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How to Write an Essay in APA Format

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

apa research paper essay

Emily is a board-certified science editor who has worked with top digital publishing brands like Voices for Biodiversity,, GoodTherapy, Vox, and Verywell.

apa research paper essay

What Is APA Format?

Apa essay format basics.

  • Steps to Follow

Frequently Asked Questions

If your instructor has asked you to write an APA format essay, it might at first seem like a daunting task, especially if you are accustomed to using another style such as MLA or Chicago. But you can master the rules of APA essay format, too.

An essay is one type of paper that can be written in APA format; others include lab reports, experimental reports, and case studies. Before you begin, familiarize yourself with some of the basic guidelines for writing a paper in APA format. Of course, it will also be important to follow any other formatting instructions that are part of your assignment.

How do you write an essay in APA format? The basic elements you need to include are:

  • A title page
  • An abstract
  • An introduction, main body, and conclusion
  • A reference section
  • Proper APA formatting with regard to margins, layout, spacing, titles, and indentations

This article discusses how to write an essay in APA format, including the basic steps you should follow and tips for how to get started.

Whether you’re taking an introductory or graduate-level psychology class, chances are strong that you will have to write at least one paper during the course of the semester. In almost every case, you will need to write your paper in APA format, the official publication style of the American Psychological Association . It is also used for academic journals.

Such rules are generally the same whether you are writing a high school essay, college essay, or professional essay for publication.

APA format is used in a range of disciplines including psychology , education, and other social sciences. The format dictates presentation elements of your paper including spacing, margins, and how the content is structured.

Most instructors and publication editors have strict guidelines when it comes to how your format your writing. Not only does adhering to APA format allow readers to know what to expect from your paper, but it also means that your work will not lose critical points over minor formatting errors. 

While the formatting requirements for your paper might vary depending on your instructor's directions, writing APA essay format means you will most likely need to include a title page, abstract, introduction, body, conclusion, and reference sections.

Your APA format essay should have a title page . This title page should include the title of your paper, your name, and your school affiliation. In some instances, your teacher might require additional information such as the course title, instructor name, and the date.

  • The title of your paper should be concise and clearly describe what your paper is about.
  • Your title can extend to two lines, but it should be no longer than 12 words.

An abstract is a brief summary of your paper that immediately follows the title page. It is not required for student papers, according to APA style. However, your instructor may request one.

If you include an abstract , it should be no more than 100 to 200 words, although this may vary depending upon the instructor requirements.

Your essay should also include a reference list with all of the sources that were cited in your essay,

  • The reference section is located at the end of your paper.
  • References should be listed alphabetically by the last name of the author.
  • References should be double-spaced.
  • Any source that is cited in your paper should be included in your reference section.

When writing in APA essay format, the text will include the actual essay itself: The introduction, body, and conclusion.

  • There should be uniform margins of at least one inch at the top, bottom, left, and right sides of your essay.
  • The text should be in Times New Roman size 12 font or another serif typeface that is easily readable.
  • Your paper should be double-spaced.
  • Every page should include a page number in the top right corner.
  • The first word of each paragraph in your paper should be indented one-half inch.

For professional papers (usually not student papers), every page of the essay also includes a running head at the top left. The running head is a shortened form of the title, often the first few words, and should be no more than 50 characters (including spaces).

Steps to a Successful APA Format Essay

In addition to ensuring that you cite your sources properly and present information according to the rules of APA style, there are a number of things you can do to make the writing process a little bit easier.

Choose a Topic

Start by choosing a good topic to write about. Ideally, you want to select a subject that is specific enough to let you fully research and explore the topic, but not so specific that you have a hard time finding sources of information.

If you choose something too specific, you may find yourself with not enough to write about. If you choose something too general, you might find yourself overwhelmed with information.

Research Your Topic

Start doing research as early as possible. Begin by looking at some basic books and articles on your topic to help develop it further. What is the question you are going to answer with your essay? What approach will you take to the topic?

Once you are more familiar with the subject, create a preliminary source list of potential books, articles, essays, and studies that you may end up using in your essay.

Remember, any source used in your essay must be included in your reference section. Conversely, any source listed in your references must be cited somewhere in the body of your paper.

Write Your Rough Draft

With research in hand, you are ready to begin. Some people like to create an outline to organize their argument prior to drafting. You may want to start with a very rough outline, and then add details.

Once you have a detailed outline, the next step is to translate it from notes to complete sentences and paragraphs. Remember, this is a first draft. It doesn't have to be perfect.

As you write your paper in APA essay format, be sure to keep careful track of the sources that you cite.

How do you start an APA paper? Your paper should begin with an introduction that includes a thesis statement that presents your main ideas, points, or arguments. Your introduction should start on the third page of your paper (after the title page and abstract). The title of your paper should be centered, bolded, and typed in title case at the top of the page.

Review and Revise

After you have prepared a rough draft of your essay, it's time to revise, review, and prepare your final draft. In addition to making sure that your writing is cohesive and supported by your sources, you should also check carefully for typos, grammar errors, and possible formatting mistakes.

When citing information or quotations taken from an interview, APA format requires that you cite the source, how the information was collected, and the date of the interview. They should not be included in the reference section, however, because they are not something that can be located by a reader in any published source or searchable database.

Instead, the information should be cited parenthetically in the main body of the text. For example: “There was an increase in the number of college students who screened positive for depression/anxiety” (R. Heathfield, personal communication, May 9, 2021).

If the essay is in a chapter of a book, edited collection, or anthology, APA format states that you should cite the last name, first name, title of essay, title of collection, publisher, year, and page range. For example: Smith, John, "The Light House," A Book of Poems , editing by Peter Roberts, Allworth Press, 2005, pp. 20-25.

According to APA format, a two-part essay is formatted the same as an essay, however, you'll need to create two title pages.

If you're including a short direct quote in your APA-format essay, you will need to cite the author, year of publication, and page number (p.) or page number span (pp.). Quotations longer than 40 words should omit the quotation marks and be put in the text using block quotation formatting, on its own line and indented 1/2 inch from the left margin.

The cover page or "title page" in APA essay format should always include the title of your paper, your name, and school affiliation as well as the course title, instructor name, and date, if requested by your teacher.

Nagda S.  How to write a scientific abstract.   J Indian Prosthodont Soc.  2013;13(3):382-383. doi:10.1007/s13191-013-0299-x

American Psychological Association.  Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association  (7th ed.). Washington DC: The American Psychological Association; 2019.

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / APA Sample Papers

APA Sample Papers

Ever wonder how to format your research paper in APA style? If so, you’re in luck! The team at has put together an example paper to help guide you through your next assignment. (Actually, looking for MLA? Here’s a page on what is MLA format .)

The featured example is a research paper on the uses of biometrics to inform design decisions in the tech industry, authored by our UX Research Intern Peace Iyiewuare. Like most APA style papers, it includes an APA title page , tables, and several references and APA in-text citations to scholarly journals relevant to its topic. References are an important aspect of scientific research papers, and formatting them correctly is critical to getting a good grade.

This paper follows the formatting rules specified in the 6th edition of The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (the APA is not directly associated with this guide) . We’ve left comments and tips throughout the document, so you’ll know the specific rules around how to format titles, spacing, and font, as well as the citations on the APA reference page .

The reference list needs special care, as it demonstrates to the reader that you have accurately portrayed your outside sources and have given credit to the appropriate parties. Be sure to check our full APA citation guide for more information on paper formatting and citing sources in APA style. There is also a guide on  APA footnotes in case that is your preferred form of citation.

Download the APA Visual Guide

When citations are done, don’t forget to finish your paper off with a proofread—EasyBib Plus’s plagiarism and grammar check can help! Got a misspelled adverb ? Missed capitalizing a proper noun ? Struggling with subject-verb agreement ? These are just a few things our checker could help you spot in your paper.

D. Complete Sample APA Paper

We’ve included a full student paper below to give you an idea of what an essay in APA format looks like, complete with a title page, paper, reference list, and index. If you plan to include an APA abstract in your paper, see the Professional Paper for an example.

If you’re looking for an APA format citation generator, we’ve got you covered. Use! Our APA format machine can help you create every reference for your paper.

Below is an example of a student APA format essay. We also have PDF versions of both a student paper and a professional paper linked below.

