How to Write a Case Study in APA Format

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Table of contents

  • 1 What Is a Case Study In APA Format?
  • 2.1 Sample Of APA Case Study Outline
  • 3.1 Title Page in APA for Case Study Project
  • 3.2 The Abstract for an APA case study

Whether you study social sciences or life sciences, you’re likely to encounter a case study analysis in your academic journey. These papers demand a lot from students. First, you must have impeccable research and analysis skills. Sample populations, particularly people, can be challenging to analyze. It’s easy to misinterpret data and come up with the wrong conclusions. Additionally, you’ll need to have a knack for writing to present your findings persuasively, backed up by evidence-based arguments that build confidence for your teacher to accept the results of your work. If you need to boost your paper, Papers Owl is here to help you with a wide range of guidelines on how to write a case study in APA.

What Is a Case Study In APA Format?

To make your success, first realize that a case study is detective work. Your research may have an unresolved question or to carry out some testing to validate a hypothesis; in this case, studies are born. Psychology, nursing, and business are common fields this method is applied. In this scientific method, you’ll approach an event, action, individual, etc. And apply a set of circumstances to observe outcomes. Most papers in this field are written in the APA format, which can be a burden for students, especially if they aren’t familiar with this style. If you lack time or motivation for writing, appeal to our professional writers to write a case study  in APA format, and we will ensure your paper is perfectly formatted and gets a high grade.

Structure of Case Study Report In APA

First, let’s look at the sections in writing a case study in APA, which shares a few similarities to a typical research paper.

Introduction: Introduce your topic to the reader. Be sure to include the state of current research and where you plan to develop the current state of knowledge. You should include an interesting fact to reinforce your work’s importance and develop an interest in your hypothesis. Finish off with a thesis statement that you’ll focus on your workaround.

Aims: In this section, you answer the questions regarding why you are conducting your research and any questions you’ll explore. Avid case study writer recommends focusing your questions around your thesis. You can develop a triangle with a diagram and drill down your questions in a logical format that matches your paper’s main purpose.

Methods: Writing a case study in APA requires a methods section that details how you conducted your research. Did you conduct any interviews, send out questionnaires, or observe any behaviors? Detail them in this section, and state the environment and circumstances surrounding your data collection.

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Results: Now that you’ve identified what you’d planned to accomplish and how you went about it in your APA case study format, it’s time to post the results. Don’t be shy if things don’t go swimmingly. Often in studies, we have unexpected results, which sometimes makes your paper more interesting to read.

Discussion: It’s time for the heart and soul of your paper. After all your research and observation, it is time to have a discourse on the results. The key to how to write a case paper in APA hangs on your ability to interpret the results in a meaningful way. Be sure to focus the discussion on your stated methods and how they pertain to your aims.

Recommendations: Here you want to detail what is to follow your research. Professional case study writers advise stating any knowledge gaps in your work and any unanswered or new questions you had found in the process. Your insights will be useful for others to follow in your footsteps and expand on your analysis.

Sample Of APA Case Study Outline

Example of writing a case study analysis in APA format:

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Writing a case study in APA Step By Step

Knowing how to write a case study in APA format is a common question for students. In addition to the typical academic standards, APA has its own requirements that must be adhered to. The first step is to create a heading, known as a running head, that will be present on each page of your paper. The running head includes:

  • The page number on the right margin
  • A shortened title of your paper in ALL-CAPS no longer than 50 characters to the right

Title Page in APA for Case Study Project

The title of a case study in an APA paper is a requirement. The purpose is to state the name of the work, who the author is, and the institution that sponsored the research. It has the following parts:

  • The words “running head” at the top, followed by the actual running head
  • The full title of your paper using APA titling no longer than 12 words
  • Your name without any designations (Dr/Ph.D./Rev/etc.) and the institution you attend

The Abstract for an APA case study

The abstract of your paper works as a summary to give a brief overview of what it contains. Include the running head at the top; the first line should have the word “abstract” centered. Follow the abstract with 150-250 words summarizing your paper. You may also index some keywords to help find the contents of your work in academic databases. At the end of your summary, indent once, and in italics, indicate keywords related to your work.

Writing an effective college paper requires a lot of planning and formatting to get it done right. Brush up on these guidelines for how to write your paper in APA format . If you need someone to review your work or write any parts of your paper, reach out to our professional writers, who are always willing to lend a hand.

Additionally, with the help of our blog, you can make sure you create a professional PowerPoint presentation that clearly outlines the main points of your paper. If you need help with this, our professional writers can provide guidance.

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How to Write a Case Study Paper in APA Format

Adela B.

Table of contents

The words ‘case study’ sounds intimidating, to say the least. It’s one of those assignments that need thorough research and groundwork before you can get down to writing the paper.

You’ve been asked to write a case study paper in APA format, and you’re wondering where to begin. You are filled with all sorts of questions ranging from what a case study paper consists of, what is the APA format and how you can get started.

Order Now: An Original, Well-Researched Case Study Paper in APA Format

Well, brace yourselves because that’s exactly what this article is about.

10 Elements of a Case Study in APA Format

Most colleges follow MLA or APA citation guidelines. Not following these guidelines would result in getting a low grade. You can also get involved in plagiarism complications , which can cause you to fail your class.

So, let's first begin by learning what is a case study in APA format.

A case study paper is assigned to students to examine a person, place, event, phenomenon, or any other type of analysis to identify, define and showcase key themes and possible solutions that can help in predicting future trends, bring out previously hidden issues that can be analyzed, and understand important research problems with better clarity.

APA is an acronym for American Psychological Association and is an in-text or reference citation format that is used mostly in case studies, literature reviews , method articles, and other advanced academic assignments. The APA format is mostly used for science subjects and niches.

Here are the 10 components of a case study paper in APA format:

1. Abstract paragraph

It's where your hypothesis, predictions, methods, and results come forward. An effective abstract paragraph helps the reader determine if they want to continue reading your paper or not.

Here’s a useful video by Bright Side on writing an abstract.

2. Annotated bibliography

Sources and references that are used in your paper are cited and annotated in the bibliography. Keep in mind to format it in the APA style.

3. Blockquotes

This is a long direct quote that is separated from the regular text. You can use quotes that are 40 words or longer and should be cited accurately.

4. Citation examples

Write an easy-to-read and thorough guide of citation examples and various sources, which will help the reader learn HOW your citations are structured.

5. Et al. usage

It is an abbreviated term for ‘and others' in Latin. This is used to cite multiple authors for one source. These are in-text citations and include the name of only the first author, followed by et al.

6. Footnotes

A way for authors to provide additional information or more insight into an idea that you’ve highlighted in the paper, without distracting the readers from the text. Formatted footnotes should be placed at the bottom of the page.

7. In-text citations

APA in-text citations are supposed to be placed in the content of your paper. The purpose of this is to show the reader who is reading your paper that a specific piece of information found in the content is sourced from somewhere else. These in-text citations are then listed as references in the bibliography or reference page.

8. Page numbers

In an APA formatted paper, page numbers are usually found in 3 places: on every page in the upper right corner, on reference lists, and in-text citations page.

9. Title page

The title page is a very important page and is used in all APA assignments.

The primary role of this page is to present the ‘Title’ or the ‘Topic’ of the paper, which should include elements such as the author’s byline, the name and number of the course, the name of the professor, the institution, or organization that the text was written for, the due date and the page number.

10. Reference page

A reference page and a bibliography can be interchangeable but are preferred to be two separate pages. The reference page includes the list of references and outside sources that were used to craft the information present in the case study paper, whereas a bibliography includes annotations and credited citations.

A 5-Step Process to Write a Case Study in APA Format

Now that we know all the components of a case study paper, it is also important to know how to write a case study paper in APA format using these components.

Here’s how to write a case study in APA format in five steps.

1. Pick your case study topic

Make sure to pick a topic that you’re interested in. This will make your paper more relatable and an interesting read for your audience.

It is also good practice to pick a topic that has enough information and research material available online, so avoid picking a broad or a general topic that has a multitude of information. This can get overwhelming and confusing for you as well as your professors. So instead, narrow down the case study’s topic.

You should have enough ideas about the direction of your case study paper, based on your findings.

2. Study the case

A quality case study is an in-depth, comprehensive project that will require you to put in all your efforts and available researched information. It is not just finding information and discussing it with your peers.

In your case study paper, you need to conduct your own research and share your point of view and other findings and offer possible solutions. You require accurate statistics, relevant examples, and other cited references to be included in your paper to strengthen your case.

