Facebook Groups user base is increasing or decreasing. Plus, we could monitor metrics like posting, commenting, and sharing rates.

There are other products that Groups impact, however, specifically the Newsfeed. We need to consider Newsfeed quality and examine if updates from Groups clog up the content pipeline and if users prioritize those updates over other Newsfeed items. This evaluation will give us a better sense of if Groups actually contribute to higher engagement levels.

4. How would you analyze the effectiveness of a new LinkedIn chat feature that shows a “green dot” for active users?

Note: Given engineering constraints, the new feature is impossible to A/B test before release. When you approach case study questions, remember always to clarify any vague terms. In this case, “effectiveness” is very vague. To help you define that term, you would want first to consider what the goal is of adding a green dot to LinkedIn chat.

Data Science Product Case Study (LinkedIn InMail, Facebook Chat)

5. How would you diagnose why weekly active users are up 5%, but email notification open rates are down 2%?

What assumptions can you make about the relationship between weekly active users and email open rates? With a case question like this, you would want to first answer that line of inquiry before proceeding.

Hint: Open rate can decrease when its numerator decreases (fewer people open emails) or its denominator increases (more emails are sent overall). Taking these two factors into account, what are some hypotheses we can make about our decrease in the open rate compared to our increase in weekly active users?

Data Analytics Case Study Questions

Data analytics case studies ask you to dive into analytics problems. Typically these questions ask you to examine metrics trade-offs or investigate changes in metrics. In addition to proposing metrics, you also have to write SQL queries to generate the metrics, which is why they are sometimes referred to as SQL case study questions .

6. Using the provided data, generate some specific recommendations on how DoorDash can improve.

In this DoorDash analytics case study take-home question you are provided with the following dataset:

  • Customer order time
  • Restaurant order time
  • Driver arrives at restaurant time
  • Order delivered time
  • Customer ID
  • Amount of discount
  • Amount of tip

With a dataset like this, there are numerous recommendations you can make. A good place to start is by thinking about the DoorDash marketplace, which includes drivers, riders and merchants. How could you analyze the data to increase revenue, driver/user retention and engagement in that marketplace?

7. After implementing a notification change, the total number of unsubscribes increases. Write a SQL query to show how unsubscribes are affecting login rates over time.

This is a Twitter data science interview question , and let’s say you implemented this new feature using an A/B test. You are provided with two tables: events (which includes login, nologin and unsubscribe ) and variants (which includes control or variant ).

We are tasked with comparing multiple different variables at play here. There is the new notification system, along with its effect of creating more unsubscribes. We can also see how login rates compare for unsubscribes for each bucket of the A/B test.

Given that we want to measure two different changes, we know we have to use GROUP BY for the two variables: date and bucket variant. What comes next?

8. Write a query to disprove the hypothesis: Data scientists who switch jobs more often end up getting promoted faster.

More context: You are provided with a table of user experiences representing each person’s past work experiences and timelines.

This question requires a bit of creative problem-solving to understand how we can prove or disprove the hypothesis. The hypothesis is that a data scientist that ends up switching jobs more often gets promoted faster.

Therefore, in analyzing this dataset, we can prove this hypothesis by separating the data scientists into specific segments on how often they jump in their careers.

For example, if we looked at the number of job switches for data scientists that have been in their field for five years, we could prove the hypothesis that the number of data science managers increased as the number of career jumps also rose.

  • Never switched jobs: 10% are managers
  • Switched jobs once: 20% are managers
  • Switched jobs twice: 30% are managers
  • Switched jobs three times: 40% are managers

9. Write a SQL query to investigate the hypothesis: Click-through rate is dependent on search result rating.

More context: You are given a table with search results on Facebook, which includes query (search term), position (the search position), and rating (human rating from 1 to 5). Each row represents a single search and includes a column has_clicked that represents whether a user clicked or not.

This question requires us to formulaically do two things: create a metric that can analyze a problem that we face and then actually compute that metric.

Think about the data we want to display to prove or disprove the hypothesis. Our output metric is CTR (clickthrough rate). If CTR is high when search result ratings are high and CTR is low when the search result ratings are low, then our hypothesis is proven. However, if the opposite is true, CTR is low when the search result ratings are high, or there is no proven correlation between the two, then our hypothesis is not proven.

With that structure in mind, we can then look at the results split into different search rating buckets. If we measure the CTR for queries that all have results rated at 1 and then measure CTR for queries that have results rated at lower than 2, etc., we can measure to see if the increase in rating is correlated with an increase in CTR.

10. How would you help a supermarket chain determine which product categories should be prioritized in their inventory restructuring efforts?

You’re working as a Data Scientist in a local grocery chain’s data science team. The business team has decided to allocate store floor space by product category (e.g., electronics, sports and travel, food and beverages). Help the team understand which product categories to prioritize as well as answering questions such as how customer demographics affect sales, and how each city’s sales per product category differs.

Check out our Data Analytics Learning Path .

Modeling and Machine Learning Case Questions

Machine learning case questions assess your ability to build models to solve business problems. These questions can range from applying machine learning to solve a specific case scenario to assessing the validity of a hypothetical existing model . The modeling case study requires a candidate to evaluate and explain any certain part of the model building process.

11. Describe how you would build a model to predict Uber ETAs after a rider requests a ride.

Common machine learning case study problems like this are designed to explain how you would build a model. Many times this can be scoped down to specific parts of the model building process. Examining the example above, we could break it up into:

How would you evaluate the predictions of an Uber ETA model?

What features would you use to predict the Uber ETA for ride requests?

Our recommended framework breaks down a modeling and machine learning case study to individual steps in order to tackle each one thoroughly. In each full modeling case study, you will want to go over:

  • Data processing
  • Feature Selection
  • Model Selection
  • Cross Validation
  • Evaluation Metrics
  • Testing and Roll Out

12. How would you build a model that sends bank customers a text message when fraudulent transactions are detected?

Additionally, the customer can approve or deny the transaction via text response.

Let’s start out by understanding what kind of model would need to be built. We know that since we are working with fraud, there has to be a case where either a fraudulent transaction is or is not present .

Hint: This problem is a binary classification problem. Given the problem scenario, what considerations do we have to think about when first building this model? What would the bank fraud data look like?

13. How would you design the inputs and outputs for a model that detects potential bombs at a border crossing?

Additional questions. How would you test the model and measure its accuracy? Remember the equation for precision:


Because we can not have high TrueNegatives, recall should be high when assessing the model.

14. Which model would you choose to predict Airbnb booking prices: Linear regression or random forest regression?

Start by answering this question: What are the main differences between linear regression and random forest?