See Student Paper                                 See Professional Paper

Using Biometrics to Evaluate Visual Design

Jane Lisa Dekker

Art Department, Northern California Valley State University

UXAD 272: Strategic Web Design

Professor Juan Liu, PhD

January 29, 2020

      A vast amount of research has been conducted regarding the importance of visual design, and its role as a mediator of user’s experience when browsing a site or interacting with an interface. In the literature, visual design is one aspect of website quality. Jones and Kim (2010) define website quality as “the perceived quality of a retail website that involves a [user’s] perceptions of the retailer’s website and comprises consumer reactions towards such attributes as information, entertainment/enjoyment, usability, transaction capabilities, and design aesthetics” (p. 632).  They further examined the impact web quality and retail brand trust has on purchase intentions. Additional research examining e-commerce sites has shown web quality has an impact on both initial and continued purchase intention (Kuan, Bock, & Vathanophas, 2008), as well as consumer satisfaction (Lin, 2007). Moreso, research on the relationship between visual design and perceived usability (Stojmenovic, Pilgrim, & Lindgaard, 2014) has revealed a positive correlation between the two. As users’ ratings of visual quality increase, their ratings of perceived usability follows a similar trend. Although this research spans various domains, the reliance on self-report measures to gauge concepts like visual design and web quality is prevalent throughout much of the literature.

Although some self-report scales are validated within the literature, there are still issues with the use of self-report questionnaires. One is the reliance on the honesty of the participant. This tends to be more of an issue in studies related to questionnaires that measure characteristics of the participant, rather than objective stimuli. More relevant to this study is the issue of introspection and memory. Surveys are often distributed after a task is completed, and its accuracy is dependent on the ability of the participant to remember their experience during the study. Multiple research studies have shown that human memory is far from static. This can

be dangerous if a researcher chooses to solely rely on self-report methods to test a hypothesis. We believe these self-report methods in tandem with biometric methods can help ensure the validity of the questionnaires, and provide information beyond the scope of self-report scales.

Research Questions

      We know from previous research that the quality of websites mediates many aspects of e-commerce, and provides insight as to how consumers view the webpages in general.  However, simply knowing a webpage is perceived as lower quality doesn’t give insight as to what aspects of a page are disliked by a user. Additionally, it’s possible that the user is misremembering aspects of the webpage or being dishonest in their assessment. Using eye tracking metrics, galvanic skin response, and facial expression measures in tandem with a scale aimed at measuring visual design quality has a couple of identifiable benefits. Using both can potentially identify patterns amongst the biometric measures and the questionnaire, which would strengthen the validity of the results. More so, the eye tracking data has the potential to identify patterns amongst websites of lower or higher quality.

If found, these patterns can be used to evaluate particular aspects of a page that are impacting the quality of a webpage. Overall, we are interested in answering two questions:

Research Question 1 : Can attitudinal changes regarding substantial website redesigns be captured using biometric measures?

Research Question 2 : How do biometric measures correlate with self-reported measures of visual appeal?

      Answering these questions has the potential to provide a method of justification for design changes, ranging from minor tweak to complete rebrands. There is not an easy way for companies to quantitatively analyze visual design decisions. A method for doing so would help companies evaluate visual designs before implementation in order to cost-justify them. To this end, we hope to demonstrate that biometric measurements can be used with questionnaires to verify and validate potential design changes a company or organization might want to implement.

      By examining data from test subjects during a brief exposure to several websites, we hoped to explore the relationship between the self-reported evaluation of visual design quality and key biometric measurements of a subject’s emotional valence and arousal. Subjects were exposed to ten pairs of websites before and after a substantial visual design change and asked to evaluate the website based on their initial impressions of the site’s visual design quality using the VisAWI-S scale, as shown in Table 1.  

During this assessment we collected GSR, facial expressions (limited by errors in initial study configuration), pupillary response, and fixation data using iMotions software coupled with a Tobii eye tracker, Shimmer GSR device, and Affdex facial expression analysis toolkit. This data was analyzed, in Table 2, to discover relationships between the independent and dependent variables, as well as relationships between certain dependent variables.  

Jones, C., & Kim, S. (2010). Influences of retail brand trust, off-line patronage, clothing involvement and website quality on online apparel shopping intention: Online apparel shopping intention. International Journal of Consumer Studies , 34 (6), 627–637.

Kuan, H.-H., Bock, G.-W., & Vathanophas, V. (2008). Comparing the effects of website quality on customer initial purchase and continued purchase at e-commerce websites. Behaviour & Information Technology , 27 (1), 3–16.

Lin, H.-F. (2007). The impact of website quality dimensions on customer satisfaction in the B2C e-commerce context. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence , 18 (4), 363–378.

Stojmenovic, M., Pilgrim, C., & Lindgaard, G. (2014). Perceived and objective usability and visual appeal in a website domain with a less developed mental model. Proceedings of the 26 th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference on Designing Futures: The Future of Design , 316–323.

Factor Item
Simplicity Everything goes together on the site.
Diversity The layout is pleasantly varied.
Colorfulness The color composition is attractive
Craftsmanship The layout appears professionally designed
Familiarity* I am familiar with this website
Participants were asked about agreement with the item using a 7-point likert scale.
* question is simply to gauge familiarity for the study, and is not part of the Vis-AWI-S instrument

Before After
Website Mean


Joy Kitchen 3.49 1.30 5.61 0.93 2.12 0.00
Seacom 3.27 1.59 5.35 1.20 2.08 0.00
Food Blog 3.59 1.30 5.59 0.80 2.00 0.00
Credit Union 3.29 1.26 5.18 1.07 1.89 0.00
Travelers 3.61 1.39 5.38 1.24 1.78 0.00
Sporcle 4.23 1.23 2.45 1.12 -1.78 0.00
Eagle 3.93 1.47 5.45 0.82 1.52 0.00
Oberlin 4.00 1.25 5.47 0.84 1.47 0.00
Valve 3.88 1.56 5.10 1.42 1.22 0.00
Hospital 4.47 1.33 5.48 0.85 1.01 0.00
Travel Blog 4.71 1.23 5.69 1.01 0.98 0.00
Space 4.35 1.55 5.29 1.09 0.94 0.00
School 5.04 1.44 5.63 0.80 0.60 0.06
Book Publisher 5.12 1.27 5.63 1.17 0.51 0.10
Sneakers 4.78 1.37 5.20 1.34 0.42 0.14
Stance 5.08 0.88 5.41 0.95 0.33 0.09
City 4.79 1.18 5.12 0.88 0.32 0.07
IEEE 3.95 1.30 4.26 1.40 0.31 0.24
Rise 5.08 1.00 4.89 1.27 -0.18 0.30
Audio Technica 3.94 1.52 4.05 1.37 0.11 0.71
Bloomberg 3.63 1.35 3.52 1.26 -0.11 0.73
Stimuli are ranked by largest to smallest absolute mean difference.

APA Formatting Guide

APA Formatting

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Block Quotes
  • et al Usage
  • In-text Citations
  • Multiple Authors
  • Paraphrasing
  • Page Numbers
  • Parenthetical Citations
  • Reference Page
  • Sample Paper
  • APA 7 Updates
  • View APA Guide

Citation Examples

  • Book Chapter
  • Journal Article
  • Magazine Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • Website (no author)
  • View all APA Examples

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How to Write an APA Research Paper

Psychology/neuroscience 201, v iew in pdf format.

An APA-style paper includes the following sections: title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, and references. Your paper may also include one or more tables and/or figures. Different types of information about your study are addressed in each of the sections, as described below.

General formatting rules are as follows:

Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections.

The title page, abstract, references, table(s), and figure(s) should be on their own pages. The entire paper should be written in the past tense, in a 12-point font, double-spaced, and with one-inch margins all around.

(see sample on p. 41 of APA manual)

  • Title should be between 10-12 words and should reflect content of paper (e.g., IV and DV).
  • Title, your name, and Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces)
  • Create a page header using the “View header” function in MS Word. On the title page, the header should include the following: Flush left: Running head: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles. It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. (Note: on the title page, you actually write the words “Running head,” but these words do not appear on subsequent pages; just the actual running head does. If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript). Flush right, on same line: page number. Use the toolbox to insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page.

Abstract (labeled, centered, not bold)

No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced.

  • State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of method, results, and discussion.


(Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of paper goes at the top of the page—not bold)

The introduction of an APA-style paper is the most difficult to write. A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and critically evaluate the empirical knowledge in the relevant area(s) in a way that sets the stage for your study and why you conducted it. The introduction starts out broad (but not too broad!) and gets more focused toward the end. Here are some guidelines for constructing a good introduction:

  • Don’t put your readers to sleep by beginning your paper with the time-worn sentence, “Past research has shown (blah blah blah)” They’ll be snoring within a paragraph!  Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat.  Take a look at articles you’ve read. Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task? Which ones didn’t?  Why not?  See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin (but not the only way) is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area.
  • Although you won’t go into the details of your study and hypotheses until the end of the intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at the end of the first paragraph by stating your purpose briefly, to give your reader a schema for all the information you will present next.
  • Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis. Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when. In other words, your intro shouldn’t read like a story of “Schmirdley did such-and-such in 1991. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in 1993.  Then....(etc.)” First, brainstorm all of the ideas you think are necessary to include in your paper. Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and think about how you want to transition between ideas. When an idea is complex, don’t be afraid to use a real-life example to clarify it for your reader. The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. The hypotheses should flow logically out of everything that’s been presented, so that the reader has the sense of, “Of course. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.”
  • When incorporating references into your intro, you do not necessarily need to describe every single study in complete detail, particularly if different studies use similar methodologies. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. Don’t make one mistake typical of a novice APA-paper writer by stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is relevant to my study because…”). It should be obvious to the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so.  DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words.
  • Be careful about citing your sources (see APA manual). Make sure there is a one-to-one correspondence between the articles you’ve cited in your intro and the articles listed in your reference section.
  • Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor.  Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting.