From referring to secondary sources of data such as articles and published papers to conducting interviews and gathering primary data, it’s important to include credible sources of information.

3. Write the title page and abstract

Prepare your case study’s title page as well as the abstract paragraph. The title page should include the following:

  • Name of the institution;
  • Main idea of the investigation.

This page should be in APA format, which means that all the pages used should be numbered accurately, and the title page should be centered in the upper half of the page.

Being a brief summary of the paper, the abstract paragraph is a crucial portion of your case study paper. You need to specify the purpose of the paper, the problems addressed, all the chosen methods to bring results, and possible questions that were raised.

This should be placed on the second page of your case study paper, should not be more than 150-200 words, and needs to be written in a one-block paragraph.

4. Follow the right format

The body of the case study paper should be thorough and should detail the research and findings in an engaging manner.

Since a case study is supposed to provide solutions to an already existing problem, use formal sentences that are structured in a way that your readers can conclude the case study with you.

Formatting your case study paper according to the APA guidelines is a must, as most credible institutions follow this formatting style for their academic write-ups.

The APA guideline recommends:

  • Double-space your paper, keeping 1-inch margins on all sides;
  • Use 12 pt Times New Roman font;
  • Use one-half-inch indentation when starting a new paragraph;
  • Should have a running header on each page, as well as section headers.

5. Organize your reference page

Your case study paper requires a reference page that includes all the sources and research material that you’ve used for getting information. These sources should be cited accurately and written in APA style.

Reference page should consist:

  • Author’s last name, first name;
  • Year of publication (in parenthesis);
  • Type the title in italics.

If you use credible sources and neglect to cite them on your reference page, your case study paper might be considered to be plagiarised.

This article on how to write a case study in APA format gives a thorough process of delivering a quality case study paper with the appropriate format. It also aims to provide guidance, important tips, and necessary methods that will help you sail through this writing assignment with ease.

Browse through, learn how to write a case study paper, and get the grades you desire.

Need a helping hand writing the well-researched case study paper? Writers Per Hour is here to help. Our expert writers know how to do a case study paper APA style and plagiarism-free.

Not just writing, but they will take care of the end-to-end process, helping you submit a high-quality paper, written from scratch.

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All You Need To Know About APA Case Study (Top Guide)

apa case study

Citing a case study in APA is no mean feat for any student, whether in college or university. Most students would opt to have this task completed by expert writers instead of themselves. However, you can know how to cite a case study in APA and write an A+ paper painstakingly.

Well, all the answers you need for this are a few scrolls away. Follow me as we explore how to write a case study in APA like a pro!

Table of Contents

  • 1. What Is the APA Citation Case Study?
  • 2. Case Study Outline: Structure and Writing Tips
  • 3. How To Cite a Case Study in APA: Outline
  • 4. General APA Case Study Citation Template
  • 5. Case Study Title Page For APA 6 and APA 7
  • 5.1. APA 6 Case Study Title Page
  • 5.2. APA 7 Case Study Title Page
  • 6. APA Case Study Citations
  • 7. APA Case Study References

What Is the APA Citation Case Study?

APA is an acronym for the American Psychological Association. It is an in-text and reference list citation format used for case studies, theoretical methodologies, literature reviews, empirical studies, and methodological articles. Its use is most prominent in the science fields.

An APA case study allows readers to understand the types of sources used in a project and their components. The information in the post follows the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

It outlines how to properly organize and structure a research paper, explain the grammar guidelines, and cite sources correctly. You will also get the differences between the 6th and 7th editions at the end of this guide.

Case Study Outline: Structure and Writing Tips

A case study is a kind of report, where sections within the essay’s body deal with specific aspects of the case. For instance, your instructor may ask you to focus on particular questions about the issue and organize your writing around those questions.

There are different kinds of case studies, including:

  • Historical,
  • Problem-oriented,
  • Cumulative,
  • Critical and
  • Illustrative case studies

The type of case study will depend on the topic of discussion. A case structure mainly comprises of the following parts, though this may vary depending on different institutions:

  • Cover page: It comprises of the necessary details of the student and class information. These include all authors’ names, institutional affiliation, course number and title, instructor’s name, and due date.
  • Table of contents provides an outline of where critical parts of the report can be found and direct the reader accordingly.
  • Executive summary: It explains what you will examine in the case study. You will also give an overview of the field you’re researching.
  • Introduction: It identifies the focal problem being faced together with background information and the most relevant facts. Any previous studies of the issue come here.
  • Case Evaluation: It includes the study’s purpose and the specific questions you are trying to answer. You also have an explanation of why something is working or is not working.
  • Proposed solutions: You will give the decision criteria and possible alternatives for solving the problem at hand. They should be realistic ways to decipher what isn’t working or how to improve their current condition.
  • Recommendations: Highlight the strategies that you can use to better the situation with explanations on their appropriateness.
  • Implementation: It has details on how to execute the recommendations and ensure their success.
  • References: Provide citations of sources used in the case study project at any point.

Nonetheless, remember to refer to your assignment instructions to find out what you have to do in the writing process.

How To Cite a Case Study in APA: Outline

The standard in-text citation and reference list formats for a case study require that you have an in-depth understanding of the APA citation style. The APA case study format follows a list of stringent rules which you must abide by to have an A+ paper.

Before embarking on the citation process, ensure that you have the following elements in place:

  • The author’s name
  • Date of publication
  • The title of the case study
  • Number of case study

Once the details above are intact, it is now time to curate them into the order recommended for APA citation style. You can request one of our professionally tailored APA format case study example to understand this concept better.

Also, feel free to take any APA style case study paper example below for your motivation:

General APA Case Study Citation Template

  • General Style

Author(s). (Year). Title of the case study. The number of the case study. URL. For example, Warbeck, D. (2010). Integrated Management. HBS No. 7-806-122. https://hbsp.oxford.edu/cases/

  • Textbook Case Study Format APA

Author(s) or editor(s) of the chapter or case study (Year of the book publication). Title of chapter or case study.

For Example, Jameson, B. (2003). The Role of Online Writing. In J. Ness, Cases in College Students (pp.15-18). HMD Publishing.

  • Footnote Structure:

Content Footnote:

1 Student rely on online sites for completing their assignments.

Copyright Attribution:

1 Adapted from “Content Management in the US,” by H. B. Gibbering, 08 June 2005, Harvard Business Review, 3(12), p. 34 ( https://hbr.org/case/hbs_22345 ).

  • In-Text Appearance:

First footnote: Branding remains a crucial aspect of digital marketing. 1

Case Study Title Page For APA 6 and APA 7

Here are the differences between the two formats as presented in the screens below. Note, that the title page for APA 7 case study doesn’t require any running head, and the paper title is bold.

APA 6 Case Study Title Page

APA6

APA 7 Case Study Title Page

APA7

APA Case Study Citations

Apa case study references.

And that is how to reference a case study in APA 6th and 7th edition. Perhaps a sample from one of our professional writing experts can help you. With our online writing help , you can request for an APA style case study paper example and use it as a motivation to get started.

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APA Style examples

These examples are references. The examples demonstrate the style and format required for a reference list.

Need help with in-text citation style? Click the tab Citations & Reference List . 

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APA Style Notes

  • Date of retrieval
  • Missing Info

The examples on this page should only be used as a guide. The following links are official APA Style resources:

APA Style FAQ [APA Style]

Quick Answers - Reference

APA Tutorial: The Basics of APA Style

https://URL

URL where information was r etrieved  not required for library database citations.

Database where information was  retrieved not required in most instances except for special cases.

A citation for an article from a library database does not require the URL or name of the database.

ONLINE! URL

Do not include the words "Retrieved from" any longer before the URL

URL is important for items found freely available online. APA rules recommend using the homepage URL when an item can be easily located - such as URLs for news websites or online databases such as Hathi Trust and Internet Archive. Here is an example - only the homepage URL is used, not the full webpage URL.

Gallagher, D. (2018, Feb. 3 ) Is Google Losing to Amazon? Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com

Retrieved date is only included in a reference if the information cited is likely to change.

In general, do not include retrieved date within a citation, unless it is required by your instructor, or you are citing a blog, wiki, and a post from a personal website.

Example of information likely to change:

Neurology. (n.d.). In Wikipedia . Retrieved August 8, 2007 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurology

This is only in cases where this is no published date and the information is likely to change.

[Square Brackets] 

[Square Brackets] have several functions in APA Style. Regardless of the function, words within square brackets are your words .