Random forest regression is based on the ensemble machine learning technique of bagging . The two key concepts of random forests are:

  • Random sampling of training observations when building trees.
  • Random subsets of features for splitting nodes.

Random forest regressions also discretize continuous variables, since they are based on decision trees and can split categorical and continuous variables.

Linear regression, on the other hand, is the standard regression technique in which relationships are modeled using a linear predictor function, the most common example represented as y = Ax + B.

Let’s see how each model is applicable to Airbnb’s bookings. One thing we need to do in the interview is to understand more context around the problem of predicting bookings. To do so, we need to understand which features are present in our dataset.

We can assume the dataset will have features like:

  • Location features.
  • Seasonality.
  • Number of bedrooms and bathrooms.
  • Private room, shared, entire home, etc.
  • External demand (conferences, festivals, sporting events).

Which model would be the best fit for this feature set?

15. Using a binary classification model that pre-approves candidates for a loan, how would you give each rejected application a rejection reason?

More context: You do not have access to the feature weights. Start by thinking about the problem like this: How would the problem change if we had ten, one thousand, or ten thousand applicants that had gone through the loan qualification program?

Pretend that we have three people: Alice, Bob, and Candace that have all applied for a loan. Simplifying the financial lending loan model, let us assume the only features are the total number of credit cards , the dollar amount of current debt , and credit age . Here is a scenario:

Alice: 10 credit cards, 5 years of credit age, $\$20K$ in debt

Bob: 10 credit cards, 5 years of credit age, $\$15K$ in debt

Candace: 10 credit cards, 5 years of credit age, $\$10K$ in debt

If Candace is approved, we can logically point to the fact that Candace’s $\$10K$ in debt swung the model to approve her for a loan. How did we reason this out?

If the sample size analyzed was instead thousands of people who had the same number of credit cards and credit age with varying levels of debt, we could figure out the model’s average loan acceptance rate for each numerical amount of current debt. Then we could plot these on a graph to model the y-value (average loan acceptance) versus the x-value (dollar amount of current debt). These graphs are called partial dependence plots.

Business Case Questions

In data science interviews, business case study questions task you with addressing problems as they relate to the business. You might be asked about topics like estimation and calculation, as well as applying problem-solving to a larger case. One tip: Be sure to read up on the company’s products and ventures before your interview to expose yourself to possible topics.

16. How would you estimate the average lifetime value of customers at a business that has existed for just over one year?

More context: You know that the product costs $\$100$ per month, averages 10% in monthly churn, and the average customer stays for 3.5 months.

Remember that lifetime value is defined by the prediction of the net revenue attributed to the entire future relationship with all customers averaged. Therefore, $\$100$ * 3.5 = $\$350$… But is it that simple?

Because this company is so new, our average customer length (3.5 months) is biased from the short possible length of time that anyone could have been a customer (one year maximum). How would you then model out LTV knowing the churn rate and product cost?

17. How would you go about removing duplicate product names (e.g. iPhone X vs. Apple iPhone 10) in a massive database?

See the full solution for this Amazon business case question on YouTube:

case study questions and answers for interview

18. What metrics would you monitor to know if a 50% discount promotion is a good idea for a ride-sharing company?

This question has no correct answer and is rather designed to test your reasoning and communication skills related to product/business cases. First, start by stating your assumptions. What are the goals of this promotion? It is likely that the goal of the discount is to grow revenue and increase retention. A few other assumptions you might make include:

  • The promotion will be applied uniformly across all users.
  • The 50% discount can only be used for a single ride.

How would we be able to evaluate this pricing strategy? An A/B test between the control group (no discount) and test group (discount) would allow us to evaluate Long-term revenue vs average cost of the promotion. Using these two metrics how could we measure if the promotion is a good idea?

19. A bank wants to create a new partner card, e.g. Whole Foods Chase credit card). How would you determine what the next partner card should be?

More context: Say you have access to all customer spending data. With this question, there are several approaches you can take. As your first step, think about the business reason for credit card partnerships: they help increase acquisition and customer retention.

One of the simplest solutions would be to sum all transactions grouped by merchants. This would identify the merchants who see the highest spending amounts. However, the one issue might be that some merchants have a high-spend value but low volume. How could we counteract this potential pitfall? Is the volume of transactions even an important factor in our credit card business? The more questions you ask, the more may spring to mind.

20. How would you assess the value of keeping a TV show on a streaming platform like Netflix?

Say that Netflix is working on a deal to renew the streaming rights for a show like The Office , which has been on Netflix for one year. Your job is to value the benefit of keeping the show on Netflix.

Start by trying to understand the reasons why Netflix would want to renew the show. Netflix mainly has three goals for what their content should help achieve:

  • Acquisition: To increase the number of subscribers.
  • Retention: To increase the retention of active subscribers and keep them on as paying members.
  • Revenue: To increase overall revenue.

One solution to value the benefit would be to estimate a lower and upper bound to understand the percentage of users that would be affected by The Office being removed. You could then run these percentages against your known acquisition and retention rates.

21. How would you determine which products are to be put on sale?

Let’s say you work at Amazon. It’s nearing Black Friday, and you are tasked with determining which products should be put on sale. You have access to historical pricing and purchasing data from items that have been on sale before. How would you determine what products should go on sale to best maximize profit during Black Friday?

To start with this question, aggregate data from previous years for products that have been on sale during Black Friday or similar events. You can then compare elements such as historical sales volume, inventory levels, and profit margins.

Learn More About Feature Changes

This course is designed teach you everything you need to know about feature changes:

More Data Science Interview Resources

Case studies are one of the most common types of data science interview questions . Practice with the data science course from Interview Query, which includes product and machine learning modules.

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20+ Best Case Study Questions for Customer Interviews

Updated April 2023 : Case studies are a critical element of most SaaS marketing strategies. But what case study questions do you ask in the interview to ensure you elicit an authentic and compelling story?

In research we conducted this year, SaaS marketers ranked case studies the #1 most effective marketing tactic to increase sales—ahead of general website content, SEO, blog posts, social media and other marketing tactics.

Gathering the insights, data and customer quotes that make a case study resonate, however, takes some savvy when coming up with relevant case study questions for interviews with customers.

In this post, we’ll explore the best case study questions to ask at your next customer interview. 

Prepare your case study questions in advance

The best case study questions for interviews with customers, find a convenient time for the interview, send the case study questions ahead of time, an email interview won’t cut it, take notes and record the interview, watch out for these 4 common interview mistakes.

20+ Best Case Study Questions for Customer Interviews is the 4th post in a 7-part series on best practices for case studies .