Method (labeled, centered, bold)

The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. Your goal is to describe the details of your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly.

The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and Procedure sections. If the design is particularly complicated (multiple IVs in a factorial experiment, for example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and Procedure” section.

Note that in some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in which there are many measures to describe but the procedure is brief), it may be more useful to present the Procedure section prior to the Materials section rather than after it.

Participants (labeled, flush left, bold)

Total number of participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and SD for age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence.

  • How were the participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for their time in any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points)
  • Write for a broad audience. Thus, do not write, “Students in Psych. 280...” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in a psychological statistics and research methods course at a small liberal arts college….”
  • Try to avoid short, choppy sentences. Combine information into a longer sentence when possible.

Materials (labeled, flush left, bold)

Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and so forth.

  • If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was (e.g., a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree)), how many items were reverse-scored, whether the measure had subscales, and so forth. Provide a sample item or two for your reader.
  • If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix.
  • If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed.  If you are only describing questionnaires, you may call this section “Measures.”

Apparatus (labeled, flush left, bold)

Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study (e.g., the eye tracking machine) and need to describe it in detail.

Procedure (labeled, flush left, bold)

What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable (e.g., “Participants all sat two feet from the experimenter.”), explain WHY you did what you did.  In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate. Don’t forget to include brief statements about informed consent and debriefing.

Results (labeled, centered, bold)

In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis.

  • Include a section for descriptive statistics
  • List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis.
  • Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style. A t-test, for example, is reported in the following format: t (18) = 3.57, p < .001, where 18 is the number of degrees of freedom (N – 2 for an independent-groups t test). For a correlation: r (32) = -.52, p < .001, where 32 is the number of degrees of freedom (N – 2 for a correlation). For a one-way ANOVA: F (2, 18) = 7.00, p < .001, where 2 represents the between and 18 represents df within Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than .05, it is “nonsignificant,” not “insignificant.” For nonsignificant findings, still provide the exact p values. For correlations, be sure to report the r 2 value as an assessment of the strength of the finding, to show what proportion of variability is shared by the two variables you’re correlating. For t- tests and ANOVAs, report eta 2 .
  • Report exact p values to two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .042; see p. 114 of APA manual).  However, for p-values less than .001, simply put p < .001.
  • Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding(s) in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis (e.g., “As predicted …”). This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers (within the same paragraph). Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs.
  • It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in your paper (e.g., “As illustrated in Figure 1…”). Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. Make sure that your text is not redundant with your tables/figures. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure. Do describe the trends shown in the figure.
  • Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section.

Discussion (labeled, centered, bold)

The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in the area. A discussion section is like the reverse of the introduction, in that you begin with the specifics and work toward the more general (funnel out). Some points to consider:

  • Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings (using words, not numbers). Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research? What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation? Bring back some of the literature you discussed in the Introduction, and show how your results fit in (or don’t fit in, as the case may be). If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature.
  • What are the limitations of the study? If your findings differ from those of other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions. Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below.
  • What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of research? Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it?  Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to re-run the study on a different college campus” or “It would be better to run the study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into what extensions of the research might be interesting/informative, and why.
  • What are the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? Give your readers “the big picture.” Try to answer the question, “So what?

Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. Don’t just trail off with an idea for a future study. End on a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to the literature.

References (labeled, centered, not bold)

Provide an alphabetical listing of the references (alphabetize by last name of first author). Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. The second line of each reference should be indented (this is called a hanging indent and is easily accomplished using the ruler in Microsoft Word). See the APA manual for how to format references correctly.

Examples of references to journal articles start on p. 198 of the manual, and examples of references to books and book chapters start on pp. 202. Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for electronic sources (see pp. 187-192 of APA manual to learn more).

Journal article example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of the article title is capitalized; the journal name and volume are italicized. If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized.] 

Ebner-Priemer, U. W., & Trull, T. J. (2009). Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and mood dysregulation. Psychological Assessment, 21, 463-475. doi:10.1037/a0017075

Book chapter example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of both the chapter title and book title are capitalized.]

Stephan, W. G. (1985). Intergroup relations. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 599-658). New York: Random House.

Book example: Gray, P. (2010). Psychology (6 th ed.). New York: Worth

Table There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include. See the APA manual. Be sure to provide a table number and table title (the latter is italicized). Tables can be single or double-spaced.

Figure If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. Be sure to label your x- and y-axes clearly, and make sure you’ve noted the units of measurement of the DV. Underneath the figure provide a label and brief caption (e.g., “Figure 1. Mean evaluation of job applicant qualifications as a function of applicant attractiveness level”). The figure caption typically includes the IVs/predictor variables and the DV. Include error bars in your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean.

In-Text Citations: (see pp. 174-179 of APA manual) When citing sources in your paper, you need to include the authors’ names and publication date.

You should use the following formats:

  • When including the citation as part of the sentence, use AND: “According to Jones and Smith (2003), the…”
  • When the citation appears in parentheses, use “&”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones & Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, & Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name, and should be separated by semicolons.
  • If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to include the page number.
  • For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on subsequent mentions. For example: “Klein et al. (1999) found that….” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the source is cited. When a source has six or more authors, the first author’s last name and “et al.” are used every time the source is cited (including the first time). 

Secondary Sources

“Secondary source” is the term used to describe material that is cited in another source. If in his article entitled “Behavioral Study of Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to the ideas of Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the primary source, and Milgram (1963) is the secondary source.

Try to avoid using secondary sources in your papers; in other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in your own work. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way:

Snow (as cited in Milgram, 1963) argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts... The reference for the Milgram article (but not the Snow reference) should then appear in the reference list at the end of your paper.

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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

General Format

OWL logo

Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in APA.

You can also watch our APA vidcast series on the Purdue OWL YouTube Channel .

General APA Guidelines

Your essay should be typed and double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5" x 11"), with 1" margins on all sides.   Include a page header (also known as the “ running head ”) at the top of every page. For a professional paper, this includes your paper title and the page number. For a student paper, this only includes the page number. To create a page header/running head , insert page numbers flush right. Then type "TITLE OF YOUR PAPER" in the header flush left using all capital letters. The running head is a shortened version of your paper's title and cannot exceed 50 characters including spacing and punctuation.

The 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual requires that the chosen font be accessible (i.e., legible) to all readers and that it be used consistently throughout the paper. It acknowledges that many font choices are legitimate, and it advises writers to check with their publishers, instructors, or institutions for guidance in cases of uncertainty.

While the APA Manual does not specify a single font or set of  fonts for professional writing, it does recommend a few fonts that are widely available. These include sans serif fonts such as 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, and 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode as well as serif fonts such as 12-point Times New Roman, 11-point Georgia, 10-point Computer Modern.

Major Paper Sections

Your essay should include four major sections: the Title Page , Abstract , Main Body , and References .

Note: APA 7 provides slightly different directions for formatting the title pages of professional papers (e.g., those intended for scholarly publication) and student papers (e.g., those turned in for credit in a high school or college course).

The title page should contain the title of the paper, the author's name , and the institutional affiliation . A professional paper should also include the author note . A student paper should also include the course number and name , instructor name , and assignment due date .

Type your title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page. The title should be centered and written in boldface. APA recommends that your title be focused and succinct and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. Your title may take up one or two lines. All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced.

Beneath the title, type the author's name : first name, middle initial(s), and last name. Do not use titles (Dr.) or degrees (PhD).

Beneath the author's name, type the institutional affiliation , which should indicate the location where the author(s) conducted the research.

A professional paper should include the author note beneath the institutional affiliation, in the bottom half of the title page. This should be divided up into several paragraphs, with any paragraphs that are not relevant omitted. The first paragraph should include the author’s name, the symbol for the ORCID iD, and the URL for the ORCID iD. Any authors who do not have an ORCID iD should be omitted. The second paragraph should show any change in affiliation or any deaths of the authors. The third paragraph should include any disclosures or acknowledgements, such as study registration, open practices and data sharing, disclosure of related reports and conflicts of interest, and acknowledgement of financial support and other assistance. The fourth paragraph should include contact information for the corresponding author.