1) [Square brackets] identify source types. APA Style recommends (not requires) providing identifying information when the title and other information in the citation does not identify the source. Add [square brackets] when needed to clarify what the item is. For example, [Case study], [Blog post], [Wiki], [Twitter post], [Facebook post] [Personal website], [PDF document], [Excel document], [Video], [Interview], [Data], [Data set].

Sasal, D. (2017, June 13)  Project Management simplified: Learn the fundamentals of PMI's framework  [Video]. Youtube.      https://youtu.be/ZKOL-rZ79gs

2)  Use square brackets If you’re referencing an unusual item.

APA Style Blog: Using Square Brackets

3) Use square brackets when there is missing information - for example, missing date and title.

APA Style Blog: Missing Pieces: How to Write an APA Style Reference Even Without All the Information

Do you have questions about authors?

  • Click here. APA FAQ tab. Need help formatting AUTHOR names? No author, multiple authors, etc... In the AUTHOR box, click the tabs IN-TEXT or REFERENCE to learn how to handle 1-5 authors, and 6+ authors.

Authors for websites are often corporations, organizations or governments. If there is no person as the author consider using a corporate/group name.

Use a corporate/group name when an o rganization, rather than an individual, takes responsibility for the creation of a work. Ask yourself, whose website is it - what company, organization or government agency?

No author? Are you sure? Is it a Group/corporate Author?

APA Style Blog on group authors

If there is no author and no group/corporate author, begin the reference with the TITLE in the author-place. Use a shortened version of the title in when using in-text citations.

How to write an APA Style reference when information is missing

No date? Missing title? Missing source?

APA Style Blog on missing information

  • Guidelines for missing information This PDF was created and made available by the APA Style Blog.
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  • Articles - Online
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  • Articles - Library database with DOI

Working Papers

Article - print.

I ansiti , M., Lakhani, K. R., McBrien, K., & Moon, M. (2017). Managing our hub economy: Strategy, ethics, and network competition in the age of digital superpower. Harvard Business Review , 95 (5), 84-92.

Online Journal Article

Klein, G., & Aubry, M. (2017). Introducing the issue on megaprojects. Project Management Journal , 48 (6), 3-4. https://www.pmi.org/PMJ

Wang, J., Meric, G., Liu, Z., & Meric, I. (2010). A comparison of the determinants of stock returns in the 1987 and 2008 stock market meltdowns. Banking and Finance Review, 2 (1), 15-26. http://www.bankingandfinancereview.com/

Online Newspaper Article

Gallagher , D. (2018, February 3 ). Is Google losing to Amazon? The Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com

Krauss, C. (2008, August 30). Surge in natural gas has Utah driving cheaply. The New York Times . https://www.nytimes.com

APA Style Blog on citing newspapers

Is this website a newspaper, magazine or journal?

"There’s no governing authority who decides what’s a newspaper versus a website versus an online magazine versus something else entirely. Best to look at how the site refers to itself and follow the convention associated with that. So if they call themselves a newspaper, italicize the name; otherwise, don’t." APA Style Blog

If the site does not refer to itself as a newspaper, magazine or journal cite the source as a webpage - scroll down to Online - Webpage.

Articles from library databases without doi .

Journal Article:

Arruda-Filho, E., Cabusas, J., & Dholakia, N. (2010). Social behavior and brand devotion among iPhone innovators.  International Journal of Information Management,   30 (6), 475-480.

Magazine Article:

Barkin, E. (2010, April). Jetting to greener pastures.  Customer Relationship Management,   14 (4), 30-33,36.

Newspaper Article:

Krauss, C. (2008, August 30). Surge in natural gas has Utah driving cheaply. The New York Times , 157 (54418), A1.  https://www.nytimes.com/

Articles from library databases with doi.

Gonzalez, J., Ragins, B., Ehrhardt, K., & Singh, R. (2018). Friends and family: The role of relationships in community and workplace attachment. Journal of Business & Psychology , 33 (1), 89-104. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s10869-016-9476-3

Holland, C. P. (1995). Cooperative supply chain management: The impact of interorganizational information systems. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 4 (2), 117-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/0963-8687(95)80020-Q

Deming, D., & Dynarski, S. (2008). The lengthening of childhood (National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 14124). http://www.nber.org/papers/w14124

White papers.

Department for Business Innovation & Skills. (2016).  Success as a knowledge economy: Teaching excellent, social mobility and student choice  [White paper]. Crown.  https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/523396/bis-16-265-success-as-a-knowledge-economy.pdf

APA Style on White Papers

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work (Report No. 123). Publisher.

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work (Report No. 123). http:// www.URL.com

Source: American Psychological Association, 2010, p.206.

  • Books in print

Book in print

Brader, t. (2006). campaigning for hearts and minds: how emotional appeals in political ads work . university of chicago press., laudon, k.c. & traver, c.g. (2016). e-commerce: business, technology, society (12 th ed.). pearson., lewis, r., & dart, m. (2010). the new rules of retail: competing in the world's toughest marketplace . palgrave macmillan., miller, t. e., bender, b. e., & schuh, j. h. (2005). promoting reasonable expectations: aligning student and institutional views of the college experience . jossey-bass..

Book with no author, but has an editor or editors:   add (Ed.) or (Eds.)

Duncan , G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor . Russell Sage Foundation.

Ebooks (APA 7)

Ebook from a library database (ie. Ebook Central ProQuest)

Kerzner, H. (2017). Project management metrics, KPIS, and dashboards: A guide to measuring and monitoring project performance .  https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Ebook found online:

Barton, Clara. (1904). A story of the Red Cross: Glimpses of field work . D. Appleton and Company. http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/30230

Ebook accessed using a specific reader

Gladwell, M. (2011). Outliers: The story of success . Back Bay Books. https://www.amazon.com

Case Studies

Case study published by harvard business school publishing.

Thomas, D.A. (1999). Leaving. HBS No. 400033-PDF-ENG. Harvard Business School Publishing. 

Eisenmann, T., & Herman, K. (2010). Google, Inc. HBS No. 910036-PDF-ENG. Harvard Business School Publishing. 

Case Study published by Ivey Publishing

Bernhut, S. (2013). The Ivey Business Journal Interview: State Capitalism, with Aldo Musacchio . Ivey ID: 9B13TB08. Ivey Publishing. 

  • General Guidelines
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  • Website (including photo)
  • Reference examples

Figures: graphs, flow charts, maps, drawings, photos, etc.

Looking for tables > use formatting information in the box Tables.

Click through the tabs and find in-text citation and reference examples.

Using Statista? Scroll down to the Statista box.

Video tutorial: APA Style for Figures and Tables

Looking for tables > using formatting information in the box Tables.

A figure may be a chart, a graph, a photograph, a drawing, or any other illustration or nontextual depiction. Any type of illustration other than a table is referred to as a figure.

When you use a figure that has been adapted or copied directly from another source, you need to reference that original source. This reference appears as a caption underneath the figure (image):

  • don't include a title on top - the caption is your title
  • concise explanation of the figure; i.e. a brief but descriptive phrase
  • include copyright information
  • format your caption - use italics and a capital F for Figure and sequential numbering (if you have more than one Figure)

Legend (if needed) :

A legend explains the symbols used in the figure. It should have the same kind and proportion of lettering that appear in the rest of the figure.

  • capitalize major words in the legend
  • place the legend within the figure (it may already be there if you have copied the graph from elsewhere)

General rules:

  • Number all figures with Arabic numerals in the order in which they are first mentioned in text, regardless of whether a more detailed discussion of the figure occurs later in the paper. For example, Figure 1...Figure 2...etc.
  • Refer to the figure in your writing - no italics, but with capital F, for example "In Figure 1..."
  • Copyright permission for using figures and images in theses/dissertations/exegeses - obtain written copyright permission from the copyright holder if you reproduced or adapted a figure from a copyrighted source. If you are adapting material from multiple sources, and integrating them into a single figure, you might need to include multiple permission statements, one for each source.
  • Figures must have a reference in your Reference List.

Multiple Sources:

See Simon Fraser University's instructions for citing multi-sources.

Created by Auckland University of Technology Library, and adapted with permission.

APA Style on citing Tables & Figures

Figure reproduced in your paper

Use this format for figures you COPY - reproduced exactly as they appear in another source. Use this format when you do not make any modifications or add data to the table.

Caption Format - caption under a figure

apa 7 case study example

Figure 1. FinSec's communication networks. Reprinted from Employment Relations in New Zealand (2nd ed., p.355), by E. Rasmussen, 2009. Pearson. Copyright 2009 by Erling Rasmussen.