Prepare your case study questions ahead of time

You’ll probably have just 20 or 30 minutes to capture your customer’s story so be thoroughly prepared before you even schedule the case study interview. Case study questions generally fall into these categories:

  • who your customer is (background)
  • what their pain is (challenge)
  • why they chose your solution (solution)
  • what results they experienced (results)

Usually, the most logical way to structure your case study questions is chronologically—it’s helpful to think of the case study as a story with a natural narrative arc:

  • beginning (background and challenge)
  • middle (solution, including implementation)
  • end (results)

Do you need help with your case studies? Partner with Uplift to drive more sales with case studies that convert .

Use the 4 categories below to craft a list of case study interview questions you’ll want to ask your customers:

  • Tell me a little about your company.
  • What do you love about working there?
  • Tell me a bit about your role.
  • What are your goals? Your company’s?
  • What business challenges were you facing that caused you to look for a solution?
  • Why were these challenges such a big problem for your company? For you?
  • What were you hoping to achieve with a new solution?
  • What criteria did the new solution need to meet?
  • How were you planning to meaure the success of the new solution?
  • What solutions did you try before you came to us? 
  • How did you discover us?
  • What did the vetting process look like?
  • Why, specifically, did you choose to work with us?
  • What services are we providing for you?
  • What challenges do those services solve for you?
  • Tell me a bit about the implementation process. 
  • How are we supporting you when you need it?
  • How has our solution impacted or benefited your end users?
  • How has our solution impacted or benefited your company as a whole?
  • Do you have any measurable data you can share around the impact or benefits of our solution?
  • Overall, what’s it like working with us?
  • What’s next for your company and us?
  • What advice would you have for others considering our solution?

Tailor these case study questions to suit the person you’re talking to. Eliminate any that seem repetitive or irrelevant—and highlight 1 or 2 from each category that are most important. Leave space and time for follow-up questions.

Learn how to write a SaaS case study in 9 steps.

Your customers are busy—and they’re doing you a big favor by participating in the case study—so be as flexible as possible when you’re scheduling the case study interview. And while you’ll likely want to talk to them for hours, be respectful of their time and ask for 30 minutes.

Some people worry that sending case study questions in advance will result in less candid and honest responses. Not true. You want your customer to be at ease during your case study interview, and you want them to have all the information and data they need at their fingertips.

Providing the case study questions for interviews with customers ahead of time will lead to a more informative and useful interview. It also helps ensure that you have enough time to cover all the important points. During the interview, you can jump in with follow-up questions to dive deeper into certain areas if needed.

9 components your case studies need to include.

Case study interview methods from worst to best

Don’t settle for a case study interview done by email. Not only are people more candid in conversation, but you’ll also be able to ask spur-of-the-moment questions and explore ideas as they’re presented.

Here are the 4 best ways you can conduct your case study interview:

  • face-to-face (this is the best and most personable choice; try to arrange this if your customer is in your region)
  • phone interview
  • repurposing webinar

A recording and transcription of the case study interview will ensure accuracy and give you peace of mind. Down the road, you can also use the transcript for other marketing activities, such as grabbing testimonials and pull quotes, writing blog posts and more.

Use an app to record phone calls, or use Zoom or Google Meet to record video calls. Make sure you have permission to record the conversation.

4 case study interview mistakes to avoid

1 . Using yes/no questions

Does your list have any yes/no questions? If so, be ready with follow-up questions. Better yet, revise the question so it’s open-ended to elicit a more thoughtful response.

2 . Not pushing for numbers

Don’t be afraid to ask for numbers, concrete examples or more information. You need these for a quality case study and this is your chance to get them. Don’t be afraid to repeat case study questions or rephrase them to make sure you get what you need.

3 . Not allowing the conversation to flow

You don’t need to be rigid about asking every single question on your list. The best insights are often unexpected so allow the conversation to flow a little—but don’t get too far off-topic or you’ll run out of time.

4 . Not listening to your customer

Don’t think you already have all the answers. Go into the case study interview with an open mind and be ready to listen.

Download our case study interview cheat sheet

Get help with your case studies

As a  SaaS content marketing agency , we write case studies, ebooks and blog posts for high-growth SaaS companies like ClickUp, WalkMe and Lean Data.  Check out our case study writing service .

21 Interview Questions to Help You Uncover Case Study Gold Get the powerful questions we use when conducting a case study interview, plus 7 interviewing dos and don'ts.

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Hacking The Case Interview

Hacking the Case Interview

Human Resources case interview

Have an upcoming Human Resources case interview and don’t know how to prepare? Don’t worry because we have you covered!

In this article, we’ll cover:

  • What is a Human Resources case interview?
  • How to solve any Human Resources case interview
  • Essential Human Resources case interview frameworks
  • Human Resources case interview example

If you’re looking for a step-by-step shortcut to learn case interviews quickly, enroll in our case interview course . These insider strategies from a former Bain interviewer helped 30,000+ land consulting offers while saving hundreds of hours of prep time.

What is a Human Resources Case Interview?

A Human Resources case interview is a type of interview used in the hiring process for HR consulting-related roles, where candidates are presented with hypothetical or real-world HR scenarios and are asked to analyze, solve, and provide recommendations for the given situations.

The purpose of a HR case interview is to assess the candidate's problem-solving skills, analytical thinking, HR knowledge, and ability to apply HR principles in practical situations.

During a HR case interview, candidates are typically given a description of a specific HR challenge, issue, or scenario.

They are then expected to discuss their thought process, ask clarifying questions, identify the underlying problems, propose possible solutions, and explain the rationale behind their recommendations.

The interviewers are looking for candidates who can demonstrate their ability to think critically, understand the complexities of HR issues, and offer strategic and practical solutions.

The scenarios presented in HR case interviews can cover a wide range of topics within the HR field, including:

  • Talent Acquisition and Recruitment : Candidates might be asked to devise a strategy for attracting and selecting the best candidates for a specific position or organization
  • Employee Development and Training : The interview scenario could involve designing a training program to improve employee skills and performance
  • Performance Management : Candidates might need to address issues related to employee performance evaluation, feedback, and improvement
  • Compensation and Benefits : Scenarios may revolve around designing competitive compensation packages or benefits programs
  • Diversity and Inclusion : Candidates could be asked to develop initiatives to promote diversity and inclusion within the workplace
  • Employee Relations and Conflict Resolution : The case might involve managing interpersonal conflicts or addressing employee grievances
  • Organizational Change and Restructuring : Candidates could be presented with scenarios related to managing organizational changes, such as mergers, acquisitions, or restructurings
  • HR Strategy and Planning : The case could require candidates to develop long-term HR strategies aligned with the organization's goals

The key to performing well in a HR case interview is to demonstrate a structured approach to problem-solving, a solid understanding of HR principles and best practices, clear communication skills, and the ability to think strategically.

Candidates should break down the problem, consider multiple perspectives, and provide practical and actionable recommendations.