A student paper should not include an author note.

Note again that page headers/page numbers (described above for professional and student papers) also appear at the top of the title page. In other words, a professional paper's title page will include the title of the paper flush left in all capitals and the page number flush right, while a student paper will only contain the page number flush right.

Student APA title page

This image shows the title page for a student APA seventh edition paper.

Title page for a student paper in APA 7 style.

Professional paper APA title page

This image shows the title page for a professional APA seventh edition paper.

Title page for a professional paper in APA 7 style.

Begin a new page. Your abstract page should already include the page header (described above). On the first line of the abstract page, center and bold the word “Abstract” (no italics, underlining, or quotation marks).

Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research. (Do not indent.) Your abstract should contain at least your research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions. You may also include possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your findings. Your abstract should be a single paragraph, double-spaced. Your abstract should typically be no more than 250 words.

You may also want to list keywords from your paper in your abstract. To do this, indent as you would if you were starting a new paragraph, type Keywords: (italicized), and then list your keywords. Listing your keywords will help researchers find your work in databases.

Abstracts are common in scholarly journal articles and are not typically required for student papers unless advised by an instructor. If you are unsure whether or not your work requires an abstract, consult your instructor for further guidance.

APA Abstract Page

This image shows the title page for a student APA seventh edition paper.

Abstract page for a student paper in APA 7 style.

Please see our Sample APA Paper resource to see an example of an APA paper. You may also visit our Additional Resources page for more examples of APA papers.

How to Cite the Purdue OWL in APA

Individual resources.

The page template for the new OWL site does not include contributors' names or the page's last edited date. However, select pages  still include this information.

In the absence of contributor/edit date information, treat the page as a source with a group author and use the abbreviation "n.d." for "no date":

Purdue Online Writing Lab. (n.d.).  Title of resource.  Purdue Online Writing Lab. http://Web address for OWL resource

Purdue Online Writing Lab. (n.d.).  General Writing FAQs. Purdue Online Writing Lab.

The generic APA citation for OWL pages, which includes author/edit date information, is this:

Contributors' names. (Last edited date).  Title of resource . Site Name. http://Web address for OWL resource

Note:  This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style  can be found here .

Learn the Standard Essay Format: MLA, APA, Chicago Styles

With modern technologies, students have a lot of tools that can assist them in meeting academic writing requirements. A student may entrust their assignment to an essay writing service and get a professional writer who will complete a customized paper for them or use free online tools like citation generators or an AI checker essay . These can help the student meet certain needs, like creating citations, a reference list for a college paper, and checking a paper for plagiarism and AI-generated content.

In this article, we will cover one of the trickiest issues every student faces in college: What is an essay format? How to use formatting styles, and what are their requirements?

Essay formats and their particularities: APA, MLA, Chicago

There are three frequently used formatting styles that you may need to follow when working on your academic paper. These are APA, MLA, and Chicago. Let’s take a look at each format essay and figure out how to apply every alternative in your papers. 

APA essay format

APA style is a standard essay format for social sciences such as psychology, education, and sociology. It provides clarity, precision, and the importance of data and research. If you need a detailed guide on how to write an essay in APA format , the “Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association” is what you need. It provides comprehensive rules for formatting college papers, citing sources, and structuring your content.

Here are the key requirements for the APA essay format that you have to follow in your writing:

  • Font : 12-point Times New Roman
  • Spacing : Double-spaced
  • Margins : 1 inch on all sides
  • Header : Title with a page number on the right
  • Title page : Topic of the paper, author’s name, institution affiliation, course number and name, instructor’s name, due date
  • Abstract : A brief summary (about 150-250 words)
  • Main body : Introduction, Method, Results, Discussion
  • In-text citations : Author’s last name, year, p. page number . Example : Johnson, 2018, p. 111
  • References page : The “References” title centered at the top of the page, with entries in alphabetical order by author’s last name, double-spaced, with a hanging indent

MLA (Modern Language Association) essay format

MLA essay formatting is usually used in the humanities. Students are mostly assigned to use this formatting style when working on papers in language disciplines or literature. The MLA style provides the authorship of sources, facilitating clarity and consistency in citation and documentation. The MLA style is perfectly detailed in the MLA Handbook. There, you can find guidelines on how to format papers, cite sources properly, and omit any sign of plagiarism.

If you are searching for guidelines on how to write a diagnostic essay or any other college paper in the MLA formatting style, here are the instructions to follow:

  • Header : Last name and page number in the top right corner
  • Title : Centered, standard capitalization, NOT bolded or underlined
  • Title Page : Not typically required
  • The first page : Student’s name, instructor’s name, course, date
  • In-Text Citations : (Author’s Last Name Page Number) Example : (Smith 123)
  • References page : The “Works Cited” title centered at the top of the page, with entries in alphabetical order by author’s last name, double-spaced, with a hanging indent

Chicago essay format

Chicago formatting is widely used for college papers in various disciplines, like history, the arts, sciences, etc. Consult The Chicago Manual of Style if you need detailed instructions on how to use this formatting style in writing. The Chicago formatting style offers two central documentation systems. The first one is Notes and Bibliography, which is commonly used in the humanities. The second one is Author-Date, which is preferred in the sciences and social sciences. The Notes and Bibliography system is well-known for its detailed footnotes or endnotes and comprehensive bibliography.

If you have no idea how to write an argumentative essay using the Chicago formatting style, here are the guidelines to follow:

  • Header : Page number in the top right corner
  • Title page : Topic of the paper, author’s name, course information, date
  • Main body : Typically divided into sections as needed
  • Footnotes/Endnotes : Superscript number in the text, with corresponding note at the bottom of the page or end of the paper. Example : Smith argues that this was not the case.¹ Corresponding footnote : ¹ John Smith, Title of Book (Publisher, Year), page number.
  • Bibliography page : The “Bibliography” title centered at the top of the page, with entries in alphabetical order by author’s last name, single-spaced within entries, double-spaced between entries, with a hanging indent.

The checklist to make sure you have met all essay format requirements

When your paper is complete, it is very important to make sure you have done everything properly. Grab this checklist and make sure you have formatted your essay correctly and haven’t missed anything important.

Margins and spacing
Does your paper have 1-inch margins on all sides?Is the entire paper double-spaced?
Is the paper written in Times New Roman, a 12-point font for the entire text?
Headers and page numbers
: Are there your last name and page number in the top right corner of each page of your paper? : Are there the title of your paper and the page number on the right? : Is there a page number in the top right corner of each page of your paper?
Title page
: Are your name, instructor’s name, course, and date on the first page? Is the topic of your paper centered? : Does your title page include the title of the paper, your name, institution affiliation, course number and name, instructor’s name, and due date? : Does your title page include the title of the paper, your name, course information, and the date?
In-text citations
: Are there the author’s last name and page number in parentheses after quotations or paraphrased text (e.g., (Miller 111))? : Are there the author’s last name, year of publication, and page number in parentheses after quotations or paraphrased text (e.g., (Miller, 2000, p. 111))? : Are there superscript numbers in the text and corresponding footnotes or endnotes with citations?
References page
: Is your references page titled “Works Cited,” centered at the top of a new page, with entries in alphabetical order, double-spaced, and with a hanging indent? : Is your references page titled “References,” centered at the top of a new page, with entries in alphabetical order, double-spaced, and with a hanging indent? : Is your references page titled “Bibliography,” centered at the top of a new page, with entries in alphabetical order, single-spaced within entries, double-spaced between entries, and with a hanging indent?
Quotations and paraphrasing
Have you correctly formatted quotations, using quotation marks for direct quotes and proper in-text citations for both direct quotes and paraphrased information?
Do all citations in the text correspond to entries in your Works Cited/References/Bibliography page? Are all the entries appropriately formatted?
Section headings (if applicable)
: Have you used proper headings and subheadings to organize your paper according to APA guidelines (centered, bolded headings for main sections)? : If using subheadings, are they consistent and properly formatted?

The last step is, of course, to proofread your essay and ensure that it meets all your instructor’s requirements. If you have checked it thoroughly, then you are ready to hand it in. 

Format essay: Other formatting styles you may have to follow in academic writing

Of course, there are other formatting styles than APA, MLA, and Chicago. Let’s take a quick look at other essay formats you can face when working on a college paper. 