In-text citation:

Reference list entry:

Figure referred to and not reproduced in your paper

If you simply refer to a figure, format the in text-citation and the reference list entry in the usual way.

apa 7 case study example

Figure 1. Factors influencing the formation of tourists' needs. Reprinted from "Factors that Obstruct Tourism Development in Bangladesh", by N. Jahan and S. Rahman, 2016, CLEAR International Journal of Research in Commerce & Management, 7 (9) , p.53. Copyright 2016 by Chinniah Lakshmiammal Educational Academy & Research (CLEAR) Foundation.

If you simply refer to a figure and do not include it in your text, format the in text citation and the reference list entry in the usual way.

Caption Format - caption under a figure

Example from ACNielsen Market Information Digest database

Figure 1 . The market location and dollar sales of meat pies in New Zealand. SMAP is the segment of market for the Auckland Province, SMLNI for the Lower North Island, SMSI for the South Island; MAP is the moving annual total. Nielsen Market Information Digest New Zealand database. Copyright 2011 by The Nielsen Company.

Example: from Passport (Euromonitor) database

Figure 2 .  Trade volume of ready to drink high strength premixes sold in New Zealand, measured in 000 litres. Passport database. Copyright 2010 by Euromonitor International.

If you refer to a figure, format the in-text citation and the reference list entry in the usual way:

Caption Format - caption under a figure

Figure 1 . Vermeer, J. (c. 1665). Girl with a pearl earring . From Mauritshuis Royal Picture Gallery, The Hague. http://www.mauritshuis.nl/index.aspx?Chapterid=2295. Reprinted with permission.

Figure 2 . America's Army screen dump showing soldiers and watch tower. From America's Army (Version 3). http://www.americasarmy.com. Copyright 2010 by America’s Army.

If you refer to a figure, format the in-text citation and the reference list entry in the usual way.

  • Not every reference to an artwork needs a reference list entry, for example, if you refer to a famous painting, as above, it would not need a reference.
  • clicking on or hovering your mouse over the image
  • looking at the bottom of the image
  • looking at the URL
  • if there is no title, create a short descriptive one yourself and put it in square brackets e.g. [...]

Reference List

Examples of references for figures.

Retrieved from a library database

Euromonitor International. (2013). Youth unemployment rate vs. total unemployment rate: 2006-2011 [Graph]. Euromonitor Passport database .

Format: Figure

Author. (year created). Title of work [Type of work], Database name or URL.

No author? Use a corporate/agency/company (as known as group author name), or a screen name. If this is not an option, use the title in place of the author.

  • Library Databases
  • Multiple sources

Tables: numerical values or text displayed in clearly designated columns and rows

Looking for: graphs, flow charts, maps, drawings, photos, etc. > see box Figures.

Created by Auckland University of Technology Library , and adapted with permission.

Tables usually show numerical value or textual information and are almost always characterized by a row-column structure. Any type of illustration other than a table is a  figure .

General notes on tables:

  • Tables are located at the end of your paper, after the reference list and before any appendixes. Each table is on a separate page.
  • Tables may use single-spacing or one-and-a-half spacing (p. 229).
  • Information necessary for understanding the table and definitions of abbreviations used within the table appear in a table note. ( APA Style Blog )
  • All tables must be cited in-text and discussed within the body of your paper, and be included in your reference list.

Basic instructions for formatting tables

Number t ables sequentially (i.e.if you have more than one table in your writing) e.g. Table 1, Table  2 .....

  • Each table must be referred to in the text, using a capital T,  for example: ...as shown in Table 1

Title is placed directly a bove the table itself and below the table number.

  • Brief but clear and explanatory, in italics and with major words capitalized with no full stop.

Note is placed directly below the table, the word "Note" in italics with a full stop, for example:  Note.

  • Explain abbreviations, symbols etc
  • Acknowledge the source of the table
  • Include a copyright statement at the end of the note. 

     ​  For specific and probability note (section 5.16, p 138).

Ruling (Lines)

  • Limit the use of lines to those that are necessary
  • Appropriately positioned white space can be an effective substitute.
  • Tables  may be submitted either single or double spaced. Consider readability (section 5.17, p 141).

Sales of  Take Home Ice Cream in New Zealand

Note . MAT= moving annual total, From ACNielsen Market Information Digest New Zealand .Copyright 2010 by The Nielsen Company.

Table reproduced in your paper

Use this format for tables you COPY - reproduced exactly as they appear in another source. Use this format when you do not make any modifications or add data to the table.

Note format - note under a table

apa 7 case study example

Note. Reprinted from Employment relations in New Zealand (p 98), by E. Rasmussen, 2009. Pearson. Copyright (2009) by Erling Rasmussen. 

Use the reference style for books - see go to box Books

Table referred to and not reproduced in your paper

If you simply refer to a table, format the in-text citation and the reference list entry in the usual way.

Note format - note under a table

   In-text citation:

Use the reference style for articles - see box Articles .

Table referred to but not reproduced in your paper

Note Format : note below a table

Percentage of Men and Women Who Have Bought Fruit and Vegetable Products in the Last Four Weeks

apa 7 case study example

Note.  wc = weighted count, shown in thousands; v% =vertical percentage, showing which % of the column group also belongs to the row group; h% = horizontal percentage showing which percentage of the row group also belongs to the column group. Roy Morgan Single Source New Zealand database. Copyright 2015 by Roy Morgan New Zealand Ltd. 

Reference  List entry:

Note format - note below a table

Percentage of New Zealand Population Who Have Never Worked by Age Group. By age group June 2016 quarter

Note . Adapted from  http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/income-and-work/employment_and_unemployment/people-never-worked.aspx . Copyright (2016) by Statistics New Zealand. 

Use the reference style for websites - see box Online , tab Websites.

If you refer to a table but don’t provide a copy of it in your assessment, simply give an in-text citation in the usual way

​ Reference list entry:

Table - compiled from a variety of sources

Multi source data

If you create your own table by compiling data from multiple sources, you will still need to cite where you got your information from. You do not need to give the full bibliographic citation in the note, an author and date is sufficient. 

Note format - note under table:

In-text citation: 

Multiple kinds of data

If you have multiple kinds of data (population figures, employment information... etc.) in one table you would describe each set of data)

Note format - note under Table:

 For more information see:

APA Style for figures & tables

Examples of references for tables.

Retrieved from a book

New Strategist. (2008). Women's time use by age, 2007 [Table]. In New Strategist Editors, American women: Who they are and how they live (4th ed.) . New Strategist Publications, Inc.

Retrieved from a online source

US Census Bureau. (2002). Industries in Which California Ranks First in Terms of Sales or Receipts Per Capita [Table]. 2002 Economic Census . http://www.census.gov/econ/census02/data/tops/TOPSTCA.HTM

National Center for Education Statistics. (2007). [Chart showing racial makeup of San Francisco Unified School District students under age 18]. Common Core of Data . http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/districtsearch/

If the table you find does not have a title, then describe the content in [square brackets].

Format: Table

Author. (Publication Date). Title of  table [Table]. In author or editor of work Title of work . Publisher.

Author. (Publication Date). Title of table [Table]. Title of website. URL

Author. (Publication Date). [Title of table] [Table]. Title of website. URL

Interviews, Emails, Personal Communications

  • Interview, Email & Personal Communications

Personal interviews that you conduct do not have references. Personal interviews are considered personal communication. Include any relevant and important information about the interview in the body of your paper. APA Style states, "An interview is not considered recoverable data, so no reference to this is provided in the reference list. You may, however, cite the interview within the text as a personal communication." APA Style

Interviews - research participants .  APA Style

An interview you read has a citation and reference. Where did you find the interview? Is it from a magazine article, website, blog, etc.? Use the appropriate APA Style format to create the reference.

Email & Personal Communications

Email & personal communications do not have references at the end of your paper, but you will create a citation within the body of your paper.

Why do personal communications not have references? References are created to direct your reader to the sources of information you used in your paper. With personal communications you cannot direct the reader to the source - to the phone conversation you had, to your email inbox, to the day of the interview - the reader of your paper cannot access these sources.

Include any relevant and important information about the email and personal communication in the body of your paper.

Here is an example for the APA Style :

  • Blogs & Wikipedia
  • YouTube & Video

Social Media

  • Help! More info for web sources...

Website (entire website, not a webpage)

No citation is needed for an entire website. Include the website within the body of a paper.