It's important to note that the format and structure of HR case interviews can vary between companies. Some companies might provide candidates with written case materials to review in advance, while others might present the case during the interview itself.

As with any interview, thorough preparation, practice, and research on the company's HR practices and industry trends are essential for success in a HR case interview.

How to Solve a Human Resources Case Interview

There are seven steps to solve a Human Resources case interview.

1. Understand the case

Understanding the case scenario is the foundation of effective problem-solving. Read or listen to the scenario carefully, absorbing the context, key stakeholders, and central issues. 

For example, if the case presents a situation involving declining employee morale and engagement, you'd want to grasp the factors contributing to this decline and the potential consequences for the organization.

2. Ask clarifying questions

Asking thoughtful clarifying questions demonstrates your ability to extract crucial details and gain a comprehensive understanding of the situation. 

For instance, if the case revolves around a sudden increase in turnover, you might inquire about specific departments or roles affected, reasons employees cite for leaving, and any recent organizational changes that could be relevant.

3. Develop a structured approach

Structuring your analysis provides a roadmap for addressing the case logically. A structured framework ensures you cover all necessary aspects and maintains a clear flow of your analysis.

The next section of this article covers essential frameworks you should be familiar with in detail.

4. Gather information 

After understanding the case and asking clarifying questions, use the information you've gathered to delve deeper into the issues. Collect data from the case materials and consider applying relevant HR concepts.

For instance, if the case involves a performance issue among a certain team, you'd want to assess the team dynamics, individual competencies, and possible external factors influencing performance.

5. Propose solutions

Based on your analysis, propose concrete and actionable solutions for each identified issue. These solutions should align with HR best practices and the organization's values. 

If the case highlights a challenge related to attracting top talent, your solutions could range from improving employer branding to enhancing the interview process to increase candidate quality.

6. Evaluate trade-offs

Weighing the pros and cons of each solution demonstrates your critical thinking. Discuss the potential benefits, drawbacks, and implications of implementing your proposed solutions. This showcases your ability to consider multiple perspectives. 

For example, when addressing an employee retention problem, you'd need to assess the costs of implementing retention programs versus the costs of continued turnover.

7. Develop a recommendation

Culminate your analysis by crafting a well-founded recommendation that considers the organization's goals, HR best practices, and the context of the case. Your recommendation should offer a clear path forward. 

If the case centers on improving diversity and inclusion, your recommendation might encompass strategies such as unconscious bias training, diverse recruitment initiatives, and mentoring programs.

In addition to Human Resources case interviews, we also have additional step-by-step guides to: market entry case interviews , growth strategy case interviews , M&A case interviews , pricing case interviews , operations case interviews , and marketing case interviews .

Essential Human Resources Case Interview Frameworks

There are a few Human Resources case interview frameworks you should be familiar with. These are helpful ways of organizing your thoughts and ideas into a structured and systematic approach.

However, we do not recommend using these frameworks word-for-word. You should demonstrate to the interviewer that you can think critically for yourself instead of relying on memorized frameworks.

You should instead be creating your own unique and tailored framework for each Human Resources case interview scenario.

Therefore, your framework may include parts and pieces of the frameworks below, but you should not just copy them.

The PPT Framework

The PPT framework stands for People, Processes, and Technologies, and it's a valuable approach for analyzing and solving Human Resources (HR) challenges in case interviews. This framework focuses on three key dimensions that are often interconnected in HR scenarios. Let's delve into each component:

In this dimension, you'll consider the human aspects of the HR challenge presented in the case. This involves assessing how employees, managers, and stakeholders are affected by the issue and how they contribute to potential solutions.

Some points to address include:

  • Employee Engagement and Morale : Examine how the challenge impacts employee satisfaction and motivation
  • Leadership and Management : Evaluate how managers' actions and behaviors contribute to or alleviate the challenge
  • Communication and Collaboration : Analyze how effective communication and collaboration among employees can influence the situation
  • Training and Development : Consider how training and development initiatives can address skill gaps related to the challenge
  • Organizational Culture : Explore how the existing culture supports or hinders the resolution of the challenge

2. Processes

This dimension focuses on HR processes, policies, and practices that are relevant to the case. You'll assess how these existing processes might contribute to the challenge and propose adjustments or new processes to address it.

Some aspects to consider are:

  • Recruitment and Onboarding : Evaluate how the recruitment process might be impacting the issue and suggest improvements
  • Performance Management : Examine how performance evaluation and feedback processes relate to the challenge
  • Employee Development : Analyze training, mentoring, and career advancement processes as they pertain to the issue
  • Compensation and Benefits : Consider whether compensation structures contribute to or mitigate the challenge
  • Conflict Resolution : Address how existing conflict resolution processes can be used to address any interpersonal challenges

3. Technologies

This dimension focuses on the technological tools and systems that can support HR processes and solutions. Modern technologies can greatly impact HR practices and provide innovative ways to solve challenges.

Consider the following:

  • HR Information Systems (HRIS) : Explore how HRIS can streamline processes and provide data for decision-making
  • Performance Tracking Tools : Assess how tools for monitoring employee performance can aid in addressing the challenge
  • Learning Management Systems (LMS) : Examine how an LMS could be used for training and development initiatives
  • Recruitment Platforms : Analyze how technology can optimize recruitment efforts and attract suitable candidates
  • Employee Feedback Platforms : Consider tools that facilitate employee feedback and engagement measurement

The PESTEL Framework

The PESTEL framework is a strategic analysis tool that helps examine various external factors affecting a business or organization. It stands for Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental, and Legal factors.

When applied to Human Resources (HR) case interviews, the PESTEL framework allows you to consider the broader context that impacts HR challenges and solutions.

Here's how you can use each dimension of the framework in the context of HR cases:

1. Political Factors

Political factors encompass the impact of government policies, regulations, and political stability on HR challenges. In the context of HR case interviews, consider how political factors influence:

  • Labor Laws and Regulations: Analyze how labor laws and regulations affect HR practices, such as employment contracts, working hours, and employee rights.
  • Immigration Policies: Examine how immigration policies impact talent acquisition and workforce diversity.
  • Health and Safety Regulations: Consider how workplace safety regulations influence HR strategies for employee well-being.