  • Harvard . This is a basic essay format for social sciences. It uses an author-date citation system similar to APA but has some formatting differences.
  • Turabian . This is a simplified version of the Chicago style. It is well-known for being required for writing academic papers, theses, and dissertations.
  • IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). This particular formatting style is used predominantly in technical fields like engineering and computer science. This formatting style uses a numerical citation system. 
  • AMA (American Medical Association). This formatting style is often used in medical and health-related fields. It uses a numerical citation system with superscript numbers.
  • Vancouver . This formatting style is usually used in biomedical and physical sciences. It includes a numerical citation system with citations in parentheses.
  • CSE (Council of Science Editors). This formatting style can often be met in natural sciences. It offers three systems: Citation-Sequence, Name-Year, and Citation-Name.
  • ASA (American Sociological Association). ASA formatting style is primarily used in sociology. It has a lot of similarities with the APA formatting style but has specific differences for sociological research. 
  • APSA (American Political Science Association). As can be comprehended from the name of the formatting style, it is often used in political science papers. This formatting style is based on the Chicago style but has some specific guidelines for political science.

Students face many issues on their way to getting a degree, and writing college papers takes a great deal of effort and time. Some learners have no idea how to write a narrative essay , spending hours searching for reliable information to help them handle the task. Others do not have enough experience in different formatting styles and seek assistance from various sources. And, of course, every college learner wants to research the topic to the fullest in order to get a good mark. 

We hope this article will come in handy when you need to write a college essay using a specific formatting style, and you will succeed.

Being a student, you have to handle a lot of writing assignments, follow various academic writing standards, and hand in your papers on time. Of course, writing assignments takes a lot of time and effort. On the one hand, students have to research topics profoundly and compose their papers on a research basis. On the other hand, students have to pay close attention to instructors’ requirements and academic standards.

TFor some students, it is no problem to research different issues because they usually choose the ones that interest them, but it could be a real trouble to meet all the formatting requirements. They often question how to write a book title in an essay , cite sources correctly, and write an essay in a particular formatting style.

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Confused About Citations? A Painless Guide to MLA and APA Formatting

Confused About Citations? A Painless Guide to MLA and APA Formatting 1

Citations can be a real pain that every student has to experience when working on their research papers. The bracketed numbers or the author names at the end of your sentences seem to be an unnecessary problem in your academic writing. But there’s a valid reason why citations are essential for every research paper.

This guide will help you understand MLA and APA formatting. Even if you get help from AI essay writing tools, you can format it correctly. We’ll talk about these two common styles and break them down into easy-to-follow steps. But before that, let’s understand the importance of citations in academic research papers.

Why Citation is Important?

Citations are your way of giving credit where credit is due. They show your readers exactly where you found the information you are using so they can further explore the source if they want to. Also, proper citations are essential for academic integrity. They prevent plagiarism , which is a big NO.


Modern Language Association (MLA) and American Psychological Association (APA) are the two most common citation styles. Although they have some similarities, they also have some major differences.

MLA is primarily used for literature and humanities subjects. It focuses on the author’s last name and the year of publication within the text itself (e.g., Smith, 2024). At the end of your paper, you’ll have a Works Cited page that lists all your sources in a specific order. 

APA is the go-to style for social sciences and psychology. These citations use author-date format in-text as well but with some variations (e.g., (Smith, 2024). The reference list at the end follows a different structure compared to MLA.

Formatting Basics for In-Text Citations

In-text citations direct your readers to the full source of information in your reference list. Here’s how they work for each style:

  • MLA: Here, you simply include the author’s last name and the year of publication within parentheses after the borrowed information. If there are two authors, use their last names joined by “and” (e.g., Smith and Jones, 2024). For more than two authors, list the first author’s name followed by “et al.” (e.g., Smith et al., 2024).
  • APA: Similar to MLA, APA uses author-date format but with a twist. If your sentence mentions the author’s name, you only need to include the year in parentheses (e.g., Smith, 2024 found that…). However, if the author’s name isn’t mentioned, you’ll need to include both the last name and year of publication within parentheses (e.g., (Smith, 2024)).

For Direct Quotations

Direct quotes require a little extra attention, but it’s easier when you understand the process. 

  • MLA: For quotes under four lines, use quotation marks and include the page number within the closing parenthesis (e.g., “This is a direct quotation” (Smith, 2024, p. 12)). Longer quotations (4 lines or more) are indented without quotation marks, and the page number is placed after the closing quotation mark outside the indented block.
  • APA: For both short and long quotes, use quotation marks and include the page number after the closing quotation mark within the parentheses (e.g., “This is a direct quote” (Smith, 2024, p. 12)).

The All-Important Reference List/Works Cited Page

Once you’ve mastered in-text citations, the reference list (APA) or Works Cited page (MLA) is the final challenge. This is where you list all the sources you used in your paper, following the specific format for your chosen style.

Many resources are available online and in libraries that provide detailed instructions on formatting reference lists and Works Cited pages. But once you find a reliable source for formatting a specific source type (e.g., book, website), keep it handy for future reference.

Always check your professor’s specific requirements. They might have preferences for or variations on the standard styles. Pick a style and stick with it throughout your essay. Ask your professor or librarian for help if you get stuck.

Closing Thoughts

You can create well-formatted research papers with proper citations with these tips and available resources. There are many citation generator tools available online. Although these can be helpful to start, you need to double-check the generated citations against a reliable style guide. Don’t completely depend on the generator; get help from it.

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How to write an APA abstract: formatting tips for writing

APA abstract: an overview of APA abstract formatting


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In addition to providing the audience with a brief overview of key points discussed in the article, the APA abstract can also aid in an efficient literature search, offering a glimpse into the paper’s findings and objectives. Apart from highlighting the most vital points of the research, the importance of an APA abstract lies in the following factors:

  • Overview convenience. An APA abstract is always concise, meaning that readers will not have to skim over the entire length of the text to understand the point. According to writing professionals who specialize in the field of APA abstracts and academic writing, having an abstract that is too vague or does not adhere to the word count established by formatting guidelines will damage your reputation as a scholar and discourage the audience from giving more attention to your research. 
  • Paper relevance. The purpose of an APA abstract page is to convince readers that the paper holds relevance in terms of its academic contribution. The audience that is just getting acquainted with key concepts of your abstract should understand its value and its most pressing challenges and objectives. Otherwise, researchers will be unable to hold the attention of the audience for a long time and will be swiftly overshadowed by other scholars and their work. 
  • Efficiency evaluation. Critics can assess the paper by taking a look at its brief deconstruction and thus decide whether it is worth studying further. Researchers should not make the mistake of believing that their work is outstanding by default, immediately setting them apart from other academic professionals. On the contrary, it is critics who will decide whether their research holds any weight and should see the light of the day in terms of publication and online promotion.
  • First impression. The abstract in APA allows the audience to analyze the paper’s content and judge its applicability and relevance at first glance. Although stating that first impressions matter may be an age-old adage that holds no relevance, your research will be judged by your APA abstract. Unless you are willing to get your audience hooked from the first minute, you will be forced to give way to more talented researchers who know how to make their abstracts stand out.

The definition of abstract in APA

What is an abstract in APA? An abstract written in APA style can be defined as a brief summary of the main points of the research paper. The abstract in APA is written according to the guidelines of the APA format and should always include key research questions, problems, methods, solutions, and findings. There are a few reasons the APA abstract is held in such high regard and considered an important part of the research process:

  • The abstract in APA provides a concise explanation of the research.
  • The abstract in APA outlines the key findings and problems of the research.
  • The APA abstract allows readers to get an idea of what the paper is going to be about.
  • The purpose of the APA abstract lies in providing a comprehensive summation of the paper’s central points. 

An abstract in APA also initiates the contact between the reader and the researcher, impacting the reader’s decision to give their full attention to the text. An APA abstract should also have the following characteristics to be considered complete:

  • Briefness. Ideally, an abstract should never be more than 150-250 words to relay a brief and succinct summary of the words without overwhelming the reader with terms and definitions.
  • Structure. General guidelines suggest that the abstract in APA should be written in a single block paragraph without indentation, which matches the APA guidelines.
  • Components. The abstract should contain separate segments that inform readers about the research problems, methods, results, and conclusion.
  • Perspective. A perfect APA abstract will be written in the third person. Researchers need to avoid using the first person when describing their findings.
  • Tone. A strictly formal tone should be maintained throughout the paper. Researchers have to make sure that the tone matches the theme of the scholarly work. 
  • Keywords. More often than not, the relevant keywords will be listed at the end of the abstract to improve searchability and make it easier for the audience to find the information they need.

Writing an APA abstract: instructions

How to create an abstract in APA that will make a good first impression on the audience and encourage them to give your research paper a look? There is a specific structure you need to follow to make your abstract sound believable and authentic. You should also remember the purpose of your research and the scope of your study. By clearly stating your objectives at the beginning of the research process, you highlight the significant results of your study and how they contribute to your research field. It is also recommended to avoid the excessive use of jargon and colloquialisms while articulating your points in the APA abstract to ensure the audience gets a clear, coherent picture of what the paper explores. 