"In my paper, I mention a website. I refer to the website as a whole, and I am not discussing a specific webpage or an article within a website. Do I need to create an in-text citation and a reference list citation?"

NO . All you need to do is include the URL within the body of your paper, and you do not need to include the website and URL in your reference list at the end of the paper. In APA Style there is no specific formatting recommendations.

Two examples - full websites mentioned within a paper.

1) The Department of Health has just released a new website to help people identify and compare health care programs available in their area. The website is called HealthCare.gov at http://www.healthcare.gov/ This resource is easy to use and the interface is intuitive, but the website will not support members of the population not using the internet.

2) Kidspsych ( http://www.kidspsych.org ) is a wonderful interactive website for children. This resource is appropriate for children ages 3 to 10.

APA Style Blog: Websites & Webpages

Webpage (not an online journal, magazine or newspaper > use article format) (APA 7)

Webpage with author:

Doyle, A. (2017, July 1). Best questions to ask at a job interview: What to ask the employer during a job interview. The balance careers. The Balance. https://www.thebalance.com/questions-to-ask-in-a-job-interview-2061205

Webpage without a person as the author - there are options! (APA 7)

Authors for websites are often corporations, organizations or governments. If there is no person listed as the author consider using a corporate/group name . Use a corporate/group name when an o rganization, rather than an individual, takes responsibility for the creation of a work. Ask yourself, whose website is it - what company, organization or government agency?

Webpage with no person as author. Use a corporate/group author.  (APA 7)

United States government agency

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2018, February 14). Traumatic brain injury: FDA actions and research. http://usgov.info/2018/02/14/traumatic-brain-injury-fda-actions-and-research/

U.S. Small Business Association. (n.d.). Build your business plan. https://www.sba.gov/tools/business-plan/1?interiorpage2015

Ben & Jerry's. (n.d.). Our history. https://www.benjerry.com/about-us

Samsung. (2018). Vision 2020. https://www.samsung.com/us/aboutsamsung/vision/vision2020/

Kaiser Permanente. (2013, November). Measuring quality and patient safety. https://healthy.kaiserpermanente.org

Webpage with no author

Effective business plans: Strategies for managers. (2018, March 4). Business Pros. http:// www.businesspros.com

Format:      Title of webpage. (Year, Month Day web page was last updated). Webpage. URL

In-text citation for no author:   ("First Few Words of Title," YEAR).    ("Effective Business Plans," 2018).

If the site refers to itself as a newspaper, magazine or journal cite the source using an article format. Scroll up to Articles - Online.

"There’s no governing authority who decides what’s a newspaper versus a website versus an online magazine versus something else entirely. Best to look at how the site refers to itself and follow the convention associated with that. So if they call themselves a newspaper, italicize the name; otherwise, don’t." 

Blogs, wikis, and posts on personal websites

Stephanie (2018, february 5). what to do if your obamacare 1095-a column b is zero. poorer than you . http://poorerthanyou.com/category/taxes/.

APA Style on citing Blogs

When citing Wikipedia, cite an archived version of a Wikipedia page so that readers can retrieve the version you used.

*Access the archived version on Wikipedia by selecting “View history” and then the time and date of the version you used.

*If a wiki does not provide permanent links to archived versions of the page, include the URL for the entry and a retrieval date.

Business performance management. ( 2018,  January 25 ). In Wikipedia . https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_performance_ management

Neurology. (n.d.). In Wikipedia . Retrieved December 15, 2017 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurology

APA Style Blog on citing Wikipedia

Entire blog, wiki, or personal website

"In my paper, I mention a blog. I refer to the blog as a whole, and I am not discussing a specific blog post. Do I need to create an in-text citation and a reference list citation?"

No. All you need to do is include the URL within the body of your paper, and you do not need to include the website and URL in your reference list at the end of the paper. In APA Style there is no specific formatting recommendations.

Two examples for mentioning the entire blog, wiki or personal website.  In the body of the paper:

1) At age 22, blogger Stephanee (Stephanie), started her the blog Poorer Than You (http://poorerthanyou.com). The posts are aimed at millennials and provide financial advice on a variety of topics.

2) I have learned a lot by reading the Psych Learning Curve blog (http://psychlearningcurve.org). This blog is an excellent resource for teachers.

Glass, I. (Producer). (2013, September 6). How I got into college [Audio podcast]. In  This American Life . http://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/504/how-i-got-into-college

Purdue OWL  APA Style: How to Cite a Podcast

LastName, A. A. (Producer). (Year, Month Day {of podcast}). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. In  Title of Podcast Series . Publisher. URL

Podcast without a series - stand alone

LastName, A. A. (Host). (Year, Month Day {of podcast}). Title of podcast [Audio podcast episode]. Publisher. URL

Gallagher , D. (2018, February 3 ). Is Google losing to Amazon? The Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com

Krauss, C. (2008, August 30). Surge in natural gas has Utah driving cheaply. The New York Times . https://www.nytimes.com

CNN. (2015, February 15). Boston sets new snow record [Video]. https://www.cnn.com/videos/weather/2015/02/15/newday-alesci-ripley-boston-sets-new-snow-record.cnn/video/playlists/top-news-videos/

Online Newspaper format:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article: Capital letter to start subtitle. Title of Newspaper . https://www.someaddress.com

Online Magazine format:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article: Capital letter to start subtitle. Title of Magazine, volume number (issue number if available). https://www.someaddress.com

Online News broadcast video:

Producer Name. (Year, Month Day). Video title [Video]. Website host. https://www.someaddress.com

Youtube video

Forbes. (2018, January 19).  Facebook announces algorithm changes; Apple brings money back to U.S. [Video]. Youtube. https://youtube/39gFZawmKfM

Sasal, D. (2017, June 13) Project Management simplified: Learn the fundamentals of PMI's framework [Video]. Youtube. https://youtu.be/ZKOL-rZ79gs

APA Style: How to Create a Reference for a YouTube Video

TikTok  video

Cook, P. [@chemteacherphil]. (2019, November 19). Alkali salts get lit. #chemistry #chemteacherphil #scienceexperiments #foryou #jobforme #trend #featurethis #science #vibecheck [Video]. TikTok. https://vm.tiktok.com/xP1r1m

Washington Post [@washingtonpost]. (2019, December 3). News is all around us #frozen #newsroom #newspaper [Video]. TikTok. https://vm.tiktok.com/x2sKUu

TikTok  Profile

Witherspoon, R. [@officialreesetiktok]. (n.d.). vsco mom [TikTok profile]. TikTok. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from https://vm.tiktok.com/xS3B86

APA 7 TikTok Citation Guide

TED Talk video

If you viewed the video on the TED website:

Palmer, A. (2013, February). Amanda Palmer: The art of asking [Video]. TED. https://www.ted.com/talks/amanda_palmer_the_art_of_asking

If you viewed the video on YouTube, the same TED Talk would be referenced as follows:

TED. (2013, March 1). Amanda Palmer: The art of asking [Video]. Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMj_P_6H69g

APA Style Blog: How to Cite a TED Talk in APA Style

Film, Video, or DVD

Selick, H. (Director). (1993). The nightmare before Christmas [Film]. Touchstone.

Smithee, A. F. (Director). (2001). Really big disaster movie [ Film ]. Paramount Pictures.

APA Style Film and TV

NY Review of Books. (2013, September 6). The total weight of jellyfish in the Black Sea is 10x greater than that of all fish caught around the world in a year. [Tweet; thumbnail link to article]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/nybooks/status/376055502880665600

Obama, M. (2013, February 28). “ We can give all our children the bright, healthy futures they so richly deserve .” —the First Lady on why healthier food options are good for American businesses   [Image attached] [Status update] .  Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php? fbid =10152608245040578& set=a.10150238318835578.467644.22092775577&type=1

Gaiman, N. (2012, February 29). Please celebrate Leap Year Day in the traditional manner by taking a writer out for dinner.  [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/neilgaiman/posts/10150574185041016

Reuters Top News [Reuters]. (2016, November 1). Inside David Bowie's art collection [Twitter moment]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/i/moments/793575609028915200

APA Style: How to Cite a Twitter Moment

APA Style: How to Cite Facebook

APA Style: How to Cite Instagram

In APA Style there are no specific formatting rules for citing PDFs.

Why? PDF is just a file format. To cite this type of document, ask yourself: What is this?

You must determine what the nature of the PDF, and then use the corresponding format.

There are two common types of documents that appear as PDFs:

- Articles (magazines, newspapers, journals, newsletters, etc.)