2. Economic Factors

Economic factors relate to the broader economic environment, including inflation, economic growth, and market conditions. In HR case interviews, consider how economic factors affect:

  • Labor Market Conditions : Evaluate how economic cycles impact talent availability, hiring, and compensation negotiations
  • Compensation and Benefits : Examine how economic conditions influence decisions about employee compensation and benefits packages
  • Budget Constraints : Analyze how economic fluctuations can affect HR budgets for training, development, and recruitment

3. Social Factors

Social factors encompass cultural trends, demographic shifts, and societal attitudes that impact HR challenges. In HR case interviews, think about how social factors influence:

  • Diversity and Inclusion : Consider how societal attitudes towards diversity impact HR initiatives for inclusion and representation
  • Work-Life Balance : Examine how changing societal expectations affect employee preferences for work-life balance and flexible arrangements
  • Generational Differences : Analyze how different generations' values and expectations influence HR strategies for employee engagement and motivation

4. Technological Factors

Technological factors refer to advancements that impact HR practices and solutions. In HR case interviews, consider how technological factors influence:

  • HR Information Systems (HRIS) : Examine how technology can enhance HR processes, such as data management, recruitment, and performance evaluation
  • Remote Work Technology : Analyze how technology enables remote work and its implications for HR policies and practices
  • Learning Platforms : Consider how technology supports employee learning and development through online training platforms

5. Environmental Factors

Environmental factors pertain to sustainability, ecological concerns, and corporate social responsibility. In HR case interviews, consider how environmental factors influence:

  • Sustainability Initiatives : Examine how an organization's commitment to environmental sustainability impacts HR strategies, such as commuting policies and eco-friendly practices
  • Employee Well-being : Analyze how a healthy and sustainable work environment contributes to employee well-being and job satisfaction

6. Legal Factors

Legal factors encompass laws and regulations that affect HR practices and employment relationships. In HR case interviews, consider how legal factors influence:

  • Employment Contracts : Examine how legal requirements for employment contracts and agreements shape HR policies
  • Discrimination and Harassment Laws : Analyze how legal regulations on discrimination and harassment impact HR initiatives for diversity and inclusion
  • Data Privacy Regulations : Consider how data privacy laws influence the collection and management of employee data

Human Resources Case Interview Examples

Example #1 : A company's employee engagement has been declining. Develop an HR strategy to address this issue.

To solve this case, you would start by understanding the current engagement levels, analyzing potential causes, and identifying specific areas for improvement. Then, propose initiatives that focus on aspects like recognition programs, career development opportunities, and fostering a positive work culture. Consider how each initiative aligns with the organization's values and goals, and provide an implementation plan detailing roles, timelines, and metrics for success.

Example #2 : A retail company is experiencing high turnover rates among its sales team. How would you address this issue?

Begin by assessing the reasons behind the turnover, considering factors such as compensation, work environment, and career growth. Propose solutions such as conducting exit interviews to gather feedback, adjusting compensation packages, implementing mentorship programs, and providing clear paths for career advancement. Highlight the importance of retaining talented employees and outline the steps needed to execute your recommendations.

Example #3 : A tech company wants to enhance diversity and inclusion in its workforce. Develop strategies to achieve this goal.

Start by understanding the company's current demographics and analyzing potential barriers to diversity. Propose initiatives such as unconscious bias training for hiring managers, targeted recruitment efforts to attract underrepresented groups, and affinity groups to foster a sense of belonging. Emphasize the value of diversity in driving innovation and ensuring a representative workforce, and provide methods to measure the impact of your strategies.

Example #4 : An organization's performance management process is outdated. How would you redesign it?

Begin by evaluating the existing performance management process and identifying its weaknesses. Propose solutions such as implementing continuous feedback mechanisms, setting clear performance goals aligned with company objectives, and utilizing technology for real-time performance tracking. Emphasize the importance of employee development and aligning individual goals with overall organizational success.

Example #5 : A multinational company wants to create a leadership development program. How would you design and implement it?

Start by identifying the leadership skills and competencies required for the company's future success. Develop a comprehensive program that includes leadership training workshops, mentorship opportunities, and experiential learning projects. Consider how to measure the program's effectiveness and tailor the content to different leadership levels within the organization.

Example #6 : A company wants to establish a remote work policy post-pandemic. How would you design and implement this policy?

Begin by analyzing the organization's needs, considering roles suitable for remote work, and potential challenges. Develop a policy that outlines expectations, communication protocols, performance measurement methods, and technology requirements. Address concerns about productivity and collaboration and provide guidelines for maintaining work-life balance while working remotely.

Example #7 : Two companies are merging, leading to cultural clashes and resistance among employees. How would you manage this change?

Begin by understanding the unique cultures of both companies and identifying areas of alignment and divergence. Develop a change management plan that includes clear communication, involving key stakeholders in decision-making, and addressing concerns through town hall meetings and Q&A sessions. Emphasize the benefits of the merger and outline how employees' roles and responsibilities will be impacted positively.

For more practice, check out our article on 23 MBA consulting casebooks with 700+ free practice cases .

Recommended HR Case Interview Resources

Here are the resources we recommend to learn the most robust, effective case interview strategies in the least time-consuming way:

  • Comprehensive Case Interview Course (our #1 recommendation): The only resource you need. Whether you have no business background, rusty math skills, or are short on time, this step-by-step course will transform you into a top 1% caser that lands multiple consulting offers.
  • Hacking the Case Interview Book   (available on Amazon): Perfect for beginners that are short on time. Transform yourself from a stressed-out case interview newbie to a confident intermediate in under a week. Some readers finish this book in a day and can already tackle tough cases.
  • The Ultimate Case Interview Workbook (available on Amazon): Perfect for intermediates struggling with frameworks, case math, or generating business insights. No need to find a case partner – these drills, practice problems, and full-length cases can all be done by yourself.
  • Case Interview Coaching : Personalized, one-on-one coaching with former consulting interviewers
  • Behavioral & Fit Interview Course : Be prepared for 98% of behavioral and fit questions in just a few hours. We'll teach you exactly how to draft answers that will impress your interviewer
  • Resume Review & Editing : Transform your resume into one that will get you multiple interviews

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Our values define who we are as a firm and who we aspire to be as individual colleagues. They are the guiding principles that shape our actions and are essential to fulfilling our two-part mission to help our clients make distinctive, lasting and substantial improvements in their performance, and to build a great firm that attracts, develops, excites and retains exceptional people.

We look at talent through the lens of who they are and their potential. We aim to attract individuals with diverse backgrounds, which is critical to help us deliver distinctive client service, and also to make our firm a richer and better place.  Overall, we look for behavioral skills, problem solving skills, and—for some roles—expertise of specific knowledge and experience in your field.* During your behavioral skills interview, we'll ask you to share examples from your personal experiences. Your responses to these questions help us understand your accomplishments and challenges beyond your CV and discover skills you possess that will help you thrive at McKinsey.

We suggest that you prepare two personal examples to demonstrate your skills in the four behavioral areas highlighted below (personal impact, entrepreneurial drive, inclusive leadership, and courageous change). During your interview, you should share details about the challenges, goals, and actions you took to create change.