Preparing the Abstract

  • Understand the purpose. You should always keep in mind that a decent APA abstract is only a preview of what the paper is going to be about. Understanding its purpose will help you choose the key elements of your research to present to readers.
  • Review guidelines. Reviewing guidelines is another part of the research process that will help you write an APA abstract that matches the requirements. Here, you will have to search for the basic rules of complying with the APA format, including word count and content structure. 
  • Determine the key aspects. Your APA abstract should always contain the research problem, methods, results, and conclusions, which are the primary aspects of scientific research that indicate you have conducted substantial preliminary work prior to writing an abstract.
  • Read the paper. The researcher’s first obligation when writing an abstract APA is to reread the entire research paper to ensure they know the purpose of abstract writing and can fully disclose the information to readers.

Writing the abstract

  • Start with the problem. Use brief terms to provide an outline of your problem, allowing the audience to resonate with the main issue of the research.
  • Provide the methods. Highlight the design of your research, listing the number of participants and the procedures you are going to carry out in the process.
  • Introduce the results. Your audience will be waiting for the outcome of your research, so don’t hesitate to provide them with the findings and conclusions you have reached during your academic examination.
  • Present the implications. Presenting the implications is the process of emphasizing the significance of your research through general conclusions and assumptions drawn from the research process.
  • Keep it brief. The main rule of writing an abstract is keeping it brief and adhering to the main rules of word count stated in the APA guidelines. A perfect APA abstract should not be longer than 250 words if the APA guidelines are anything to go by. 
  • Avoid complex terms. Each sentence in your abstract should stand as a separate piece of writing and remain easy to understand. It is recommended that the complex terms and definitions be presented in layman’s terms so the audience will not be forced to search for the explanation of specific terms and phrases while reading.

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Structuring the abstract

What is an abstract in APA if it is not properly structured? To make sure your abstract is always perfectly arranged and fits the norms of APA formatting, you can stick to the simple scheme below:

  • Title. Start with positioning the word ABSTRACT in the center of the page. 
  • Single paragraph. The abstract should be written as a single paragraph with no indentation.
  • Introduction. Your introduction is the best way to introduce your research and its main problems. Make sure your introduction is not too long or drawn out (1-2 sentences are enough to illustrate the problem).
  • Methods. Describe the methods you are going to use in your research, along with the number of participants and the necessary procedures that will make a part of the research process. Do not write more than 3-4 sentences.
  • Results. Here, researchers are required to summarize the key findings in no more than 3-4 sentences, reiterating previous points.
  • Conclusion. By stating the main implications of the study, you remind readers about the importance of your research.
  • Keywords. An abstract in APA will feature a list of keywords in italics, preceded by the word KEYWORDS at the center of the page.

How to format an APA abstract

An APA abstract can be a challenge to write. It ties in with the fact that you will have to study specific guidelines for APA formatting, as well as know the research paper setup, to be able to structure your paper successfully. Thankfully, there are a few tried and tested strategies that can help you format the abstract with relative ease:

  • You should center the word ABSTRACT at the top of the page. The word should not be written in bold or italicized. Do not underline the word or write it in cursive.
  • The abstract should present a single double-spaced paragraph. The first line of the abstract should not be indented, and the total word count should never exceed 150-250 words.
  • Only standard fonts are used for an APA format abstract. You may choose Times New Roman, Calibri, or Arial for your paper.
  • Researchers have to make sure that the page number is included in the header and aligned to the right. 
  • The content structure of the APA abstract has to include an introduction, methods, results, and a conclusion that summarizes your key findings.

Keywords in an APA abstract can help your research paper to make a frequent appearance in databases, which also means that your research will be easily found and identified. In addition, having relevant keywords added to your abstract will provide insight into the key aspects of your research. If you want to help academic institutions find your work, you should always place keywords at the end of the abstract on a new line. Keywords are not a part of the main word count, so they should always follow the main text of the abstract.

How to create an abstract in APA, introducing readers to the main ideas of the paper? Researchers should always start by identifying the main concepts of your abstract and choosing the relevant keywords that would improve your paper’s visibility in online databases. 

What is the purpose of an abstract in APA format?

How to write an APA abstract, and what is its purpose? You can think of the APA abstract as the summary of the paper, which helps readers get acquainted with the paper’s content and main ideas without having to read all of the text. This also simplifies the task for critics who analyze your paper and assess its value based on its findings and outcome. They will have a foundation for their assessment in the form of an APA abstract that they can use as a pillar upon which the entire research is standing.

How do I write an APA abstract?

Your APA abstract should always be concise. It is advisable to stick to a word count of 250 words or fewer. Introduce the main ideas of the paper, but do not provide extensive commentary or evaluate the ideas in the abstract. Follow the content structure commonly accepted for the APA abstract, which includes an introduction, methods, results, and conclusion.

What are the key characteristics of an APA abstract?

The main features of an APA abstract are the running header, the section label, the main content of the abstract, all double-spaced and written in a single block, as well as the list of keywords introduced with the word KEYWORDS.

How do I include keywords in an APA abstract?

You should always include relevant keywords in an APA abstract format, choosing no more than 3-5 words per abstract. The word KEYWORDS should be followed by a colon, with the keywords or phrases separated by commas. Make sure that all the keywords used in the APA abstract reflect the main ideas of the research and do not distract readers from the key concepts of your paper. Do not overwhelm the audience with 10 or more unnecessary keyword combinations - having a maximum of 5 keywords that reflect the nature of your text is enough to make an impression and categorize your paper.

What is the difference between an APA abstract and an abstract in other formats?

While an APA abstract is always required for an APA-style paper, MLA-formatted papers do not need an abstract at all. APA abstract is more informative than other formats, presenting readers with many arguments and cases to prove that the text is of relevance. In addition, APA abstracts are always strictly sectioned, unlike so many abstracts in other formats that you can find online. You are required to follow a specific APA structure with purpose, method, results, and conclusion. Abstracts in other formats do not always follow a specific word count, whereas an APA abstract should be compact and succinct.


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How to Write an APA Methods Section | With Examples

Published on February 5, 2021 by Pritha Bhandari . Revised on June 22, 2023.

The methods section of an APA style paper is where you report in detail how you performed your study. Research papers in the social and natural sciences often follow APA style. This article focuses on reporting quantitative research methods .

In your APA methods section, you should report enough information to understand and replicate your study, including detailed information on the sample , measures, and procedures used.

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Table of contents

Structuring an apa methods section.


Example of an APA methods section

Other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about writing an apa methods section.

The main heading of “Methods” should be centered, boldfaced, and capitalized. Subheadings within this section are left-aligned, boldfaced, and in title case. You can also add lower level headings within these subsections, as long as they follow APA heading styles .

To structure your methods section, you can use the subheadings of “Participants,” “Materials,” and “Procedures.” These headings are not mandatory—aim to organize your methods section using subheadings that make sense for your specific study.

Heading What to include

Note that not all of these topics will necessarily be relevant for your study. For example, if you didn’t need to consider outlier removal or ways of assigning participants to different conditions, you don’t have to report these steps.

The APA also provides specific reporting guidelines for different types of research design. These tell you exactly what you need to report for longitudinal designs , replication studies, experimental designs , and so on. If your study uses a combination design, consult APA guidelines for mixed methods studies.

Detailed descriptions of procedures that don’t fit into your main text can be placed in supplemental materials (for example, the exact instructions and tasks given to participants, the full analytical strategy including software code, or additional figures and tables).

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Begin the methods section by reporting sample characteristics, sampling procedures, and the sample size.

Participant or subject characteristics

When discussing people who participate in research, descriptive terms like “participants,” “subjects” and “respondents” can be used. For non-human animal research, “subjects” is more appropriate.

Specify all relevant demographic characteristics of your participants. This may include their age, sex, ethnic or racial group, gender identity, education level, and socioeconomic status. Depending on your study topic, other characteristics like educational or immigration status or language preference may also be relevant.

Be sure to report these characteristics as precisely as possible. This helps the reader understand how far your results may be generalized to other people.

The APA guidelines emphasize writing about participants using bias-free language , so it’s necessary to use inclusive and appropriate terms.

Sampling procedures

Outline how the participants were selected and all inclusion and exclusion criteria applied. Appropriately identify the sampling procedure used. For example, you should only label a sample as random  if you had access to every member of the relevant population.

Of all the people invited to participate in your study, note the percentage that actually did (if you have this data). Additionally, report whether participants were self-selected, either by themselves or by their institutions (e.g., schools may submit student data for research purposes).

Identify any compensation (e.g., course credits or money) that was provided to participants, and mention any institutional review board approvals and ethical standards followed.

Sample size and power

Detail the sample size (per condition) and statistical power that you hoped to achieve, as well as any analyses you performed to determine these numbers.

It’s important to show that your study had enough statistical power to find effects if there were any to be found.