- Reports (government report, company profile, company annual report, etc.)

Need help? Ask us by emailing [email protected]

For Webinar citations in APA 7, Please check out Purdue University APA 7 citation guide on Other Non-Print Sources available here:

https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/reference_list_other_non_print_sources.html

Rules for citing information found on the web:

No author? Start with the title and then the date. A screen-name can be used as the author. An organization/company can be the author.

Date? If a date is not specifically included with the item you are citing, look for the last updated date. No date type (n.d.)

Titles? Keep it simple - do not italicize website titles. This can get confusing:  If a webpage is part of a larger website, do not italicize the title of the page. If the webpage is an independent document on the website, do italicize the title of the page. This is also a judgment call that you will have to make. If you are not sure, do not italicize.

URL? Yes, include it. www.theURL.com

Retrieved on date? In general, do not include the retrieved date for most web sources. If a webpage is likely to change over time, such as a wiki or personal website, include the date that you looked at the page.

Author and website name? If the name of the website is the same as the name of the author, you do not need to include it a second time.

[Square Brackets]?  APA Style recommends providing identifying information - when needed for clarification. If the information in the citation and URL do not clearly identify what it is you are citing, add [square brackets]. For example, [Blog post], [Wiki], [Twitter post], [Facebook post] [Personal website], [PDF document], [Video], [Interview], [Data].

Presentations

Instructors frequently require students to use APA Style within presentations. APA Style does not provide specific guidelines for PowerPoint presentations and visuals. You will be adapting APA Style guidelines. Check with your instructor about the format. You will likely need to have in-text citations on the slides throughout your presentation for images, data, quotes and paraphrased statements, AND a slide at the end for a reference list.

  • Statistics & Data Sets
  • Dictionary / Definitions

Barr, J. G. (2018). Artificial intelligence . Faulkner Advisory for IT Studies database.  MarketLine . (2013, April 29). NIKE, Inc.: Company profile . 

Annual Report

American Psychological Association. (2013). 2012 annual report of the American  Psychological Association . http://www.apa.org/pubs/info/reports/2012-report.pdf

Unilever. (2015). Annual report and accounts 2015 strategic report.  https://www.unilever.com/Images/annual_report_and_accounts_ar15_tcm244-478426_en.pdf

APA Style on citing annual reports

Microsoft. (2005, September 25). Form 10-Q.  Arrow International, Inc. (2009). 10-K Annual Report 2009 .

Government Report

San Francisco Department of Public Health. (2016). San Francisco community health needs assessment 2016 . https://www.sfdph.org/dph/hc/HCAgen/HCAgen2016/May%2017/2016CHNA-2.pdf

U.S. Department of Education. (2014). Profile of undergraduate students: 2011-12. Web tables (NCES 2015-167). https://nces.ed.gov/ pubs2015/2015167.pdf

National Cancer Institute. (2016). Taking part in cancer treatment research studies  (Publication No. 16-6249). https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/CRS.pdf

Office of the Inspector General U.S. Department of Justice. (2017, May). Review of the handling of sexual harassment and misconduct allegations by the department’s Civil Division . https://oig.justice.gov/reports/2017/e1703.pdf

APA Style: How to Cite Government Report

U.S. Constitution

APA Style Blog states, "All citations of the U.S. Constitution begin with U.S. Const. , followed by the article, amendment, section, and/or clause numbers as relevant."   APA Style Blog: How to Cite the U.S. Constitution in APA Style

In-text                   (U.S. Const. amend. II)

Reference             U.S. Const. amend. II

Congressional Bill

Equitable Health Care for Severe Mental Illnesses Act of 1993, S. 671, 103d Cong., 1st Sess. (1993).

Federal Statutes

Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, 29 U.S.C. §§ 2601–2654 (2006).

FORMAT: Name of the Statute, Tile number Source  § Section number(s) (Year).

APA Style: Writing References for Federal Statutes

Statistics & Data Sets

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2016). Consumer price index - all urban consumers, 1956-2016 [Time series]. http://data.bls.gov

Pew Research Center. (2016). June 10-July 12, 2015 – Gaming, jobs and broadband [Data file and codebook]. http://www.pewresearch.org

World Bank, World Development Indicators. (2016). Firms using banks to finance working capital (% of firms) [Data file]. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IC.FRM.BKWC.ZS?view= chart

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2008). Indiana income limits [Data set]. http://www.huduser.org/Datasets/IL/IL08/in_fy2008.pdf

APA Style on citing data sets

U.S. Census

U.S. Census Bureau (2011). Selected housing characteristics, 2007-2011 American community survey 5-year estimates [Data file]. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_11_5YR_DP04

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (2009). Cahaba River Natural Refuge. https://www.fws.gov/cahabariver/maps.html

International Monetary Fund. (2017, May 8). IMF lending at a glance. http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/map/lending/

WOU APA Style on citing maps

Google Maps

Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps directions for driving from Ingolstadt, Germany, to Geneva, Switzerland]. Retrieved August 4, 2015 from https://goo.gl/maps/ILt8O

APA Style on citing online map s

IAC. (n.d.).  Impact investing. In Investopedia . Retrieved May 15, 2016 from  https://www.investopedia.com/terms/i/impact-investing.asp

Merriam Webster (n.d.). R eliability. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved January 11, 2020 from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/reliability

Dictionary references in APA 7

BizJournals (via American City Business Journals)

Dittmer, M. (2018, March 16). Busiest Bay Area airlines. San Francisco Business Times .

Britannica Academic & Encyclopaedia Britannica

Library database fisher, w. w. (2018). patent. encyclopaedia britannica ., online britannica, t. editors of encyclopaedia (2019, november 20). prohibition. encyclopedia britannica. https://www.britannica.com/event/prohibition-united-states-history-1920-1933 note: encyclopedia britannica online  has a citation tool., business source complete.

Is it an article?  Use the format: Articles - library database

Is it a report? >> Use the format: Reports

The database Business Source Complete has a citation tool. Click CITE and select APA citation format. Review the citation and edit it.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed): DSM–5

American psychiatric association. (2013). diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.).      https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596, (american psychiatric association, 2013), faulkner reports.

Reports from these databases: Faulkner Advisory for IT Studies (FAITS), and Faulkner Security Management Practices.

Barr, J. G. (2019). Artificial intelligence . Faulkner Advisory for IT Studies.

Keston, G. (2019). Network access control . Faulkner Security Management Practices.

Gale Ebooks

Agile software. In Encyclopedia of Emerging Industries (7th ed., pp. 5-10). Gale. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3664200008/GVRL?u=ggusf_main&sid=GVRL&xid=4c07cc09

Harvard Business Review

Is it an article? >> Use the article format .

Is it a case study? >> Use the case study format .

Mergent Online

Mergent Inc. (n.d.). Apple, Inc.: Business segments .

Mergent Inc. (2014, February 28). McDonald's Corp.: Ford Equity research report .

Apple Inc. (2013, October 30). Form 10-K . 

Microsoft. (2005, September 25). Form 10-Q.  

Morningstar Investment Research Center

Google , Inc. (2011, December 31). Form 10-K .

Morningstar . (n.d.). Google: Key ratios . Retrieved March 13, 2014, from Morningstar Investment Research.

Morningstar . (2014, February 28) Fidelity Blue Chip Growth: Rating and risk .  Morningstar Investment Research.

Reichart, K. R. (2014, March 6). Fidelity Blue Chip Growth: Fund analyst repor t. Morningstar Investment Research database.

Summer, R. (2014, February 25). Google, Inc.: Stock analyst report . Morningstar Investment Research database.

Pew Research Center

Lopez, G., Ruis, N.G. & Patten, E. (2017, September 8) Key facts about Asian Americans, a diverse and growing population. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/08/key-facts-about-asian-americans/

Shearer, E. & Gottfried, J. (2017, September 6). In 2017, two-thirds of U.S. adults get news from social media [Table]. In News Use Across Social Media Platforms 2017. http://www.journalism.org/2017/09/07/news-use-across-social-media-platforms-2017/pi_17-08-23_socialmediaupdate_0-01/

Pew Research Center. (2016). June 10-July 12, 2015 – Gaming, Jobs and Broadband [Data file and code book]. http://www.pewresearch.org

Pew Research Center. (2018, January 2018). They’re waiting longer, but U.S. women today more likely to have children than a decade ago: More than half of never-married women in their early 40s have given birth [Report]. http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2018/01/18/theyre-waiting-longer-but-u-s-women-today-more-likely-to-have-children-than-a-decade-ago/

S&P Global NetAdvantage

Industry survey.