If you are interested in McKinsey careers beyond consulting, you can learn more about the assessment process for our internal roles here .

*Please note, not all interviews at McKinsey will require an expertise interview or follow the same format. Please contact your recruiter for details about your process.

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30 Situational Interview Questions & How to Answer Them (+ Sample Responses)

  • Julia Mlcuchova , 
  • Updated May 16, 2024 12 min read

Situational interview questions can be pretty tricky to answer, since you're expected to think on your feet and think fast.

These questions often throw candidates into hypothetical scenarios that require quick thinking and creative problem-solving.

Moreover, they are designed to peel back the layers of rehearsed answers, revealing how you handle challenges and unexpected situations . 

Feeling the stress-levels rising already? That's understandable, but unnecessary!

While it might seem impossible to prepare for such unpredictable questions, there is a tried-and-true method that can help you deliver your answers with confidence.

Piqued your interest? If so, keep on reading and discover: 

  • What are situational interview questions;
  • 30 situational interview questions examples ;
  • How to answer situational interview questions;
  • And 3 detailed sample responses .

Table of Contents

Click on a section to skip

What is a situational interview

What are situational interview questions, 30 situational interview questions examples, how to answer situational interview questions, tips on how to prepare for situational interview questions, how not to answer situational interview questions, key takeaways: situational interview questions.

In short, during a situational interview, the job candidate is asked to explain how s/he would deal with specific work scenarios . This type of interview helps recruiters figure out how a candidate might perform on the job by seeing how they think through problems and deal with challenges in real time. 

But what makes the situational interview such a hot commodity? 

Basically,  it's popular among recruiters because it goes beyond what's written on your resume . 

Let us explain: Your resume is succinct and concise, which means that you need to be very selective about the information you include. While you have enough space to showcase all your proudest achievements and results, you don't really get the chance to go into much detail on how exactly you got there. And this means that the recruiters can’t see how you approach problems and what attitude you have when faced with challenges. 

And asking situational interview questions allows them to see just that!

In other words, a situational interview is like a test run to see how you might perform in the real world , focusing on practical skills and real-life problem solving rather than just what you say you can do.

Situational interview vs. behavioral interview

One can’t simply talk about the situational interview without mentioning its twin – the behavioral interview . 

These two job interview methods are quite similar, so much so that people sometimes use the terms interchangeably. 

But while both of these interview styles force you to demonstrate your skills and know-how on specific work scenarios, there is one key difference : 

  • Behavioral interview: This approach focuses on your real past experiences. Behavioral questions prompt you to demonstrate your skills by presenting situations you've actually dealt with in real life. For example, a question probing your conflict resolution skills can look like this: “Tell me about a time you had an interpersonal conflict at work.”
  • Situational interview: The situational approach examines how you would act in hypothetical future scenarios. For instance, our conflict resolution question could go something like this: “How would you deal with an interpersonal conflict at work?”

On a superficial level the difference between the two might seem too little to matter. But if you're a career changer or a fresh graduate , you'd quickly see why the situational interview questions are a much better alternative. 

Well, you can hardly talk about the experiences you don't have, right? But what you can do is discuss future hypothetical scenarios based on your intuition, skills, and logic. 

Heading to a job interview?

Practice answering the most common interview questions for your job position using AI.

Well, when we talk about job interviews, there are certain questions everybody expects to hear, such as “ Why are you interested in this position? ” , “ Where do you see yourself in 5 years? ” or “ Why are you looking for a new job? ”  

And while your answers to these questions reveal your enthusiasm for the role, your career goals, and your motivation respectively, they don't provide much insight into what's going on in your head when faced with problems in the workplace.

That's why the formulation of situational questions typically revolves around “what if” scenarios that could actually happen to you in your new role. 

For example, the interviewer might ask, “What steps would you take if you were given a project with a very tight deadline?" or “How would you communicate negative feedback to your team?”

Apart from specific industry knowledge , suítuational questions can shine light on your soft skills :

  • Ability to think on your feet. Do you have the right approach for handling the pressures and responsibilities of the job? 
  • Your problem solving skills . How good are you at analyzing, prioritizing, and decision-making? 
  • Your creativity and adaptability. And, how quickly can you come up with a potential solution to an unusual problem?

Below, you'll find 30 examples of situational interview questions (You can't accuse us of being stingy!) that might come your way during the job interview rounds.

Additionally, you'll find the specific skill each question probes in the brackets.

Please, keep in mind that the precise wording of these questions may differ from company to company. 

  • What would you do if a client made a complaint about your work? (Feedback Reception Question)
  • How would you react if halfway through a major project, the core objectives were changed by management? (Adaptability Question)
  • If you were leading a team that seemed demotivated, what strategies would you use to boost morale? (Leadership Question)
  • If you had to choose between meeting a project deadline with a compromised product or delaying delivery to ensure quality, what would you do? (Decision-making Question) 
  • How would you handle a situation where you need to communicate a last-minute change in project direction to a team that is not on-site? (Communication Skills Question)
  • How would you manage a scenario where an important client demands a service or product adjustment that is not currently feasible? (Customer Service Question)
  • How would you lead a project with team members who are more experienced than you in the subject matter? (Leadership Question) 
  • How would you prioritize your tasks if you find yourself with multiple high-priority assignments due on the same day? (Time Management Question)
  • A new employee has joined your team. What do you do to make them feel welcome? (Leadership Question)
  •  Imagine you have conflicting deadlines for two equally important projects. How would you decide which to prioritize? (Decision-making Question)
  • Imagine you're leading a critical project that is running behind schedule. How would you handle the pressure? (Stress Management Question)
  • Imagine you need to explain a new, complex software tool to a team that isn't tech-savvy. How would you go about it? (Communication Skills Question)
  • If you found yourself in a disagreement with a colleague about a project approach, how would you handle it? (Conflict Resolution Question) 
  •  How would you organize your time if you're having a busy week? (Time Management Question)
  • How would you approach a situation where you have to work closely with someone whose work ethic is vastly different from yours? (Communication Skills Question)
  • Walk me through how you solve a prevailing issue with your manager. (Communication Skills Question)  
  • Imagine you must choose between investing in new technology or upgrading existing systems with a limited budget. How would you make your decision? (Decision-making Question)
  • What would you do if you discovered a critical flaw in a product that's about to launch? (Problem-solving Question)
  • How would you react if you discovered that one of your colleagues acts against the company values? (Communication Question)
  • How would you ensure smooth cooperation between different departments? (Teamwork Question)
  • Imagine that you discovered an opportunity for improvement in a process that's not within your direct responsibility? (Initiative Question)
  •  What would you do if your team members constantly ignored your input? (Communication Question)
  • How would you respond to a customer complaint you believe is unwarranted? (Customer Service Question)
  • How would you handle a situation where you need to mediate a conflict between two key team members who are crucial for the project's success? (Conflict Resolution Question) 
  • Imagine you're leading a project and your team expresses doubts about the plan. How would you address their concerns? (Leadership Question)
  • Suppose during a project review, you notice data that suggests a potential problem no one else has seen. How would you handle this situation? (Critical Thinking Question)
  • You're presented with two competing proposals for a new project. Both have potential but also significant risks. How would you evaluate and decide which proposal to go with? (Critical Thinking Question) 
  • Imagine that you'd be asked to do something you've never done before. How would you handle that? (Adaptability Question)
  • If you noticed a team member feeling excluded and their contributions diminishing as a result, what steps would you take to involve them more into the team dynamic? (Teamwork Question)
  • Imagine you're taking over a team that has been underperforming. What initial steps would you take to assess the situation and begin turning around the team's performance? (Leadership Question )