Additionally, state whether your final sample differed from the intended sample. Your interpretations of the study outcomes should be based only on your final sample rather than your intended sample.

Write up the tools and techniques that you used to measure relevant variables. Be as thorough as possible for a complete picture of your techniques.

Primary and secondary measures

Define the primary and secondary outcome measures that will help you answer your primary and secondary research questions.

Specify all instruments used in gathering these measurements and the construct that they measure. These instruments may include hardware, software, or tests, scales, and inventories.

  • To cite hardware, indicate the model number and manufacturer.
  • To cite common software (e.g., Qualtrics), state the full name along with the version number or the website URL .
  • To cite tests, scales or inventories, reference its manual or the article it was published in. It’s also helpful to state the number of items and provide one or two example items.

Make sure to report the settings of (e.g., screen resolution) any specialized apparatus used.

For each instrument used, report measures of the following:

  • Reliability : how consistently the method measures something, in terms of internal consistency or test-retest reliability.
  • Validity : how precisely the method measures something, in terms of construct validity  or criterion validity .

Giving an example item or two for tests, questionnaires , and interviews is also helpful.

Describe any covariates—these are any additional variables that may explain or predict the outcomes.

Quality of measurements

Review all methods you used to assure the quality of your measurements.

These may include:

  • training researchers to collect data reliably,
  • using multiple people to assess (e.g., observe or code) the data,
  • translation and back-translation of research materials,
  • using pilot studies to test your materials on unrelated samples.

For data that’s subjectively coded (for example, classifying open-ended responses), report interrater reliability scores. This tells the reader how similarly each response was rated by multiple raters.

Report all of the procedures applied for administering the study, processing the data, and for planned data analyses.

Data collection methods and research design

Data collection methods refers to the general mode of the instruments: surveys, interviews, observations, focus groups, neuroimaging, cognitive tests, and so on. Summarize exactly how you collected the necessary data.

Describe all procedures you applied in administering surveys, tests, physical recordings, or imaging devices, with enough detail so that someone else can replicate your techniques. If your procedures are very complicated and require long descriptions (e.g., in neuroimaging studies), place these details in supplementary materials.

To report research design, note your overall framework for data collection and analysis. State whether you used an experimental, quasi-experimental, descriptive (observational), correlational, and/or longitudinal design. Also note whether a between-subjects or a within-subjects design was used.

For multi-group studies, report the following design and procedural details as well:

  • how participants were assigned to different conditions (e.g., randomization),
  • instructions given to the participants in each group,
  • interventions for each group,
  • the setting and length of each session(s).

Describe whether any masking was used to hide the condition assignment (e.g., placebo or medication condition) from participants or research administrators. Using masking in a multi-group study ensures internal validity by reducing research bias . Explain how this masking was applied and whether its effectiveness was assessed.

Participants were randomly assigned to a control or experimental condition. The survey was administered using Qualtrics ( To begin, all participants were given the AAI and a demographics questionnaire to complete, followed by an unrelated filler task. In the control condition , participants completed a short general knowledge test immediately after the filler task. In the experimental condition, participants were asked to visualize themselves taking the test for 3 minutes before they actually did. For more details on the exact instructions and tasks given, see supplementary materials.

Data diagnostics

Outline all steps taken to scrutinize or process the data after collection.

This includes the following:

  • Procedures for identifying and removing outliers
  • Data transformations to normalize distributions
  • Compensation strategies for overcoming missing values

To ensure high validity, you should provide enough detail for your reader to understand how and why you processed or transformed your raw data in these specific ways.

Analytic strategies

The methods section is also where you describe your statistical analysis procedures, but not their outcomes. Their outcomes are reported in the results section.

These procedures should be stated for all primary, secondary, and exploratory hypotheses. While primary and secondary hypotheses are based on a theoretical framework or past studies, exploratory hypotheses are guided by the data you’ve just collected.

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This annotated example reports methods for a descriptive correlational survey on the relationship between religiosity and trust in science in the US. Hover over each part for explanation of what is included.

The sample included 879 adults aged between 18 and 28. More than half of the participants were women (56%), and all participants had completed at least 12 years of education. Ethics approval was obtained from the university board before recruitment began. Participants were recruited online through Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk; We selected for a geographically diverse sample within the Midwest of the US through an initial screening survey. Participants were paid USD $5 upon completion of the study.

A sample size of at least 783 was deemed necessary for detecting a correlation coefficient of ±.1, with a power level of 80% and a significance level of .05, using a sample size calculator (

The primary outcome measures were the levels of religiosity and trust in science. Religiosity refers to involvement and belief in religious traditions, while trust in science represents confidence in scientists and scientific research outcomes. The secondary outcome measures were gender and parental education levels of participants and whether these characteristics predicted religiosity levels.


Religiosity was measured using the Centrality of Religiosity scale (Huber, 2003). The Likert scale is made up of 15 questions with five subscales of ideology, experience, intellect, public practice, and private practice. An example item is “How often do you experience situations in which you have the feeling that God or something divine intervenes in your life?” Participants were asked to indicate frequency of occurrence by selecting a response ranging from 1 (very often) to 5 (never). The internal consistency of the instrument is .83 (Huber & Huber, 2012).

Trust in Science

Trust in science was assessed using the General Trust in Science index (McCright, Dentzman, Charters & Dietz, 2013). Four Likert scale items were assessed on a scale from 1 (completely distrust) to 5 (completely trust). An example question asks “How much do you distrust or trust scientists to create knowledge that is unbiased and accurate?” Internal consistency was .8.

Potential participants were invited to participate in the survey online using Qualtrics ( The survey consisted of multiple choice questions regarding demographic characteristics, the Centrality of Religiosity scale, an unrelated filler anagram task, and finally the General Trust in Science index. The filler task was included to avoid priming or demand characteristics, and an attention check was embedded within the religiosity scale. For full instructions and details of tasks, see supplementary materials.

For this correlational study , we assessed our primary hypothesis of a relationship between religiosity and trust in science using Pearson moment correlation coefficient. The statistical significance of the correlation coefficient was assessed using a t test. To test our secondary hypothesis of parental education levels and gender as predictors of religiosity, multiple linear regression analysis was used.

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Normal distribution
  • Measures of central tendency
  • Chi square tests
  • Confidence interval
  • Quartiles & Quantiles


  • Cluster sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Thematic analysis
  • Cohort study
  • Peer review
  • Ethnography

Research bias

  • Implicit bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Conformity bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Availability heuristic
  • Attrition bias
  • Social desirability bias

In your APA methods section , you should report detailed information on the participants, materials, and procedures used.

  • Describe all relevant participant or subject characteristics, the sampling procedures used and the sample size and power .
  • Define all primary and secondary measures and discuss the quality of measurements.
  • Specify the data collection methods, the research design and data analysis strategy, including any steps taken to transform the data and statistical analyses.

You should report methods using the past tense , even if you haven’t completed your study at the time of writing. That’s because the methods section is intended to describe completed actions or research.

In a scientific paper, the methodology always comes after the introduction and before the results , discussion and conclusion . The same basic structure also applies to a thesis, dissertation , or research proposal .

Depending on the length and type of document, you might also include a literature review or theoretical framework before the methodology.

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Title Page Setup

A title page is required for all APA Style papers. There are both student and professional versions of the title page. Students should use the student version of the title page unless their instructor or institution has requested they use the professional version. APA provides a student title page guide (PDF, 199KB) to assist students in creating their title pages.

Student title page

The student title page includes the paper title, author names (the byline), author affiliation, course number and name for which the paper is being submitted, instructor name, assignment due date, and page number, as shown in this example.

diagram of a student page

Title page setup is covered in the seventh edition APA Style manuals in the Publication Manual Section 2.3 and the Concise Guide Section 1.6

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  • Student Title Page Guide (PDF, 263KB)
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Student papers do not include a running head unless requested by the instructor or institution.

Follow the guidelines described next to format each element of the student title page.

Paper title

Place the title three to four lines down from the top of the title page. Center it and type it in bold font. Capitalize of the title. Place the main title and any subtitle on separate double-spaced lines if desired. There is no maximum length for titles; however, keep titles focused and include key terms.

Author names

Place one double-spaced blank line between the paper title and the author names. Center author names on their own line. If there are two authors, use the word “and” between authors; if there are three or more authors, place a comma between author names and use the word “and” before the final author name.

Cecily J. Sinclair and Adam Gonzaga

Author affiliation

For a student paper, the affiliation is the institution where the student attends school. Include both the name of any department and the name of the college, university, or other institution, separated by a comma. Center the affiliation on the next double-spaced line after the author name(s).

Department of Psychology, University of Georgia

Course number and name

Provide the course number as shown on instructional materials, followed by a colon and the course name. Center the course number and name on the next double-spaced line after the author affiliation.