Snyder, K. (2017, October). Health care equipment and supplies. CFRA Industry Surveys [PDF].

Library database - Statista - citing data and charts

When you are viewing data, look for the citation button. SELECT CITATION. From the drop-down menu, click APA. We recommend you edit the citation. Note, Statista uses many difference SOURCES - the source is in the place of the author.

Atlas Van Lines. (May 27, 2020). Internal factors that influenced employee relocations in the United States in 2020 [Chart]. In Statista - The Statistics Portal . Retrieved April 08, 2021 from https://www.statista.com/statistics/763368/internal-factors-on-employee-relocation-us/

Airnow. (February 17, 2021). Leading iPhone apps in the Apple App Store worldwide in January 2021, by revenue (in million U.S. dollars) [Graph]. In  Statista . Retrieved April 08, 2021, from https://www.statista.com/statistics/271103/top-iphone-apps-worldwide-by-revenue/

Library database - Statista - citing a full report

Collignon , H. & Sultan, N. (2014, November). Winning the business of sports 2014 . Retrieved from Statista database.

Janßen , B., Krützfeldt, W., Ramcke, K., & Staffa, V. (2014, August).  Industry report - Computer and electronic product manufacturing NAICS Code 334 . Retrieved from Statista database.

Statista. (2018). Coffee market in the U.S. [Report]. Retrieved from Statista database.

Online - using Statista's website - citing data and charts

When there is no author name, use the SOURCE name in place of the author. Statista uses many difference SOURCES. Look under the table or figure for the word SOURCE.

ITU. (2011, October). Number of active mobile broadband subscriptions worldwide from 2005 to 2011 (in millions) [Chart].  In Statista . Retrieved from http://www.statista.com/statistics/186337/number-of-mobile-broadband-subscriptions-worldwide-since-2005/

Value Line Publishing. (2010, November 26). Ford Motor. Value Line Investment Survey .

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / How to Cite Sources / How to Cite a Case Study in APA, MLA, or Chicago

How to Cite a Case Study in APA, MLA, or Chicago

When citing a case study, the format in MLA and APA is similar to that of a report, and in Chicago style, it is similar to that of a book. For all three citation styles, you will need the name of the author(s), the title of the case study, the year it was published, the publishing organization/publisher, and URL (if applicable). The templates and examples below will demonstrate how to cite a case study in MLA, APA, and Chicago styles.

Author Last Name, Author First Name.  Title of Case Study . Edition (if applicable), volume number (if applicable), Publisher, year of publication, URL without http:// or https:// (if applicable).

Hill, Linda A., et al. HCL Technologies (A). Rev. edition, Harvard Business School, 2008, www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=34784.

In-text Citation:

(Author Last Name(s) page #)

(Hill et al. 8)

Author Last Name, Author Initial. (Publication Year). Title of Case Study (Case # if applicable). Publishing Organization. URL

Hill, L., Khanna, T., & Stecker, E. (2008). HCL Technologies (A) (Case 408-004). Harvard Business School. https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=34784

(Author Last Name, Publication Year)

(Hill et al., 2008)

Notes-bibliography style

Author Last Name, First Name.  Title of the Case Study . Publishing City: Publishing Organization, Publication Year. URL.

Hill, Linda A., Tarun Khanna, and Emily Stecker. HCL Technologies (A).  Boston: Harvard Business School, 2008. https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=34784.

1. Author First Name Last Name, Title of the Case Study (Publishing City: Publishing Organization, Publication Year), URL.

1. Linda A. Hill, Tarun Khanna, and Emily Stecker, HCL Technologies (A) ( Boston: Harvard Business School, 2008), https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=34784.

Author-date style

Author Last Name, First Name. Publication Year. Title of the Case Study . Publishing City: Publishing Organization. URL.

Hill, Linda A., Tarun Khanna, and Emily Stecker. 2008. HCL Technologies (A).  Boston: Harvard Business School. https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=34784.

In-text citation: 

(Author Last Name Publication Date)

(Holl, Khanna, and Stecker 2008)

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APA Formatting and Style (7th ed.) for Student Papers

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APA 7th Edition

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Publication Manual of the APA - Seventh Edition

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apa 7 case study example

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About APA Style

American Psychological Association (APA) style is commonly used for citing references in student papers in science, social science and health courses, including criminal justice, psychology, nursing, physical therapy & occupational therapy. The purpose of documentation is to:

  • Identify (cite) other people’s ideas and information used within your essay or term paper
  • Indicate the authors or sources of these in a References list at the end of your paper

How do I avoid committing plagiarism/academic dishonesty?? Check out this guide!

  • Information Evaluation and Avoiding Plagiarism

When Do I Need to Cite?

Always cite your sources when you:, quote two or more words verbatim, or even one word if it is used in a way that is unique to the source. , introduce facts that you have found in a source. , paraphrase or summarize ideas, interpretations, or conclusions that you find in a source., introduce information that is not common knowledge or that may be considered common knowledge in your field, but the reader may not know it., borrow the plan or structure of a larger section of a source’s argument (for example, using a theory from a source and analyzing the same three case studies that the source uses). , build on another’s method found either in a source or from collaborative work in a lab. , you build on another’s program in writing computer code or on a not-commonly-known algorithm. , collaborate with others in producing knowledge. , apa in-text citations & references, in-text citations and references in apa 7th edition.

*Hanging indent required (not pictured here; ask librarian or instructor how to do this in Google Docs or Word)

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  • What are the parts of a reference?
  • What if there is missing information (author, date, etc.)?
  • Should I include the name of the database in the reference?
  • What is a DOI and when should I include it?  When should I include a URL instead?

For examples of APA 7 references for different source types, see: COMMON REFERENCE EXAMPLES

Use the Search function at the above link for answers to any questions not covered above

In-Text CItations

Use the author–date citation system to cite references in the text in APA Style. 

The format of the author element of the in-text citation changes depending on the number of authors and is abbreviated in some cases.The following table shows the basic in-text citation styles:

apa 7 case study example

a  Define the abbreviation for a group author only once in the text, choosing either the parenthetical or the narrative format. Thereafter, use the  abbreviation  for all mentions of the group in the text.

(Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.)

NOTE: Page numbers must also be included in the in-text citation for any direct quotes taken from the source material.  

According to Luna (2020), there are "many risks associated with polypharmacy in adults over 65" (p. 304).

Caregivers for older adults "are often responsible for administering multiple prescription medications" (Sales & D'Agostino, 2020, p. 412).

More information from APA about IN-TEXT-CITATIONS  

Use the Search function at the link above for answers to any questions not covered above

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APA Headings and Subheadings | With Sample Paper

Published on November 7, 2020 by Raimo Streefkerk . Revised on October 24, 2022.

Headings and subheadings provide structure to a document. They signal what each section is about and allow for easy navigation of the document.

APA headings have five possible levels. Each heading level is formatted differently.

APA headings (7th edition)

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Table of contents

Additional guidelines for apa headings, how many heading levels should you use, when to use which apa heading level, section labels vs headings, sample paper with apa headings, using heading styles in word or google docs.

As well as the heading styles, there are some other guidelines to keep in mind:

  • Double-space all text, including the headings.
  • Use the same font for headings and body text (e.g., Times New Roman 12pt.).
  • Don’t label headings with numbers or letters.
  • Don’t add extra “enters” above or below headings.

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The AI-powered Citation Checker helps you avoid common mistakes such as:

  • Missing commas and periods
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apa 7 case study example

Depending on the length and complexity of your paper, you may not use all five heading levels. In fact, shorter student papers may have no headings at all.

It’s also perfectly fine for some sections in your paper to go as deep as five levels, where others use only heading level 1.

Heading level 1 is used for main sections like “ Methods ”, “ Results ”, and “ Discussion ”. There is no “ Introduction ” heading at the beginning of your paper because the first paragraphs are understood to be introductory.

Heading level 2 is used for subsections under level 1. For example, under “Methods” (level 1) you may have subsections for “Sampling Method” and “Data Analysis” (level 2). This continues all the way down to heading level 5.

Always use at least two subheadings or none at all. If there is just one subheading, the top-level heading is sufficient.

In addition to regular headings, APA works with “section labels” for specific parts of the paper. They’re similar to headings but are formatted differently. Section labels are placed on a separate line at the top of a new page in bold and centered.