Because workplaces and job roles are so diverse, employers can craft countless unique scenarios to test your problem-solving skills, adaptability, teamwork, leadership, and other crucial competencies. 

Still, there's a way to deliver your answer clearly and persuasively no matter the question – by following the STAR method (Situation, Task, Action, Result). 

Let us walk you through the S-T-A-R method step by step: 

Firstly, start by setting the scene. If the situational interview question was quite vague, you've got a chance to fill in the blanks! Mention where this hypothetical situation is happening and the circumstances from which this situation arose.

Secondly, you should explain what exactly is the problem you're dealing with. Talk about what responsibilities would be on your shoulders and what would be the general expectations from you. And, of course, make sure to mention skills and duties that directly relate to the job position you're trying to fill . 

Thirdly, you talk about the concrete actions you'd take to fix the problem. Remember that this part is the heart of your answer! And the recruiters want to see the thought processes that lead to your actions.

And lastly, finish your response by talking about the outcomes your actions would bring. Think about how the company would benefit from your solution. Focus on showcasing how your actions lead to success in this hypothetical scenario.

With that being said, we’ll have a look at how you can put the theory into practice!

Example #1: Leadership question

Situational interview question: Imagine you're taking over a team that has been underperforming. What initial steps would you take to assess the situation and begin turning around the team's performance?

Sample answer:

“ [Situation] Well, let’s say that the team’s low performance has been impacting project delivery times for quite some time. [Task] In that case, my main task would be to assess the underlying issues that are causing the poor performance and plan out steps to eliminate them. [Action] I would begin by holding individual meetings with each team member to understand their challenges and motivations. Then, I’d organize a team workshop so we can all be involved and establish clear and achievable milestones. I would also introduce ongoing feedback loops that would encourage open communication. [Result] As a result, I’d expect to see improvements in team morale and engagement within the first few months. And then, an increase in productivity and quality of work should follow suit.”

Example #2: Feedback Reception Question

Situational interview question: What would you do if a client made a complaint about your work? 

“ [Situation] Let’s say that we’ve recently completed a project and everything seemed fine. But then the client tells me they’re not happy with some parts of it. [Task] As a project manager, my responsibility is to listen to the client’s concerns and fix the problem to keep a good relationship with them. [Action] First, I’d let the client know I heard their complaint and that I take it seriously. After our talk, I’d meet with my team to see if we can make the changes the client wants. All this time I’d keep the client updated about what we’re doing to fix things. [Result] By handling the problem this way, I’d show the client that we care about doing things right and keeping them happy. This could help fix any issues with our relationship. And we’d make sure that they’ll want to work with us again.”

Example #3: Decision-making question

Situational interview question: Imagine you have conflicting deadlines for two equally important projects. How would you decide which to prioritize?  

“ [Situation] Right, let’s say I’m in a situation where I’m responsible for two big projects at the same time, and both are due soon. [Task] In that case, I need to figure out which project to focus on first and not let the other one fall behind. [Action] First, I would look at both projects to see if there are any parts that absolutely must be done right away. I’d also talk to the people I’m working with and the clients to see if there’s any flexibility with the deadlines. Then, I’d check which project might have a bigger impact on our company if it’s delayed. After gathering all this information, I’d make a plan to work efficiently on both projects. [Result] As a result, I’d manage both projects without letting either of them slip through the cracks.”

You can't know exactly which situational interview questions you'll be asked.

Which is why you should never underestimate the power of good preparation. 

Once you've received your job interview invitation, you can start doing these 4 things:

  • Review the job posting. Although you don't know for certain what the questions will be, you can take an educated guess. Hint: The requirements outlined in the job ad are a dead giveaway of what the employer cares about. 
  • Look for examples of situational interview questions. Basically, you're doing it right now. Do as much research as possible! Because going into job interviews blindly is simply nonsensical. 
  • Revisit pivotal moments and challenges of your career. While it's true that situational questions usually involve hypothetical scenarios, that doesn't mean you can't talk about the things you've already achieved! For example, you can preface your response by mentioning that your answer is informed by real-life experience. 
  • Rehearse your answer out loud. No, no, don't raise your eyebrows just yet! Going over your answers in your mind in one thing. But spending an extensive period of time talking out loud can be more exhausting than you'd think. Especially in a nerve-inducing setting like a job interview. And practice is key!

Don't get intimidated by the unknown! Instead, get familiar with it by diligent research and practice. 

A well-rounded job interview preparation isn't just about knowing what to say, but also about knowing what NOT to say. We advise you to avoid the following: 

  • Don't say “I don't know.” You might as well just throw in the towel! These questions are meant to test your adaptability and attitude towards challenges. Keep that in mind.
  • Don't be vague. Instead, go into detail on the steps you take in each scenario. The more specific, the better!
  • Don't be hasty with your answer. It's OK to give yourself some time to think. It's better to take a few seconds to check in with yourself instead of blurting out something that doesn't make sense. But that doesn't mean that you should sit there in silence for 5 torturous minutes. 
  • Don't panic. Yes, we know that it's difficult to stay cool, calm, and collected in a situation where you don't hold the wheel. But just take a deep breath and focus! Plus, practicing can make you feel more prepared and in control.

To sum it all up, situational interview questions are meant to probe how you would deal with workplace problems in real life. 

Situational interviews focus on hypothetical scenarios to assess how a candidate might perform on the job, giving insight into their problem-solving and decision-making skills.

Though these questions can be difficult to predict, following the STAR method allows you to give your answers the structure and clarity they need to impress the hiring manager. 