PSY 201: Introduction to Psychology

Instructor name

Provide the name of the instructor for the course using the format shown on instructional materials. Center the instructor name on the next double-spaced line after the course number and name.

Dr. Rowan J. Estes

Assignment due date

Provide the due date for the assignment. Center the due date on the next double-spaced line after the instructor name. Use the date format commonly used in your country.

October 18, 2020
18 October 2020

Use the page number 1 on the title page. Use the automatic page-numbering function of your word processing program to insert page numbers in the top right corner of the page header.


Professional title page

The professional title page includes the paper title, author names (the byline), author affiliation(s), author note, running head, and page number, as shown in the following example.

diagram of a professional title page

Follow the guidelines described next to format each element of the professional title page.

Paper title

Place the title three to four lines down from the top of the title page. Center it and type it in bold font. Capitalize of the title. Place the main title and any subtitle on separate double-spaced lines if desired. There is no maximum length for titles; however, keep titles focused and include key terms.

Author names


Place one double-spaced blank line between the paper title and the author names. Center author names on their own line. If there are two authors, use the word “and” between authors; if there are three or more authors, place a comma between author names and use the word “and” before the final author name.

Francesca Humboldt

When different authors have different affiliations, use superscript numerals after author names to connect the names to the appropriate affiliation(s). If all authors have the same affiliation, superscript numerals are not used (see Section 2.3 of the for more on how to set up bylines and affiliations).

Tracy Reuter , Arielle Borovsky , and Casey Lew-Williams

Author affiliation


For a professional paper, the affiliation is the institution at which the research was conducted. Include both the name of any department and the name of the college, university, or other institution, separated by a comma. Center the affiliation on the next double-spaced line after the author names; when there are multiple affiliations, center each affiliation on its own line.


Department of Nursing, Morrigan University

When different authors have different affiliations, use superscript numerals before affiliations to connect the affiliations to the appropriate author(s). Do not use superscript numerals if all authors share the same affiliations (see Section 2.3 of the for more).

Department of Psychology, Princeton University
Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, Purdue University

Author note

Place the author note in the bottom half of the title page. Center and bold the label “Author Note.” Align the paragraphs of the author note to the left. For further information on the contents of the author note, see Section 2.7 of the .


The running head appears in all-capital letters in the page header of all pages, including the title page. Align the running head to the left margin. Do not use the label “Running head:” before the running head.

Prediction errors support children’s word learning

Use the page number 1 on the title page. Use the automatic page-numbering function of your word processing program to insert page numbers in the top right corner of the page header.



  1. Sample Papers

    These sample papers formatted in seventh edition APA Style show the format that authors should use to submit a manuscript for publication in a professional journal and that students should use to submit a paper to an instructor for a course assignment.

  2. APA Sample Paper

    Note: The APA Publication Manual, 7th Edition specifies different formatting conventions for student and professional papers (i.e., papers written for credit in a course and papers intended for scholarly publication). These differences mostly extend to the title page and running head. Crucially, citation practices do not differ between the two styles of paper.

  3. APA format for academic papers and essays

    Learn how to set up APA format for your paper. From the title page and headings to references and citations.

  4. APA Formatting and Style (7th ed.) for Student Papers

    Learn how to format your paper in APA 7th edition with a fillable template and a sample paper. Includes tips on title case and proper nouns.

  5. APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

    Basic guidelines for formatting the reference list at the end of a standard APA research paper. Author/Authors. Rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors that apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.)

  6. A step-by-step guide for creating and formatting APA Style student papers

    This article walks through the formatting steps needed to create an APA Style student paper, starting with a basic setup that applies to the entire paper (margins, font, line spacing, paragraph alignment and indentation, and page headers). It then covers formatting for the major sections of a student paper: the title page, the text, tables and ...

  7. PDF Student Paper Setup Guide, APA Style 7th Edition

    This guide will help you set up an APA Style student paper. The basic setup directions apply to the entire paper. Annotated diagrams illustrate how to set up the major sections of a student paper: the title page or cover page, the text, tables and figures, and the reference list.

  8. PDF Sample Student Paper Annotated

    Thank you for using the APA Style annotated sample student paper for guidance when wri ng your paper or assignment. This sample paper PDF contains annota ons that draw aten on to key APA Style content and forma ng such as the tle page, headings, in-text cita ons, references, and more. Relevant sec ons of the seventh edi on of the Publication ...

  9. PDF APA 7 Student Sample Paper

    Commented [AWC5]: Note that student papers in APA do not require author notes, abstracts, or keywords, which would normally fall at the bottom of the title page and on the next page afterwards. Your instructor may ask for them anyway — see the APA professional sample paper on our site for guidelines for these.

  10. APA Essay Format: How to Write a Successful APA Essay

    Follow the APA essay format and your instructor's directions when writing an APA-style essay. Follow these tips to write an essay in APA format successfully.

  11. APA Headings and Subheadings

    Learn how to use APA headings and subheadings in your paper with a sample and a formatting guide from Scribbr.

  12. APA Style

    Learn about APA Style references, how to cite secondary sources and websites, and software available.

  13. APA Format: Everything You Need to Know Here

    4. ( 1081) In this guide, students and researchers can learn the basics of creating a properly formatted research paper according to APA guidelines. It includes information on how to conceptualize, outline, and format the basic structure of your paper, as well as practical tips on spelling, abbreviation, punctuation, and more.

  14. APA Sample Papers

    The featured example is a research paper on the uses of biometrics to inform design decisions in the tech industry, authored by our UX Research Intern Peace Iyiewuare. Like most APA style papers, it includes an APA title page, tables, and several references and APA in-text citations to scholarly journals relevant to its topic.

  15. How to Write an APA Research Paper

    An APA-style paper includes the following sections: title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, and references. Your paper may also include one or more tables and/or figures. Different types of information about your study are addressed in each of the sections, as described below.

  16. How to Cite in APA Format (7th edition)

    Learn everything you need about APA Style in-text citations and references. Or try Scribbr's free APA Citation Generator!

  17. APA Style

    The authority on APA Style and the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual. Find tutorials, the APA Style Blog, how to format papers in APA Style, and other resources to help you improve your writing, master APA Style, and learn the conventions of scholarly publishing.

  18. General Format

    Learn how to format papers using APA style, including guidelines for citations, references, and formatting from Purdue OWL.

  19. Essay Formats

    These are APA, MLA, and Chicago. Let's take a look at each format essay and figure out how to apply every alternative in your papers. APA essay format. APA style is a standard essay format for social sciences such as psychology, education, and sociology. It provides clarity, precision, and the importance of data and research.

  20. Paper Format

    Consistency in the order, structure, and format of a paper allows readers to focus on a paper's content rather than its presentation. To format a paper in APA Style, writers can typically use the default settings and automatic formatting tools of their word-processing program or make only minor adjustments.

  21. Confused About Citations? A Painless Guide to MLA and APA Formatting

    This guide will help you understand MLA and APA formatting. Even if you get help from AI essay writing tools, you can format it correctly. We'll talk about these two common styles and break them down into easy-to-follow steps. But before that, let's understand the importance of citations in academic research papers. Why Citation is Important?

  22. APA Format (6th ed.) for Academic Papers and Essays [Template]

    A complete guide to APA format (6th edition) for academic papers and essays. Including clear examples and an APA format template for Word.

  23. How to write an APA abstract: formatting tips for writing

    An abstract written in APA style can be defined as a brief summary of the main points of the research paper. The abstract in APA is written according to the guidelines of the APA format and should always include key research questions, problems, methods, solutions, and findings. ... you can always send a call to write my essay for me and ...

  24. Call for papers: Thriving during turbulent times: The role of

    A call for papers from the APA journal Consulting Psychology Journal for a special issue that aims to bridge the gap between academic research and practical application by exploring innovative, science-based practices for building change capability.

  25. How to Write an APA Methods Section

    The methods section of an APA style paper is where you report in detail how you performed your study. Research papers in the social and natural sciences often follow APA style. This article focuses on reporting quantitative research methods.

  26. About APA Style

    APA Style covers the aspects of scholarly writing most pertinent to writing in psychology, nursing, business, communications, engineering, and related fields. It specifically addresses the preparation of draft manuscripts being submitted for publication in a journal and the preparation of student papers being submitted for a course assignment.

  27. Full article: Enriching the evidence base of co-creation research in

    In this paper, co-creation research refers to active collaboration of researchers with diverse stakeholders towards creative problem-solving covering all phases of an initiative, from the problem identification to evaluation of the developed solution (Messiha, Citation 2021, Citation 2023; Vargas et al., Citation 2022). To the best of our ...

  28. Title Page Setup

    The student title page includes the paper title, author names (the byline), author affiliation, course number and name for which the paper is being submitted, instructor name, assignment due date, and page number, as shown in this example.