Use section labels for the following sections in an APA formatted paper :

  • Author note
  • Paper title
  • Reference page

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APA heading example (7th edition)

Instead of formatting every heading individually, you can use the “Styles” feature in Word or Google Docs. This allows you to save the styling and apply it with just a click.

The first time you use APA Style, you need to update the default heading styles to reflect the APA heading guidelines. Click here for the instructions for Microsoft Word and Google Docs .

An added benefit of using the “Styles” feature is that you can automatically generate a table of contents .

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Streefkerk, R. (2022, October 24). APA Headings and Subheadings | With Sample Paper. Scribbr. Retrieved April 2, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/apa-headings/

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APA 7th Edition Referencing Guide1

  • What is APA?

In-text citations

  • Reference list
  • Chapter in an edited book
  • Journal articles & Databases
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  • APA for publication

Referencing legal cases

Guidelines for referencing legal cases:

  • Include the names of the parties involved in the case—e.g., Smith v Jones
  • Give the date of the case in square brackets—e.g., [2017]
  • Provide the New Zealand Law Report (NZLR) or court case number. 
  • When referencing a case from the Courts of New Zealand website, include a retrieval date as the information is held publicly for 28 days only.

​ For example:

Reference list entries

Crown v Thompson [2013] NZLR  617.

Milner v R [2014] NZCA 366. Retrieved August 1, 2014, from  https://www.courtsofnz.govt.nz/from/decisions/judgments

Use the name of the case in italics and give the date in square brackets.  For example:

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IMAGES

  1. How To Write A Case Study Paper In Apa Format

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  2. Apa 7th Edition Sample Paper Introduction

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  3. Proper APA Case Study Format with Examples

    apa 7 case study example

  4. APA Publication Manual 7th Edition Highlights

    apa 7 case study example

  5. Apa 7th Edition Sample Paper Introduction

    apa 7 case study example

  6. How to Write a Case Study? [APA Format]

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  4. How to report APA Style results write up for One Sample t test?

  5. How to Create a 7th ed. APA References Page in Microsoft 365

  6. Lesson 7

COMMENTS

  1. How to Write a Case Study in APA Format

    The Abstract for an APA case study. The abstract of your paper works as a summary to give a brief overview of what it contains. Include the running head at the top; the first line should have the word "abstract" centered. Follow the abstract with 150-250 words summarizing your paper.

  2. Subject Guides: APA Citation Style (7th Edition): Case Studies

    Examples: Harvard Business School Case Study Smith, S. (2003). Leadership. HBS No. 7-806-122. https://hbsp.harvard.edu/cases/ ... (Examples courtesy of APA Style Guidelines & Examples - NAIT Library.) Textbook Case Study Author(s) or editor(s) of the chapter or entry or case study. (Year of book). Title of chapter or entry or case study. In ...

  3. Sample papers

    These sample papers demonstrate APA Style formatting standards for different student paper types. Students may write the same types of papers as professional authors (e.g., quantitative studies, literature reviews) or other types of papers for course assignments (e.g., reaction or response papers, discussion posts), dissertations, and theses.

  4. APA Sample Paper

    Crucially, citation practices do not differ between the two styles of paper. However, for your convenience, we have provided two versions of our APA 7 sample paper below: one in student style and one in professional style. Note: For accessibility purposes, we have used "Track Changes" to make comments along the margins of these samples.

  5. APA Citation Guide (APA 7th Edition): Case Studies

    Reference List Citation: Author's Last Name, Author's First Initial. (Publication Year). Title of case study.Case study number (if given). URL. Examples

  6. How to Write a Case Study Paper in APA Format

    This should be placed on the second page of your case study paper, should not be more than 150-200 words, and needs to be written in a one-block paragraph. 4. Follow the right format. The body of the case study paper should be thorough and should detail the research and findings in an engaging manner.

  7. PDF Student Paper Setup Guide, APA Style 7th Edition

    Indent the first line of every paragraph of text 0.5 in. using the tab key or the paragraph-formatting function of your word-processing program. Page numbers: Put a page number in the top right corner of every page, including the title page or cover page, which is page 1. Student papers do not require a running head on any page.

  8. APA Case Study Complete Writing Guide For Students

    APA Case Study References. Provide initials and surnames for up to seven authors in a reference. If eight or more authors exist, use three spaced ellipsis points after the sixth author, followed by the last author name (no ampersand). Write surnames and initials for up to 20 authors in a reference.

  9. Case Examples

    Sara, a 35-year-old married female. Sara was referred to treatment after having a stillbirth. Sara showed symptoms of grief, or complicated bereavement, and was diagnosed with major depression, recurrent. The clinician recommended interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for a duration of 12 weeks. Bleiberg, K.L., & Markowitz, J.C. (2008).

  10. PDF Sample APA-7 Paper: Student Format for Undergraduate Students

    7 Crediting Your Sources The crux of APA formatting is citing the sources used to support the claims made in your paper to: (a) give proper credit to the originators of those thoughts, and (b ...

  11. Sample Paper

    Optional Paper Sections. Headings - APA 7 Style Guide. Accessible Use of Colors in APA 7. Figures - APA 7. The basics of figure setup, including figure components, principles of figure construction, and placement of figures in a paper. Tables - APA 7.

  12. PDF 7th edition Common Reference Examples Guide

    This guide contains examples of common types of APA Style references. Section numbers indicate where to find the examples in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). More information on references and reference examples are in Chapters 9 and 10 of the Publication Manual as well as the Concise Guide to APA ...

  13. PDF APA 7 Student Sample Paper

    In this sample paper, we've put four blank lines above the title. Commented [AF3]: Authors' names are written below the title, with one double-spaced blank line between them. Names should be written as follows: First name, middle initial(s), last name. Commented [AF4]: Authors' affiliations follow immediately after their names.

  14. Examples

    Case Study Format: Author(s). (Year). Title of case study. HBS No. number of case study. Publisher. Author(s). (Year). Title of case study. Ivey ID. number of case study. Publisher. >> If the case study does not include these elements, it is likely a case study that is in an article format - cite as an article. Case Study found in a textbook ...

  15. APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

    Basic guidelines for formatting the reference list at the end of a standard APA research paper Author/Authors Rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors that apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.)

  16. How to Cite a Case Study in APA, MLA or Chicago

    The templates and examples below will demonstrate how to cite a case study in MLA, APA, and Chicago styles. MLA 9. Structure: Author Last Name, Author First Name.

  17. APA Formatting and Citation (7th Ed.)

    Throughout your paper, you need to apply the following APA format guidelines: Set page margins to 1 inch on all sides. Double-space all text, including headings. Indent the first line of every paragraph 0.5 inches. Use an accessible font (e.g., Times New Roman 12pt., Arial 11pt., or Georgia 11pt.).

  18. Fillable Template and Sample Paper

    APA 7th ed. Fillable Word Template and Sample Paper. APA 7th ed. Template. Download this Word document, fill out the title page and get writing! Sample Paper APA 7th ed. Our APA sample paper shows you how to format the main parts of a basic research paper. APA 7th Sample Papers from Purdue Owl

  19. Research Guides: APA 7th Edition: APA 7th LibGuide

    APA 7 Resources. APA 7 Quick Reference Guide. Video: Creating APA 7th References. ... borrow the plan or structure of a larger section of a source's argument (for example, using a theory from a source and analyzing the same three case studies that the source uses).

  20. How to Cite Court Cases in APA Style

    Pages where case information is found online also tend to show the correct form of citation for the case in question. You can check these to make sure you use the right abbreviations. Note that "v." (for "versus") is used between the names of the parties in a case title, though APA recommends "vs." outside the context of legal ...

  21. APA Headings and Subheadings

    Headings and subheadings provide structure to a document. They signal what each section. is about and allow for easy navigation of the document. APA headings have five possible levels. Each heading level is formatted differently. Note: Title case simply means that you should capitalize the first word, words with four or more letters, and all ...

  22. LibGuides: APA 7th Edition Referencing Guide1: Cases

    Guidelines for referencing legal cases: Include the names of the parties involved in the case—e.g., Smith v Jones. Give the date of the case in square brackets—e.g., [2017] Provide the New Zealand Law Report (NZLR) or court case number. When referencing a case from the Courts of New Zealand website, include a retrieval date as the ...

  23. Title page setup

    Follow the guidelines described next to format each element of the student title page. Place the title three to four lines down from the top of the title page. Center it and type it in bold font. Capitalize major words of the title. Place the main title and any subtitle on separate double-spaced lines if desired.