Here is a simple how-to: 

  • Firstly, make sure you understand the question.
  • Provide context of the Situation.  
  • Continue by defining the Task ahead.
  • Outline what Action you'd take to solve the issue.
  • Finally, round up your answer by mentioning the desirable Results.
Julia has recently joined Kickresume as a career writer. From helping people with their English to get admitted to the uni of their dreams to advising them on how to succeed in the job market. It would seem that her career is on a steadfast trajectory. Julia holds a degree in Anglophone studies from Metropolitan University in Prague, where she also resides. Apart from creative writing and languages, she takes a keen interest in literature and theatre.

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Preparing for Your K1 Investment Management Interview: Top Questions and Answers

Interviewing at K1 Investment Management can be an intimidating experience. As a highly regarded private equity firm with a competitive hiring process, you need to come prepared to showcase your skills and demonstrate your fit within the company’s dynamic culture. This article provides insider tips and advice to help you ace the K1 interview process.

Overview of K1 Investment Management

Founded in 2003, K1 Investment Management has rapidly emerged as a leading private equity firm specializing in high-growth enterprise software companies. With over $7 billion in committed capital, K1 targets investments in sectors like cloud infrastructure, security, digital marketing, and fintech.

K1 utilizes a partnership-driven approach working closely with management teams to rapidly scale portfolio companies into market leaders. This active investment style along with stellar returns has earned K1 a reputation as one of the most successful tech-focused private equity firms.

K1 Investment Management Company Culture

The culture at K1 is fast-paced, data-driven, and growth-oriented. Professionals at K1 need to thrive in a dynamic environment where they constantly evaluate markets, develop investment theses, and work closely with portfolio company executives to achieve transformative growth

Key cultural traits at K1 include:

Entrepreneurial spirit: K1 looks for professionals who think like business builders, not just capital allocators. Having an innate understanding of what drives growth in tech companies is valued.

Intellectual curiosity Given the firm’s focus on innovators and disruptors, curiosity about emerging technologies and business models is essential

Strategic rigor: Investment decisions at K1 are research-intensive and data-driven. Analysts are expected to provide insightful, statistically-validated perspectives.

Interpersonal skills: Much of the work involves collaborating with varied stakeholders from portfolio company executives to fellow investment professionals. The ability to build relationships, communicate, and influence others is crucial.

K1 Investment Management Interview Process

The interview process at K1 usually comprises the following key stages:

1. Initial phone/video screening: Conducted by a recruiter, this 30-45 minute call evaluates basic fit for the role. Questions focus on your resume, investment management experience, and motivation for K1.

2. Online assessments: Candidates complete psychometric tests, Excel modeling exams, and other assessments to gauge their skills.

3. Panel interviews: Over 1-2 rounds, candidates have 4-6 panel interviews via video conferencing. The panels include associates, VPs, principals, and sometimes the CEO. Questions range from behavioral and technical to market sizing and case studies.

4. Superday: For candidates who clear the panel rounds, an in-person “superday” at K1’s offices follows. This intensive day involves 6-8 additional interviews including case studies and modeling tests.

5. Partner interview: Final interview with one of the firm’s partners.

6. Offer: Candidates receive offer letters within 2 weeks of the superday. The entire process usually spans 6-10 weeks.

Common K1 Investment Management Interview Questions

Let’s look at some of the most frequently asked interview questions at K1 across both behavioral and technical categories:

Behavioral Interview Questions

Walk me through your resume. How did your experiences prepare you for this role?

  • This is your chance to connect the dots between your background and the role. Highlight experiences that built relevant hard and soft skills.

Why do you want to work at K1 Investment Management?

  • Show you’ve researched K1 and know their sector focus and investment strategy. Convey your passion for tech, working with growth companies, and K1’s partnership-driven philosophy.

What differentiates you from other candidates?

  • Share 2-3 unique strengths/skills you would bring to the table without sounding boastful. Support with examples.

How do you handle situations where stakeholders have conflicting priorities?

  • Outline your stakeholder management approach. Discuss tools like RACI matrix and your ability to objectively mediate and align interests.

Tell me about a time you influenced an outcome without having direct authority.

  • Share a story highlighting your persuasive communication skills and ability to negotiate win-win situations.

Technical Interview Questions

Walk me through how you would evaluate an investment opportunity from start to finish.

  • Demonstrate your understanding of investment analysis frameworks. Cover market assessment, financial modeling, due diligence, valuation, and developing an investment thesis.

How do you typically create discounted cash flow models? What key assumptions go into it?

  • Discuss your methodical approach to DCF modeling including projections, discount rates, sensitivity analysis, and addressing uncertainty in assumptions.

You are analyzing a cloud SaaS company for potential investment. How would you assess the addressable market size?

  • Show your approach to market sizing, including defining the total addressable market (TAM), serviceable/obtainable market (SAM/SOM), and applying relevant filters and data sources.

One of our portfolio companies missed growth forecasts last quarter. As a board member, what questions would you ask management?

  • Demonstrate you can have a strategic discussion centered on root causes and solutions, not blame. Ask insightful questions about sales execution, market dynamics, competitive threats etc.

What technology trends are you most excited about and why?

  • Discuss 2-3 emerging tech trends with enthusiasm and back up with relevant stats/examples. T

K1 Investment Management Overview

K1 Investment Management is a private equity firm that invests in high growth potential, enterprise software companies.

The company usually helps businesses that have a tried-and-true business model and want to speed up their growth by making operations and getting more money better.

K1 wants to work with software teams to create global market leaders in safety, finance, and business software, among other areas.

Their approach includes providing a dedicated K1 Operations Team that helps implement high-performance strategies across all key functions. The same team stays with their chosen companies from start to finish.

Neil Malik founded K1 Investment Management in 2011 with headquarters currently located in Manhattan Beach, California.

k1 investment management interview questions

K1 Investment Management AUM

From the most recent regulatory filings, K1 Investment Management has $13. 2 billion in assets under management as of March 30, 2022.


How to prepare for investment management interview?

What is the interview process like at K1 Investment Management?

I interviewed at K1 Investment Management 1. 20-30 phone call with recruiter 2. 30-minute zoom call with associate 3. 20-minute zoom call with hiring manager 4. Superday in-person interview (roughly 3 hours) 5. Interview with CEO About a month-long interview process Tell me about yourself. What is your passion? What motivates you?

What is K1 Investment Management?

Headquartered in Manhattan Beach, California, K1 Investment Management is a B2B Enterprise SaaS Software investment firm. Here’s a list of some of the top trending technologies and APIs used by K1 Investment Management. What is K1 Investment Management revenue? How many employees does K1 Investment Management have?

How long is the online test for K1?

I finished online test for K1 two days ago. There are 2 parts of the test. Part1: Math questions (not very hard) + language test (GRE style). 15 minutes limit. Part2: Personality questionnaire, untimed. Choose from most likely to least likely. I applied online. The process took 1 day.

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